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Sample records for medical ethics principles

  1. WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects

    E-print Network

    Loudon, Catherine

    1 WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical Research, October 2008 A. INTRODUCTION 1. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including

  2. Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, D F

    1999-01-01

    The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs". PMID:10461594

  3. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePLUS

    The field of ethics studies principles of right and wrong. There is hardly an area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: ...

  4. Ethics in medical research: General principles with special reference to psychiatry research

    PubMed Central

    Avasthi, Ajit; Ghosh, Abhishek; Sarkar, Sidharth; Grover, Sandeep

    2013-01-01

    Ethics is an understanding of the nature of conflicts arising from moral imperatives and how best we may deal with them. Ethics in medical research deals with the conflicts of interest across various levels. Guidelines have been proposed for standardized ethical practice throughout the globe. The four fundamental principles of ethics which are being underscored are autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Some special ethical issues have particular relevance to psychiatric research arising primarily from the specific vulnerabilities of those with mental illness and the risks posed by some research methodologies. Accordingly, sensitivity is required in the design of psychiatric research. It is suggested that though the value of published guidelines and the help that may be available from research ethics committees is quite great, the primary responsibility for maintaining high standards of practice in research rests with research workers themselves. PMID:23440168

  5. Is Rorty’s Neopragmatism the “Real” Foundation of Medical Ethics: a Search for Foundational Principles

    PubMed Central

    Branch, William T

    2006-01-01

    Principlism, the predominate approach to bioethics, has no foundational principles. This absence of foundations reflects the general intellectual climate of postmodern relativism. Even America’s foremost public philosopher, Richard Rorty, whose pragmatism might suggest a philosophy of commonsense, seems to be swimming in the postmodern swamp. Alternatively, principlism’s architects, Beauchamp and Childress, suggest a constantly evolving reflective equilibrium with some basis in common morality as a workable framework for twenty-first century bioethics. The flaw in their approach is failure to conform to real doctors’ and patients’ experiences. Real doctors adopt a scientific paradigm that assumes an objective reality. Patients experience real suffering and seek effective cures, treatments, palliation and solace. The foundation of medical ethics should be that doctors altruistically respond to their patients’ suffering using scientifically acceptable modalities. Compassion, caring, and respect for human dignity are needed as guides in addition to justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. PMID:18528478

  6. The Secret Kappa Lambda Society of Hippocrates (and the Origin of the American Medical Association's Principles of Medical Ethics).

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Charles T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper relates the neglected history of an idealistic, secret medical fraternity which existed briefly in Lexington, Kentucky, during the first half of the 19th century. It was created for students in the Medical Department at Transylvania University, the fifth US medical school, founded in 1799. One goal of the fraternity was to counter the widespread dissension and often violent quarrels among doctors that characterized American medicine of that period. And to that end, it was among the first to promote Thomas Percival's code of medical ethics in this country. Branches of the fraternity were established in Philadelphia and New York City, where members became influential in local medical politics but in time encountered hostility from rival physicians. The secret character of the fraternity branches was publicized and maligned during an anti-Masonic movement in this country in the 1830s, which soon led to the demise of the Philadelphia group. The New York branch remained active through the 1860s. Members of both branches were among those who in 1847 established the American Medical Association and devised its Principles of Medical Ethics. PMID:16197729

  7. Defending the four principles approach as a good basis for good medical practice and therefore for good medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Gillon, Raanan

    2015-01-01

    This paper argues that the four prima facie principles-beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy and justice-afford a good and widely acceptable basis for 'doing good medical ethics'. It confronts objections that the approach is simplistic, incompatible with a virtue-based approach to medicine, that it requires respect for autonomy always to have priority when the principles clash at the expense of clinical obligations to benefit patients and global justice. It agrees that the approach does not provide universalisable methods either for resolving such moral dilemmas arising from conflict between the principles or their derivatives, or universalisable methods for resolving disagreements about the scope of these principles-long acknowledged lacunae but arguably to be found, in practice, with all other approaches to medical ethics. The value of the approach, when properly understood, is to provide a universalisable though prima facie set of moral commitments which all doctors can accept, a basic moral language and a basic moral analytic framework. These can underpin an intercultural 'moral mission statement' for the goals and practice of medicine. PMID:25516950

  8. [Ethics in medical journals.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The title of this reflection evokes several contents that may encompass from ethics in research; fraud in science; ethics in medical advertising and relations between sponsors and science; and, finally, papers related to ethic content. This paper is limited to the ethic responsibilities of the medical writers or "scriptwriters." PMID:24290007

  9. World Medical Association Declaration of Helsinki: ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    Published research in English-language journals are increasingly required to carry a statement that the study has been approved and monitored by an Institutional Review Board in conformance with 45 CFR 46 standards if the study was conducted in the United States. Alternative language attesting conformity with the Helsinki Declaration is often included when the research was conducted in Europe or elsewhere. The Helsinki Declaration was created by the World Medical Association in 1964 (ten years before the Belmont Report) and has been amended several times. The Helsinki Declaration differs from its American version in several respects, the most significant of which is that it was developed by and for physicians. The term "patient" appears in many places where we would expect to see "subject." It is stated in several places that physicians must either conduct or have supervisory control of the research. The dual role of the physician-researcher is acknowledged, but it is made clear that the role of healer takes precedence over that of scientist. In the United States, the federal government developed and enforces regulations on researcher; in the rest of the world, the profession, or a significant part of it, took the initiative in defining and promoting good research practice, and governments in many countries have worked to harmonize their standards along these lines. The Helsinki Declaration is based less on key philosophical principles and more on prescriptive statements. Although there is significant overlap between the Belmont and the Helsinki guidelines, the latter extends much further into research design and publication. Elements in a research protocol, use of placebos, and obligation to enroll trials in public registries (to ensure that negative findings are not buried), and requirements to share findings with the research and professional communities are included in the Helsinki Declaration. As a practical matter, these are often part of the work of American IRBs, but not always as a formal requirement. Reflecting the socialist nature of many European counties, there is a requirement that provision be made for patients to be made whole regardless of the outcomes of the trial or if they happened to have been randomized to a control group that did not enjoy the benefits of a successful experimental intervention. PMID:25951678

  10. Deontological foundations for medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Gillon, R

    1985-05-01

    Gillon outlines the principles of the deontological, or duty-based, group of moral theories in one of a series of British Medical Journal articles on the philosophical foundations of medical ethics. He differentiates between monistic theories, such as Immanuel Kant's, which rely on a single moral principle, and pluralistic theories, such as that of W.D. Ross, which rely on several principles that potentially could conflict. He summarizes the contributions of Kant and Ross to the development of deontological thought, then concludes his essay with brief paragraphs on other deontological approaches to the resolution of conflicting moral principles. PMID:3922480

  11. Ethical Principles: Guiding the Use of Animals in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents arguments on the use of animals in biological and medical research. Discusses ethical considerations, principles, and animal rights in scientific research. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

  12. [Medical ethics and responsibility].

    PubMed

    Labram, Claude; Dusehu, Etienne

    2002-04-20

    In the matter of health, the care of a patient is not the same as that of a population. With regards to medical ethics, it is essential to differentiate that which is for the patient's well being, and that which relies on knowledge and responsibility, the principle of which is not to do harm. The health sector has become an important economic actor in our society. Any decision made must take into account the principle of well being and responsibility. The physicians' role, when making a decision, is to integrate not only the patient's quality of life but also the Public Health aspects, and to apply these notions to a well thought-out choice and shared with the patient. A triangle can be constructed with, at its base the percentage of the population concerned and at its peak the cost per beneficiary. This triangle can then be segmented at varying distance from its base, in current decisions applicable to the greatest number, and depending on the amount of resources available. PMID:12148129

  13. A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Winkelstein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Methods: Using the “Principlism” framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. Results: These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. Implications: The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies. PMID:25349543

  14. Ethics in Medical Research and Publication

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hodzic, Ajla; Mulic, Smaila

    2014-01-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity. PMID:25317288

  15. Religion and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Green, Ronald M

    2013-01-01

    Religious traditions of medical ethics tend to differ from more secular approaches by stressing limitations on autonomous decision-making, by more positively valuing the experience of suffering, and by drawing on beliefs and values that go beyond empiric verification. I trace the impact of these differences for some of the world's great religious traditions with respect to four issues: (1) religious conscientious objection to medical treatments; (2) end-of life decision-making, including euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining treatments; (3) definitions of moral personhood (defining life's beginning and end); and (4) human sexuality. PMID:24182368

  16. Teaching Medical Ethics during Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Henry S.

    1989-01-01

    Three reasons for teaching medical ethics during residency are presented. Key ethical concepts to be addressed include moral aspects of medical practice, obtaining informed consent, dealing with incompetent patients and those who refuse treatment, knowing when to withhold or disclose clinical information, and using medical resources properly. (MSE)

  17. Modeling Medical Ethics through Intelligent Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, José; Miranda, Miguel; Abelha, António; Neves, José; Neves, João

    The amount of research using health information has increased dramatically over the last past years. Indeed, a significative number of healthcare institutions have extensive Electronic Health Records (EHR), collected over several years for clinical and teaching purposes, but are uncertain as to the proper circumstances in which to use them to improve the delivery of care to the ones in need. Research Ethics Boards in Portugal and elsewhere in the world are grappling with these issues, but lack clear guidance regarding their role in the creation of and access to EHRs. However, we feel we have an effective way to handle Medical Ethics if we look to the problem under a structured and more rational way. Indeed, we felt that physicians were not aware of the relevance of the subject in their pre-clinical years, but their interest increase when they were exposed to patients. On the other hand, once EHRs are stored in machines, we also felt that we had to find a way to ensure that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. Therefore, in this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics and the need for machines that represent ethical principles explicitly. It is also shown how a machine may abstract an ethical principle from a logical representation of ethical judgments and use that principle to guide its own behavior.

  18. Ethics for Medical Educators: An Overview and Fallacies

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arjun

    2010-01-01

    Ethics is the rule of right conduct or practice in a profession. The basic principles of ethics are beneficence, justice and autonomy or individual freedom. There is very minor demarcation between ethics and the law. The ethics is promulgated by the professional bodies. All are expected to guide the medical professional in their practice. Medical educators have dual ethical obligations: firstly, to the society at large which expects us to produce competent health professionals, and secondly, to the students under our care. The students observe and copy what their teacher does and his/her role modelling can be a gateway to a student's character building. Due to rapid increase in the number of medical colleges, privatization, and capitalism, ethical issue has become much more relevant and needs to discuss in detail. The present paper discusses the ethics for medical educators in detail with, basic principles, common breaches of ethics and fallacies due to wrong application of ethical principles, and the approach to ethics and methods by which we can prevent and avoid breach of ethics. PMID:21716861

  19. Medical ethics in the media.

    PubMed

    Raman, Usha

    2009-01-01

    The mass media function both as reflector and a shaper of a society's attitudes and values and as such represent a forum within which one may understand and influence public opinion. While questions of medical ethics may be largely confined to academic and scientific spaces, their importance to society at large cannot be denied, and how issues of medical ethics play out--if at all--in the media could tell us how society understands and processes these questions. This paper uses the techniques of framing analysis and textual analysis to examine how the print media, represented by two major Indian newspapers, cover medical ethics. The study looked at all articles related to medical research over a three-month period (January-March 2007) and considered how the story was framed, what were the key threads followed, and the dominant themes focused on. The ethical frame is notable by its absence, even in articles related to controversial themes such as drug research and genetics. Discussion of ethics appears to be problematic given the adherence to traditional "news values" when covering science and medicine. The research community and the media need to pay more attention to explicitly focusing on ethics in their interactions. PMID:19241950

  20. The new Italian code of medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Fineschi, V; Turillazzi, E; Cateni, C

    1997-01-01

    In June 1995, the Italian code of medical ethics was revised in order that its principles should reflect the ever-changing relationship between the medical profession and society and between physicians and patients. The updated code is also a response to new ethical problems created by scientific progress; the discussion of such problems often shows up a need for better understanding on the part of the medical profession itself. Medical deontology is defined as the discipline for the study of norms of conduct for the health care professions, including moral and legal norms as well as those pertaining more strictly to professional performance. The aim of deontology is therefore, the in-depth investigation and revision of the code of medical ethics. It is in the light of this conceptual definition that one should interpret a review of the different codes which have attempted, throughout the various periods of Italy's recent history, to adapt ethical norms to particular social and health care climates. PMID:9279746

  1. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed

    Coughlin, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  2. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  3. Ethics of the electrified mind: Defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laura Y.; Evans, Emily L.; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209

  4. A Medical Ethics Assessment of the Case of Terri Schiavo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Tom; Kelly, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The social, legal, and political discussion about the decision to stop feeding and hydration for Terri Schiavo lacked a medical ethics assessment. The authors used the principles of medical indications, quality of life, patient preference, and contextual features as a guide to medical decision-making in this case. Their conclusions include the…

  5. Moral fictions and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W

    2010-11-01

    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of these two practices is based on a series of moral fictions - motivated false beliefs that erroneously characterize withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in order to bring accepted end-of-life practices in line with the prevailing moral norm that doctors must never kill patients. When these moral fictions are exposed, it becomes apparent that conventional medical ethics relating to end-of-life decisions is radically mistaken. PMID:19594726

  6. Teaching medical ethics in a medical college in India.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, G D; Kalam, T; Lewin, S; Pais, P

    1997-01-01

    To the best of our knowledge, medical ethics is not taught as a separate subject in Indian medical colleges. St John's Medical College has a programme for teaching medical ethics to its undergraduate students. We describe here the structure of our programme, the syllabus and the teaching methodology. We feel that we have an effective way of teaching medical ethics at our medical college and would encourage other medical colleges to introduce the subject in their curriculum. PMID:9481103

  7. Risk and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Pochin, E

    1982-01-01

    Quantitative estimates of risk, and their comparison with quantitative estimates of benefit, contribute usefully to decision-making in many fields. In medicine, our assessments of the probability of harm, and of the likelihood of benefit, resulting from many procedures are at present very limited. Moreover, the comparison of risk and of benefit is difficult to make in any quantitative way, whether for a procedure in general or, even more so, for its application in any particular patient. Yet it must be ethically insecure to propose or to use a procedure without some assessment, however approximate, of the hazards involved, and without some indication of whether those hazards will be clearly offset by the likelihood of benefit that should result from use of the procedure. PMID:7154031

  8. Medical Ethics Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…

  9. Analysis of medical confidentiality from the islamic ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

  10. Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

  11. Medical ethics as practiced by students, nurses and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    BAZRAFCAN, LEILA; NABEIEI, PARISA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN; MOADAB, NEDA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Assuming any social role has obligations and fulfilling the related responsibilities has ethical aspects that must be addressed carefully. Each role requires extensive training, which usually takes place in university institutions. Ethics is applied in at least three academic areas, including: a) in education of students' personal growth, b) in patient care, and c) in university communion in population-based health care. Given the importance of this issue in the moral domain, this study examines the correlation among the students, nurses and teacher's opinions regarding principles of medical ethics at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study conducted in 2010. The participants of this research consisted of all medical students, nurses in public hospitals, and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. For validity evaluation, the expert panel method and for reliability evaluation, test-retest method was used. Results: Based on the medical ethics’ scores in these three groups, there was a significant relationship between the mean scores of student-nurses and employed nurses, but there was no significant relationship between those of student-faculties. Also the mean score of the students was the highest in medical ethics. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a list of virtues and moral characteristics of medical staff and found out the method of practicing medical ethics in everyday life of students to improve the moral reasoning of teachers, nurses and students. Moreover, medical ethics, with the presentation of specific criteria for ethical behavior in various domains of human life, especially in dealing with patients, can help practice ethical values in the medical community. PMID:25587553

  12. The Baylor Experience in Teaching Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Baruch A.

    1989-01-01

    The activities of the Center for Ethics, Medicine, and Public Issues (Texas) are described. The center focuses on the clinical teaching of medical ethics, collaborative teaching and research involving ethicists and clinicians, and the training of future practitioners. Problems and achievements are highlighted. (Author/MSE)

  13. Medical internet ethics: a field in evolution.

    PubMed

    Dyer, K A; Thompson, C D

    2001-01-01

    As in any new field, the merger of medicine, e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions pertaining to ethical conduct. Key issues include defining the essence of the patient-provider relationship, establishing guidelines and training for practicing online medicine and therapy, setting standards for ethical online research, determining guidelines for providing quality healthcare information and requiring ethical conduct for medical and health websites. Physicians who follow their professional code of ethics are obligated not to exploit the relationship they have with patients, nor allow anyone else working with them to do so. Physicians and therapists are obligated to serve those who place trust in them for treatment, whether in face-to-face or online Internet encounters with patients or clients. This ethical responsibility to patients and clients is often in direct conflict with the business model of generating profits. Healthcare professionals involved in Medical Internet Ethics need to define the scope of competent medical and healthcare on the Internet. The emerging ethical issues facing medicine on the Internet, the current state of medical ethics on the Internet and questions for future directions of study in this evolving field are reviewed in this paper. PMID:11604935

  14. The literature of medical ethics: Bernard Häring

    PubMed Central

    Soane, Brendan

    1977-01-01

    To the general reader and watcher of television programmes medical ethics may appear to be something new. This is not so, for hundreds of articles and many books have appeared over the last 10 years or so to discuss and analyse the problems arising from the practice of medicine. In this study of two larger works - Medical Ethics and Manipulation - both by Bernard Häring, a Roman Catholic theologian - Father Brendan Soane analyses these in some detail and sets their ideas in the context of what has already been written on the major issues of medical ethics and what is likely to be foremost in discussion in the near future. Many readers of this Journal already have the particular background of knowledge to see the problems in medicine which are in fact ethical but the general reader may require help and enlightenment and this is now provided for a special field within the field. PMID:874983

  15. The Application of Ecological Principles in Establishing an Environmental Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicak, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines four ecological principles and their misapplication in common models of environmental ethics. The principles include balance in nature, the fragility of nature, high diversity yielding high stability, and interdependence in nature. Also suggests an alternative way to incorporate each principle in a working environmental ethic. (AIM)

  16. [Ethical principles in human scientific research].

    PubMed

    Cruz-Coke, R

    1994-07-01

    Hippocrates was the first physician to use the scientific method to find rational and not religious or mythic causes, for the etiology of diseases. Hippocrates and Aristoteles did not dare to dissect the human body. Afterwards however, many scientists such as Herophilus, Erasitastrus, Vesalus and Fallopio, performed experiments in human beings using vivisection. According to that age's ideas, there was no cruelty in performing vivisection in criminals, since useful knowledge for the progress of medicine and relief of diseases was obtained. Only during the nineteenth century and with Claude Bernard (1865), the ethical principles of systematic scientific research in humans were defined. These principles were violated by nazi physicians during Hitler's dictatorship in Germany (1933-1945). As a response to these horrors, the Ethical Codes of Nuremberg (1947) and Geneva (1948), that reestablished all the strength of Hippocratic principles, were dictated. The Nuremberg rules enact that a research subject must give a voluntary consent, that the experiment must by necessary and exempt of death risk, that the research must be qualified and that the experiment must be discontinued if there is a risk for the subject. The Geneva statement is a modernized hippocratic oath that protects patient's life above all. These classical rules, in force at the present time, are the essential guides that must be applied by physicians and researchers. PMID:7732235

  17. Medical Schools, Clinical Research, and Ethical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarushka, Julia L.; Lally, John J.

    1974-01-01

    Recent discussion of the ethical problems of biomedical human experimentation has drawn attention to the responsibility of the medical schools for training new clinical investigators and for safeguarding the rights and welfare of the subjects of clinical research conducted in the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals. (Author)

  18. The ethics activities of the World Medical Association.

    PubMed

    Williams, John R

    2005-01-01

    Since its formation in 1947, the World Medical Association (WMA) has been a leading voice in international medical ethics. The WMA's principal ethics activity over the years has been policy development on a wide variety of issues in medical research, medical practice and health care delivery. With the establishment of a dedicated Ethics Unit in 2003, the WMA's ethics activities have intensified in the areas of liaison, outreach and product development. Initial priorities for the Ethics Unit have been the review of paragraph 30 of the Declaration of Helsinki, the expansion of the Ethics Unit section of the WMA website and the development of an ethics manual for medical students everywhere. PMID:15726994

  19. A Systematic Review of Ethical Principles in the Plastic Surgery Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Pushman, Allison G.; Bellfi, Lillian T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To perform a systematic review to identify articles that discuss ethical issues relating to the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery and to evaluate whether ethical issues are underrepresented in the plastic surgery literature. Methods: Four medical databases were selected to search through the medical literature with specific inclusion criteria to disqualify irrelevant articles from the study. Appropriate articles were extracted, and their quality and validity were assessed by multiple investigators to maximize reproducibility. The data were then synthesized and analyzed for associations amongst the ethical principles. Results: Out of a total library search of >100,000 plastic surgery oriented articles, only 110 clearly focused on ethical principles. Autonomy (53%) was the most common major theme, whereas distributive justice (15%) represented the least frequently emphasized ethical principle. The proportions of each ethical principle were tested against each other for equality using Cochran's Q test; the Q test reached statistical significance (Q = 67.04, df =3, P < 0.0001), indicating that the ethical principles were not discussed equally in plastic surgery literature, which was expected because autonomy represented 53% of the manuscripts whereas distributive justice represented only 15% of manuscripts. When examining both major and minor themes, over half of the articles (61%) addressed 2 or more ethical principles. Beneficence and nonmaleficence were strongly associated (Pearson's x2 = 55.38, df =1, P<0.0001). Conclusions: Despite the extensive amount of ethical issues that plastic surgeons face, a relatively small proportion of plastic surgery literature was dedicated to discussing ethical principles. PMID:20009860

  20. The use of narrative in Jewish medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Jotkowitz, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Anne Jones has pointed out that over the last three decades, stories have been important to medical ethics in at least three ways: (1). Stories as cases for teaching principle-based medical ethics (2). Narratives for moral guides on what is considered living a good life (3). Stories as testimonials written by both patients and physicians. A pioneer in this effort, particularly in regard to using narratives as moral guides, has been the ethicist and philosopher Stanley Hauerwas. Heavily influenced by virtue ethics, Hauerwas believes that it is a person's particular narrative tradition that provides one with convictions that form the basis of one's morality. Befitting a Protestant theologian, he is particularly concerned with the Christian narrative. From a Jewish perspective, there has been much less written on the use of narrative in medical ethics. However, it is a mistake to think that narrative has little, if any, role in Rabbinic ethical decision making. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the centrality of narrative in the thought of Orthodox Jewish decisors and the problems inherent in this methodology. PMID:22395754

  1. Medicine and the Holocaust: a visit to the Nazi death camps as a means of teaching medical ethics in the Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps.

    PubMed

    Oberman, Anthony S; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Ash, Nachman

    2010-12-01

    A novel method of teaching military medical ethics, medical ethics and military ethics in the Israel Defense Force (IDF) Medical Corps, essential topics for all military medical personnel, is discussed. Very little time is devoted to medical ethics in medical curricula, and even less to military medical ethics. Ninety-five per cent of American students in eight medical schools had less than 1 h of military medical ethics teaching and few knew the basic tenets of the Geneva Convention. Medical ethics differs from military medical ethics: the former deals with the relationship between medical professional and patient, while in the latter military physicians have to balance between military necessity and their traditional priorities to their patients. The underlying principles, however, are the same in both: the right to life, autonomy, dignity and utility. The IDF maintains high moral and ethical standards. This stems from the preciousness of human life in Jewish history, tradition and religious law. Emphasis is placed on these qualities within the Israeli education system; the IDF teaches and enforces moral and ethical standards in all of its training programmes and units. One such programme is 'Witnesses in Uniform' in which the IDF takes groups of officers to visit Holocaust memorial sites and Nazi death camps. During these visits daily discussions touch on intricate medical and military ethical issues, and contemporary ethical dilemmas relevant to IDF officers during active missions. PMID:21030474

  2. PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, & ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH ETHICS: PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS AND EXTENSIONS OF THE THREE R'S

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Mark C.

    PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, & ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH ETHICS: PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS #12;PRINCIPLES OF ANIMAL, ENVIRONMENTAL, & ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH ETHICS: PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATIONS = 4 animal R's Environmental Research Ethics 4 environmental R's Ecological Research Ethics 4

  3. Canadian University Ethics Review: Cultural Complications Translating Principles into Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Susan; Gormley, Louise

    2007-01-01

    Drawing from educational research conducted in Canada and Mexico, university researchers explore how culture complicates both the ethics review process and the translation of ethical research principles into practice. University researchers in Canadian contexts seek approval from university Research Ethics Boards to conduct research, following…

  4. Preferences for Key Ethical Principles that Guide Business School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…

  5. Teaching Medical Ethics: Some Persistent Questions and Some Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Edmund D.

    1989-01-01

    Issues in the inclusion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum are discussed, including its relevance, whether or not ethics can be taught, whose ethics should be taught, the contribution of the professional ethicist, and the relevance of humanistic studies outside ethics. (MSE)

  6. [Bioethics is dead. Long live medical ethics!].

    PubMed

    Barrio Maestre, José María

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show a paradigmatic crisis in academic bioethics. Since an important part of bioethicists began to relativize the ethical prohibition of killing an innocent human being, one way or another they began to ally with the death industry: the business of abortion, and then that of euthanasia. The thesis of this paper is that by crossing that Rubicon bioethics has been corrupted and has lost its connection to the ethical, political and legal discourse. One can only hope that it will revive from its ashes if it retakes the ?taboo? of the sacredness of human life, something for which medical ethics could provide invaluable help, because it still keeps the notion that ?a doctor should not kill?, although in an excessively ?discreet? and somehow ?ashamed? way. However, conscientious doctors know more about ethics than most bioethicists. PMID:26030013

  7. The ethics of promulgating principles of research ethics: the problem of diversion effects

    PubMed Central

    Wertheimer, Alan

    2015-01-01

    There is an important distinction between ethical standards for the conduct of research with human subjects and the ethics of promulgating principles of research ethics. Those who promulgate ethical standards for the conduct of research have an ethical responsibility to consider the consequences to which those promulgations give rise. In particular, they must consider whether their promulgations will give researchers incentives not to conduct research or not to conduct research in locales in which participants would benefit from participation. I first show how such ‘diversion effects’ are possible and then examine four principles of research ethics in that light. I then consider several objections to the argument that those who promulgate principles of research ethics should consider diversion effects. PMID:25937934

  8. [Is personalism or utilitarianism an adequate foundation of medical ethics?].

    PubMed

    Biesaga, T

    1998-01-01

    The article rejects utilitarianism as a proper theory for medical ethics. Utilitarians lavishly use various slogans of effective action, development and better civilization. However, the principle of prosperity of humanity in the utilitarian interpretation makes the value of the human person subject to society. Social interest threatens the individual here because it defines his/her value of life. The drift towards maximalization of benefits and prosperity of humanity strikes the seriously ill, e.g. babies with brain damages, Down's syndrome, etc., people after accidents and with serious brain defects, the terminally ill. The principle of quality of life (lebensunwertes Leben) used by utylitarians allows them to argue, that euthanasia, abortion is in the interest of the patient. Some utilitarians openly admit that such ideas as "universal happiness", "prosperity", "benefit" are empty ideas, fictions to which one cannot attribute any contents. So utilitarianism, not defining its fundamental ideas, can easily change medical ethics in a theory of elimination of the uncomfortable people. Therefore, as a theory utilitarianism cannot serve as the basis for medical ethics. PMID:10816954

  9. Ethics and the medical uses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, W.M.

    1982-06-01

    The basis of ethical practice for the medical community in general and for nuclear medicine technology in particular is described as follows: 1) Know and use current guidelines for safe work procedures; 2) Establish and maintain a quality assurance program for equipment and radiopharmaceuticals; 3) Develop work habits incorporating the philosophy of the ALARA concept (radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable); 4) Establish and use protocols for routine procedures; 5) Make exceptions to accepted practices when benefit vs risk warrants these exceptions; 6) Make periodic audits to determine if ethical standards are being applied. (JMT)

  10. The ethics of reality medical television.

    PubMed

    Krakower, Thalia Margalit; Montello, Martha; Mitchell, Christine; Truog, Robert D

    2013-01-01

    Reality medical television, an increasingly popular genre, depicts private medical moments between patients and healthcare providers. Journalists aim to educate and inform the public, while the participants in their documentaries-providers and patients-seek to heal and be healed. When journalists and healthcare providers work together at the bedside, moral problems precipitate. During the summer of 2010, ABC aired a documentary, Boston Med, featuring several Boston hospitals. We examine the ethical issues that arise when journalism and medicine intersect. We provide a framework for evaluating the potential benefits and harms of reality medical television, highlighting critical issues such as informed consent, confidentiality, and privacy. PMID:23631335

  11. Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, Wendy

    2006-05-01

    As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

  12. Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics

    E-print Network

    Fujimura, Joan

    Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics August 2012, Volume 14, Number 8: 657 kinds of information about our DNA, but they have also raised ethical questions. Early results from that such genetic patterns may have medical importance. We note two ethical dilemmas posed by the claims made

  13. Research Corner: Ethical Principles for Youth Mentoring Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Ethics have been a somewhat overlooked topic in the field of youth mentoring. Yet, because a personal relationship is at the heart of mentoring interventions, inconsistencies, misunderstandings and terminations can touch on youth's vulnerabilities in ways that other interventions do not. This Research Corner presents a set of ethical principles to…

  14. Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Melinda

    Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

  15. The ethical physician encounters international medical travel.

    PubMed

    Crozier, G K D; Baylis, Françoise

    2010-05-01

    International medical travel occurs when patients cross national borders to purchase medical goods and services. On occasion, physicians in home countries will be the last point of domestic contact for patients seeking healthcare information before they travel abroad for care. When this is the case, physicians have a unique opportunity to inform patients about their options and help guide them towards ethical practices. This opportunity brings to the fore an important question: What role should physicians in more-developed home countries play in promoting or constraining international medical travel towards less-developed destination countries? In our view, critical attention to the decision spaces of patients-defined by the personal circumstances, socio-cultural cues, and legal constraints that inform decision-making-is a useful starting point for evaluating the proper response of physicians to various forms of international medical travel. PMID:20439336

  16. Ethics in medical information and advertising.

    PubMed

    Serour, G I; Dickens, B M

    2004-05-01

    This article presents findings and recommendations of an international conference held in Cairo, Egypt in 2003 concerning issues of ethical practice in how information is provided to and by medical practitioners. Professional advertising to practitioners and the public is necessary, but should exclude misrepresentation of qualifications, resources, and authorship of research papers. Medical institutions are responsible for how staff members present themselves, and their institutions. Medical associations, both governmental licensing authorities and voluntary societies, have powers and responsibilities to monitor professional advertisement to defend the public interest against deception. Medical journals bear duties to ensure authenticity of authorship and integrity in published papers, and the scientific basis of commercial advertisers' claims. A mounting concern is authors' conflict of interest. Mass newsmedia must ensure accuracy and proportionality in reporting scientific developments, and product manufacturers must observe truth in advertising, particularly in Direct-to-Consumer advertising. Consumer protection by government agencies is a continuing responsibility. PMID:15099793

  17. Ethics Today: Are Our Principles Still Relevant?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnar, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In 1939 technological advances included the first handheld electric slicing knife, the first mass-produced helicopter, and the first transmission of a picture via a cable system (Science and Technology 2001). That year also saw the first Code of Ethics adopted by the American Library Association (ALA OIF 2010, 311). Can an ethical code first…

  18. Medically assisted reproduction and ethical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Helena . E-mail: helena.kaariainen@utu.fi; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry; Coviello, Domenico

    2005-09-01

    Many of the ethical challenges associated with medically assisted reproduction are societal. Should the technique be restricted to only ordinary couples or could it be used also to single females or couples of same sex? Should the future child be entitled to know the identity of the gamete donor? Should there be age limits? Can embryos or gametes be used after the death of the donor? Can surrogate mothers be part of the process? Can preimplantation diagnostics be used to select the future baby's sex? In addition, there are several clearly medical questions that lead to difficult ethical problems. Is it safe to use very premature eggs or sperms? Is the risk for some rare syndromes caused by imprinting errors really increased when using these techniques? Do we transfer genetic infertility to the offspring? Is the risk for multiple pregnancies too high when several embryos are implanted? Does preimplantation diagnosis cause some extra risks for the future child? Should the counselling of these couples include information of all these potential but unlikely risks? The legislation and practices differ in different countries and ethical discussion and professional guidelines are still needed.

  19. [Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Ruyter, K W

    1997-12-10

    50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students. PMID:9456583

  20. The relationship between moral philosophy and medical ethics reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Baker, Robert B; McCullough, Laurence B

    2007-09-01

    Medical ethics often is treated as applied ethics, that is, the application of moral philosophy to ethical issues in medicine. In an earlier paper, we examined instances of moral philosophy's influence on medical ethics. We found the applied ethics model inadequate and sketched an alternative model. On this model, practitioners seeking to change morality "appropriate" concepts and theory fragments from moral philosophy to valorize and justify their innovations. Goldilocks-like, five commentators tasted our offerings. Some found them too cold, since they had already abandoned applied ethics; others too hot, since they still find the applied ethics model to their taste. We reply that the appropriation model offers an empirically testable account of the historical relationship between moral philosophy and medical ethics that explains why practitioners appropriate concepts and fragments from moral philosophy. In contrast, the now fashionable common morality theory neither explains moral change nor why practitioners turn to moral philosophy. PMID:18210985

  1. Imparting Medical Ethics: The Role of Mentorship in Clinical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Gail L.; Rukstalis, Margaret R.

    2008-01-01

    Mentoring and ethics are integral and intersecting components of medical education. Faculty workloads and diffusion of responsibility for teaching impact both ethics and mentoring. In current academic medical center environments, the expectation that traditional one-on-one mentoring relationships will arise spontaneously between medical students…

  2. An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

    This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

  3. Ethical Principles of Psychologists (Amended June 2, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 1990

    1990-01-01

    Reports the amended ethical principles of psychologists (June 2, 1989). The following principles are covered: (1) responsibility; (2) competence; (3) moral and legal standards; (4) public statements; (5) confidentiality; (6) welfare of the consumer; (7) professional relationships; (8) assessment techniques; (9) research with human participants;…

  4. Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.

    PubMed

    Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

    2015-12-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

  5. Medical confidentiality: legal and ethical aspects in Greece.

    PubMed

    Papadodima, Stavroula A; Spiliopoulou, Chara A; Sakelliadis, Emmanouil I

    2008-08-01

    Respect for confidentiality is firmly established in codes of ethics and law. Medical care and the patients' trust depend on the ability of the doctors to maintain confidentiality. Without a guarantee of confidentiality, many patients would want to avoid seeking medical assistance The principle of confidentiality, however, is not absolute and may be overridden by public interests. On some occasions (birth, death, infectious disease) there is a legal obligation on the part of the doctor to disclose but only to the appropriate authorities. Permissible disclosure can be granted by the patients' consent, for example, for the purpose of insurance they may wish to take out. Moreover, there are some ambivalent situations (such as criminal acts, or notification of sexual partner in case of a patient with AIDS) for which Greek law does not include relevant provisions, and the Codes of Medical Ethics do not offer clear guidelines. Therefore, the Greek doctor is called to estimate the situation and assume full responsibility for his decision. Finally, new considerations have arisen in the context of the recent advances in the field of telemedicine and electronic archiving. The paper discusses the current situation and legislation in Greece. PMID:18445090

  6. Research Ethics, some general principles 1. The primary responsibility for the ethical conduct of research lies with the

    E-print Network

    Harman, Neal.A.

    1 Research Ethics, some general principles 1. The primary responsibility for the ethical conduct ethical guidelines for the conduct of research (see below for links to relevant documents), in particular the Declaration of Helsinki http://www.wma.net/en/20activities/10ethics/10helsinki 2. It is useful to think

  7. Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

    2014-01-01

    The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

  8. Autonomy, problem-based learning, and the teaching of medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, M

    1995-01-01

    Autonomy has been the central principle underpinning changes which have affected the practice of medicine in recent years. Medical education is undergoing changes as well, many of which are underpinned, at least implicitly, by increasing concern for autonomy. Some universities have embarked on graduate courses which utilize problem-based learning (PBL) techniques to teach all areas, including medical ethics. I argue that PBL is a desirable method for teaching and learning in medical ethics. It is desirable because the nature of ethical enquiry is highly compatible with the learning processes which characterize PBL. But it is also desirable because it should help keep open the question of what autonomy really is, and how it should operate within the sphere of medical practice and medical education. PMID:8558546

  9. Internal Medicine Residents' Preferences regarding Medical Ethics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jay A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A survey of residents (N=323) in 6 internal medicine programs investigated the topics students wanted included in the medical ethics curriculum and by which of 17 methods they would prefer to be taught. About three-fourths had previous medical ethics instruction, and most wanted more on specific topics, especially legal and end-of-life issues.…

  10. Devotion, Diversity, and Reasoning: Religion and Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Dahnke, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    Most modern ethicists and ethics textbooks assert that religion holds little or no place in ethics, including fields of professional ethics like medical ethics. This assertion, of course, implicitly refers to ethical reasoning, but there is much more to the ethical life and the practice of ethics-especially professional ethics-than reasoning. It is no surprise that teachers of practical ethics, myself included, often focus on reasoning to the exclusion of other aspects of the ethical life. Especially for those with a philosophical background, reasoning is the most patent and pedagogically controllable aspect of the ethical life-and the most easily testable. And whereas there may be powerful reasons for the limitation of religion in this aspect of ethics, there are other aspects of the ethical life in which recognition of religious belief may arguably be more relevant and possibly even necessary. I divide the ethical life into three areas-personal morality, interpersonal morality, and rational morality-each of which I explore in terms of its relationship to religion, normatively characterized by the qualities of devotion, diversity, and reasoning, respectively. PMID:26323531

  11. Transplant ethics under scrutiny – responsibilities of all medical professionals

    PubMed Central

    Trey, Torsten; Caplan, Arthur L.; Lavee, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In this text, we present and elaborate ethical challenges in transplant medicine related to organ procurement and organ distribution, together with measures to solve such challenges. Based on internationally acknowledged ethical standards, we looked at cases of organ procurement and distribution practices that deviated from such ethical standards. One form of organ procurement is known as commercial organ trafficking, while in China the organ procurement is mostly based on executing prisoners, including killing of detained Falun Gong practitioners for their organs. Efforts from within the medical community as well as from governments have contributed to provide solutions to uphold ethical standards in medicine. The medical profession has the responsibility to actively promote ethical guidelines in medicine to prevent a decay of ethical standards and to ensure best medical practices. PMID:23444249

  12. Medication monitoring and drug testing ethics project.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard; Moe, Jeffrey L; Sevier, Catherine Harvey; Sevier, David; Waitzkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Duke University initiated a research project, funded by an unrestricted research grant from Millennium Laboratories, a drug testing company. The project focused on assessing the frequency and nature of questionable, unethical, and illegal business practices in the clinical drug testing industry and assessing the potential for establishing a business code of ethics. Laboratory leaders, clinicians, industry attorneys, ethicists, and consultants participated in the survey, were interviewed, and attended two face-to-face meetings to discuss a way forward. The study demonstrated broad acknowledgment of variations in the legal and regulatory environment, resulting in inconsistent enforcement of industry practices. Study participants expressed agreement that overtly illegal practices sometimes exist, particularly when laboratory representatives and clinicians discuss reimbursement, extent of testing, and potential business incentives with medical practitioners. Most respondents reported directly observing probable violations involving marketing materials, contracts, or, in the case of some individuals, directly soliciting people with offers of clinical supplies and other "freebies." While many study respondents were skeptical that voluntary standards alone would eliminate questionable business practices, most viewed ethics codes and credentialing as an important first step that could potentially mitigate uneven enforcement, while improving quality of care and facilitating preferred payment options for credentialed parties. Many were willing to participate in future discussions and industry-wide initiatives to improve the environment. PMID:25750169

  13. Public Health Leadership Society Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health

    E-print Network

    Biederman, Irving

    Public Health Leadership Society © 2002 Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health #12;Public Health Leadership Society #12;Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health Version 2 of the Ethical Practice of Public Health 4 Supplemental Materials: Rationale for a Public Health Code of Ethics 5

  14. What is it to do good medical ethics? From the perspective of a practising doctor who is in Parliament.

    PubMed

    Finlay, Ilora G

    2015-01-01

    This article is a personal reflection on work as a physician with work as a member of the UK Parliament's House of Lords. Ethical thinking should underpin everything we do; the 'four principles' of medical ethics provide an applicable and relevant ethical framework. This article explores its application in both domains of work-as a clinician and as a legislator-with some examples of its use 'to do good medical ethics' in both roles. Debates around tobacco and drug control, pandemic control, abortion and assisted suicide are explored. PMID:25516943

  15. Medicine, Ethics, and the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Sally

    1980-01-01

    Medical ethical problems involving the elderly elucidate the relation between broader social views of aging and ethical principles basic to medicine. Three clinical situations are described and alternative principles of medical ethics are discussed as a basis for resolution of ethical problems in the health care of the elderly. (Author)

  16. ANNOUNCEMENT: Summer Ethics Fellowship for Medical Fellowships at Auschwitz for the Study of Professional Ethics (FASPE) is now accepting

    E-print Network

    Emmons, Scott

    ANNOUNCEMENT: Summer Ethics Fellowship for Medical Students Fellowships at Auschwitz for the Study of Professional Ethics (FASPE) is now accepting applications for its 2016 medical program. FASPE Medical uses point for an intensive course of study on contemporary medical ethics. FASPE is predicated upon

  17. Ethics and Information Technology: Some Principles To Guide Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodi, Sonia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the ethical challenges of information technology, particularly electronic indexes and the Internet; considers principles to guide students; and discusses possible librarian responses. Topics include Kant's categorical imperative, ownership, right to privacy, social responsibility, self-respect, plagiarism and copyrights, and three…

  18. Principles and Ethics in Scientific Communication in Biomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Donev, Doncho

    2013-01-01

    Introduction and aim: To present the basic principles and standards of scientific communication and writing a paper, to indicate the importance of honesty and ethical approach to research and publication of results in scientific journals, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author. Results: In the past more than 20 years there is an increasingly emphasized importance of respecting fundamental principles and standards of scientific communication and ethical approach to research and publication of results in peer review journals. Advances in the scientific community is based on honesty and equity of researchers in conducting and publishing the results of research and to develop guidelines and policies for prevention and punishment of publishing misconduct. Today scientific communication standards and definitions of fraud in science and publishing are generally consistent, but vary considerably policies and approach to ethics education in science, prevention and penal policies for misconduct in research and publication of results in scientific journals. Conclusion: It is necessary to further strengthen the capacity for education and research, and raising awareness about the importance and need for education about the principles of scientific communication, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education of the scientific community, in undergraduate teaching and postgraduate master and doctoral studies, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud. PMID:24505166

  19. Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.

    1995-05-01

    This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing staff system training. Administration should develop ways to monitor staff compliance with confidentiality policies and should assess diligence in maintaining patient record confidentiality as part of staff annual performance evaluations. Ethical management of IMAC systems is the business of all members of the health care team. Computerized patient records management (including IMAC) should be scrutinized as any other clinical medial ethical issue. If hospitals include these processes in their planning for RIS, IMACS, and HIS systems, they should have time to develop institutional expertise on these questions before and as systems are installed rather than only as ethical dilemmas develop during their use.

  20. Are distinctive ethical principles required for cluster randomised controlled trials?

    E-print Network

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    a century ago, in Germany [1]. The inhumane experiments carried out by doctors under the Nazi government three questions: What are the essential elements of ethical medical research, particularly experiments for regulation of the conduct of professionals who carry out experiments on human subjects was recognised

  1. In search of an ethic of medical librarianship.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, H

    1978-01-01

    Why is the literature on the ethics of librarianship so sparse? Some of the codes of ethics proposed or officially adopted during this century are examined, with an informal commentary on the reasons why they seem to have aroused so little sustained interest and discussion. Attention is directed particularly to library--user relationships and to some of the unique ethical situations in medical libraries. PMID:678701

  2. The Precautionary Principle, epidemiology and the ethics of delay.

    PubMed

    Richter, Elihu D; Laster, Richard

    2004-01-01

    Ethics tells us: do good and do no harm and invokes the norms of justice, equity and respect for autonomy in protecting and promoting health and well-being. The Precautionary Principle, a contemporary re-definition of Bradford Hill's case for action, gives us a common sense rule for doing good by preventing harm to public health from delay: when in doubt about the presence of a hazard, there should be no doubt about its prevention or removal. It shifts the burden of proof from showing presence of risk to showing absence of risk, aims to do good by preventing harm, and subsumes the upstream strategies of the Driving Forces Pressure Stress Exposure Effect Action model and downstream strategies from molecular epidemiology for detection and prevention of risk. The Precautionary Principle has emerged because of the ethical import of delays in detection of risks to human health and the environment. Ethical principles, the Precautionary Principle, the DPSEEA model and molecular epidemiology all imply re-emphasizing epidemiology's classic role for early detection and prevention. Delays in recognizing risks from past exposures and acting on the findings (e.g., cigarette smoking and lung cancer, asbestos, organochlorines and endocrine disruption, radiofrequency, raised travel speeds) were examples of failures that were not only scientific, but ethical, since they resulted in preventable harm to exposed populations. These may delay results from, among other things, external and internal determinants of epidemiologic investigations of hazard and risk, including misuse of tests of statistical significance. Furthermore, applying the Precautionary Principle to ensure justice, equity, and respect for autonomy raises questions concerning the short-term costs of implementation to achieve long-term goals and the principles that guide compensation. PMID:15212202

  3. Adab and its significance for an Islamic medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Sartell, Elizabeth; Padela, Aasim I

    2015-09-01

    Discussions of Islamic medical ethics tend to focus on Shar?'ah-based, or obligation-based, ethics. However, limiting Islamic medical ethics discourse to the derivation of religious duties ignores discussions about moulding an inner disposition that inclines towards adherence to the Shar?'ah. In classical Islamic intellectual thought, such writings are the concern of adab literature. In this paper, we call for a renewal of adabi discourse as part of Islamic medical ethics. We argue that adab complements Shar?'ah-based writings to generate a more holistic vision of Islamic medical ethics by supplementing an obligation-based approach with a virtue-based approach. While Shar?'ah-based medical ethics focuses primarily on the moral status of actions, adab literature adds to this genre by addressing the moral formation of the agent. By complementing Shar?'ah-based approaches with adab-focused writings, Islamic medical ethics discourse can describe the relationship between the agent and the action, within a moral universe informed by the Islamic intellectual tradition. PMID:25934319

  4. A Required and Elective Curriculum in Ethics for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Hugh A.

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to medical ethics has been incorporated into the core curriculum by the inclusion of four courses in social and behavioral sciences at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine. The ethical dimensions of the subjects being considered are thoroughly explored in the group discussions. (MLW)

  5. Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century.

    PubMed Central

    Rispler-Chaim, V

    1989-01-01

    While the practice of Western medicine is known today to doctors of all ethnic and religious groups, its standards are subject to the availability of resources. The medical ethics guiding each doctor is influenced by his/her religious or cultural background or affiliation, and that is where diversity exists. Much has been written about Jewish and Christian medical ethics. Islamic medical ethics has never been discussed as an independent field of ethics, although several selected topics, especially those concerning sexuality, birth control and abortions, have been more discussed than others. Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century will be characterised on the basis of Egyptian fatawa (legal opinions) issued by famous Muslim scholars and several doctors. Some of the issues discussed by Islamic medical ethics are universal: abortions, organ transplants, artificial insemination, cosmetic surgery, doctor-patient relations, etc. Other issues are typically Islamic, such as impediments to fasting in Ramadan, diseases and physical conditions that cause infringement of the state of purity, medicines containing alcohol, etc. Muslims' attitudes to both types of ethical issues often prove that pragmatism prevails and the aim is to seek a compromise between Islamic heritage and the achievements of modern medicine, as long as basic Islamic dogma is not violated. PMID:2614792

  6. Scuba Divers with Disabilities Challenge Medical Protocols and Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Leslie Y.

    1987-01-01

    Persons with disabilities are diving, as are individuals with such conditions as asthma and epilepsy. A review considers relevant medical and ethical implications of such activity among disabled persons. (Author/CB)

  7. Chinese Confucian culture and the medical ethical tradition.

    PubMed

    Guo, Z

    1995-08-01

    The Confucian culture, rich in its contents and great in its significance, exerted on the thinking, culture and political life of ancient China immense influences, unparalleled by any other school of thought or culture. Confucian theories on morality and ethics, with 'goodness' as the core and 'rites' as the norm, served as the 'key notes' of the traditional medical ethics of China. The viewpoints of Confucianism on benevolence and material interests, on good and evil, on kindheartedness, and on character cultivation were all inherited by the medical workers and thus became prominent in Chinese traditional medical ethics. Hence, it is clear that the medical profession and Confucianism have long shared common goals in terms of ethics. Influenced by the excellent Confucian thinking and culture, a rather highly-developed system of Chinese traditional medical ethics emerged with a well-defined basic content, and the system has been followed and amended by medical professionals of all generations throughout Chinese history. This system, just to mention briefly, contains concepts such as the need: to attach great importance to the value of life; to do one's best to rescue the dying and to heal the wounded; to show concern to those who suffer from diseases; to practise medicine with honesty; to study medical skills painstakingly; to oppose a careless style of work; to comfort oneself in a dignified manner; to respect local customs and to be polite; to treat patients, noble or humble, equally, and to respect the academic achievements of others, etc. Of course, at the same time, Confucian culture has its own historical and class limitations, which exerted negative influences on traditional medical ethics. Now, if we are to keep up with the development of modern medicine, a serious topic must be addressed. That is how to retain the essence of our traditional medical ethics so as to maintain historic continuity and yet, at the same time, add on the new contents of medical ethics so as to incorporate modern features into our system. Therefore, when trying to reform medical practice in China, we are faced with the urgent need to inherit and promulgate the essence of Confucian ethics--discarding its obsolete concepts--while at the same time building up the new medical ethics that can meet the requirements of the outside world and the future. PMID:7473645

  8. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations. PMID:25341214

  9. Ethics in dentistry: review and critique of Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct.

    PubMed

    Nash, D A

    1984-10-01

    This paper has reviewed an ethic for the profession of dental medicine, such an ethic being grounded in the classical characteristics of a profession. The Principles and Code of the ADA have been reviewed and critiqued. The following conclusions are drawn: The dental profession and the individual dentist have a duty to recognize the reciprocity of the relationship that exists with society, and the duty of covenantal fidelity. The dentist has a duty to conduct his or her professional life in accordance with the ethical principles rooted in the moral rules. These are the principles of beneficence: autonomy and justice, in both individual and societal contexts. The dentist has a duty to maintain his or her level of knowledge and skill current. The dentist has an obligation to participate in the professional community to help ensure just distribution of society's resources and to share the burden of professional self-regulation to the extent that such a privilege is granted by society. The current Principles and Code are helpful expressions of dentistry's professional obligations, but are deficient in: not speaking to reciprocity of relationship, the principle of self-determination, and not providing for societal participation in the covenant agreement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:6384327

  10. [Which ethics for medical ethics? Homage to Hans Jonas, 1903-1993].

    PubMed

    Munzarová, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Hans Jonas, one of the greatest philosophers of the 20th century, devoted several studies to the ethics in context with medicine and/or to the new biomedical research. His main thoughts in this field are presented (death and dying, mortality, reflections on experimenting with human subjects - nontherapeutic research, cloning, chimaeras). He was a man of wisdom and his humanity and moral sensibility are a matter of admiration. His ethics is in full consent with ethics and the dignity of medical profession. His ideas are compared (and contrasted) with those of the new bio"ethics". PMID:25370772

  11. Great expectations: teaching ethics to medical students in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn

    2014-12-01

    Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. PMID:23409954

  12. Avoiding evasion: medical ethics education and emotion theory.

    PubMed

    Leget, C

    2004-10-01

    Beginning with an exemplary case study, this paper diagnoses and analyses some important strategies of evasion and factors of hindrance that are met in the teaching of medical ethics to undergraduate medical students. Some of these inhibitions are inherent to ethical theories; others are connected with the nature of medicine or cultural trends. It is argued that in order to avoid an attitude of evasion in medical ethics teaching, a philosophical theory of emotions is needed that is able to clarify on a conceptual level the ethical importance of emotions. An approach is proposed with the help of the emotion theory Martha Nussbaum works out in her book Upheavals of thought. The paper ends with some practical recommendations. PMID:15467085

  13. Medical Ethics and Law in Radiologic Technology.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Eric P; Matthews, Tracy M

    2015-11-01

    At every stage of their careers, radiologic technologists and student technologists must adhere to high ethical standards, obey the law, and consistently conduct themselves with professionalism. This article explains how modern health care ethics evolved, focusing on 8 important theorists. It also describes the ethical responsibilities of health care providers and the rights of patients. Important civil rights laws are discussed, focusing on the rights of health care workers as employees. A brief overview of the U.S. legal system follows, including the causes of action that most commonly involve health care professionals. Finally, this article discusses professionalism and its implications for radiologic technologists. PMID:26538219

  14. [Medical ethics in the undergraduate medical curriculum and in the health care system].

    PubMed

    Körtner, Ulrich H J; Hofhansl, Angelika; Dinges, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In German speaking areas, in the scientific establishment which is occupied with medical ethics in the narrower and wider senses, a vehement discussion has developed as to whether or not medical practitioners must ultimately advocate that which is understood to be modern medical ethics. Against the background of this discussion, this article takes up a position on these questions, not only theoretically, but also with reference to the fields of practice of medical studies, hospitals, and the health system. The article presents the proposals of the Institute for Ethics and Law in Medicine (University of Vienna) for the evaluation and further development of the theme of ethics within the framework of the Medical Curriculum of Vienna (MCW). Among other things, this requires an integrated model of levels of ethical competence. PMID:24322387

  15. Australian medical students' perceptions of professionalism and ethics in medical television programs

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Medical television programs offer students fictional representations of their chosen career. This study aimed to discover undergraduate medical students' viewing of medical television programs and students' perceptions of professionalism, ethics, realism and role models in the programs. The purpose was to consider implications for teaching strategies. Methods A medical television survey was administered to 386 undergraduate medical students across Years 1 to 4 at a university in New South Wales, Australia. The survey collected data on demographics, year of course, viewing of medical television programs, perception of programs' realism, depiction of ethics, professionalism and role models. Results The shows watched by most students were House, Scrubs, and Grey's Anatomy, and students nominated watching 30 different medical programs in total. There was no statistical association between year of enrolment and perceptions of accuracy. The majority of students reported that friends or family members had asked them for their opinion on an ethical or medical issue presented on a program, and that they discussed ethical and medical matters with their friends. Students had high recall of ethical topics portrayed on the shows, and most believed that medical programs generally portrayed ideals of professionalism well. Conclusions Medical programs offer considerable currency and relevance with students and may be useful in teaching strategies that engage students in ethical lessons about practising medicine. PMID:21798068

  16. Bearing response-ability: theater, ethics and medical education.

    PubMed

    Rossiter, Kate

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses a growing concern within the medical humanities community regarding the perceived need for a more empathically-focused medical curricula, and advocates for the use of creative pedagogical forms as a means to attend to issues of suffering and relationality. Drawing from the ethical philosophy of Emmanuel Levinas, I critique the notion of empathy on the basis that it erases difference and disregards otherness. Rather, I propose that the concept of empathy may be usefully replaced with that of ethical responsibility, which suggests a shared sense of humanity outside the boundaries of presumed knowledge of the other. To illustrate this argument, I theorize the importance of theater within medical education. Theater, I argue, may engender ethical responsibility in the Levinasian sense, and thus may allow learners to differently engage with the experience of the suffering other. As such, I examine Margaret Edson's widely used play Wit as a platform for such an ethical encounter to occur. Thus, rather than working to understand the value of theater in medical education in terms of knowledge and skill acquisition, I theorize that its primacy within medical curricula arises from its ethical/relational potential, or potential to engender new forms of inter-human relationality. PMID:22109642

  17. Anatomy research under the knife of medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W. M. S.; Archana, R.; Prathibha, K. M.; Johnson, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    There is increased awareness and anxiety in conducting research for publication and at the same time ignorance about getting Ethical Committee clearance at least in Anatomy Departments among Basic Medical Sciences. While people are actively presenting papers, collect data, Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines does not cover aspects pertaining to Anatomy oriented research activities. This review article is an eye opener for fraternity in the medical field, especially in anatomy. PMID:26015746

  18. The ethics of medical marijuana: government restrictions vs. medical necessity.

    PubMed

    Clark, P A

    2000-01-01

    Marijuana is listed by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no currently accepted medical use. However, on March 17, 1999, 11 independent scientists appointed by the Institute of Medicine reported that medical marijuana was effective in controlling some forms of pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy, treating wasting due to AIDS, and combating muscle spasms associated with multiple sclerosis. There was also no evidence that using marijuana would increase illicit drug use or that it was a "gateway" drug. Despite this evidence the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe unadulterated and standardized forms of marijuana. After reviewing the pertinent scientific data and applying the principle of double effect, there is a proportionate reason for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Seriously ill patients have the right to effective therapies. To deny patients access to such a therapy is to deny them dignity and respect as persons. PMID:10754797

  19. The ethical basis of the precautionary principle in health care decision making

    SciTech Connect

    Meulen, Ruud H.J. ter . E-mail: r.termeulen@ige.unimaas.nl

    2005-09-01

    This article explores the relation between the precautionary and health care decision making. Decision making in medical practice as well as health policy is characterized by uncertainty. On the level of clinical practice for example, one never knows in advance whether one has made the right diagnosis or has opted for the right treatment. Though medical decisions have a risk on serious harms and burdens, the precautionary principle is not applicable to health care. This principle holds that one should not act when there is no scientific proof that no harms will result from a medical act or a policy decision. However, in clinical practice there is a duty to act. Physicians have an obligation to do good to their patients and have to weigh the benefits against possible harms and burdens. The basis virtue of medical decision making is not avoidance of risks, as stated in the precautionary principle, but the prudent assessment of benefits, burdens, and harms, in relation to other ethical principles like respect for autonomy and justice. The precautionary principle does play a role in health care, but it should never rule medical decision making as an absolute principle. This is not only true for clinical decision making, but also for the area of health policy. Physicians and other health care decision makers need to have knowledge about the possible effects of treatments or the precision of diagnostic procedures in order to reduce harm and promote well-being. Evidence-based medicine may contribute to the wisdom of health care decision makers, but this evidence-based wisdom should always be applied under the guidance of prudence, which is the central virtue of health care decision making.

  20. Medical ethics, clinical research, and special aspects in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Corrao, S; Arnone, G; Arnone, S; Baldari, S

    2004-09-01

    Medical ethics is the science of survival. It studies the working out of judgments on right or wrong referred to the human being as a biological entity interacting with the whole ecosystem. Medical ethics in clinical research raises numerous moral and technical issues. Methodological aspects are essential for carrying out the aim of clinical research. Medical ethics documents are inspired by the Nuremberg Code and culminate in the recently updated Helsinki Declaration of 1964. In Italy 2 ministerial decrees in 1997 and 1998 laid the basis for the work of a medical ethics committee. They acknowledge the European Good Clinical Practice Guidelines and set professional needs within ethical committees. In clinical research the use of ionising radiation merits special consideration. In the recent past, serious human rights abuses in radiation experiments of the 1950s and 1960s have been found. As regards research in this field we can refer to the publication of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and to the report of the World Health Organisation (WHO). Legislative decree no. 187 of May 26, 2000, which transposed the 97/43/ EURATOM Directive represents the most comprehensive and recent normative reference to clinical research using ionising radiation. However, law no. 39 of March 1, 2002 is important for the partial modifications of previous decrees (art. 108 of L.D. no. 230 of March 17, 1995 and, art. 4 and attachment III of L.D. no. 187 of May 26). In this paper medical ethics, research, methodological issues and aspects of ionizing radiation are discussed. PMID:15499290

  1. Ethics Education in U.S. Medical Schools: A Study of Syllabi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, James M.; Burkemper, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed medical schools to determine the scope and content of required, formal ethics components in their curriculums. Found that ethics education is far from homogeneous among medical schools in both content and extensiveness. (EV)

  2. 76 FR 81517 - Submission for Review and Comment: “The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... SECURITY Submission for Review and Comment: ``The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and..., DHS S&T sponsored work on ethics in Information and Communication Technology Research (ICTR). This... privacy issues and applicability of ethics with respect to human subjects in ICTR. Overview of...

  3. The Program for Professional Values and Ethics in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Cathy J.; Chauvin, Sheila W.; Rodenhauser, Paul; Whitlock, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Program for Professional Values and Ethics in Medical Education (PPVEME) at Tulane University School of Medicine. It brings together students, residents, and faculty into learning teams that teach the other teams about one of five themes: integrity, communication, teamwork, leadership, and service. It emphasizes learner-driven self…

  4. Undergraduate International Medical Electives: Some Ethical and Pedagogical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Lori; Harms, Sheila; Plamondon, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that attempts to establish more placements to meet the growing demands of undergraduate medical students in North America for international experiences may be outweighing critical reflection on the ethical issues, curricular content, and pedagogical strategies necessary to support equitable engagements with countries of the…

  5. Covert medication in psychiatric emergencies: is it ever ethically permissible?

    PubMed

    Hung, Erick K; McNiel, Dale E; Binder, Renée L

    2012-01-01

    Covert administration of medications to patients, defined as the administration of medication to patients without their knowledge, is a practice surrounded by clinical, legal, ethics-related, and cultural controversy. Many psychiatrists would be likely to advocate that the practice of covert medication in emergency psychiatry is not clinically, ethically, or legally acceptable. This article explores whether there may be exceptions to this stance that would be ethical. We first review the standard of emergency psychiatric care. Although we could identify no published empirical studies of covert administration of medicine in emergency departments, we review the prevalence of this practice in other clinical settings. While the courts have not ruled with respect to covert medication, we discuss the evolving legal landscape of informed consent, competency, and the right to refuse treatment. We discuss dilemmas regarding the ethics involved in this practice, including the tensions among autonomy, beneficence, and duty to protect. We explore how differences between cultures regarding the value placed on individual versus family autonomy may affect perspectives with regard to this practice. We investigate how consumers view this practice and their treatment preferences during a psychiatric emergency. Finally, we discuss psychiatric advance directives and explore how these contracts may affect the debate over the practice. PMID:22635297

  6. The impact of medical tourism and the code of medical ethics on advertisement in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Brown, Brandon; Olaleye, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in management of clinical conditions are being made in several resource poor countries including Nigeria. Yet, the code of medical ethics which bars physician and health practices from advertising the kind of services they render deters these practices. This is worsened by the incursion of medical tourism facilitators (MTF) who continue to market healthcare services across countries over the internet and social media thereby raising ethical questions. A significant review of the advertisement ban in the code of ethics is long overdue. Limited knowledge about advances in medical practice among physicians and the populace, the growing medical tourism industry and its attendant effects, and the possibility of driving brain gain provide evidence to repeal the code. Ethical issues, resistance to change and elitist ideas are mitigating factors working in the opposite direction. The repeal of the code of medical ethics against advertising will undoubtedly favor health facilities in the country that currently cannot advertise the kind of services they render. A repeal or review of this code of medical ethics is necessary with properly laid down guidelines on how advertisements can be and cannot be done. PMID:25722776

  7. The impact of medical tourism and the code of medical ethics on advertisement in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Brown, Brandon; Olaleye, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in management of clinical conditions are being made in several resource poor countries including Nigeria. Yet, the code of medical ethics which bars physician and health practices from advertising the kind of services they render deters these practices. This is worsened by the incursion of medical tourism facilitators (MTF) who continue to market healthcare services across countries over the internet and social media thereby raising ethical questions. A significant review of the advertisement ban in the code of ethics is long overdue. Limited knowledge about advances in medical practice among physicians and the populace, the growing medical tourism industry and its attendant effects, and the possibility of driving brain gain provide evidence to repeal the code. Ethical issues, resistance to change and elitist ideas are mitigating factors working in the opposite direction. The repeal of the code of medical ethics against advertising will undoubtedly favor health facilities in the country that currently cannot advertise the kind of services they render. A repeal or review of this code of medical ethics is necessary with properly laid down guidelines on how advertisements can be and cannot be done. PMID:25722776

  8. Drones--ethical considerations and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Drones enhance military capability and form a potent element of force protection, allowing humans to be removed from hazardous environments and tedious jobs. However, there are moral, legal, and political dangers associated with their use. Although a time may come when it is possible to develop a drone that is able to autonomously and ethically engage a legitimate target with greater reliability than a human, until then military drones demand a crawl-walk-run development methodology, consent by military personnel for weapon use, and continued debate about the complex issues surrounding their deployment. PMID:22558742

  9. Jewish medical ethics: monetary compensation for donating kidneys.

    PubMed

    Grazi, Richard V; Wolowelsky, Joel B

    2004-03-01

    The Israel Health Ministry is preparing legislation that would allow a person to receive monetary compensation in exchange for donating a kidney for a lifesaving transplant. Such a bill would be the first of its kind, and would seem to establish a policy that is in contrast with both existing international professional ethics and major Christian and Islamic religious ethics. In an attempt to investigate the extent to which such a bill would be consistent with traditional Jewish ethics, we reviewed the opinions of major traditional Jewish ethicists/halakhists, with emphasis on contemporary opinions, and found that compensating an organ donor for his or her time, discomfort, inconvenience, and recovery is fully consistent with traditional Jewish law and ethics. While non-altruistic sale of kidneys might be theoretically ethical from a Jewish perspective, ultimately its ethical status is inextricably connected to solving a series of pragmatic issues, such as creating a system that insures that potential vendors/donors are properly informed and not exploited, controlling and supervising medical screening and support of the donors to insure that their health is not permanently endangered, protecting minors and incompetents, and regulating payments so that they reasonably reflect compensation for pain and suffering. PMID:15055281

  10. Ethics and access to teaching materials in the medical library: the case of the Pernkopf atlas.

    PubMed

    Atlas, M C

    2001-01-01

    Conflicts can occur between the principle of freedom of information treasured by librarians and ethical standards of scientific research involving the propriety of using data derived from immoral or dishonorable experimentation. A prime example of this conflict was brought to the attention of the medical and library communities in 1995 when articles claiming that the subjects of the illustrations in the classic anatomy atlas, Eduard Pernkopf's Topographische Anatomie des Menschen, were victims of the Nazi holocaust. While few have disputed the accuracy, artistic, or educational value of the Pernkopf atlas, some have argued that the use of such subjects violates standards of medical ethics involving inhuman and degrading treatment of subjects or disrespect of a human corpse. Efforts were made to remove the book from medical libraries. In this article, the history of the Pernkopf atlas and the controversy surrounding it are reviewed. The results of a survey of academic medical libraries concerning their treatment of the Pernkopf atlas are reported, and the ethical implications of these issues as they affect the responsibilities of librarians is discussed. PMID:11209801

  11. An obstructed death and medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Dunbar, S

    1990-01-01

    In this case analysis deception or lying to a dying patient is discussed within the context of different relationships: the relationship between the patient and her family doctor, the relationship between the patient and the surgeon and the relationship between the patient and her family. It is suggested that the principle of veracity is not only a core feature in the patient-doctor relationship but is also fundamentally connected with the basic element of trust between the patient and doctor. The surgeon, in deceiving the patient, even at the request of her husband, betrayed her trust in violating the principle of veracity. The primary responsibility of the surgeon was towards his patient rather than her family. In lying to his patient the surgeon failed to give Mrs Fasper something she needed most: respect for her as a person. PMID:2366237

  12. Ethical challenges in teaching genetics for medical students.

    PubMed

    Nagle, Erika; Kažoka, Dzintra

    2014-12-01

    Although inclusion of ethics as a study course in medical students' curricula is a common practice, special approaches in teaching ethics in the context of genetics should be considered. In the realm of genomics, there are several ethically sensitive topics such as diagnosis of genetic diseases, in vitro fertilization, and identification of genetic susceptibility to common diseases. In addition, in communication with the general public, genetic terms should be used with caution. Demonstration of the phenotypes of affected individuals should be regarded as a particular aspect of teaching genetics. In a description of a patient's phenotype, not only is it necessary to provide scientifically precise characteristics of a patient; voice timbre, facial expression, and body language should also be carefully controlled. Furthermore, in medicine, the theory-practice gap is a problematic aspect, and students often find it difficult to apply knowledge on ethical issues to real situations in clinics. For this purpose, clinical cases are presented during classes and their analysis requires a very respectful attitude on the part of both students and lecturers. For many genetic diseases, evaluation of minor anomalies such as a curved fifth finger, low situated ears, or missing of some teeth is required. Some minor anomalies are found in healthy individuals too, and interpretation of such features must therefore be considered carefully. This article describes our experiences in teaching genetics at Riga Stradinš University, ethical problems faced while teaching genetics, and their solutions. PMID:25574275

  13. Medical and ethical considerations in uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

    2013-11-01

    Transplanting a uterus has unique characteristics, since a successful outcome is represented only by the birth of a viable healthy child. For this reason, critical issues in this type of transplantation differ profoundly from those of other solid organs and, beside a functioning uterus, involve 3 additional steps. First, at the time of implantation, the quality of embryo is tested by specialized decidual cells surrounding the implanting embryo; such testing is aimed at allowing the development of a normal embryo. Second, from early gestation onward, blood supply to the uterus increases from 45 to 750mL per minute. Vascular anastomoses should support such a marked increase in blood flow. Third, full transformation of spiral arterioles in the placental bed is required to direct 75% of the uterine blood flow to the intervillous space. Unfortunately, no suitable animal model is available for experimentation. Three overarching ethical issues must be considered. Should organ transplant be conducted when it is not absolutely necessary as a life-saving or quality-of-life-saving measure? To what extent should medicine delimit its potential in spite of societal desires? Should society demand from medicine the application of whichever technology can be developed and, if so, to what extent? PMID:23987733

  14. Current Principles and Practice of Ethics and Law in Perinatal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    BERCEANU, C.; ALBU, SIMONA ELENA; BO?, MIHAELA; GHELASE, M.?T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial discussion topics in modern bioethics, science or philosophy is represented by the beginning of the individual human life. It is ethically, medically and scientifically correct that the human conception product to be born, so to gain personality and individuality, to be treated as a patient since the intrauterine life. Intrauterine foetal interventions, performed in various therapeutic purposes are still in the experimental stage even in centres with rich experience in perinatal medicine. Progresses truly outstanding are present especially in the prenatal diagnostic methods. Non invasive prenatal testing represents without a doubt a great progress in prenatal diagnosis, but from this point of view, the role of practitioners in the field of perinatal medicine, on counselling and addressing the indication of this test becomes essential. Beyond cultural, national, social or related differences, in perinatal medicine practice is particularly important to respect and permanently reassess the ethical codes. Our paper is targeting to spotlight the essential principles and practice of ethics and law in perinatal medicine nowadays on one hand, and to bring an update review on a controversial topic on the other hand. PMID:25729600

  15. Sexual harassment in the medical profession: legal and ethical responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bismark, Marie M

    2015-08-17

    Sexual harassment of women in medicine has become a subject of national debate after a senior female surgeon stated that if a woman complained of unwanted advances her career would be jeopardised, and subsequent reports suggest that sexual harassment is a serious problem in the medical profession. Sexual harassment of women in the medical profession by their colleagues presents substantial legal, ethical and cultural questions for the profession. Women have enforceable legal rights to gender equality and freedom from sexual harassment in the workplace. Both individual offenders and employers face significant legal consequences for sexual harassment in every Australian state and territory, and individual medical practitioners and employers need to understand their legal and ethical rights and responsibilities in this context. An individual offender may be personally liable for criminal offences, and for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, duties owed in civil law, professional standards and codes of conduct. An employer may be liable for breaching anti-discrimination legislation, workplace safety laws, duties owed in contract law, and a duty of care owed to the employee. Employers, professional colleges and associations, and regulators should use this national debate as an opportunity to improve gender equality and professional culture in medicine; individuals and employers have clear legal and ethical obligations to minimise sexual harassment to the greatest extent possible. PMID:26268291

  16. Should medical students track former patients in the electronic health record? An emerging ethical conflict.

    PubMed

    Brisson, Gregory E; Neely, Kathy Johnson; Tyler, Patrick D; Barnard, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    Medical students are increasingly using electronic health records (EHRs) in clerkships, and medical educators should seek opportunities to use this new technology to improve training. One such opportunity is the ability to "track" former patients in the EHR, defined as following up on patients in the EHR for educational purposes for a defined period of time after they have left one's direct care. This activity offers great promise in clinical training by enabling students to audit their diagnostic impressions and follow the clinical history of illness in a manner not possible in the era of paper charting. However, tracking raises important questions about the ethical use of protected health information, including concerns about compromising patient autonomy, resulting in a conflict between medical education and patient privacy. The authors offer critical analysis of arguments on both sides and discuss strategies to balance the ethical conflict by optimizing outcomes and mitigating harms. They observe that tracking improves training, thus offering long-lasting benefits to society, and is supported by the principle of distributive justice. They conclude that students should be permitted to track for educational purposes, but only with defined limits to safeguard patient autonomy, including obtaining permission from patients, having legitimate educational intent, and self-restricting review of records to those essential for training. Lastly, the authors observe that this conflict will become increasingly important with completion of the planned Nationwide Health Information Network and emphasize the need for national guidelines on tracking patients in an ethically appropriate manner. PMID:25565261

  17. How “moral” are the principles of biomedical ethics? – a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The principles of biomedical ethics – autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice – are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship of the principles to other moral and non-moral values that provide orientations in medicine. By way of comparison, we performed a similar analysis for the business & finance domain. Methods We evaluated the perceived degree of “morality” of 14 values relevant to medicine (n1?=?317, students and professionals) and 14 values relevant to business & finance (n2?=?247, students and professionals). Ratings were made along four dimensions intended to characterize different aspects of morality. Results We found that compared to other values, the principles-related values received lower ratings across several dimensions that characterize morality. By interpreting our finding using a clustering and a network analysis approach, we suggest that the principles can be understood as “bridge values” that are connected both to moral and non-moral aspects of ethical dilemmas in medicine. We also found that the social domain (medicine vs. business & finance) influences the degree of perceived morality of values. Conclusions Our results are in conflict with the common morality hypothesis of Beauchamp and Childress, which would imply domain-independent high morality ratings of the principles. Our findings support the suggestions by other scholars that the principles of biomedical ethics serve primarily as instruments in deliberated justifications, but lack grounding in a universal “common morality”. We propose that the specific manner in which the principles are taught and discussed in medicine – namely by referring to conflicts requiring a balancing of principles – may partly explain why the degree of perceived “morality” of the principles is lower compared to other moral values. PMID:24938295

  18. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient's consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians. PMID:26241221

  19. Risky Treatments: A Jewish Medical Ethics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Avraham

    2015-01-01

    The Jewish principle concerning a decision with regard to a dangerous treatment is as following: A patient who is estimated to die within 12 months because of a fatal illness is permitted to undergo a treatment that on the one hand may extend his life beyond 12 months, but on the other hand may hasten his death. There are, however, several limitations to this ruling related to the chances of success with the proposed treatment, the nature of the treatment, whether it is intended to be curative or merely to postpone the danger and death, whether the treatment is absolutely necessary, and others. One is not obligated to undergo a dangerous treatment, but one is permitted to do so. The permissibility to forfeit a short life expectancy in order to achieve more prolonged life applies only with the patient’s consent. That consent is valid and is not considered a form of attempted suicide. Neither is a refusal to submit to treatment considered an act of suicide; the patient has the right to refuse a dangerous procedure. In all situations where a permissive ruling is granted for a patient to endanger his short life expectancy, the ruling should be arrived at after careful reflection and with the approval of the rabbinic authorities acting on the recommendation of the most expert physicians. PMID:26241221

  20. Continuing medical education for life: eight principles.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, S; Baron, J; Elstein, A S; Hammond, W P; Holzman, G B; Marlow, B; Taggart, M S; Schulkin, J

    1999-12-01

    Continuing medical education (CME) is being pressured to change in response to increasing and changing educational needs of practicing physicians, fostered by technical innovations, evolution of practice styles, and the reorganization of health care delivery. Leadership in the reform of CME falls primarily to the medical specialty societies in light of their traditional responsibilities for accrediting CME and maintaining professional standards. To address the need for reform, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists in 1997 organized a conference to assemble CME program administrators from several medical specialties and academicians with expertise in postgraduate learning. At the conference, issues facing CME were examined. The authors, who were conference participants, state and explain eight principles that emerged from conference discussions. (For example: "Educational activities should be supportive of and coordinated with the transition to evidence-based medicine.") The principles reflect the interspecialty and interdisciplinary consensus achieved by the conference participants and can serve as useful guideposts for educators as they work to improve CME in their institutions. The authors conclude by noting the need for a more systematic and rigorously analytic approach, where CME content is determined according to assessed needs and CME is evaluated by measuring outcomes; for this to happen, CME educators and faculty must be brought up to date through training, including the use of problem-based learning. CME must also instill collegiality, interaction, and collaboration into the learning environment instead of being a solitary learning activity. Finally, CME must not only emphasize the acquisition of knowledge but also instruct physicians in the process of decision making to help them better use their knowledge as they make clinical judgments. PMID:10619003

  1. Ethics and access to teaching materials in the medical library.

    PubMed

    Atlas, M C

    2000-01-01

    The American Library Association's Library Bill of Rights states that "Materials should not be excluded because of the origin, background, or views of those contributing to their creation." Medical ethicists question the use of data derived from experimentation that may have involved inhuman and degrading treatment of subjects or disrespect of a human corpse. Thus conflict between the upholding of ethical standards of research and freedom of information occurs. This conflict was brought to attention of the medical and library communities when journal articles purported that the source of the subjects for the illustrations in the classic anatomy atlas, Eduard Pernkopf's Topographische Anatomie des Menschen, were victims of the Nazi holocaust. While there has never been any dispute about the accuracy or educational value of the work, efforts were made to remove the book from medical libraries. Were these efforts a violation of the Library Bill of Rights or is it the responsibility of the library to discard those items that do not meet current standards of medical ethics? Librarians made different choices about what to do with the controversial Pernkopf title. PMID:11143883

  2. Unwanted pregnancy--medical and ethical dimensions.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, J

    2003-03-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for approximately 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Unplanned and unwanted pregnancies constitute a serious public health responsibility. While fertility has declined by half in developing countries, the motivation to control and space births has risen faster than the rate of contraceptive use. Preventing maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. A range of positive steps has been taken to reduce deaths and morbidity from abortion in a growing number of countries over the past 15 years. Making abortion legal is an essential prerequisite in making it safe. In this respect, changing the law does matter and assertions to the contrary are ill conceived and unsupported in practice. Although, in many countries, trends towards safer abortion have often occurred prior to or in the absence of changes in the law, legal changes need to take place if safety is to be sustained for all women. Religious laws may also require attention when legal change is being contemplated. There are three main ways of approaching this problem: liberalizing the existing law within the penal or criminal code; partially or fully legalizing abortion through a positive law or a court ruling; and decriminalising abortion by taking it out of the law. Women's health groups and other advocates, parliamentarians and health professionals, can work together to support the right of women not to die from unsafe abortions and to ensure they receive treatment for complications. Committed doctors can make a difference by providing treatment for abortion complications, interpreting the law in a liberal way and providing safe services where these are legal as well as training providers in the safest techniques to reduce mortality and morbidity. Although law, policy and women's rights are central to this issue, making abortions safe is above all a public health responsibility of governments. Moreover, reducing maternal mortality by making abortions safe is also an important part of the international commitment made in Cairo in 1994 at the ICPD and reaffirmed at the Cairo meeting in 1999. PMID:14556348

  3. An ethical framework for pharmacy management: balancing autonomy and other principles.

    PubMed

    Glassman, Peter A; Schneider, Paul L; Good, Chester B

    2014-04-01

    Decisions to control pharmaceutical costs can cause conflicts as to what medications are covered. Such conflicts have ethical implications, however implicit, and given this fact, an ethical framework can help address them. In the following commentary, we discuss the more traditional, individual-level ethical considerations likely familiar to most clinicians. We, then, discuss population-level ethical constructs that clinicians may not as readily embrace. We also present a hypothetical cancer-care case to illustrate how imbalances in ethical foci between individual- and population-level constructs may lead to conflicts among health care actors and promote shifts in pharmaceutical decision making away from providers and toward payers, paradoxically reducing provider autonomy and hence patient autonomy. Finally, we propose a more comprehensive ethical framework to help converge individual, payer, and societal interests when making pharmaceutical use decisions. Pharmacists play a crucial role as pharmacy benefits managers and should be familiar with individual- and population-based ethical constructs. PMID:24684637

  4. Ethical, Scientific, and Educational Concerns With Unproven Medications

    PubMed Central

    Pray, W. Steven

    2006-01-01

    Quackery (promotion of products that do not work or have not been proven to work) was once a commonly used term within the pharmacy and medical communities. However, an increasingly anti-scientific national climate culminated in passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, which granted unprecedented legitimacy to “dietary supplements” that had not been scientifically proven to be effective and/or safe. In part, this was facilitated when professional pharmacy magazines and journals published advertisements and articles promoting these unproven medications. Gradually, pharmacy codes of ethics eliminated references to quackery, and some pharmacy organizations seemed to accept the unproven medications they once exhorted the pharmacist not to sell. The profession's shift in attitude toward unproven medications occurred as the medical community at large began to realize the value of evidence-based medicine. Academicians must resist pressure to present unproven therapies as realistic alternatives for medications with scientific proof of safety and efficacy. They must stress the value of evidence-based medicine and urge students and pharmacists to recommend only those medications with evidence-based proof of safety and efficacy. PMID:17332867

  5. Teaching Medical Ethics in its Contexts: Penn State College of Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David; Clouser, K. Danner

    1989-01-01

    The medical school's ethics program evolved through cooperation with the humanities department. Key aspects of the program include the teaching of medical ethics in the context of other issues of value and meaning in medicine, and involvement of humanities faculty in the medical center. (Author/MSE)

  6. Medical education must make room for student-specific ethical dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    St Onge, J

    1997-01-01

    Most contemporary undergraduate courses in medical ethics leave a critical gap unfilled because they fail to address student-specific issues, says third-year student Joye St. Onge. In this article, which won third prize in CMAJs 1996 Dr. William Logie Medical Ethics Essay Contest, St. Onge outlines the importance of discussing student-specific ethical dilemmas and suggests ways to introduce such teaching in medical schools. PMID:9141991

  7. Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.

    PubMed

    Millstone, Michael

    2014-06-01

    The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645

  8. [Terminal medical interventions: psychosocial, medical, ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Englert, M; Ronson, A; Lossignol, D; Body, J J

    2001-04-01

    We give an overview of the available medical solutions to help a patient with refractory symptoms at the end of his life. Patient "competence" must first be evaluated and, even if their diagnosis is difficult, organic mental disorders and depression must be diagnosed and adequately treated to allow a real, personal and honest dialog. Administration of high doses of morphine is frequently used at the end of life not only to fully relieve pain but also to accelerate death, even if this is not clearly stated. This technique is not devoid of hypocrisy and high doses of morphine can have quite unpleasant side effects. Treatment withdrawal or withholding is generally not sufficient to allow a correct end of life. The arrest of ventilation, dialysis, artificial nutrition and even more hydration must often be coupled with techniques inducing unconsciousness, which makes imprecise the limits between such a "passive" ending of life and "active" euthanasia. The technique of terminal sedation, frequently based on the use of midazolam, has been more recently introduced in some palliative care units. Such a "controlled sedation" is supposed to allow a "natural" death by inducing a profound sleep. In opposition with active euthanasia, which allows a quiet and rapid death at a moment chosen by the patient himself, this technique of "sedation" has an undetermined duration, has legal implications which could be viewed as quite similar as the ones of euthanasia, and, moreover, this prolonged agony can be extremely stressful and distressing for the family. Medical-assisted suicide is allowed in The Netherlands under the same conditions as euthanasia. Death is generally obtained after a few hours but the technique is not always successful and the process of death can sometimes be prolonged and uncomfortable. This technique can nevertheless be preferred by some physicians and patients. As compared to active euthanasia, the proportion of medically-assisted suicides (1/6) is low in The Netherlands. Euthanasia is the only technique able to induce a peaceful and rapid death. The proportion of various techniques to actively induce death is probably quite similar in our country than in The Netherlands but, most of the time, these interventions occur at the very end of life when the patient is no longer able to participate in the decision process and thus occur without his explicit request. We think that, as for all medical decisions, the use of one or the other of these various techniques should be selected after a quiet and free discussion between the patient and his physician, preferably in advance and not in a situation of emergency and panic. PMID:11388029

  9. A waste of time: the problem of common morality in Principles of Biomedical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Jan Reinert; Solbakk, Jan Helge

    2011-10-01

    From the 5th edition of Beauchamp and Childress' Principles of Biomedical Ethics, the problem of common morality has been given a more prominent role and emphasis. With the publication of the 6th and latest edition, the authors not only attempt to ground their theory in common morality, but there is also an increased tendency to identify the former with the latter. While this stratagem may give the impression of a more robust, and hence stable, foundation for their theoretical construct, we fear that it comes with a cost, namely the need to keep any theory in medical ethics open to, and thereby aware of, the challenges arising from biomedical research and clinical practice, as well as healthcare systems. By too readily identifying the moral life of common morality with rule-following behaviour, Beauchamp and Childress may even be wrong about the nature of common morality as such, thereby founding their, by now, classic theory on quicksand instead of solid rock. PMID:21937468

  10. Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Larriviere, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory. PMID:25299291

  11. The Hidden Curriculum, Ethics Teaching, and the Structure of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hafferty, Frederic W.; Franks, Ronald

    1994-01-01

    Issues concerning inclusion of ethics instruction in the medical school curriculum are discussed, including whether ethics should be presented as a body of knowledge or matter of professional identity and the "hidden curriculum" of medicine as a form of socialization. Recommendations for the structuring of an ethics curriculum are offered. (MSE)

  12. [Ethical principles of management and planning during influenza pandemic].

    PubMed

    Kubar', O I; Asatrian, A Zh

    2012-01-01

    The article is dedicated to an actual problem of ethical component inclusion into the system of management and planning of epidemic control measures during threat emergence and in the course of influenza pandemic (epidemic) progress. Data regarding development of international ethical guidelines during influenza including WHO recommendations are presented and analysis of normative documents in Russian Federation is given. A necessity of comprehension and accounting of ethical values in pandemic preparedness is shown, main directions of action and responsibility are revealed. Key ethical positions of planning and implementation of measures during influenza pandemic are outlined, compliance with those determines the level of public support and thus provides the effectiveness of the implemented measures. PMID:22442981

  13. Bariatric Endocrinology: Principles of Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Campoy, J. Michael; Richardson, Bruce; Gonzalez-Cameron, David; Ebrahim, Ayesha; Strobel, Pamela; Martinez, Tiphani; Blaha, Beth; Ransom, Maria; Quinonez-Weislow, Jessica; Pierson, Andrea; Gonzalez Ahumada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, is a chronic, biological, preventable, and treatable disease. The accumulation of fat mass causes physical changes (adiposity), metabolic and hormonal changes due to adipose tissue dysfunction (adiposopathy), and psychological changes. Bariatric endocrinology was conceived from the need to address the neuro-endocrinological derangements that are associated with adiposopathy, and from the need to broaden the scope of the management of its complications. In addition to the well-established metabolic complications of overweight and obesity, adiposopathy leads to hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, dysregulation of gut peptides including GLP-1 and ghrelin, the development of an inflammatory milieu, and the strong risk of vascular disease. Therapy for adiposopathy hinges on effectively lowering the ratio of orexigenic to anorexigenic signals reaching the the hypothalamus and other relevant brain regions, favoring a lower caloric intake. Adiposopathy, overweight and obesity should be treated indefinitely with the specific aims to reduce fat mass for the adiposity complications, and to normalize adipose tissue function for the adiposopathic complications. This paper defines the principles of medical practice in bariatric endocrinology—the treatment of overweight and obesity as means to treat adiposopathy and its accompanying metabolic and hormonal derangements. PMID:24899894

  14. Medical Ethics Teaching Programs at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsen, Albert R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of medical ethics education at the University of California, San Francisco, is chronicled and its contributions to bioethics literature are noted. Emphasis is placed on the importance of using medical cases in such instruction. The University of Washington's ethics program and its potential for innovation are then described.…

  15. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  16. Genetic screening; Medical promise amid legal and ethical questions

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, R.M. )

    1989-08-01

    As efforts gear up to map and sequence the human genome, increasing attention is being focused on the ethical, social and legal issues raised by the acquisition and use of genetic information. Several types of genetic screening carried out in a variety of settings hold enormous potential for improving health care. But such screening also poses an array of questions that are only now being addressed. Other applications of humanity's newfound and rapidly growing ability to peer into the genetic makeup of an individual also have serious implications. Use of so-called DNA fingerprinting, for instance, troubles some observers who question the reliability of such analyses carried out on a large scale and who worry about the effects on civil liberties of widespread genetic testing for identification purposes. The author discusses how genetic screening for medical purposes, though, seems to raise a broader array of difficult questions than do other uses of genetic information.

  17. Journalism Ethics in Secondary Education: Principles and Guidelines for Decision Making within a Systematic Framework of Moral Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlong, Ann

    In response to rising public criticism of the media and demand for accountability, leaders among professional journalists are calling for a renewed emphasis on codes of ethics and deliberate attention to moral action. In examining the importance and relevance of ethics to high school journalism, three principles for the teaching of ethics emerge:…

  18. Transforming educational accountability in medical ethics and humanities education toward professionalism.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; Kirch, Darrell G; Brigham, Timothy P; Barzansky, Barbara M; Wear, Stephen; Carrese, Joseph A; Fins, Joseph J; Lederer, Susan E

    2015-06-01

    Effectively developing professionalism requires a programmatic view on how medical ethics and humanities should be incorporated into an educational continuum that begins in premedical studies, stretches across medical school and residency, and is sustained throughout one's practice. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education National Conference on Medical Ethics and Humanities in Medical Education (May 2012) invited representatives from the three major medical education and accreditation organizations to engage with an expert panel of nationally known medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This article, based on the views of these representatives and their respondents, offers a future-tense account of how professionalism can be incorporated into medical education.The themes that are emphasized herein include the need to respond to four issues. The first theme highlights how ethics and humanities can provide a response to the dissonance that occurs in current health care delivery. The second theme focuses on how to facilitate preprofessional readiness for applicants through reform of the medical school admission process. The third theme emphasizes the importance of integrating ethics and humanities into the medical school administrative structure. The fourth theme underscores how outcomes-based assessment should reflect developmental milestones for professional attributes and conduct. The participants emphasized that ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that promote professionalism should be taught with accountability, flexibility, and the premise that all these traits are essential to the formation of a modern professional physician. PMID:25539516

  19. Ethical and professional conduct of medical students: review of current assessment measures and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Boon, K; Turner, J

    2004-01-01

    As medical education increasingly acknowledges the importance of the ethical and professional conduct of practitioners, and moves towards more formal assessment of these issues, it is important to consider the evidence base which exists in this area. This article discusses literature about the health needs and problems experienced by medical practitioners as a background to a review of the current efforts in medical education to promote ethical conduct and develop mechanisms for the detection and remediation of problems. PMID:15082823

  20. Confronting ethical permissibility in animal research: rejecting a common assumption and extending a principle of justice.

    PubMed

    Choe Smith, Chong Un

    2014-04-01

    A common assumption in the selection of nonhuman animal subjects for research and the approval of research is that, if the risks of a procedure are too great for humans, and if there is a so-called scientific necessity, then it is permissible to use nonhuman animal subjects. I reject the common assumption as neglecting the central ethical issue of the permissibility of using nonhuman animal subjects and as being inconsistent with the principle of justice used in human subjects research ethics. This principle requires that certain classes of individuals not be subjected to a disproportionate share of the burdens or risks of research. I argue for an extension of this principle to nonhuman animal research and show that a prima facie violation of the principle occurs because nonhuman animals bear an overwhelmingly disproportionate share of the risks of research without sufficient justification or reciprocal benefit. PMID:24658892

  1. An obstructed death and medical ethics -- a case conference revisited: commentary 2.

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Roger

    1990-01-01

    The dilemma of whether or not a doctor should tell a patient dying of cancer the truth remains a difficult one, as the disagreement between the two previous writers shows. One favours giving priority to patient autonomy, the other feels the doctor's duty of beneficence should be the overriding principle governing such decisions. To this contributor it seems both approaches have something to offer. By being sensitive to what and how much the patient wishes to know and by learning from the insights provided by the study of medical ethics, doctors can learn how to make better moral decisions in this and in other areas. Both lying and truth-telling carry risks of harm to the patient. Learning to work with and balance these risks is part of clinical practice. So is minimising risks by clear thinking. PMID:11642781

  2. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome. PMID:24072126

  3. [Nursing care as an ethical problem: concepts and principles applied to the act of caring].

    PubMed

    Miranda, Alejandro; Contreras, Sebastián

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the authors study the nature of the act of care, emphasize the importance of ethics in the professions related to the health of people and develop, in the light of the central tradition of Western moral philosophy, a set of principles that should guide nursing activity. PMID:25590875

  4. A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Mark Mason, in his "A Justification, After the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals" Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37 (2005), attempts to justify transcultural multiculturalism. In this paper I argue that he fails to refute moral relativism, and that multiculturalism as he interprets it is not morally…

  5. The Ethical Principle of Regard for People: Using Dewey's Ideas in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Douglas J.; Sacken, D. Mike

    2015-01-01

    In this study we analyze Dewey's writings and related literature in order to explain and utilize his ethical principle of regard for one's self, others and social groups. His reflections about consequences, the common good, accountability and responsibility undergo scrutiny too. Moreover, we probe his understanding of affections, interest and…

  6. The Development of a Medical Ethics Curriculum in a General Internal Medicine Residency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartman, Steven A.; Brock, Dan W.

    1989-01-01

    A three-year curriculum in medical ethics operates at Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University as part of the general internal medicine residency program. The six major topics covered are co-taught as seminars by one or more members of the multidisciplinary ethics faculty (philosopher, internist, and communications specialist) and experienced…

  7. Narrowing the Gap Between the Rhetoric and the Reality of Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, David R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper argues that in the debate over medical ethics and its role in medical education, the divergence of law and reality reflects the law's flawed medical model, which poorly matches the dynamic of the physician-patient relationship and attempts ineffectually to reshape it, and also medicine's autonomous professional culture, which…

  8. Summer Ethics Fellowship for Medical Students I was truly blown away by this experience with its combination of

    E-print Network

    Emmons, Scott

    Summer Ethics Fellowship for Medical Students I was truly blown away by this experience with its of Medicine at Mt. Sinai, 2014 FASPE Fellow Fellowships at Auschwitz for the Study of Professional Ethics for an intensive course of study on contemporary medical ethics. FASPE is predicated upon the power of place

  9. The contribution of Kantian moral theory to contemporary medical ethics: a critical analysis.

    PubMed

    Heubel, Friedrich; Biller-Andorno, Nikola

    2005-01-01

    Kantian deontology is one of three classic moral theories, among virtue ethics and consequentialism. Issues in medical ethics are frequently addressed within a Kantian paradigm, at least --although not exclusively--in European medical ethics. At the same time, critical voices have pointed to deficits of Kantian moral philosophy which must be examined and discussed. It is argued that taking concrete situations and complex relationships into account is of paramount importance in medical ethics. Encounters between medical or nursing staff and patients are rarely symmetrical relationships between autonomous and rational agents. Kantian ethics, the criticism reads, builds on the lofty ideal of such a relationship. In addition to the charge of an individualist and rationalist focus on autonomy, Kantian ethics has been accused of excluding those not actually in possession of these properties or of its rigorism. It is said to be focussed on laws and imperatives to an extent that it cannot appreciate the complex nuances of real conflicts. As a more detailed analysis will show, these charges are inadequate in at least some regards. This will be demonstrated by drawing on the Kantian notion of autonomy, the role of maxims and judgment and the conception of duties, as well as the role of emotions. Nevertheless the objections brought forward against Kantian moral theory can help determine, with greater precision, its strengths and shortcomings as an approach to current problems in medical ethics. PMID:15906935

  10. Initiatives by the government and physician groups to improve awareness of medical ethics: Challenges in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MORIOKA, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Physicians have been required to possess high ethical standards, as medical practice is directly involved with patients' lives. Although ethics arise out of an individual's consciousness, ethical regulations imposed by the nation/government together with self-regulation by physician groups are important in the practice of ethics, for which reason countries around the world undertake various initiatives. This paper investigates physician licensure, organizations governing physician status, the role of physician groups, and the actual conditions of lifelong learning and ethics education in developed countries worldwide, in contrast with which it throws problems in the situation in Japan into relief. Organizations governing physician status, the form of medical associations, and the improvement of lifelong learning are pointed out as critical issues especially in Japan. PMID:22498978

  11. Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet, future research implications should include the development of a website for ongoing discussion that could contribute to a raised awareness of these concerns and potentially increase social responsibility in the medical tourism industry. PMID:24314027

  12. Towards a community effort to identify ethical principles for research in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    The hydrological community in Europe is growing rapidly in both size and, more importantly, scientific relevance and integrity. The Hydrological Sciences (HS) Division of EGU actively is promoting the above development by identifying research targets, stimulating the involvement of young scientists and managing a scientific open access journal based on a public peer review process. The management of the Division itself and the organisation of the General Assembly are carried out transparently, with the aim to seek an improved involvement of top and young scientists, with a bottom up approach. I believe the HS community is animated by a strong enthusiasm which, however, is not adequately supported by economical funding. In my opinion this is a major problem which HS should consider and discuss. The relevance of the societal and environmental problems dealt with by hydrologists, in a professional way and with exceptional scientific skills, is without doubt and therefore the limited amount of funding is not justified in practice. In my opinion, in order to refine the structure of the HS community, and promote its visibility, we should formally identify HS ethical principles for research in environmental science. The principles should highlight the role of hydrology as well as the ethical and scientific solidity of the HS community. Establishing ethical principles is even more important in view of the transparent approach HS is adopting for reviewing and publishing contributions and in view of the increasing need to transparently prove how public funding for research is administered. Establishing ethical principles for hydrology is not a trivial task. Hydrology is characterised by a relevant uncertainty in data, models and parameters. Hydrology is also relying on a large variety of approaches, ranging from statistical to physically based. The purpose of this poster is to present a collection of ethical principles for scientific research presented by the literature and/or adopted by institutions. The aim is to stimulate a discussion within the HS community in order to finally propose a collection of principles and rules of conduct that can apply to hydrology. I believe that the visibility and the solidity of the HS community will benefit by placing emphasis on the role of ethics.

  13. Comparing Healthcare Systems: Outcomes, Ethical Principles, and Social Values

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how healthcare should be structured has been at the forefront of public debate for quite some time. In particular, debate has raged over the acceptability of socialized and rights-oriented approaches to healthcare as opposed to privatized and commodity-oriented approaches. The present discussion looks at the underlying logic of the debate and at the use of outcome measures as a primary determinant. It suggests that outcome measures are of limited use in deciding the issue because they ignore important variables and further suggests that outcome measures are inappropriate tools when comparing distinct healthcare systems because they ignore valuational components that are integral to deciding whether a healthcare system is consistent with a society's principles and values. PMID:18311379

  14. [Universal ethical principles and their application in clinical drug trials].

    PubMed

    Gonorazky, Sergio Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Since 1931, and especially since the Nuremberg Code of 1947, an increasing number of declarations, regulations, norms, guidelines, laws, resolutions, and rules intended to create conditions for better protection of subjects participating in research studies have been published, although some have meant setbacks in the human rights of vulnerable populations. As such, violations of the dignity of experimental subjects in clinical trials continue. What researchers investigate and how the research is done, the quality and transparency of the data, and the analysis and the publication of results (of both raw and processed data) respond to the financial interests of the pharmaceutical companies, coming into permanent tension with bioethical principles and the needs of society. The active participation of civil society is necessary to make it so that pharmaceutical research, results and applications subordinate economic benefits to the protection of human rights. PMID:25853830

  15. Addiction Research Ethics and the Belmont Principles: Do Drug Users Have a Different Moral Voice?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.

    2013-01-01

    This study used semi-structured interviews and content analysis to examine moral principles that street drug users apply to three hypothetical addiction research ethical dilemmas. Participants (n = 90) were ethnically diverse, economically disadvantaged drug users recruited in New York City in 2009. Participants applied a wide range of contextually sensitive moral precepts, including respect, beneficence, justice, relationality, professional obligations, rules, and pragmatic self-interest. Limitations and implications for future research and the responsible conduct of addiction research are discussed. PMID:21073412

  16. Anticholinesterases: Medical applications of neurochemical principles

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, C.B.; Broomfield, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cholinesterases form a family of serine esterases that arise in animals from at least two distinct genes. Multiple forms of these enzymes can be precisely localized and regulated by alternative mRNA splicing and by co- or posttranslational modifications. The high catalytic efficiency of the cholinesterases is quelled by certain very selective reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Owing largely to the important role of acetylcholine hydrolysis in neurotransmission, cholinesterase and its inhibitors have been studied extensively in vivo. In parallel, there has emerged an equally impressive enzyme chemistry literature. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used widely as pesticides; in this regard the compounds are beneficial with concomitant health risks. Poisoning by such compounds can result in an acute but usually manageable medical crisis and may damage the ONS and the PNS, as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. Some inhibitors have been useful for the treatment of glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, and others are in clinical trials as therapy for Alzheimer`s dementia. Concurrently, the most potent inhibitors have been developed as highly toxic chemical warfare agents. We review treatments and sequelae of exposure to selected anticholinesterases, especially organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, as they relate to recent progress in enzyme chemistry.

  17. Biopiracy and the ethics of medical heritage: the case of India's traditional knowledge digital library'.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Ian James

    2012-09-01

    Medical humanities have a central role to play in combating biopiracy. Medical humanities scholars can articulate and communicate the complex structures of meaning and significance which human beings have invested in their ways of conceiving health and sickness. Such awareness of the moral significance of medical heritage is necessary to ongoing legal, political, and ethical debates regarding the status and protection of medical heritage. I use the Indian Traditional Knowledge Digital Library as a case study of the role of medical humanities in challenging biopiracy by deepening our sense of the moral value of medical heritage. PMID:22610726

  18. Psychoanalysis and analytic psychotherapy in the NHS--a problem for medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, G

    1986-01-01

    I question the place of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy in the National Health Service (NHS), with reference to published material; and, particularly, in relation to primary care, health economics and medical ethics. I argue that there are pressing clinical, research, economic, and ethical reasons in support of the contention that an urgent review of the extent and impact of psychoanalytic practices in the health service is called for. PMID:3735363

  19. The debate about physician assistance in dying: 40?years of unrivalled progress in medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Holm, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Some issues in medical ethics have been present throughout the history of medicine, and thus provide us with an opportunity to ascertain: (1) whether there is progress in medical ethics; and (2) what it means to do good medical ethics. One such perennial issue is physician assistance in dying (PAD). This paper provides an account of the PAD debate in this journal over the last 40?years. It concludes that there is some (but limited) progress in the debate. The distinctions, analogies and hypothetical examples have proliferated, as have empirical studies, but very little has changed in terms of the basic arguments. The paper further argues that many of the contributions to the debate fail to engage fully with the concerns people have about the legal introduction of PAD in the healthcare system, perhaps because many of the contributions sit on the borderline between academic analysis and social activism. PMID:25516932

  20. Ethics of care in medical tourism: Informal caregivers' narratives of responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Rebecca; Crooks, Valorie A; Snyder, Jeremy

    2015-09-01

    This study examines the experiences of informal caregivers in medical tourism through an ethics of care lens. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 Canadians who had accompanied their friends or family members abroad for surgery, asking questions that dealt with their experiences prior to, during and after travel. Thematic analysis revealed three themes central to an ethics of care: responsibility, vulnerability and mutuality. Ethics of care theorists have highlighted how care has been historically devalued. We posit that medical tourism reproduces dominant narratives about care in a novel care landscape. Informal care goes unaccounted for by the industry, as it occurs in largely private spaces at a geographic distance from the home countries of medical tourists. PMID:26313855

  1. THE WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, INC. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    1 THE WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, INC. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including research on identifiable human material

  2. Helping doctors become better doctors: Mary Lobjoit—an unsung heroine of medical ethics in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, Margaret R; Gillon, Raanan

    2012-01-01

    Medical Ethics has many unsung heros and heroines. Here we celebrate one of these and on telling part of her story hope to place modern medical ethics and bioethics in the UK more centrally within its historical and human contex. PMID:22518049

  3. Reuse Of Pacemakers In Ghana And Nigeria: Medical, Legal, Cultural And Ethical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ochasi, Aloysius; Clark, Peter

    2015-12-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is estimated that 1 million to 2 million people worldwide die each year due to lack of access to an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) or a pacemaker. Despite the medical, legal, cultural and ethical controversies surrounding the pacemaker reutilization, studies done so far on the reuse of postmortem pacemakers show it to be safe and effective with an infection rate of 1.97% and device malfunction rate of 0.68%. Pacemaker reutilization can be effectively and safely done and does not pose significant additional risk to the recipient. Heart patients with reused pacemakers have an improved quality of life compared to those without pacemakers. The thesis of this paper is that pacemaker reutilization is a life-saving initiative in LMICs of Nigeria and Ghana. It is cost effective; consistent with the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice with a commitment to stewardship of resources and the Common Good. Used pacemakers with adequate battery life can be properly sterilized for use by patients in LMICs who cannot afford the cost of a new pacemaker. PMID:24720369

  4. Teaching corner: "first do no harm": teaching global health ethics to medical trainees through experiential learning.

    PubMed

    Logar, Tea; Le, Phuoc; Harrison, James D; Glass, Marcia

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies show that returning global health trainees often report having felt inadequately prepared to deal with ethical dilemmas they encountered during outreach clinical work. While global health training guidelines emphasize the importance of developing ethical and cultural competencies before embarking on fieldwork, their practical implementation is often lacking and consists mainly of recommendations regarding professional behavior and discussions of case studies. Evidence suggests that one of the most effective ways to teach certain skills in global health, including ethical and cultural competencies, is through service learning. This approach combines community service with experiential learning. Unfortunately, this approach to global health ethics training is often unattainable due to a lack of supervision and resources available at host locations. This often means that trainees enter global health initiatives unprepared to deal with ethical dilemmas, which has the potential for adverse consequences for patients and host institutions, thus contributing to growing concerns about exploitation and "medical tourism." From an educational perspective, exposure alone to such ethical dilemmas does not contribute to learning, due to lack of proper guidance. We propose that the tension between the benefits of service learning on the one hand and the respect for patients' rights and well-being on the other could be resolved by the application of a simulation-based approach to global health ethics education. PMID:25648122

  5. Family medicine and medical ethics--a natural and necessary union.

    PubMed

    Dickman, R L

    1980-04-01

    Since many ethical dilemmas in the practice of medicine involve cases associated with tertiary care, primary care providers may feel removed from these kinds of problems. Family medicine, committed to an intellectual synergism with a variety of non-biomedical disciplines as well as being a "specialty in breadth" should develop a strong bond with medical ethics. Because of their ongoing relationships with patients and subsequent knowledge of their value systems, family physicians can provide leadership in guiding ethical decision making in intensive care settings. In addition, since a significant number of ethical dilemmas in medicine involve common problems, family physicians may be more sensitive to and feel more comfortable with this aspect of medical practice. Some family practice residency programs have begun to provide educational experiences in medical ethics for their trainees. Although the evaluation methodology for this aspect of training is not fully developed, it seems clear that residency programs should give additional attention to these areas in planning their curricula. PMID:7365436

  6. Religious morality (and secular humanism) in Western civilization as precursors to medical ethics: A historic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    In discussing bioethics and the formulation of neuroethics, the question has arisen as to whether secular humanism should be the sole philosophical guiding light, to the exclusion of any discussion (or even mention) of religious morality, in professional medical ethics. In addition, the question has arisen as to whether freedom or censorship should be part of medical (and neuroscience) journalism. Should independent medical journals abstain from discussing certain issues, or should only the major medical journals — i.e., the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) or Lancet — be heard, speaking with one “consensual,” authoritative voice? This issue is particularly important in controversial topics impacting medical politics — e.g., public health policy, socio-economics, bioethics, and the so-called redistributive justice in health care. Should all sides be heard when those controversial topics are discussed or only a consensual (monolithic) side? This historical review article discusses those issues and opts for freedom in medical and surgical practice as well as freedom in medical journalism, particularly in opinion pieces such as editorials, commentaries, or letters to the editor, as long as they relate to medicine and, in our special case, to neuroscience and neurosurgery. After answering those questions, and in response to a critical letter to the editor, this review article then expounds comprehensively on the historical and philosophical origins of ethics and religious morality. Necessarily, we discuss the Graeco-Roman legacy and the Judeo-Christian inheritance in the development of ethics and religious morality in Western civilization and their impact on moral conduct in general and on medical and neuroscience ethics in particular. PMID:26110085

  7. The Belmont Report. Ethical principles and guidelines for the protection of human subjects of research.

    PubMed

    2014-01-01

    On July 12, 1974, the National Research Act (Pub. L. 93-348) was signed into law, thereby creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research. One of the charges to the Commission was to identify the basic ethical principles that should underlie the conduct of biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects and to develop guidelines which should be followed to assure that such research is conducted in accordance with those principles. In carrying out the above, the Commission was directed to consider: (a) the boundaries between biomedical and behavioral research and the accepted and routine practice of medicine, (b) the role of assessment of risk-benefit criteria in the determination of the appropriateness of research involving human subjects, (c) appropriate guidelines for the selection of human subjects for participation in such research and (d) the nature and definition of informed consent in various research settings. The Belmont Report attempts to summarize the basic ethical principles identified by the Commission in the course of its deliberations. It is the outgrowth of an intensive four-day period of discussions that were held in February 1976 at the Smithsonian Institution's Belmont Conference Center supplemented by the monthly deliberations of the Commission that were held over a period of nearly four years. It is a statement of basic ethical principles and guidelines that should assist in resolving the ethical problems that surround the conduct of research with human subjects. By publishing the Report in the Federal Register, and providing reprints upon request, the Secretary intends that it may be made readily available to scientists, members of Institutional Review Boards, and Federal employees. The two-volume Appendix, containing the lengthy reports of experts and specialists who assisted the Commission in fulfilling this part of its charge, is available as DHEW Publication No. (OS) 78-0013 and No. (OS) 78-0014, for sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Unlike most other reports of the Commission, the Belmont Report does not make specific recommendations for administrative action by the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare. Rather, the Commission recommended that the Belmont Report be adopted in its entirety, as a statement of the Department's policy. The Department requests public comment on this recommendation. PMID:25951677

  8. Impact of managed care on the development of new medical technology: ethical concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Pamela; Saha, Subrata

    1995-10-01

    During the last three decades, development of new medical technology has been largely responsible for the spectacular advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many human diseases. This has contributed to improved medical care of our population. However, concerns have been raised that in today's managed care environment of health care, introduction of new medical technology will be difficult. Cost-sensitive health care providers should consider various ethical issues involved before demanding that only those technologies that save money and show highly positive cost benefit ratio will be reimbursed. The impact of such considerations on the innovations of new medical devices and their developments is discussed.

  9. NAPPH (National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals) statement of principles of psychiatric hospital practice ethics.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    A competitive and dynamic healthcare environment requires that psychiatric hospital administrators and physicians continually monitor their hospital's ability to deliver quality services to their patients. To ensure that hospitals stand for and abide by psychiatric hospital practice ethics, the National Association of Private Psychiatric Hospitals (NAPPH) Board of Trustees has formally approved and distributed to the industry a "Statement of Principles of Psychiatric Hospital Practice Ethics." Adopted at the June 22, 1989, Board meeting, the guidelines not only summarize views long held in the industry, but are a condition of NAPPH membership. Nine critical areas are identified in the NAPPH statement: admissions, advertising, marketing and referral development, resource allocation and appropriateness of care, treatment rendered, patients' rights, family rights and involvement, competition, and financial resources. Central to ethical hospital practice is a moral responsibility--shared among administrators, trustees, physicians and staff--to ensure access to care, quality of care, and fair treatment of patients. NAPPH represents more than 300 private psychiatric hospitals throughout the United States, and the NAPPH mission includes the promotion of high-quality care and treatment, efficient hospital operation, and advocacy for the patients served by its member hospitals. Each NAPPH hospital actively supports the appropriate, safe, and compassionate treatment of the mentally ill. PMID:10296960

  10. Knowledge, Confidence, and Attitudes Regarding Medical Ethics: How Do Faculty and Housestaff Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…

  11. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  12. Relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist Debate for Ethics and Professionalism in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffel, G. Michael; Mueller, Ross A. Oakes; Curlin, Farr A.; Yoon, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no…

  13. What makes the best medical ethics journal? A North American perspective

    PubMed Central

    Savulescu, J; Viens, A

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To establish which factors contribute to medical ethicists reviewing articles for or submitting them to medical ethics journals by consulting those who are active in this capacity. Methods: Medical ethicists were surveyed to determine their incentives and disincentives for reviewing articles for or submitting them to medical ethics journals. Survey participants were chosen based on a review of the academic and research record of medical ethicists working in North America in higher education institutions. Results: The most frequent incentives to reviewing journal articles were: an opportunity to contribute to the field/profession, the good reputation of the journal, the high impact factor of the journal, and to keep up to date on current research. The most frequent disincentives to reviewing journal articles were: time constraints due to academic commitments, the poor reputation of the journal, and time constraints caused by other editorial commitments (for example, reviewing for other journals/publishers). The most important incentives to submitting journal articles were: the good reputation of the journal, the quality of scholarship previously published in the journal, the impact factor of the journal, and a fast turn-around from acceptance to publication. The most important disincentives to submitting journal articles were: the poor reputation of the journal, the poor quality of work previously published in the journal, and a slow turn-around from acceptance to publication. Conclusion: A series of factors that medical ethics journals should strive to employ to encourage reviewing and submission of articles are recommended. PMID:16199602

  14. NIEE Statement of Ethics Principles The privilege of practicing engineering is entrusted to those qualified and who have the responsibility for

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinzhong

    NIEE Statement of Ethics Principles The privilege of practicing engineering is entrusted to those of engineers include truth, honesty and trustworthiness in their service to society, and honorable and ethical, that engineer may ethically make the concerns known publicly. 9. Engineers shall commit to life-long learning

  15. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Faria, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  16. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists’ and the Nazi doctors’ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ‘collective’ or ‘greater good.’ Thus in the 20th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  17. Perceiving Sympathetically: Moral Perception, Embodiment, and Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Wisnewski, J Jeremy

    2015-12-01

    In recent literature on moral perception, much attention has been paid to questions about the relationship between metaethical commitments and moral experience. Far less attention has been paid to the nature of moral perception, its context-sensitivity, and the role it might play in carrying out everyday tasks with decency and care. I would like to reflect on just these features of moral perception in the context of healthcare. I will argue that healthcare providers do in fact have at least an imperfect duty (in Kant's sense) to develop their capacities to perceive with sympathy. I will further suggest, for some familiar reasons, that this development is not best accomplished through the model of adherence to 'ethics codes.' PMID:26164290

  18. Seeing is believing: good graphic design principles for medical research.

    PubMed

    Duke, Susan P; Bancken, Fabrice; Crowe, Brenda; Soukup, Mat; Botsis, Taxiarchis; Forshee, Richard

    2015-09-30

    Have you noticed when you browse a book, journal, study report, or product label how your eye is drawn to figures more than to words and tables? Statistical graphs are powerful ways to transparently and succinctly communicate the key points of medical research. Furthermore, the graphic design itself adds to the clarity of the messages in the data. The goal of this paper is to provide a mechanism for selecting the appropriate graph to thoughtfully construct quality deliverables using good graphic design principles. Examples are motivated by the efforts of a Safety Graphics Working Group that consisted of scientists from the pharmaceutical industry, Food and Drug Administration, and academic institutions. PMID:26112209

  19. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shih?b al-D?n al-Qar?f? (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures. PMID:23844565

  20. Setting up an ethics of ecosystem research structure based on the precautionary principle.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Michael C

    2013-01-01

    Ethical practices in ecological field research differ from those in laboratory research in more than the technical setting and the important distinction between population-level and individual-based concerns. The number of stakeholders affected by the conduct of field research is far larger; private landholders, public water utilities, public land managers, local industries, and communities large and small are only some of those who may be impacted. As research review boards move to establish specific ethical practices for field biologists, the process of identifying appropriate standards will affect the degree to which research will ultimately be disrupted. Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key interests are not likely to be sustainable. Already, standards that have conflicted with the primary values of a key interest have resulted in disruptions to research and scientific progress. One way to manage this problem of deeply competing interests is to avoid the deepest offenses to any relevant interest group in the design of a proposed study. This is an application of the precautionary principle and is likely to generate a more sustainable balance among competing interests. Unfortunately, this process is also likely to be a never-ending, consensus-seeking process. Fortunately, scientists can have enormous influence on the process if they choose to engage in it early. If scientists use their expertise to function as honest brokers among affected interests, their own interest in scientific research progress is likely to be better met. PMID:23904533

  1. Attitudes towards terminal sedation: an empirical survey among experts in the field of medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Alfred; Kar, Magdalene; Hinz, José; Beck, Dietmar

    2007-01-01

    Background "Terminal sedation" regarded as the use of sedation in (pre-)terminal patients with treatment-refractory symptoms is controversially discussed not only within palliative medicine. While supporters consider terminal sedation as an indispensable palliative medical treatment option, opponents disapprove of it as "slow euthanasia". Against this background, we interviewed medical ethics experts by questionnaire on the term and the moral acceptance of terminal sedation in order to find out how they think about this topic. We were especially interested in whether experts with a professional medical and nursing background think differently about the topic than experts without this background. Methods The survey was carried out by questionnaire; beside the provided answering options free text comments were possible. As test persons we chose the 477 members of the German Academy for Ethics in Medicine, an interdisciplinary society for medical ethics. Results 281 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate = 59%). The majority of persons without medical background regarded "terminal sedation" as an intentional elimination of consciousness until the patient's death occurs; persons with a medical background generally had a broader understanding of the term, including light or intermittent forms of sedation. 98% of the respondents regarded terminal sedation in dying patients with treatment-refractory physical symptoms as acceptable. Situations in which the dying process has not yet started, in which untreatable mental symptoms are the indication for terminal sedation or in which life-sustaining measures are withdrawn during sedation were evaluated as morally difficult. Conclusion The survey reveals a great need for research and discussion on the medical indication as well as on the moral evaluation of terminal sedation. Prerequisite for this is a more precise terminology which describes the circumstances of the sedation. PMID:17437628

  2. In search of the soul in science: medical ethics' appropriation of philosophy of science in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Aronova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the deployment of science studies within the field of medical ethics. For a short time, the discourse of medical ethics became a fertile ground for a dialogue between philosophically minded bioethicists and the philosophers of science who responded to Thomas Kuhn's challenge. In their discussion of the validity of Kuhn's work, these bioethicists suggested a distinct interpretation of Kuhn, emphasizing the elements in his account that had been independently developed by Michael Polanyi, and propelling a view of science that retreated from idealizations of scientific method without sacrificing philosophical realism. Appropriating Polanyi, they extended his account of science to biology and medicine. The contribution of Karl Popper to the debate on the applicability of philosophy of science to the issues of medical ethics provides the opportunity to discuss the ways in which political agendas of different epistemologies of science intertwined with questions of concern to medical ethics. PMID:19835265

  3. On the ethics of withholding and withdrawing medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Reichlin, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    A general rationale is presented for withholding and withdrawing medical treatment in end-of-life situations, and an argument is offered for the moral irrelevance of the distinction, both in the context of pharmaceutical treatments, such as chemotherapy in cancer, and in the context of life-sustaining treatments, such as the artificial ventilator in lateral amyotrophic sclerosis. It is argued that this practice is not equivalent to sanctioning voluntary active euthanasia and that it is not likely to favour it. PMID:25057360

  4. On the ethics of withholding and withdrawing medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A general rationale is presented for withholding and withdrawing medical treatment in end-of-life situations, and an argument is offered for the moral irrelevance of the distinction, both in the context of pharmaceutical treatments, such as chemotherapy in cancer, and in the context of life-sustaining treatments, such as the artificial ventilator in lateral amyotrophic sclerosis. It is argued that this practice is not equivalent to sanctioning voluntary active euthanasia and that it is not likely to favour it. PMID:25057360

  5. Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

  6. Destigmatizing Alcohol Dependence: The Requirement for an Ethical (Not Only Medical) Remedy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The disease model of alcohol dependence or “alcoholism” is often presented as the linchpin in addressing the condition successfully. It has been argued, for example, that adopting a medical approach will reduce the stigma that impedes the provision and acceptance of treatment. However, the medical paradigm has existed for many years without significantly affecting the negative social attitudes that surround dependence. I argue that a reductive scientific approach is not equipped to address the socioethical tensions that dependence creates. To lessen the stigmatization of dependence, it is important to integrate ethical analysis into policy debates on the condition. PMID:22494005

  7. Ethics and the role of the medical librarian: health care information and the new consumer.

    PubMed Central

    Rothstein, J A

    1993-01-01

    Because medical libraries increasingly serve nonprofessionals, medical librarians may need to reconsider their role. In addition, as clients alter their expectations about librarians and begin to think of them as participants in health care delivery, librarians face new ethical challenges. This paper compares the values and goals of the library and medical professions in the provision of health care information. In examining the factors that health care professionals consider when deciding what information to share with patients, the author challenges medical librarians to reconsider their duties toward their nonprofessional clients, whether patients, patients' families, or other laypersons, and to clarify the goals of the health science library profession regarding the provision of information. PMID:8374578

  8. Practical Divinity and Medical Ethics: Lawful versus Unlawful Medicine in the Writings of William Perkins (1558–1602)

    PubMed Central

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between “lawful” and “unlawful” medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  9. Practical divinity and medical ethics: lawful versus unlawful medicine in the writings of William Perkins (1558-1602).

    PubMed

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-04-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between "lawful" and "unlawful" medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  10. Medical management of patients after bariatric surgery: Principles and guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ? 40 kg/m2 and those with BMI > 35 kg/m2 with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review. PMID:25429323

  11. One Chairperson's Experience of Ethical Review: Balancing Principle, Convention, Relationship and Risk in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John

    2010-01-01

    The author's experience of ethical review over six years as an academic member and chairperson of a university human ethics committee has been largely positive and educative. The account brings together archival records and personal experience to create a "transactive" account of the practical experience of doing ethical review in one university…

  12. From Cure to Care: Assessing the Ethical and Professional Learning Needs of Medical Learners in a Care-Based Facility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Pippa; O'Reilly, Jane; Dojeiji, Sue; Blair, Richard; Harley, Anne

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the ethical and professional learning needs of medical trainees on clinical placements at a care-based facility, as they shifted from acute care to care-based philosophy. Using qualitative data analysis and grounded theory techniques, 12 medical learners and five clinical supervisors were interviewed. Five…

  13. ‘God’s Ethicist’: Albert Moll and His Medical Ethics in Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2012-01-01

    In 1902, Albert Moll, who at that time ran a private practice for nervous diseases in Berlin, published his comprehensive book on medical ethics, Ärztliche Ethik. Based on the concept of a contractual relationship between doctor and client, it gave more room to the self-determination of patients than the contemporary, usually rather paternalistic, works of this genre. In the first part of the present paper this is illustrated by examining Moll’s views and advice on matters such as truthfulness towards patients, euthanasia, and abortion. The second part of this article discusses how Moll engaged with the then publicly debated issues of experimentation on hospital patients and the ‘trade’ of foreign private patients between agents and medical consultants. In both matters Moll collected evidence of unethical practices and tried to use it to bring about change without damaging his or the profession’s reputation. However, with his tactical manoeuvres, Moll made no friends for himself among his colleagues or the authorities; his book on ethics also met with a generally cool response from the medical profession and seems to have been more appreciated by lawyers than by other doctors. PMID:23002294

  14. [The bought patient : The ethical value of per capita flat rates from a medical viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Hakenberg, O W

    2009-08-01

    Payments received by private physicians per patient sent for hospital treatment are a relatively new phenomenon in the German medical system. This practice has been made possible by the currently aggressive competition between hospitals. The practice of such regular payments has several legal as well as ethical aspects. It needs to be clarified whether and in which cases such payments constitute a justified fee for a valuable and necessary service or whether they simply represent an element of corruption which is used to generate case numbers in a competitive market situation. PMID:19585098

  15. Ethics and Professionalism Clinical Medicine II

    E-print Network

    Finley Jr., Russell L.

    Ethics and Professionalism Years I-IV 2014-2015 Year II Clinical Medicine II · Advance Care Planning; End-of-Life Issues; Ethics- Small Group Session · Ethical Principles- Lecture · HIV/ Ethics- Panel · HIV/ Ethics- Small groups · HIV/ Ethics- Lecture · Ethical Principles- Lecture · Clinical Ethics

  16. Principles for Ethical & Effective Service Adapted from the Haas Center for Public Service FOR ETHICAL & EFFECTIVE SERVICE

    E-print Network

    Jurafsky, Daniel

    , and staff. We have adopted these principles for Beyond the Farm and consider them to be an important tool for project leaders as they establish a partnership with a community organization. Consideration of these principles will ensure that alumni create mutually beneficial relationships with partner organizations

  17. Luxury Primary Care, Academic Medical Centers, and the Erosion of Science and Professional Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Medical schools and teaching hospitals have been hit particularly hard by the financial crisis affecting health care in the United States. To compete financially, many academic medical centers have recruited wealthy foreign patients and established luxury primary care clinics. At these clinics, patients are offered tests supported by little evidence of their clinical and/or cost effectiveness, which erodes the scientific underpinnings of medical practice. Given widespread disparities in health, wealth, and access to care, as well as growing cynicism and dissatisfaction with medicine among trainees, the promotion by these institutions of an overt, two-tiered system of care, which exacerbates inequities and injustice, erodes professional ethics. Academic medical centers should divert their intellectual and financial resources away from luxury primary care and toward more equitable and just programs designed to promote individual, community, and global health. The public and its legislators should, in turn, provide adequate funds to enable this. Ways for academic medicine to facilitate this largesse are discussed. PMID:14748866

  18. Tolerance for ambiguity: an ethics-based criterion for medical student selection.

    PubMed

    Geller, Gail

    2013-05-01

    Planned changes to the MCAT exam and the premedical course requirements are intended to enable the assessment of humanistic characteristics and, thus, to select students who are more likely to become physicians who can communicate and relate with patients and engage in ethical decision making. Identifying students who possess humanistic and communication skills is an important goal, but the changes being implemented may not be sufficient to evaluate key personality traits that characterize well-rounded, thoughtful, empathic, and respectful physicians. The author argues that consideration should be given to assessing prospective students' tolerance for ambiguity as part of the admission process. Several strategies are proposed for implementing and evaluating such an assessment. Also included in this paper is an overview of the conceptual and empirical literature on tolerance for ambiguity among physicians and medical students, its impact on patient care, and the attention it is given in medical education. This evidence suggests that if medical schools admitted students who possess a high tolerance for ambiguity, quality of care in ambiguous conditions might improve, imbalances in physician supply and practice patterns might be reduced, the humility necessary for moral character formation might be enhanced, and the increasing ambiguity in medical practice might be better acknowledged and accepted. PMID:23524934

  19. Luxury primary care, academic medical centers, and the erosion of science and professional ethics.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Medical schools and teaching hospitals have been hit particularly hard by the financial crisis affecting health care in the United States. To compete financially, many academic medical centers have recruited wealthy foreign patients and established luxury primary care clinics. At these clinics, patients are offered tests supported by little evidence of their clinical and/or cost effectiveness, which erodes the scientific underpinnings of medical practice. Given widespread disparities in health, wealth, and access to care, as well as growing cynicism and dissatisfaction with medicine among trainees, the promotion by these institutions of an overt, two-tiered system of care, which exacerbates inequities and injustice, erodes professional ethics. Academic medical centers should divert their intellectual and financial resources away from luxury primary care and toward more equitable and just programs designed to promote individual, community, and global health. The public and its legislators should, in turn, provide adequate funds to enable this. Ways for academic medicine to facilitate this largesse are discussed. PMID:14748866

  20. Ethical precepts for medical volunteerism: including local voices and values to guide RHD surgery in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Coors, Marilyn E; Matthew, Thomas L; Matthew, Dayna B

    2015-10-01

    At the invitation of the Rwandan Government, Team Heart, a team of American healthcare professionals, performs volunteer rheumatic heart disease (RHD) surgery in Rwanda every year, and confronts ethical concerns that call for cultural sensitivity. This article describes how five standard bioethical precepts are applied in practice in medical volunteerism related to RHD surgery in Rwanda. The content for the applied precepts stems from semiscripted, transcribed conversations with the authors, two Rwandan cardiologists, a Rwandan nurse and a Rwandan premedical student. The conversations revealed that the criteria for RHD surgical selection in Rwanda are analogous to the patient-selection process involving material scarcity in the USA. Rwandan notions of benefit and harm focus more attention on structural issues, such as shared benefit, national reputation and expansion of expertise, than traditional Western notions. Harm caused by inadequate patient follow-up remains a critical concern. Gender disparities regarding biological and social implications of surgical valve choices impact considerations of justice. Individual agency remains important, but not central to Rwandan concepts of justice, transparency and respect, particularly regarding women. The Rwandan understanding of standard bioethical precepts is substantively similar to the traditionally recognised interpretation with important contextual differences. The communal importance of improving the health of a small number of individuals may be underestimated in previous literature. Moreover, openness and the incorporation of Rwandan stakeholders in difficult ethical choices and long-term contributions to indigenous medical capacity appear to be valued by Rwandans. These descriptions of applied precepts are applicable to different medical missions in other emerging nations following a similar process of inclusion. PMID:26066361

  1. 76 FR 81517 - Submission for Review and Comment: “The Menlo Report: Ethical Principles Guiding Information and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    DHS invites the public to comment on the Menlo Report in support of PREDICT, DHS S&T sponsored work on ethics in Information and Communication Technology Research (ICTR). This notice is to elicit feedback from the...

  2. The medical ethics of Dr J Marion Sims: a fresh look at the historical record.

    PubMed

    Wall, L L

    2006-06-01

    Vesicovaginal fistula was a catastrophic complication of childbirth among 19th century American women. The first consistently successful operation for this condition was developed by Dr J Marion Sims, an Alabama surgeon who carried out a series of experimental operations on black slave women between 1845 and 1849. Numerous modern authors have attacked Sims's medical ethics, arguing that he manipulated the institution of slavery to perform ethically unacceptable human experiments on powerless, unconsenting women. This article reviews these allegations using primary historical source material and concludes that the charges that have been made against Sims are largely without merit. Sims's modern critics have discounted the enormous suffering experienced by fistula victims, have ignored the controversies that surrounded the introduction of anaesthesia into surgical practice in the middle of the 19th century, and have consistently misrepresented the historical record in their attacks on Sims. Although enslaved African American women certainly represented a "vulnerable population" in the 19th century American South, the evidence suggests that Sims's original patients were willing participants in his surgical attempts to cure their affliction-a condition for which no other viable therapy existed at that time. PMID:16731734

  3. Ethical issues in rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Blackmer, J

    2000-06-01

    It is only relatively recently that we have begun to examine ethical issues as they relate specifically to the speciality of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Prior to this, most ethicists were more concerned with acute care medical issues involving life and death decisions. However, with the ageing population and the emphasis society now places on returning patients to the maximum possible level of function, greater consideration is being given to ethical dilemmas that are relevant to rehabilitation medicine. This paper examines the major ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence and justice. The issues of resource allocation and patient selection, the ethics of team care and ethical issues in goal setting, as they relate specifically to rehabilitation medicine, are examined in some detail. PMID:10853717

  4. Pragmatic and Ethical Challenges of Incorporating the Genome into the Electronic Medical Record

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Adam A.; Tarczy-Hornoch, Peter; Shirts, Brian H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent successes in the use of gene sequencing for patient care highlight the potential of genomic medicine. For genomics to become a part of usual care, pertinent elements of a patient's genomic test must be communicated to the most appropriate care providers. Electronic medical records may serve as a useful tool for storing and disseminating genomic data. Yet, the structure of existing EMRs and the nature of genomic data pose a number of pragmatic and ethical challenges in their integration. Through a review of the recent genome-EMR integration literature, we explore concrete examples of these challenges, categorized under four key questions: What data will we store? How will we store it? How will we use it? How will we protect it? We conclude that genome-EMR integration requires a rigorous, multi-faceted and interdisciplinary approach of study. Problems facing the field are numerous, but few are intractable. PMID:26146597

  5. [Death and assisted death--current medical, ethical and legal questions].

    PubMed

    Baust, V G

    1992-01-01

    Taking care of dying people is one of the most difficult obligations of the physician, perhaps the most difficult one. In this field, a lot of ethical problems arise which have to be coped with. In German the term "Sterbehilfe" ("helping to die") has more and more replaced the medical term "euthanasia". At present there are doubts whether this new term "helping to die" is useful because it might reflect liberal attitudes towards human life. Due to this terminological uncertainty many physicians are in two minds about the way of taking care of dying patients. Using an exact and unequivocal term for dying without pain and torture is an important demand for modern medicine in order to increase people's confidence in the last stage of their lives. PMID:1418279

  6. Ethical and legal implications of elective ventilation and organ transplantation: "medicalization" of dying versus medical mission.

    PubMed

    Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio; Gulino, Matteo; Montanari Vergallo, Gianluca; Di Luca, Natale Mario; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    A critical controversy surrounds the type of allowable interventions to be carried out in patients who are potential organ donors, in an attempt to improve organ perfusion and successful transplantation. The main goal is to transplant an organ in conditions as close as possible to its physiological live state. "Elective ventilation" (EV), that is, the use of ventilation for the sole purpose of retrieving the organs of patients close to death, is an option which offsets the shortage of organ donation. We have analyzed the legal context of the dying process of the organ donor and the feasibility of EV in the Italian context. There is no legal framework regulating the practice of EV, neither is any real information given to the general public. A public debate has yet to be initiated. In the Italian cultural and legislative scenario, we believe that, under some circumstances (i.e., the expressed wishes of the patient, even in the form of advance directives), the use of EV does not violate the principle of beneficence. We believe that the crux of the matter lies in the need to explore the real determination and will of the patient and his/her orientation towards the specific aim of organ donation. PMID:25126582

  7. Knowledge and practice of clinical ethics among healthcare providers in a government hospital, Chennai.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Mathai, A K; Kumar, Nandini

    2013-01-01

    The growing public concern about the ethical conduct of healthcare professionals highlights the need to incorporate clinical ethics in medical education. This study examined the knowledge and practice of clinical ethics among healthcare providers in a government hospital in Chennai. A sample of 51 treating physicians and 58 other non-physician service providers from the hospital answered a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire on their knowledge of and adherence to ethical principles, and the problems they faced related to healthcare ethics. More than 30% did not give a definition of healthcare ethics, and 40% did not name a single ethical principle. 51% stated that they witnessed ethical problems in their settings and named patient dissatisfaction, gender bias by provider, and not maintaining confidentiality. The responses of healthcare providers to various ethical scenarios are reported. PMID:23697487

  8. Introduction to Ethics What is Ethics?

    E-print Network

    Callender, Craig

    Introduction to Ethics #12;What is Ethics? Morality concerns the norms (rules, principles) we accept regarding how to treat one another. Ethics is the study of these norms ­ what they are and how we attempt to justify them. #12;What Ethics Isn't Morality and religion are not the same thing; the norms

  9. Medical and Genetic Differences in the Adverse Impact of Sleep Loss on Performance: Ethical Considerations for the Medical Profession

    PubMed Central

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently concluded that-on average-medical residents make more serious medical errors and have more motor vehicle crashes when they are deprived of sleep. In the interest of public safety, society has required limitations on work hours in many other safety sensitive occupations, including transportation and nuclear power generation. Those who argue in favor of traditional extended duration resident work hours often suggest that there are inter- individual differences in response to acute sleep loss or chronic sleep deprivation, implying that physicians may be more resistant than the average person to the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on performance, although there is no evidence that physicians are particularly resistant to such effects. Indeed, recent investigations have identified genetic polymorphisms that may convey a relative resistance to the effects of prolonged wakefulness on a subset of the healthy population, although there is no evidence that physicians are over-represented in this cohort. Conversely, there are also genetic polymorphisms, sleep disorders and other inter-individual differences that appear to convey an increased vulnerability to the performance-impairing effects of 24 hours of wakefulness. Given the magnitude of inter-individual differences in the effect of sleep loss on cognitive performance, and the sizeable proportion of the population affected by sleep disorders, hospitals face a number of ethical dilemmas. How should the work hours of physicians be limited to protect patient safety optimally? For example, some have argued that, in contrast to other professions, work schedules that repeatedly induce acute and chronic sleep loss are uniquely essential to the training of physicians. If evidence were to prove this premise to be correct, how should such training be ethically accomplished in the quartile of physicians and surgeons who are most vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss on performance without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  10. Medical and genetic differences in the adverse impact of sleep loss on performance: ethical considerations for the medical profession.

    PubMed

    Czeisler, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently concluded that-on average-medical residents make more serious medical errors and have more motor vehicle crashes when they are deprived of sleep. In the interest of public safety, society has required limitations on work hours in many other safety sensitive occupations, including transportation and nuclear power generation. Those who argue in favor of traditional extended duration resident work hours often suggest that there are inter- individual differences in response to acute sleep loss or chronic sleep deprivation, implying that physicians may be more resistant than the average person to the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on performance, although there is no evidence that physicians are particularly resistant to such effects. Indeed, recent investigations have identified genetic polymorphisms that may convey a relative resistance to the effects of prolonged wakefulness on a subset of the healthy population, although there is no evidence that physicians are over-represented in this cohort. Conversely, there are also genetic polymorphisms, sleep disorders and other inter-individual differences that appear to convey an increased vulnerability to the performance-impairing effects of 24 hours of wakefulness. Given the magnitude of inter-individual differences in the effect of sleep loss on cognitive performance, and the sizeable proportion of the population affected by sleep disorders, hospitals face a number of ethical dilemmas. How should the work hours of physicians be limited to protect patient safety optimally? For example, some have argued that, in contrast to other professions, work schedules that repeatedly induce acute and chronic sleep loss are uniquely essential to the training of physicians. If evidence were to prove this premise to be correct, how should such training be ethically accomplished in the quartile of physicians and surgeons who are most vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss on performance without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  11. [Withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration in severe stroke: medical, legal and ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Tannier, C; Crozier, S; Zuber, M; Constantinides, Y; Delezie, E; Gisquet, E; Grignoli, N; Lamy, C; Louvet, F; Pinel, J-F

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of cases, severe stroke is accompanied by difficulty in swallowing and an altered state of consciousness requiring artificial nutrition and hydration. Because of their artificial nature, nutrition and hydration are considered by law as treatment rather basic care. Withdrawal of these treatments is dictated by the refusal of unreasonable obstinacy enshrined in law and is justified by the risk of severe disability and very poor quality of life. It is usually the last among other withholding and withdrawal decisions which have already been made during the long course of the disease. Reaching a collegial consensus on a controversial decision such as artificial nutrition and hydration withdrawal is a difficult and complex process. The reluctance for such decisions is mainly due to the symbolic value of food and hydration, to the fear of "dying badly" while suffering from hunger and thirst, and to the difficult distinction between this medical act and euthanasia. The only way to overcome such reluctance is to ensure flawless accompaniment, associating sedation and appropriate comfort care with a clear explanation (with relatives but also caregivers) of the rationale and implications of this type of decision. All teams dealing with this type of situation must have thoroughly thought through the medical, legal and ethical considerations involved in making this difficult decision. PMID:25575609

  12. Integrating Values and Ethics into Post Secondary Teaching for Leadership Development: Principles, Concepts, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begley, Paul T.; Stefkovich, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of moral literacy as it applies to leadership development and the processes for promoting moral literacy through teaching in colleges and universities. Design/methodology/approach: The ethics of authenticity and moral agency in education settings are proposed as a means for promoting and…

  13. An Investigation of English Language Teachers and Students' Views on Ethical Principles towards Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cephe, Pasa Tevfik; Keles, Yener

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to raise the quality of teaching English language and to contribute to the improvement of ELT Teachers profession by investigating the extent to which English teachers at Mugla Sitki Koçman University apply the ethical code towards students during their teaching process. The study was conducted in Preparatory School of…

  14. A Model for Teaching Ethical Meta-Principles: A Descriptive Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Irma S.; Rivas, Olivia; Mancillas, Margarita

    2009-01-01

    As students, educators, outreach and community service experts enter their distinct professional worlds, each will be compelled to make a wide variety of decisions. The shaping of peoples' ethical beliefs occurs through personal experiences as well as family, culture, religion and peer pressure. In order for these students, educators, outreach and…

  15. 77 FR 2556 - Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric Medical Countermeasures; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric... a public workshop entitled ``Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric... scientific, ethical, and regulatory issues confronting FDA and other stakeholders in the area of...

  16. Access to Medical Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy

    Although confidentiality with regard to medical records is supposedly protected by the American Medical Associaton's principles of Ethics and the physician-patient privilege, there are a number of laws that require a physician to release patient information to public authorities without the patient's consent. These exceptions include birth and…

  17. Psychiatric ethics in war and peace

    PubMed Central

    Raju, M. S. V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Practice of psychiatry is a complex activity because the psychiatrist generally practises his art in an emotionally charged environment with patients who may not be in a in a state of mind to exercise autonomy as a result of cognitive impairment and preoccupation with symptoms. No one principle of ethics will be suitable to guide right conduct in widely variable situations. Making ethical judgements in the military context can be difficult and may have potential for abuse as for an uniformed psychiatrist mission takes priority over man. However mission centered and medical text book centred ethics need not be compartamentalised. The present paper seeks to offer a brief overview of ethical principles and specific situations in which one may have to make ethical judgements. PMID:24459379

  18. The Colorado School of Mines Financial Aid Office has adopted and will follow the Statement of Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct for Financial Aid Professionals created by the National Association of

    E-print Network

    of Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct for Financial Aid Professionals created by the National Association) Statement of Ethical Principles And Code of Conduct For Institutional Financial Aid Professionals NASFAA Financial Aid Administrators. #12;Code of Conduct for Institutional Financial Aid Professionals The Colorado

  19. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms* (Extended Abstract)

    PubMed Central

    Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Hatcliff, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals. PMID:25599096

  20. 21A.216J / SP.622J / WGS.622J Dilemmas in Bio-Medical Ethics: Playing God or Doing Good?, Spring 2005

    E-print Network

    James, Erica

    This course is an introduction to the cross-cultural study of bio-medical ethics. It examines moral foundations of the science and practice of western bio-medicine through case studies of abortion, contraception, cloning, ...

  1. [The issue of autonomy in medical ethics: philosophy of Karol Wojty?a].

    PubMed

    Niebrój, Les?aw T; Olejniczak, Marek; Kru?lak, Agnieszka

    2007-01-01

    The issue of autonomy seems to play a very central and fundamental role in contemporary medical ethics. However, it should be emphasized, that there is no agreement on how the concept of autonomy ought to be understood. Although as the main intellectual framework to describe the meaning of "autonomy" is the use of philosophical system of John St. Mill or Immanuel Kant, one could identify the tendency to redefine the concept under study. The aim of this article was to find out if the philosophy of Karol Wojtyla could provide--interesting from the bioethical point of view--insights into understanding of the idea of autonomy. The Wojtyla's critique of Kant's and Mill's understanding of autonomy was shortly described and the main elements of Wojtyla's concept of autonomy were analyzed. On the basis of these considerations it was assumed that philosophical background of Wojtyla is so different from those which are used in the contemporary, especially so called Anglo-American, bioethics that introducing it "elements" of his thinking would lead to misunderstandings and indeed even serious errors. On the other hand, however, philosophical works of Wojtyla seems to be very influential in developing 'personalistic' bioethics. But this bioethics could be accepted only by people who share Wojtyla's ontological and probably also theological or religious assumptions. PMID:18595515

  2. René Leriche and “Philosophy of Surgery” in the light of contemporary medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Akça, Tamer; Ayd?n, Süha

    2013-01-01

    Prof. Dr. René Leriche was a famous French surgeon who lived between 1879 and 1955. After working as a vascular surgeon in Lyon, he was appointed professor at the University of Strasbourg in 1924 and later the Paris Collége de France in 1937. Leriche had proposed vascular patches as the ideal treatment for obliterated vascular segments and advocated the necessity of sympathectomy in arterial diseases in the 1920s. He defined “Leriche Syndrome” in 1923 which is known by his name and which develops as a result of incomplete obstruction of the aortic bifurcation. René Leriche wrote a monograph entitled “La Chirurgie de la Douleur-Pain Surgery” in 1940 and he also became a pioneer in the sympathectomy procedure for pain treatment. René Leriche focused on topics that must be remembered again today, including surgery advanced into science, the physiological basis of surgery, research methods, as well as issues such as business technology, humanity in surgery, surgical essence and surgeon’s qualifications in the book entitled “La Philosophie de la Chirurgie-Philosophy of Surgery” that he wrote in 1951. In this review, the issues that Prof. Dr. René Leriche addressed in middle of the 20th century were revised in the light of contemporary medical ethics. PMID:25931863

  3. Medical geneticists confront ethical dilemmas: cross-cultural comparisons among 18 nations.

    PubMed Central

    Wertz, D C; Fletcher, J C; Mulvihill, J J

    1990-01-01

    To provide a basis for international discussion of ethical problems, we studied responses of medical geneticists in 18 countries to questionnaires about 14 clinical cases and five screening situations. Of 1,053 asked to participate, 677 (64%) responded. There was greater than or equal to 75% consensus on five cases involving (1) disclosure of (1) conflicting diagnostic findings, (2) disclosure of ambiguous results, (3) disclosure of controversial interpretations, (4) protection of mother's confidentiality in cases of false paternity, and (5) nondirective counseling about 45,X and XYY syndrome. A majority (51%-60%) would disclose the diagnosis to relatives at risk for Huntington disease or hemophilia A, against the patient's wishes; would disclose which parent carries a translocation causing Down syndrome; and would disclose XY genotype in a female. As reproductive options for patients with disorders not diagnosable prenatally, 84% would discuss artificial insemination by a donor, 66% would discuss in vitro fertilization with donor egg, and 46% would discuss surrogate motherhood. In all, 85% would perform prenatal diagnosis for (or would refer) parents who refuse abortion, 75% for maternal anxiety, and 42% for selection of fetal sex. Screening questions showed that 72% believed that workplace screening should be voluntary and that results should be confidential. PMID:2339711

  4. Professional ethics are the foundation of an organization. If they are clear, firm and diligently maintained, our ethics can support great endeavors. Ethics represent our vital standards that are documented as the principles we believe in, the values

    E-print Network

    McLaughlin, Richard M.

    Professional ethics are the foundation of an organization. If they are clear, firm and diligently maintained, our ethics can support great endeavors. Ethics represent our vital standards that are documented to high ethical standards will only be of benefit to those we serve, those to whom we are accountable

  5. Principlism, medical individualism, and health promotion in resource-poor countries: can autonomy-based bioethics promote social justice and population health?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Through its adoption of the biomedical model of disease which promotes medical individualism and its reliance on the individual-based anthropology, mainstream bioethics has predominantly focused on respect for autonomy in the clinical setting and respect for person in the research site, emphasizing self-determination and freedom of choice. However, the emphasis on the individual has often led to moral vacuum, exaggeration of human agency, and a thin (liberal?) conception of justice. Applied to resource-poor countries and communities within developed countries, autonomy-based bioethics fails to address the root causes of diseases and public health crises with which individuals or communities are confronted. A sociological explanation of disease causation is needed to broaden principles of biomedical ethics and provides a renewed understanding of disease, freedom, medical practice, patient-physician relationship, risk and benefit of research and treatment, research priorities, and health policy. PMID:20082703

  6. Psychiatric Residents' Needs for Education about Informed Consent, Principles of Ethics and Professionalism, and Caring for Vulnerable Populations: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Shaili; Lapid, Maria I.; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychiatric residents' perceived needs for education in informed consent, principles of ethics and professionalism, and treating vulnerable populations. Method: A written survey was distributed to psychiatric residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in 2005. The survey contained 149 questions in 10…

  7. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates. PMID:19580661

  8. A cross-sectional survey to investigate community understanding of medical research ethics committees.

    PubMed

    Fritschi, Lin; Kelsall, Helen L; Loff, Bebe; Slegers, Claudia; Zion, Deborah; Glass, Deborah C

    2015-07-01

    Study explanatory forms often state that an ethics committee has approved a research project. To determine whether the lay community understand the roles of ethics committees in research, we took a cross-sectional national sample from three sampling frames: the general population (n=1532); cohort study participants (n=397); and case-control study participants (n=151). About half (51.3%) of the participants had heard of ethics committees. Those who had were more likely to be those who had participated in previous surveys, older participants, those born in Australia and those with higher education. Almost all participants agreed that the roles of an ethics committee were to protect participants' privacy and ensure no harm came to study participants and most agreed that the committee's role was to ensure that the research was capable of providing answers. Case-control and cohort participants were more likely than the general population to consider that the role of an ethics committee was to design the research and obtain research funding. Overall, we found that about half of the population are aware of ethics committees and that most could correctly identify that ethics committees are there to protect the welfare and rights of research participants, although a substantial minority had some incorrect beliefs about the committees' roles. Increased education, particularly for migrants and older people, might improve understanding of the role of ethics committees in research. PMID:25605609

  9. Views of Ethical Best Practices in Sharing Individual-Level Data From Medical and Public Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Nia; Parker, Michael

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing support for sharing individual-level data generated by medical and public health research. This scoping review of empirical research and conceptual literature examined stakeholders’ perspectives of ethical best practices in data sharing, particularly in low- and middle-income settings. Sixty-nine empirical and conceptual articles were reviewed, of which, only five were empirical studies and eight were conceptual articles focusing on low- and middle-income settings. We conclude that support for sharing individual-level data is contingent on the development and implementation of international and local policies and processes to support ethical best practices. Further conceptual and empirical research is needed to ensure data sharing policies and processes in low- and middle-income settings are appropriately informed by stakeholders’ perspectives. PMID:26297745

  10. State of Digital Education Options in the areas of Medical Terminology and the History, Theory and Ethics of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Schochow, Maximilian; Steger, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics at German institutions of higher learning have created various e-learning options that are based on different learning platforms and tailored to the specific curricular needs of individual teaching. Up to now no valid data has been available about the types of such e-learning options as well as possibilities of future developments thanks to coordinated cooperation among the different institutes. Methods: Of 31 German institutes of the history and theory of medicine and medical ethics that were asked to fill out a questionnaire, 30 answered, which equals a return rate of 97 per cent. The questionnaire was completed between July and August 2012 using a telephone survey. Results: Available to students online, digitally interactive teaching tools have boomed in the course of the last few years at German institutes of the history of medicine, the theory of medicine, and medical ethics. This trend is also reflected in a willingness of more than half of the respective departments (67 per cent) to expand their e-learning options on the basis of previous experience. The offered e-learning systems are accepted very well by the students. 57 per cent of the institutes stated, that 90-100 per cent of the students use the offered systems regularly. E-learning courses for terminology are offered particularly often, this is also reflected in the intended extension of these courses by the majority of institutes which plan to expand their e-learning systems. Conclusions: This article discusses the results of a comprehensive empirical survey about e-learning. It illustrates ways in which individual German institutes plan to expand their e-learning options in the future. Finally, specific proposals for cooperation among institutions (not just online) are introduced, the purpose of which is to produce synergy in e-learning. PMID:26038682

  11. 77 FR 2556 - Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric Medical Countermeasures; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...critical need for pediatric research on medical countermeasures to ensure...conducting pre-event pediatric medical countermeasures research; (3) leveraging new technologies to develop pediatric medical countermeasures; and...

  12. Aequilibrium prudentis: on the necessity for ethics and policy studies in the scientific and technological education of medical professionals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of strong science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education continues to grow as society, medicine, and the economy become increasingly focused and dependent upon bioscientific and technological innovation. New advances in frontier sciences (e.g., genetics, neuroscience, bio-engineering, nanoscience, cyberscience) generate ethical issues and questions regarding the use of novel technologies in medicine and public life. Discussion In light of current emphasis upon science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education (at the pre-collegiate, undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels), the pace and extent of advancements in science and biotechnology, the increasingly technological orientation and capabilities of medicine, and the ways that medicine – as profession and practice – can engage such scientific and technological power upon the multi-cultural world-stage to affect the human predicament, human condition, and perhaps nature of the human being, we argue that it is critical that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education go beyond technical understanding and directly address ethical, legal, social, and public policy implications of new innovations. Toward this end, we propose a paradigm of integrative science, technology, ethics, and policy studies that meets these needs through early and continued educational exposure that expands extant curricula of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs from the high school through collegiate, graduate, medical, and post-graduate medical education. We posit a synthetic approach that elucidates the historical, current, and potential interaction of scientific and biotechnological development in addition to the ethico-legal and social issues that are important to educate and sustain the next generation of medical and biomedical professionals who can appreciate, articulate, and address the realities of scientific and biotechnological progress given the shifting architectonics of the global social milieu. Summary We assert that current trends in science, technology, medicine, and global politics dictate that these skills will be necessary to responsibly guide ethically sound employment of science, technology, and engineering advancements in medicine so as to enable more competent and humanitarian practice within an increasingly pluralistic world culture. PMID:23617840

  13. Development of a Teaching Program in Clinical Medical Ethics at the University of Chicago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Robert M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine has developed a teaching program in clinical ethics which utilizes the clinical knowledge and teaching skills of housestaff and clinical faculty. A detailed table summarizes the four-year curriculum including number of hours each year, teaching methods, sample topics, and principal faculty.…

  14. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  15. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  16. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  17. A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems

    PubMed Central

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Seger, Diane L; Schedlbauer, Angela; Avery, Anthony J; Bates, David W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of human factors principles in current clinical information systems using alerts to provide medication decision support. Last, we suggest actionable recommendations for delivering effective clinical decision support using alerts. A review of studies from the medical informatics literature suggests that many basic human factors principles are not followed, possibly contributing to the lack of acceptance of alerts in clinical information systems. We evaluate the limitations of current alerting philosophies and provide recommendations for improving acceptance of alerts by incorporating human factors principles in their design. PMID:20819851

  18. Towards clinical bioethics (or a return to clinical ethics?).

    PubMed

    Petrini, C

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics has traditionally been oriented towards the clinical setting. Since the middle of the last century, however, various circumstances (associated mainly, though not exclusively, with rapid advances in technology and knowledge) have considerably broadened both the field of enquiry and the scope of this discipline. This is due partly to the overlap between medical ethics and bioethics, which in recent decades has acquired its own identity and concerns a multitude of ethical aspects in the biomedical field. Clinical ethics taps into the vast wealth of deontology, so that it has no need for additional criteria or principles, or for the definition of new values: rather, it recognizes the need to apply existing criteria, principles and values to contingent circumstances and contexts. A special role is reserved for ethics committees and, above all, for clinical ethics consultants, although in some countries the former are concerned mainly with authorisations for clinical trials. Clinical ethics consultants, however, may have a more incisive influence in clinical decisions: the special requisites and skills they need have been defined and discussed in various documents which are mentioned briefly in the present article. The presence of these consultants does not exonerate clinical physicians from their responsibilities or from liability for their decisions, in the formation of which they must refer constantly to codes of professional ethics. PMID:24424236

  19. Health sciences librarians' awareness and assessment of the Medical Library Association Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship: the results of a membership survey

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Devine, Patricia J.; Corcoran, Kate E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Medical Library Association (MLA) Board of Directors and president charged an Ethical Awareness Task Force and recommended a survey to determine MLA members' awareness of and opinions about the current Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship. Methods: The task force and MLA staff crafted a survey to determine: (1) awareness of the MLA code and its provisions, (2) use of the MLA code to resolve professional ethical issues, (3) consultation of other ethical codes or guides, (4) views regarding the relative importance of the eleven MLA code statements, (5) challenges experienced in following any MLA code provisions, and (6) ethical problems not clearly addressed by the code. Results: Over 500 members responded (similar to previous MLA surveys), and while most were aware of the code, over 30% could not remember when they had last read or thought about it, and nearly half had also referred to other codes or guidelines. The large majority thought that: (1) all code statements were equally important, (2) none were particularly difficult or challenging to follow, and (3) the code covered every ethical challenge encountered in their professional work. Implications: Comments provided by respondents who disagreed with the majority views suggest that the MLA code could usefully include a supplementary guide with practical advice on how to reason through a number of ethically challenging situations that are typically encountered by health sciences librarians. PMID:25349544

  20. To research (or not) that is the question: ethical issues in research when medical care is disrupted by political action: a case study from Eldoret, Kenya.

    PubMed

    House, Darlene R; Marete, Irene; Meslin, Eric M

    2016-01-01

    While considerable attention has been focused on understanding the myriad of ethical analysis in international research in low and middle income countries, new issues always arise that have not been anticipated in guidelines or studied extensively. The disruption of medical care arising as a direct result of political actions, including strikes, postelection violence and related activities, is one such issue that leaves physician-researchers struggling to manage often conflicting professional responsibilities. This paper discusses the ethical conflicts that arise for physician-researchers, particularly when disruption threatens the completion of a study or completion is possible but at the expense of not addressing unmet medical needs of patients. We review three pragmatic strategies and the ethical issues arising from each: not starting research, stopping research that has already started, and continuing research already initiated. We argue that during episodes of medical care disruption, research that has been started can be continued only if the ethical standards imposed at the beginning of the study can continue to be met; however, studies that have been approved but not yet started should not begin until the disruption has ended and ethical standards can again be assured. PMID:26474601

  1. [Ethics, knowledge and psychiatry: in Aulus Cornelius Celsus' De Medicina].

    PubMed

    Trancas, Bruno; Borja Santos, Nuno

    2007-01-01

    Modern medicine has many roots on greco-roman practice of the medical art. The authors analyse the work De Medicina by Aulus Cornelius Celsus. They look upon the nature of the medical knowledge, the principles of ethics, causality and describe the mental disorders (phrenitis, depression, third insanity, seizure disorder and womb disease), with special detail to signs and symptoms, treatment and prognosis. An association with current medical knowledge is established. PMID:18282440

  2. Ethics, patient rights and staff attitudes in Shanghai's psychiatric hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to ethical principles in clinical research and practice is becoming topical issue in China, where the prevalence of mental illness is rising, but treatment facilities remain underdeveloped. This paper reports on a study aiming to understand the ethical knowledge and attitudes of Chinese mental health professionals in relation to the process of diagnosis and treatment, informed consent, and privacy protection in clinical trials. Methods A self-administered survey was completed by 1110 medical staff recruited from Shanghai’s 22 psychiatric hospitals. Simple random selection methods were used to identify target individuals from the computerized registry of staff. Results The final sample for analysis consisted 1094 medical staff (including 523 doctors, 542 nurses, 8 pharmacologists and 21 other staff). The majority reported that their medical institutions had not established an Ethics Committee (87.8%) and agreed that Ethics Committees should be set up in their institutions (72.9%). Approximately half (52%) had not received systematic education in ethics, and almost all (89.1%) of the staff thought it was necessary. Nearly all participants (90.0%) knew the Shanghai Mental Health Regulations which was the first local regulations relating to mental health in China, but only 11% and 16.6% respectively knew of the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki. About half (51.8%) thought that the guardian should make the decision as to whether the patient participated in clinical trials or not. Conclusions The study indicates that most psychiatric hospitals in Shanghai have no Medical Ethics Committee. More than half the medical staff had not received systematic education and training in medical ethics and they have insufficient knowledge of the ethical issues related to clinical practice and trials. Training in ethics is recommended for medical staff during their training and as ongoing professional development. PMID:22595041

  3. Problems for clinical judgement: 5. Principles of influence in medical practice

    PubMed Central

    Redelmeier, Donald A.; Cialdini, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    THE BASIC SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY HAS IDENTIFIED specific ingrained responses that are fundamental elements of human nature, underpin common influence strategies and may apply in medical settings. People feel a sense of obligation to repay a perceived debt. A request becomes more attractive when preceded by a marginally worse request. The drive to act consistently will persist even if demands escalate. Peer pressure is intense when people face uncertainty. The image of the requester influences the attractiveness of a request. Authorities have power beyond their expertise. Opportunities appear more valuable when they appear less available. These 7 responses were discovered decades ago in psychology research and seem intuitively understood in the business world, but they are rarely discussed in medical texts. An awareness of these principles can provide a framework for physicians to help patients change their behaviour and to understand how others in society sometime alter patients' choices. PMID:12126325

  4. When a physician harms a patient by a medical error: ethical, legal, and risk-management considerations.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, D; Wu, A W; Holtzman, N A; Smith, M K

    1997-01-01

    Errors that harm patients are infrequently brought to the attention of these patients. The full disclosure of such medical errors is in the best interest of patients because it allows them to understand what has occurred, and to gain appropriate compensation for the harm that they have suffered. Physicians have been given little guidance regarding how to conduct a relationship with the patient after such an injury. We argue that the physician must continue to respect the patient, and communicate honestly with him or her throughout their relationship, even after the patient has been injured. It is painful to admit our errors, especially to those who have been harmed by them. Nevertheless, offering an apology for harming a patient should be considered to be one of the ethical responsibilities of the profession of medicine. Monetary compensation alone is not to be offered as a charitable gesture; rather, it should be accompanied by an apology to demonstrate the responsibility of the physician to the trusting patient. Full and honest disclosure of errors is most consistent with the mutual respect and trust patients expect from their physicians. Clearly, physicians' ethical responsibilities sometimes differ from their legal and risk-management responsibilities. PMID:9503081

  5. Teaching the Ethics of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

  6. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education. PMID:23418365

  7. Ethics committees and achievement of good clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Glasa, J; Holomán, J; Klepanec, J; Soltés, L

    1996-01-01

    Local ethics committees (institutional review boards, or similar bodies) were established during the last decades at (bio)medical research institutions worldwide to serve as review bodies of the proposed research projects (inclusive protocols of clinical trials), and also to monitor if the ethical principles, including the requirements of good practice (clinical, laboratory, and scientific) are respected and fulfilled during the conduct of research projects. Existing pluralism of the philosophical background on which contemporary bioethics theories are developed is questioning seriously the ancient traditions of Hippocratic, non-utilitarian medical ethics, trying to promote more utilitarian and secular approaches. Individual physicians, or researchers, as well as the ethics committee itself, are faced today with complicated ethical dilemmas, that frequently have to be solved in the atmosphere of considerable social, collegiate, economical, and time pressures, and sometimes without helpful guidance of appropriate legislation. An interesting possibility of how to overcome some of the pitfalls of the ethics review process is to express a common ethical responsibility for the research project or trial protocol in a statement of most (or all) parties involved (such as the principal investigator, sponsor, ethics committee, the patient, "society'). Such an approach has proven helpful in enhancing concrete deliberations of ethics committees-established in Slovakia since 1991 according to the requirements of the national guidelines issued by the Slovak Ministry of Health. PMID:8953810

  8. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  9. Ethical Tensions in the Pain Management of an End-Stage Cancer Patient with Evidence of Opioid Medication Diversion.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Kim, David

    2014-11-01

    At the end of life, pain management is commonly a fundamental part of the treatment plan for patients where curative measures are no longer possible. However, the increased recognition of opioid diversion for secondary gain coupled with efforts to treat patients in the home environment towards the end of life creates the potential for ethical dilemmas in the palliative care management of terminal patients in need of continuous pain management. We present the case of an end-stage patient with rectal cancer who required a continuous residential narcotic infusion of fentanyl for pain control due to metastatic disease. His functional status was such that he had poor oral intake and ability to perform other activities of daily living, but was able to live at home with health agency nursing care. The patient presented to this institution with a highly suspect history of having lost his fentanyl infusion in a residential accident and asking for a refill to continue home therapy. The treating physicians had concerns of diversion of the infusion medication by caregivers and were reluctant to continue the therapeutic relationship with the patient. This case exemplifies the tension that can exist between wanting to continue with palliative care management of an end-stage patient and the fear of providers when confronted by evidence of potential diversion of opioid analgesic medications. We elucidate how an ethical framework based on a combination of virtue and narrative/relationship theories with reference to proportionality can guide physicians to a pragmatic resolution of these difficult situations. PMID:25381648

  10. The problem of authenticity in ethical and environmental behaviour. A discourse analysis of reconciling principles and practice. 

    E-print Network

    Pelton, Daisy K

    2009-06-03

    In this paper, I analyse talk about ethical and environmental food consumption recorded from four interviews and four focus groups, the majority in Edinburgh. This empirical study was conducted in the light of the increased emphasis by government...

  11. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed. PMID:20644192

  12.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    THIS SITE IS A WORK IN PROGRESS AS OF 5/9/2013. VIST THE NIH WEBSITE FOR MORE ACCURATE INFORMATION: http://ethics.od.nih.gov/overview.htm  PLEASE CHECK BACK SOON!!  ~9609 Medical Center Dr. ~ Rockville, MD 20850 ~~Phone: (240) 276-5790 ~ E-mail: NCIEthics

  13. Teaching ethics in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Claudot, Frédérique; Alla, François; Ducrocq, Xavier; Coudane, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Aim To carry out an appropriate overview and inventory of the teaching of ethics within the European Union Schools of Medicine. Methods A questionnaire was sent by email to 45 randomly selected medical schools from each of 23 countries in the European Union in February 2006. Results 25 schools of medicine from 18 European countries were included (response rate?=?56%). In 21 of 25 medical schools, there was at least one ethics module. In 11 of 25 medical schools, the teaching of ethics was transversal. Only one of the responding schools did not teach ethics. The mean time invested in ethics teaching was 44?h during the overall curriculum. Conclusions Ethics now has an established place within the medical curriculum throughout the European Union. However, there is a notable disparity in programme characteristics among schools of medicine. PMID:17664312

  14. 21A.215 Medical Anthropology: Culture, Society, and Ethics in Disease and Health, Fall 2008

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Jean

    This course looks at medicine from a cross-cultural perspective, focusing on the human, as opposed to biological, side of things. Students learn how to analyze various kinds of medical practice as cultural systems. Particular ...

  15. Biomedical, ethical, and moral issues being forced by advanced medical technologies.

    PubMed

    Satava, Richard M

    2003-09-01

    Technology is rampant, exponentially growing beyond the bounds normally comprehensible by the human mind. Many of these technologies are so fundamentally disruptive that they challenge the very practice of science. Discoveries once unimaginable except in science fiction are appearing at such a rapid rate that there is no time to evaluate their moral and ethical implications in a deliberate and measured fashion. Genetic engineering, human cloning, tissue engineering, intelligent robotics, nanotechnology, suspended animation, regeneration, and species prolongation are but a few that will revolutionize what it means to be human and what the ultimate fate of the species may be. Unless these issues are addressed at this time, we shall face the consequences of an uncontrolled and unprepared future. PMID:14606491

  16. Ethical issues related to computerised family medical histories in sickle cell disease: Inforare.

    PubMed

    Franrenet, Sandra; Duchange, Nathalie; Galactéros, Fréderic; Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Nzouakou, Ruben; Sudraud, Sophie; Hervé, Christian; Moutel, Grégoire

    2010-10-01

    The Inforare project aims to set up a system for the sharing of clinical and familial data, in order to study how genes are related to the severity of sickle cell disease. While the computerisation of clinical records represents a valuable research goal, an ethical framework is necessary to guarantee patients' protection and their rights in this developing field. Issues relating to patient information during the Inforare study were analysed by the steering committee. Several major concerns were discussed by the committee and formalized in the patients' information letter: educating patients to aid the recruitment of family members, rules of confidentiality and the disclosure of aggregate, individual and unexpected research results. This paper presents the main issues addressed. PMID:20826869

  17. Medical negligence: Coverage of the profession, duties, ethics, case law, and enlightened defense - A legal perspective

    PubMed Central

    Pandit, M. S.; Pandit, Shobha

    2009-01-01

    A patient approaching a doctor expects medical treatment with all the knowledge and skill that the doctor possesses to bring relief to his medical problem. The relationship takes the shape of a contract retaining the essential elements of tort. A doctor owes certain duties to his patient and a breach of any of these duties gives a cause of action for negligence against the doctor. The doctor has a duty to obtain prior informed consent from the patient before carrying out diagnostic tests and therapeutic management. The services of the doctors are covered under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and a patient can seek redressal of grievances from the Consumer Courts. Case laws are an important source of law in adjudicating various issues of negligence arising out of medical treatment. PMID:19881134

  18. Research ethics: challenges in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.

    PubMed

    Khayat, M Haytham

    2006-01-01

    The foundations of ethical principles in the Eastern Mediterranean Region can be found within the 3 major religions of the Region; Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Today, there are numerous ethical issues that have emerged as result of the technological advances of the 20th century and this paper addresses some of those related to biomedical research. The Islamic principles in relation to medicine and biomedical research are described, and in particular research involving human subjects. The paper also outlines the endeavours being made by the Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences to address such issues and draw up recommendations and rulings. PMID:17037684

  19. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets

    PubMed Central

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-01-01

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization’s Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:26131406

  20. Philosophy of organ donation: Review of ethical facets.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Aparna R

    2015-06-24

    Transplantation ethics is a philosophy that incorporates systematizing, defending and advocating concepts of right and wrong conduct related to organ donation. As the demand for organs increases, it is essential to ensure that new and innovative laws, policies and strategies of increasing organ supply are bioethical and are founded on the principles of altruism and utilitarianism. In the field of organ transplantation, role of altruism and medical ethics values are significant to the welfare of the society. This article reviews several fundamental ethical principles, prevailing organ donation consent laws, incentives and policies related to the field of transplantation. The Ethical and Policy Considerations in Organ Donation after Circulatory Determination of Death outline criteria for death and organ retrieval. Presumed consent laws prevalent mostly in European countries maintain that the default choice of an individual would be to donate organs unless opted otherwise. Explicit consent laws require organ donation to be proactively affirmed with state registries. The Declaration of Istanbul outlines principles against organ trafficking and transplant tourism. World Health Organization's Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation aim at ensuring transparency in organ procurement and allocation. The ethics of financial incentives and non-financial incentives such as incorporation of non-medical criteria in organ priority allocation have also been reviewed in detail. PMID:26131406

  1. "Murder or mercy?" An innovative module helping UK medical students to articulate their own ethical viewpoints regarding end-of-life decisions.

    PubMed

    Bell, David; Crawford, Vivienne

    2011-10-01

    This module was designed to equip UK medical students to respond ethically and sensitively to requests encountered as qualified doctors regarding euthanasia and assisted dying. The aim was to expose students to relevant opinions and experiences and provide opportunities to explore and justify their own views and rehearse ethical decision making in a safe learning environment.The module is delivered by a multidisciplinary team, providing students with the working knowledge to actively discuss cases, articulate their own views and practice ethical reasoning. Visits to intensive care units, palliative care wards and hospices are integrated with theory. Student assessment comprises a dissertation, debate and reflection. Module impact was evaluated by analysis of student coursework and a questionnaire.Students greatly appreciated the clinical context provided by the visits and opportunities to apply ethical reasoning to cases and debate issues with peers. They reported increased discernment of the ethical and legal position and practical considerations and greater awareness of the range of professional and lay viewpoints held. Many participants were less strongly in favor of euthanasia and assisted dying on module completion than at the outset, but all of them believed they were better equipped to justify their own viewpoint and respond to patient requests. The multi-disciplinary nature of this course helps to prepare students to deal effectively and sensitively with ethical dilemmas they will encounter in their medical career. Use of an integrated, learner-centred approach equips students to actively engage with their peers in discussion of such issues and to formulate and defend their own position. PMID:21941154

  2. A National Survey Concerning the Ethical Aspects of Informed Consent and Role of Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Daniel L.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A national sample of medical students was surveyed to identify the ways the students obtained informed consent from their patients and to learn the students' views of certain issues concerning informed consent. All the students were less forthright about their status when given the opportunity to perform invasive procedures. (Author/MLW)

  3. The Surgical Treatment of Morbid Obesity: Economic, Psychosocial, Ethical, Preventive, Medical Aspects of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Sylvia B.; Griffen, Ward O.; Anderson, James W.; Whitaker, E. Berton; Wiegert, H. Thomas; Searle, Maureen; Engelberg, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Surgical treatment of morbid, familial, juvenile-onset obesity in a 37-year-old, 260-pound, mother of three children by jejunoileal bypass was subsequently converted to gastric bypass. The resulting weight loss of 110 pounds resulted in personality changes and changes in family dynamics and was followed by divorce. Medical, psychosocial, and economic aspects of the case are discussed. PMID:6140795

  4. From the patient's point of view: medical ethics and the moral imagination.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, C; Elliott, B

    1991-01-01

    This paper concerns the difficulties of imagining the subjective point of view of another human being, and the relevance of these difficulties to medical decisions. It explores especially the difficulties of imagining the experience of the mentally impaired, and examines several standards for decision-making: the 'prior expressed wishes standard', the 'substituted judgement standard', and the 'best interests standard'. PMID:1787514

  5. Sickle Cell Screening: Medical, Legal, Ethical, Psychological and Social Problems; A Sickle Cell Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James E.

    In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,…

  6. Ethical Principles Associated with the Publication of Research in ASHA's Scholarly Journals: Importance and Adequacy of Coverage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the…

  7. Moral fiction or moral fact? The distinction between doing and allowing in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    Opponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) maintain that physician withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-treatment cannot be morally equated to voluntary active euthanasia. PAS opponents generally distinguish these two kinds of act by positing a possible moral distinction between killing and allowing-to-die, ceteris paribus. While that distinction continues to be widely accepted in the public discourse, it has been more controversial among philosophers. Some ethicist PAS advocates are so certain that the distinction is invalid that they describe PAS opponents who hold to the distinction as in the grip of 'moral fictions'. The author contends that such a diagnosis is too hasty. The possibility of a moral distinction between active euthanasia and allowing-to-die has not been closed off by the argumentative strategies employed by these PAS advocates, including the contrasting cases strategy and the assimilation of doing and allowing to a common sense notion of causation. The philosophical debate over the doing/allowing distinction remains inconclusive, but physicians and others who rely upon that distinction in thinking about the ethics of end-of-life care need not give up on it in response to these arguments. PMID:22296611

  8. Ethical Challenges of Medicine and Health on the Internet: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge and capabilities, particularly of a new technology or in a new area of study, frequently develop faster than the guidelines and principles needed for practitioners to practice ethically in the new arena; this is particularly true in medicine. The blending of medicine and healthcare with e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions involving what sort of ethical conduct should be expected by practitioners and developers of the medical Internet. Some of the early pioneers in medical and healthcare Web sites pushed the ethical boundaries with questionable, even unethical, practices. Many involved with the medical Internet are now working to reestablish patient and consumer trust by establishing guidelines to determine how the fundamentals of the medical code of ethical conduct can best be adapted for the medical/healthcare Internet. Ultimately, all those involved in the creation, maintenance, and marketing of medical and healthcare Web sites should be required to adhere to a strict code of ethical conduct, one that has been fairly determined by an impartial international organization with reasonable power to regulate the code. This code could also serve as a desirable, recognizable label-of-distinction for ethical Web sites within the medical and healthcare Internet community. One challenge for those involved with the medical and healthcare Internet will be to determine what constitutes "Medical Internet Ethics" or "Healthcare Internet Ethics," since the definition of medical ethics can vary from country to country. Therefore, the emerging field of Medical/ Healthcare Internet Ethics will require careful thought and insights from an international collection of ethicists in many contributing areas. This paper is a review of the current status of the evolving field of Medical/Healthcare Internet Ethics, including proposed definitions and identification of many diverse areas that may ultimately contribute to this multidisciplinary field. The current role that medicine and health play in the growing area of Internet communication and commerce and many of the ethical challenges raised by the Internet for the medical community are explored and some possible ways to address these ethical challenges are postulated. PMID:11720965

  9. The elephant in the room: ethical issues associated with rare and expensive medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Mavroudis, Constantine D; Mavroudis, Constantine; Jacobs, Jeffrey P

    2015-12-01

    The treatment of rare and expensive medical conditions is one of the defining qualities of paediatric cardiology and congenital heart surgery. Increasing concerns over healthcare resource allocation are challenging the merits of treating more expensive forms of congenital heart disease, and this trend will almost certainly continue. In this manuscript, the problems of resource allocation for rare and expensive medical conditions are described from philosophical and economic perspectives. The argument is made that current economic models are limited in the ability to assess the value of treating expensive and rare forms of congenital heart disease. Further, multi-disciplinary approaches are necessary to best determine the merits of treating a patient population such as those with significant congenital heart disease that sometimes requires enormous healthcare resources. PMID:26675614

  10. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Hogle, Linda

    2015-12-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with 'enhancement'; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with 'normal' function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with-and further develop-existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to-and be benefitted by-research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates. PMID:26260624

  11. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose significant public health risks. PMID:23396563

  12. A clinico-ethical framework for multidisciplinary review of medication in nursing homes

    PubMed Central

    Baqir, Wasim; Barrett, Steven; Desai, Nisha; Copeland, Richard; Hughes, Julian

    2014-01-01

    Residents in care homes are more likely to be prescribed multiple medicines yet often have little involvement in these prescribing decisions. Reviewing and stopping inappropriate medicines is not currently adopted across the health economy. This Health Foundation funded Shine project developed a pragmatic approach to optimising medicines in care homes while involving all residents in decision making. The pharmacist undertook a detailed medication review using primary care records. The results were discussed at a multidisciplinary team (MDT) meeting involving the care home nurse and the resident's general practitioner (GP), with input from the local psychiatry of old age service (POAS) where appropriate. Suggestions for medicines which should be stopped, changed or started, and other interventions (eg monitoring) were discussed with the resident and/or their family. Over 12 months 422 residents were reviewed, and 1346 interventions were made in 91% of residents reviewed with 15 different types of interventions. The most common intervention (52.3%) was to stop medicines; 704 medicines stopped in 298 residents (70.6%). On average, 1.7 medicines were stopped for every resident reviewed (range zero to nine medicines; SD=1.7), with a 17.4% reduction in medicines prescribed (3602 medicines prescribed before and 2975 after review). The main reasons for stopping medicines were: no current indication (401 medicines; 57%), resident not wanting medicine after risks and benefits were explained (120 medicines; 17%), and safety concerns (42 medicines; 6%). The net annualised savings against the medicines budget were £77,703 or £184 per person reviewed. The cost of delivering the intervention was £32,670 (pharmacist, GP, POAS consultant, and care home nurse time) for 422 residents; for every £1 invested, £2.38 could be released from the medicines budget. This project demonstrated that a multidisciplinary medication review with a pharmacist, doctor, and care home nurse can safely reduce inappropriate medication in elderly care home residents.

  13. Principles of Pedagogy in Teaching in a Diverse Medical School: The University of Capetown South Africa Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; Holland, Errol

    This paper describes a 2-month project developed by the Sage Colleges (New York) and the University of Capetown Medical School in South Africa to help the medical faculty at the Capetown Medical School teach its newly diverse student body. The program is intended to improve student retention and it emphasizes the need for faculty to assure…

  14. Medical Assistant. [FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC).] 2002 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum for a medical assistant program is designed for students interested in caring for the sick, injured, convalescent, or disabled under the direction of the family, physicians, and credentialed nurses. The curriculum is divided into 12 units: orientation to medical assisting; principles of medical ethics; risk management; infection…

  15. [Ethical aspects of plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Coli?, M

    1989-01-01

    In the past few years the abuse of ethical principles in plastic surgery has become increasingly noticeable. The reasons are various; it may be the desire to achieve personal recognition of plastic surgeons by means of different press articles or numerous yellow-press articles written by journalists whose only aim is to increase the circulation of their newspapers. In extreme cases the violation of medical secret or the surgeon's personality advertising is noticeable. Although this phenomenon is much more evident in the countries where plastic surgery is being performed at private clinics, it has in the past few years also become more obvious in our country. These ethical problems are present in plastic surgery because it is to often identified with aesthetic surgery. The fact that, with its more or less favorable results, it appears highly attractive to the public and thus get even the unwilling surgeon into the focus of various yellow-press articles and headlines. On the other hand, the very nature of the individual who specializes in this kind of surgery may be the principal basis for publicity. Such abuse of professional ethics is usually explained by claiming that the public should be properly informed, but in some cases it is but open advertising of the surgeon and his/her abilities. Establishing an ethical code which would entail all necessary moral sanctions in plastic surgery would act favorably to the protection of those plastic surgeons who perform their work according to the moral and ethical principles of their profession. PMID:2489525

  16. [Paracelsianism, astrology and medical ethics in the polemical writings of Tommaso Bovio (1521-1609)].

    PubMed

    Bondio, Mariacarla Gadebusch

    2004-01-01

    Tommaso Bovio was a representative of North Italian non-academic medicine in the early modern period. His "dialogues", published in the second half of the 16th century, were written in the Italian vernacular and enjoyed a certain popularity also in Germany. Although Bovio used to exaggerate for rhetorical effect, his portrayal of patients, illness and treatments provides interesting insights into everyday urban life in his time. Sympathising with Paracelsus, Bovio propagated an image of empirics as humanitarians and fought for the recognition of his own practical knowledge and skills. Bovio was a most original figure in the medicine of the period of counter reformation. His writings exemplify the lively debate between the learned medical tradition and unorthodox reform. PMID:15015853

  17. The Case of Pharmacological Neuroenhancement: Medical, Judicial and Ethical Aspects from a German Perspective.

    PubMed

    Franke, A G; Northoff, R; Hildt, E

    2015-11-01

    Pharmacological neuroenhancement (PN) describes the use of psychoactive drugs for the purpose of enhancing cognition (e.?g., fatigue, concentration, memory etc.) by healthy subjects without medical need. Drugs used for this purpose can be divided into freely available, over-the-counter drugs (e.?g., methylxanthines such as caffeine), prescription drugs (e.?g., antidementia drugs, methylphenidate) and illicit drugs (e.?g., illicit amphetamines). Clinical studies have shown that the aforementioned substances only have limited pro-cognitive effects and have considerable safety risks and side effects.The German judicial perspective shows legal differences between substances (drugs, food, food supplements, fortified food) that can be bought in a supermarket, drugs that can be bought in a pharmacy as over-the-counter- (OTC-) drugs, drugs with or without the need for a prescription and illicit drugs. Supermarket drugs and fortified food can be sold freely and follow the general rules of civil and penal law; regarding acquisition, parents are responsible for their children. OTC drugs require special information about therapy. Regarding prescription drugs, there are legal problems caused by an off-label use and the non-medical purposes of PN drugs. Furthermore, prescription stimulants for PN are governed by the specialized law for narcotics, and their use might be punished. Beyond the general lack of rules for regulation for PN drug use there are specific needs for prevention (e.?g., control of the black market, etc.).Possible future policy will depend, among others, on the probability with which effective PN drugs with an acceptable risk-benefit ratio will be available, on individual and societal implications, and on public opinion towards PN. While 4 different general policy scenarios can be identified, it is important to advance a broad societal debate on PN to collect relevant empirical data and to address enhancement-related conceptual issues. PMID:26252723

  18. Observations on ethical problems and terminal care.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Progress in medical diagnosis and therapy has raised new problems with far-reaching ethical implications. Medicine must remain a profession and not become a business. Textbooks must address ethical problems in the context of health care decisions and not restrict themselves to pathophysiology and practical therapeutics alone. The relative roles of the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice must be balanced and appropriately applied to individual situations in biomedical ethics. When therapy becomes futile and the suffering of the patient does not justify any anticipated benefit, the patient (and/or patient surrogate) may request withholding or even withdrawing life-prolonging interventions. In the persistent vegetative state, even nutritional support by an unnatural (tube) route may ethically be denied at the patient's (or surrogate's) informed decision. New areas of ethical evaluation have been raised by the desire of some individuals to prolongation of their lives at high expense to the society such that other individuals are denied services because of limitation of available resources. There has been a long-standing conflict of interest between the acceptance by physicians and/or medical institutions of money or gifts from pharmaceutical companies whose drugs they prescribe, stock, or sell. This practice increases the cost of the drugs and is, in effect, a "sick tax," which is morally wrong. PMID:1519374

  19. Code of Ethical Conduct Code of Ethical Conduct

    E-print Network

    Sridhar, Srinivas

    Code of Ethical Conduct 3/21/2014 Code of Ethical Conduct I. Purpose and Scope Northeastern. The core principles articulated in this code encompass the values that underlie all university activities and inform our decision making. This Code of Ethical Conduct applies to Northeastern University trustees

  20. Brief History of pharmacy ethics in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Farsam, Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Pharmacy is an ethical profession. The aim of this study was to investigate the history of pharmacy ethics in Iran. In the ancient Persia, medical and pharmaceutical ethics were related to religious rules, and everybody had to respect it. The ethical rules were similar to some current pharmacy ethics. During Islamic era, the pharmacy ethics were edited according to the Islamic rules. After introduction of European pharmacy into Iran, the pharmacy ethics did not change and was regarded as before. By presentation of bioethics and medical ethics in recent years, new activities are carried out for better manipulation of their rules in health professions including pharmacy. PMID:23908727

  1. Ethics in age estimation of unaccompanied minors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Kvaal, S I; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    Children absconding from countries of conflict and war are often not able to document their age. When an age is given, it is frequently untraceable or poorly documented and therefore questioned by immigration authorities. Consequently many countries perform age estimations on these children. Provision of ethical practice during the age estimation investigation of unaccompanied minors is considered from different angles: (1) The UN convention on children's rights, formulating specific rights, protection, support, healthcare and education for unaccompanied minors. (2) Since most age estimation investigations are based on medical examination, the four basic principles of biomedical ethics, namely autonomy, beneficence, non-malevolence, justice. (3) The use of medicine for non treatment purposes. (4) How age estimates with highest accuracy in age prediction can be obtained. Ethical practice in age estimation of unaccompanied minors is achieved when different but related aspects are searched, evaluated, weighted in importance and subsequently combined. However this is not always feasible and unanswered questions remain. PMID:23221269

  2. Ethical dilemmas in forensic psychiatry: two illustrative cases.

    PubMed

    Sen, Piyal; Gordon, Harvey; Adshead, Gwen; Irons, Ashley

    2007-06-01

    One approach to the analysis of ethical dilemmas in medical practice uses the "four principles plus scope" approach. These principles are: respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, along with concern for their scope of application. However, conflicts between the different principles are commonplace in psychiatric practice, especially in forensic psychiatry, where duties to patients often conflict with duties to third parties such as the public. This article seeks to highlight some of the specific ethical dilemmas encountered in forensic psychiatry: the excessive use of segregation for the protection of others, the ethics of using mechanical restraint when clinically beneficial and the use of physical treatment without consent. We argue that justice, as a principle, should be paramount in forensic psychiatry, and that there is a need for a more specific code of ethics to cover specialised areas of medicine like forensic psychiatry. This code should specify that in cases of conflict between different principles, justice should gain precedence over the other principles. PMID:17526683

  3. Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Morasae, Esmaeil Khedmati; Shahandeh, Khandan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Seydali, Elham; Aramesh, Kiarash; Abknar, Nina Loori

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) poses distinctive ethical challenges. In the absence of organized guidelines, a remarkable amount of researchers’ time and energy will be spent tackling these ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Methods: This qualitative study conducted in CBPR Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Required data were gathered through systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews. Representatives of community, academia, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) participated in our study. Ten interviews with representatives of partner organizations, four group interviews with academic staff, and four with representatives of community were conducted. Repeated thematic analysis was used to elicit ethics-related overarching themes from transcribed interviews. As recommendations, these themes were then organized into a set of CBPR-related ethical issues and principles. Results: Four CBPR ethical guidelines (including 173 articles) were selected from a systematic review. Overarching themes relating to ethical principles which emerged from interviews were as follows: Trust, transparency and accountability, equity and inclusion, power imbalance, tolerance and conflict management, and attention to cultural sensitivity. Practical principles that emerged included: Consensus rather than informed consent, ownership of data and research achievements, and sustainability and maintenance of relationships. According to findings and in comparison to international guidelines, the present study put more emphasis on cultural sensitivity and sustainability as CBPR ethical tangles. Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged. PMID:25400893

  4. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  5. Tiny tweaks, big changes: An alternative strategy to empower ethical culture of human research in anesthesia (A Taiwan Acta Anesthesiologica Taiwanica-Ethics Review Task Force Report).

    PubMed

    Luk, Hsiang-Ning; Ennever, John F; Day, Yuan-Ji; Wong, Chih-Shung; Sun, Wei-Zen

    2015-03-01

    For this guidance article, the Ethics Review Task Force (ERTF) of the Journal reviewed and discussed the ethics issues related to publication of human research in the field of anesthesia. ERTF first introduced international ethics principles and minimal requirements of reporting of ethics practices, followed by discussing the universal problems of publication ethics. ERTF then compared the accountability and methodology of several medical journals in assuring authors' ethics compliance. Using the Taiwan Institutional Review Board system as an example, ERTF expressed the importance of institutional review board registration and accreditation to assure human participant protection. ERTF presented four major human research misconducts in the field of anesthesia in recent years. ERTF finally proposed a flow-chart to guide journal peer reviewers and editors in ethics review during the editorial process in publishing. Examples of template languages applied in the Ethics statement section in the manuscript are expected to strengthen the ethics compliance of the authors and to set an ethical culture for all the stakeholders involved in human research. PMID:25868785

  6. Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Liese L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

  7. Situating Ethics in Games Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Joy

    2013-01-01

    This paper posits that Inventing Games (IG), an aspect of the games curriculum based on principles of Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU), opens up important spaces for teaching social and ethical understanding. Games have long been regarded as a site for moral development. For most teachers, however, ethical principles have been seen as…

  8. Resolving ethical dilemas. Applying the institute for Global Ethics' Ethical Fitness model to occupational and environmental health practice issues.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Patricia H

    2002-01-01

    1. Technological advancements have rapidly increased the need for careful ethical choices to preserve life and environment of the global community. 2. No formula exists to resolve ethical dilemmas, but using an ethical decision making model can help maintain a state of ethical fitness. 3. The Ethical Fitness model relies on the assumption that certain core values are universal. Maintaining ethical fitness is essential to resolve ethical dilemmas. 4. The process of resolving ethical dilemmas consists of analyzing the dilemma using nine checkpoints, four dilemma paradigms, and three resolution principles. PMID:11842780

  9. NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL ETHICS POLICY

    E-print Network

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL ETHICS POLICY Guiding Principles The following principles provide the ethical framework that we aspire to while working in the UK and abroad. In relationships. Consider ethical challenges which arise from new or possibly risky research at the limits of our knowledge

  10. A principled and cosmopolitan neuroethics: considerations for international relevance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Neuroethics applies cognitive neuroscience for prescribing alterations to conceptions of self and society, and for prescriptively judging the ethical applications of neurotechnologies. Plentiful normative premises are available to ground such prescriptivity, however prescriptive neuroethics may remain fragmented by social conventions, cultural ideologies, and ethical theories. Herein we offer that an objectively principled neuroethics for international relevance requires a new meta-ethics: understanding how morality works, and how humans manage and improve morality, as objectively based on the brain and social sciences. This new meta-ethics will simultaneously equip neuroethics for evaluating and revising older cultural ideologies and ethical theories, and direct neuroethics towards scientifically valid views of encultured humans intelligently managing moralities. Bypassing absolutism, cultural essentialisms, and unrealistic ethical philosophies, neuroethics arrives at a small set of principles about proper human flourishing that are more culturally inclusive and cosmopolitan in spirit. This cosmopolitanism in turn suggests augmentations to traditional medical ethics in the form of four principled guidelines for international consideration: empowerment, non-obsolescence, self-creativity, and citizenship. PMID:24387102

  11. Forum Response: Ethics in Business and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of business ethics. Draws conclusions about teaching business ethics noting that such instruction must start with the principles of capitalism and the functions of a market economy. (SG)

  12. Making inpatient medication reconciliation patient centered, clinically relevant and implementable: a consensus statement on key principles and necessary first steps.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Halasyamani, Lakshmi; Greene, Jan; LaCivita, Cynthia; Stucky, Erin; Benjamin, Bona; Reid, William; Griffin, Frances A; Vaida, Allen J; Williams, Mark V

    2010-10-01

    Medication errors and adverse events caused by them are common during and after a hospitalization. The impact of these events on patient welfare and the financial burden, both to the patient and the healthcare system, are significant. In 2005, The Joint Commission put forth medication reconciliation as National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) No. 8 in an effort to minimize adverse events caused during these types of care transitions. However, the meaningful and systematic implementation of medication reconciliation, as expressed through NPSG No. 8, proved to be extraordinarily difficult for healthcare institutions around the country. Given the importance of accurate and complete medication reconciliation for patient safety occurring across the continuum of care, the Society of Hospital Medicine convened a stakeholder conference in 2009 to begin to identify and address: (1) barriers to implementation; (2) opportunities to identify best practices surrounding medication reconciliation; (3) the role of partnerships among traditional healthcare sites and nonclinical and other community-based organizations; and (4) metrics for measuring the processes involved in medication reconciliation and their impact on preventing harm to patients. The focus of the conference was oriented toward medication reconciliation for a hospitalized patient population; however, many of the themes and concepts derived would also apply to other care settings. This paper highlights the key domains needing to be addressed and suggests first steps toward doing so. An overarching principle derived at the conference is that medication reconciliation should not be viewed as an accreditation function. It must, first and foremost, be recognized as an important element of patient safety. From this principle, the participants identified ten key areas requiring further attention in order to move medication reconciliation toward this focus. 1 There is need for a uniformly acceptable and accepted definition of what constitutes a medication and what processes are encompassed by reconciliation. Clarifying these terms is critical to ensuring more uniform impact of medication reconciliation. 2 The varying roles of the multidisciplinary participants in the reconciliation process must be clearly defined. These role definitions should include those of the patient and family/caregiver and must occur locally, taking into account the need for flexibility in design given the varying structures and resources at healthcare sites. 3 Measures of the reconciliation processes must be clinically meaningful (i.e., of defined benefit to the patient) and derived through consultation with stakeholder groups. Those measures to be reported for national benchmarking and accreditation should be limited in number and clinically meaningful. 4 While a comprehensive reconciliation system is needed across the continuum of care, a phased approach to implementation, allowing it to start slowly and be tailored to local organizational structures and work flows, will increase the chances of successful organizational uptake. 5 Developing mechanisms for prospectively and proactively identifying patients at risk for medication-related adverse events and failed reconciliation is needed. Such an alert system would help maintain vigilance toward these patient safety issues and help focus additional resources on high risk patients. 6 Given the diversity in medication reconciliation practices, research aimed at identifying effective processes is important and should be funded with national resources. Funding should include varying sites of care (e.g., urban and rural, academic and nonacademic, etc.). 7 Strategies for medication reconciliation-both successes and key lessons learned from unsuccessful efforts-should be widely disseminated. 8 A personal health record that is integrated and easily transferable between sites of care is needed to facilitate successful medication reconciliation. 9 Partnerships between healthcare organizations and community-based organizations create opportunities to reinforce medication

  13. Design of a Course on the Medical Consequences of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Christine; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A course is described in which students were to: learn about nuclear weapons and their medical, social, and ecological consequences; identify principles of social ethics defining health professionals' roles; and define professional activities consistent with these principles. Student attitudes toward the course and its content were measured. (MSE)

  14. Medically Assisted Procreation and Fast-Moving Developments in Science and Law: Ethical and Legal Issues in Heterologous Procreation in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Delbon, Paola; Conti, Adelaide

    2015-01-01

    Significance for public health Continual scientific progress is making new applications available, with significant medical, ethical, legal and social implications, not only for the persons directly concerned. In the area of medically assisted procreation, the use of heterologous techniques is able to overcome problems of sterility or infertility for those requesting access to methods of this kind. On the other hand, legislation is required to regulate the many correlated issues, also with regard to other parties such as ova or sperm donors and the offspring resulting from the use of these techniques: the protection of the health of the offspring; the management of laboratory results obtained during donor selection tests; the protection of confidentiality; the donor-child traceability; the number of donations; and individuals’ rights to be fully informed about their biological origins are just some of the questions confirming that the implications of new procreation techniques are not restricted merely to the couples who access them. PMID:26425499

  15. Teaching ethics in neonatal and perinatal medicine: What is happening in Canada?

    PubMed

    Daboval, Thierry; Moore, Gregory P; Rohde, Kristina; Moreau, Katherine; Ferretti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Ethically challenging clinical situations are frequently encountered in neonatal and perinatal medicine (NPM), resulting in a complex environment for trainees and a need for ethics training during NPM residency. In the present study, the authors conducted a brief environmental scan to investigate the ethics teaching strategies in Canadian NPM programs. Ten of 13 (77%) accredited Canadian NPM residency programs participated in a survey investigating teaching strategies, content and assessment mechanisms. Although informal ethics teaching was more frequently reported, there was significant variability among programs in terms of content and logistics, with the most common topics being 'The medical decision making process: Ethical considerations' and 'Review of bioethics principles' (88.9% each); lectures by staff or visiting staff was the most commonly reported formal strategy (100%); and evaluation was primarily considered to be part of their overall trainee rotation (89%). This variability indicates the need for agreement and standardization among program directors regarding these aspects, and warrants further investigation. PMID:24627657

  16. Ethical Issues in the Consulting Context--Ethics in Presentation Skills Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Rebecca L.

    In light of the huge volume of headline news stories that reflect ethical concerns from a variety of arenas, it is no wonder that ethics training is a hot topic. Research shows that many leading United States companies have written codes of ethics and/or instituted formal ethics training programs. In this paper, certain principles that have become…

  17. Portrayal of negative qualities in a doctor as a potential teaching tool in medical ethics and humanism: Journey to the End of Night by Louis-Ferdinand Celine.

    PubMed

    Wolf, G

    2006-02-01

    Fictional stories about physicians and patients are increasingly used as a powerful teaching resource for medical students. Very often, but not exclusively, stories of physicians as positive role models are selected to teach students virtues and ethical values. Negative role models are rarely used and if so, physicians are rather described as medical quacks in such fiction then exhibiting primarily a corrupted character. I suggest that a fictional story that presents exclusively a negative role model of a physician could also be a valuable, admittedly difficult, teaching resource to demonstrate the consequences of absolute loss of ethical standards and virtues in physicians. A not widely known example of this genre is Louis-Ferdinand Céline's (1894-1961) novel Voyage au bout de la nuit (Journey to the End of the Night), published in 1932. Having a strong autobiographical background, the novel described the adventures of the medicine student, Ferdinand Bardamu, during the first world war, in the African colonies as a trader, in the United States of America as factory worker, and later after finishing his education, as a doctor for the poor. Unfortunately, Dr Bardamu develops an unprofessional, even criminal behaviour, and may serve as a negative role model for the virtues of physicians. This article will familiarise the reader with the novel and its physician author. PMID:16461481

  18. [Legal principles for participation of medical service in vocational guidance and education].

    PubMed

    Balster, W

    1989-02-01

    Dealt with is the medical profession's legal status in the vocational education and vocational retraining centres. The legal basis for the medical doctor's activities in this type of facilities is clarified, drawing on the legislational history of various rehabilitation-related laws. PMID:2928597

  19. [Economics and ethics in public health?].

    PubMed

    Blum, R

    1999-01-01

    The topic suggests a conflict between ethics and economy in medical care. It is often argued that today's welfare state in affluent societies with their social insurance systems makes it easier for the doctor to translate ethical demands into reality without being hampered by economic restrictions. Both doctors and patients took advantage of this system of medical care by mingling social guarantees for health with the doctor's income. Hence, medical expenses expanded rapidly, additionally promoted by technical progress in medicine. This entailed a proportionate increase in medical expenses in relation to personal income, especially wage income. Budgets of state authorities were streamlined or deficits became larger. This state of affairs was promoted further by mechanisms of distribution of national income in accordance with the slogan "less state, more market". While national income continued to grow, although at a slower rate, the number of jobless persons grew continually and thus also the social expenses, this was not due, as is usually assumed and pretended, to an economic crisis. Society and economy are facing a crisis of distribution of national income under conditions of technical progress as a job killer, making economic production more productive and efficient. Not taking into account the new challenge of social market economy--the German innovation in market economy creating the economic miracle after World War II--reforms of the system of medical care took place and are still continuing along market principles, particularly the latest German reform law leading to individual contracts between patients and their doctors in respect of cost charging. However, marketing principles promote economy in medicine, but they do not promote medical ethics. Further German guidelines for medical care should take stock of past experiences. There will be more competition in the "growing market of medical care" (private and public) and this will need--as economic experience has shown and economists have affirmed--new organisational devices to ensure better outcomes for the individual patient as a consumer and the doctors as suppliers. More responsibility should be given to the different suppliers of collective security in medical care (private or social systems of insurance). No individual patient as a mere consumer has a genuine chance in handling contracts with doctors carefully who are considered to be "gods in white" according to a popular German saying. These consumers have only a slight chance when arguing in courts of justice for the performance of contracts. Diagnosis and therapy, the system of doctors who treat members of statutory social insurance schemes (National Health general practitioners in the U.K.) and doctors as "free entrepreneurs" in the growing market of medical care should be separated due to the different rules of charging costs and offering medical care. "Classless medical care" does not have a better chance by applying market principles. The same is true for ethics versus economy. Doctors as "free entrepreneurs" must learn that markets will not guarantee reimbursement of costs but react to supply and demand. Hence, regulation of medical care by economic instruments creates better chances even for ethics in medical care against economy. PMID:10081179

  20. Medical Education and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Review of Ethical Guidelines and Their Implications for Psychiatric Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geppert, Cynthia M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews and summarizes eight ethical guidelines of major professional organizations regarding the pharmaceutical industry's role in the psychiatric education of trainees. Method: The author conducted a literature review of research and guidelines pertaining to the pharmaceutical industry's relationship to trainees, with…

  1. Advice offered by practitioners of complementary/ alternative medicine: an important ethical issue.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2009-12-01

    The current popularity of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) generates many challenges to medical ethics. The one discussed here is the advice offered by CAM practitioners. Using selected examples, the author tries to demonstrate that some of the advice issued through the popular media or provided by acupuncturists, chiropractors, herbalists, homeopaths, pharmacists, and doctors is misleading or dangerous. This, the author argues, can impinge on the main principle of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, and autonomy. We should work toward correcting this deplorable situation. PMID:19926607

  2. Solo doctors and ethical isolation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R J

    2009-11-01

    This paper uses the case of solo doctors to explore whether working in relative isolation from one's peers may be detrimental to ethical decision-making. Drawing upon the relevance of communication and interaction for ethical decision-making in the ethical theories of Habermas, Mead and Gadamer, it is argued that doctors benefit from ethical discussion with their peers and that solo practice may make this more difficult. The paper identifies a paucity of empirical research related to solo practice and ethics but draws upon more general medical ethics research and a study that identified ethical isolation among community pharmacists to support the theoretical claims made. The paper concludes by using the literary analogy of Soderberg's Doctor Glas to illustrate the issues raised and how ethical decision-making in relative isolation may be problematical. PMID:19880707

  3. The Medical Interaction Laboratory--Multidiscipline Approach for Presentation of Principles of Physiology and Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jack W.; Sims, Michael H.

    1979-01-01

    An interdisciplinary physiology and pharmacology course presented by the Medical Interaction Laboratory at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine provides interaction among faculty, conserves faculty time and animal expense, and presents a coordinated laboratory experience. (BH)

  4. Review by a local medical research ethics committee of the conduct of approved research projects, by examination of patients' case notes, consent forms, and research records and by interview.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T.; Moore, E. J.; Tunstall-Pedoe, H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To monitor the conduct of medical research projects that have already been approved by the local medical research ethics committee. DESIGN: Follow up study of ethically approved studies (randomly selected from all the studies approved in the previous year) by examination of patients' case notes, consent forms, and research records and by interview of the researchers at their workplace. SETTING: Tayside, Scotland (mixed rural and urban population). SUBJECTS: 30 research projects approved by Tayside local medical research ethics committee. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adherence to the agreed protocol, particularly for recruitment (obtaining and recording informed consent) and for specific requirements of the ethics committee, including notification of changes to the protocol and of adverse events. RESULTS: In one project only oral consent had been obtained, and in a quarter of the studies one or more consent forms were incorrectly completed. Inadequate filing of case notes in five studies and of consent forms in six made them unavailable for scrutiny. Adverse events were reported, but there was a general failure to report the abandoning or non-starting of projects in two studies the investigators failed to notify a change in the responsible researcher. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of medical research by local medical research ethics committees promotes and preserves ethical standards, protects subjects and researchers, discourages fraud, and has the support of investigators. We recommend that 10% of projects should undergo on-site review, with all others monitored by questionnaire. This would require about six person hours of time and a salary bill of 120 pounds per study monitored. PMID:9169403

  5. Principles of medicating children with neurodevelopmental and sleep disorders--a review.

    PubMed

    Nunn, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    Conflict between the demands of the environment in which a child lives and the child's intrinsic sleep signature, produces stress-behaviour difficulties in the child. Distorted development, especially distorted brain development, often leads to distorted intrinsic sleep signatures. The sleep-behaviour outcome, arising from the conflict between each child's sleep signature and the environmental niche in which they live, can be modified by medications, on the one hand, and taking the role of kin, peer and social networks seriously. Medications alter the intrinsic sleep signature of the child and the stress response. Non-medical interventions address the demands and constraints of the child's environmental niche. When the main medication strategy to address distorted sleep involves brain stimulation, those children that do not respond will often need a reversal of medication priorities; an inhibitory strategy as a short to medium term support, sleep regulation being primary for longer term management, and stimulatory strategies used sparingly, if at all. We are often dealing with vulnerable populations, not all of which are reliable or accurate sources of information. Features of a presentation alerting the clinician to non-medication factors contributing to the failure of treatment are discussed. PMID:24055010

  6. JEA's Code of Ethics for Advisers; and Sites for Additional Ethics Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, John

    1997-01-01

    Lists general principles that media advisers should follow, the 12 points agreed upon as the Journalism Education Association's (JEA) Code of Ethics for Advisers, and a list of Web sites that deal with journalism ethics. (PA)

  7. Ethics in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

    2007-05-01

    Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

  8. Ethics Education: Using Inductive Reasoning to Develop Individual, Group, Organizational, and Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Susan H.; White, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical

  9. The role of empirical Bayes methodology as a leading principle in modern medical statistics.

    PubMed

    van Houwelingen, Hans C

    2014-11-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the role of Empirical Bayes methodology in medical statistics in the last 50 years. It gives some background on the origin of the empirical Bayes approach and its link with the famous Stein estimator. The paper describes the application in four important areas in medical statistics: disease mapping, health care monitoring, meta-analysis, and multiple testing. It ends with a warning that the application of the outcome of an empirical Bayes analysis to the individual "subjects" is a delicate matter that should be handled with prudence and care. PMID:25205521

  10. Primary care research ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, R; Murphy, E; Crosland, A

    1995-01-01

    Research activity in primary care is increasing rapidly, and raises a range of specific ethical issues. Many of these relate to the involvement of individuals in the community who are not seeking medical care and to the impact of research participation on relationships between general practitioners and their patients. The ethical issues pertinent to a range of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies in primary care are identified and considered. PMID:8554844

  11. Imaginative ethics--bringing ethical praxis into sharper relief.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Mats G

    2002-01-01

    The empirical basis for this article is three years of experience with ethical rounds at Uppsala University Hospital. Three standard approaches of ethical reasoning are examined as potential explanations of what actually occurs during the ethical rounds. For reasons given, these are not found to be satisfying explanations. An approach called "imaginative ethics", is suggested as a more satisfactory account of this kind of ethical reasoning. The participants in the ethical rounds seem to draw on a kind of moral competence based on personal life experience and professional competence and experience. By listening to other perspectives and other experiences related to one particular patient story, the participants imagine alternative horizons of moral experience and explore a multitude of values related to clinical practice that might be at stake. In his systematic treatment of aesthetics in the Critique of Judgement, Kant made use of an operation of thought that, if applied to ethics, will enable us to be more sensitive to the particulars of each moral situation. Based on this reading of Kant, an account of imaginative ethics is developed in order to bring the ethical praxis of doctors and nurses into sharper relief. The Hebraic and the Hellenic traditions of imagination are used in order to illuminate some of the experiences of ethical rounds. In conclusion, it is argued that imaginative ethics and principle-based ethics should be seen as complementary in order to endow a moral discourse with ethical authority. Kantian ethics will do the job if it is remembered that Kant suggested only a modest, negative role of principle-based deliberation. PMID:11954992

  12. Medical marijuana: should minors have the same rights as adults?

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A

    2003-06-01

    After reviewing the pertinent scientific data, it is clear that there is more than sufficient medical and ethical evidence to warrant the Bush Administration to authorize the Drug Enforcement Agency to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug so that it can be used for medical purposes. Failure to give an effective therapy to seriously ill patients, either adults or children, violates the core principles of both medicine and ethics. Medically, to deny physicians the right to prescribe to their patients a therapy that relieves pain and suffering violates the physician-patient relationship. Ethically, failure to offer an available therapy that has proven to be effective violates the basic ethical principle of nonmaleficence, which prohibits the infliction of harm, injury, or death and is related to the maxim primum non nocere ('above all, or first, do no harm'), which is widely used to describe the duties of a physician. Therefore, in the patient's best interest, patients and parents/surrogates, have the right to request medical marijuana under certain circumstances and physicians have the duty to disclose medical marijuana as an option and prescribe it when appropriate. The right to an effective medical therapy, whose benefits clearly outweigh the burdens, must be available to all patients including children. To deny children the use of medical marijuana when appropriate is a grave injustice which violates the basic foundational beliefs of both medicine and PMID:12824939

  13. The Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics: promoting education and collaboration in genetics and ethics applied to health sciences across the continent.

    PubMed

    Giugliani, Roberto; Baldo, Guilherme; Vairo, Filippo; Lujan Lopez, Monica; Matte, Ursula

    2015-07-01

    The Latin American Network of Human Genetics (RELAGH) created the Latin American School of Human and Medical Genetics (ELAG) to prepare young researchers and professionals of Latin America to deal with the growing challenge of the genomic medicine. ELAG promotes an annually course since 2005, which received 838 students from 17 Latin American countries over these 10 years. ELAG plays an important role to provide education in genetics applied to health sciences to fellows who live in countries with a less favorable economic situation. Influenced, among others, by the humanitarian perspective of José Maria Cantú, one of its founders, ELAG has always favored the discussion of ethical and social issues related to genetics in Latin America. Few initiatives in Latin America lasted 10 consecutive years. One of the factors responsible for the ELAG's success has been its group of faculty members, who contribute to a friendly environment prone to facilitating the exchange of their own experiences with young researchers. PMID:26007289

  14. Ethics in practice: managed care and the changing health care environment: medicine as a profession managed care ethics working group statement.

    PubMed

    Povar, Gail J; Blumen, Helen; Daniel, John; Daub, Suzanne; Evans, Lois; Holm, Richard P; Levkovich, Natalie; McCarter, Alice O; Sabin, James; Snyder, Lois; Sulmasy, Daniel; Vaughan, Peter; Wellikson, Laurence D; Campbell, Amy

    2004-07-20

    Cost pressures and changes in the health care environment pose ethical challenges and hard choices for patients, physicians, policymakers, and society. In 2000 and 2001, the American College of Physicians, with the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Ethics Program, convened a working group of stakeholders--patients, physicians, and managed care representatives, along with medical ethicists--to develop a statement of ethics for managed care. The group explored the impact of a changing health care environment on patient-physician relationships and how to best apply the principles of professionalism in this environment. The statement that emerged offers guidance on preserving the patient-clinician relationship, patient rights and responsibilities, confidentiality and privacy, resource allocation and stewardship, the obligation of health plans to foster an ethical environment for the delivery of care, and the clinician's responsibility to individual patients, the community, and the public health, among other issues. PMID:15262669

  15. Ethical care at the end of life

    PubMed Central

    Latimer, E J

    1998-01-01

    In treating dying patients, who by virtue of their physical and emotional situation are frail and vulnerable, physicians must meet a high standard of professional, ethical care. Such a standard is based upon a philosophy of care that recognizes the patients' inherent worth as human beings and their uniqueness as individuals. The ethical and virtuous physician will practice in accordance with the principles of biomedical ethics that form the foundations of thought and treatment approaches in this area and will seek to do the best for the patient and the family. "Doing the best" includes respecting autonomy through gentle truth-telling, helping the patient and family to set treatment goals, and providing for symptom control, continuing attentive care and accompaniment throughout the course of the illness. Total care includes physical, emotional and spiritual aspects, is sensitive to cultural values and is best provided by an interdisciplinary team. Practices of symptom control in routine care and in crisis situations, as well as the cessation and non-initiation of treatment, will have as their goals the relief and comfort of the patient. The ethical physician will not act with the intention of bringing about the death of the patient, whether by ordering medication in excess of that required for symptom control, administering a lethal injection or any other means. PMID:9676552

  16. Ethical Virtues in Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane’s defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity. PMID:23074991

  17. Normative Sentimentalism and Animal Ethics

    E-print Network

    Gerrek, Monica

    2008-01-09

    principle noted above. I then show how this normative sentimentalist ethic handles the issues raised by factory farming and using animals for research. Next, I present the two most well-known arguments regarding the treatment of animals, Peter Singer...

  18. The ethics of health communication.

    PubMed

    Strasser, T; Gallagher, J

    1994-01-01

    The scope of application of ethical principles in health communication is discussed with particular reference to the influence of the mass media on people's perceptions of benefit and risk in the field of health care. PMID:8018285

  19.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    September 2012 NCI ETHICS OFFICE UPDATES Office of Ethics to Welcome New Director       Effective October 7, 2012, the NCI Office of Ethics welcomes Nancy O’Hanlon as its Director and Deputy Ethics Counselor.Nancy was most recently the Director of the Eth

  20.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    NIH Ethics Office  http://ethics.od.nih.gov/ NIH Enterprise Ethics System https://nees.nih.gov/nees/ Office of Government Ethics   http://www.oge.gov/ NIH Manual: http://oma.od.nih.gov/manualchapters/ NIH Intramural Research Sourcebook: http://sourcebook.

  1. An Environmental Ethic for Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Leo

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an environmental ethic for parks and recreation professionals who are often on the wrong side of the environmental controversy because they lack a professional ethic. This article provides a guide for implementing an environmental ethic, noting that philosophy of service must be grounded in ecological principles, not merchant values. (SM)

  2. Business Ethics MGTK 407: Section 115

    E-print Network

    Diestel, Geoff

    1 Business Ethics MGTK 407: Section 115 Summer 2014, 8 Weeks ­ Ft Hood (M/W 1800-2100 Room D 106 and examination of significant contemporary ethical issues and problems existing throughout the professional is for each student to be able to know, comprehend, and apply basic business ethical principles within any

  3. Emotions, narratives, and ethical mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn

    2015-06-01

    Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile. PMID:25853684

  4. Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances. PMID:24031310

  5. Council Adopts New AERA Code of Ethics: Ethics Committee to Emphasize Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrington, Carolyn D.

    2011-01-01

    At its February 2011 meeting, the AERA Council adopted unanimously a new Code of Ethics. The Code articulates a set of standards for education researchers in education and provides principles and guidance by which they can build ethical practices in professional, scholarly, and scientific activities. The Code reflects the Association's strong…

  6. Information Ethics: On the Philosophical Foundation of

    E-print Network

    Floridi, Luciano

    has so far acted as its driving force, namely: Volume 1 The ETHICOMP E-Journal ISSN 1743-3010 #12 on principled choices and defensible ethical principles and hence to provide more generalised conclusions

  7. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity , informed consent, and confidentiality. PMID:22056907

  8. Statement of the American Psychological Association in response to the "joint principles: integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home".

    PubMed

    Anderson, Norman B; Belar, Cynthia D; Cubic, Barbara A; Garrison, Ellen G; Johnson, Suzanne Bennett; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-06-01

    Comments on the article "Joint principles: Integrating behavioral health care into the patient-centered medical home" (see record 2014-24217-011), presented by the Working Party Group on Integrated Behavioral Healthcare. The American Psychological Association (APA) shares concerns about the lack of reference to behavioral health care in the original 2007 Joint Principles of the Patient-Centered Medical Home for which this new document is intended to supplement but not replace. The decision to support the supplemental Joint Principles was not an easy one for APA, as there is one area of significant concern. That concern is related to the use of the term "physician-directed medical practice" PMID:24955684

  9. Transformational leadership in medical practice: capturing and influencing principles-driven work.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The importance of leadership in medicine is well recognized. Transformational leadership is a well-defined model that provides an empirically supported approach to foster organizational and personal change. It has been applied in health care settings with favorable outcomes. Transformational leadership is intended to help subordinates and followers transcend usual expectations of their own capabilities to reach higher levels of performance and personal meaning. The application of transformational leadership is appropriate to physicians in many roles, including to those who are supervisors in medical education or practice as team members in outpatient settings. Illustrations exemplify these points. PMID:22955090

  10. Medical applications of Raman spectroscopy: from proof of principle to clinical implementation.

    PubMed

    Choo-Smith, L-P; Edwards, H G M; Endtz, H P; Kros, J M; Heule, F; Barr, H; Robinson, J S; Bruining, H A; Puppels, G J

    2002-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has recently been applied ex vivo and in vivo to address various biomedical issues such as the early detection of cancers, monitoring of the effect of various agents on the skin, determination of atherosclerotic plaque composition, and rapid identification of pathogenic microorganisms. This leap in the number of applications and the number of groups active in this field has been facilitated by several technological advancements in lasers, CCD detectors, and fiber-optic probes. However, most of the studies are still at the proof of concept stage. We present a discussion on the status of the field today, as well as the problems and issues that still need to be resolved to bring this technology to hospital settings (i.e., the medical laboratory, surgical suites, or clinics). Taken from the viewpoint of clinicians and medical analysts, the potential of Raman spectroscopic techniques as new tools for biomedical applications is discussed and a path is proposed for the clinical implementation of these techniques. PMID:11842408

  11. Ethics in neurodevelopmental disability.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Bell, Emily; Shevell, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, like autism spectrum disorders and cerebral palsy are a common health problem in children. Given the impact of these conditions on children, families, and healthcare and social systems, the care of developmentally challenged children raises questions related to values and ethical principles. We review the common features of neurodevelopmental disorders that help understand the associated ethical questions. We focus on three major areas where ethical questions arise for clinicians and those involved in making decisions for or caring for these children: (1) the principles of decision-making and autonomy as they relate to developmental disability; (2) the issues related to quality of life that have long intersected with developmental disability; and (3) the use of unproven therapies and diagnostics that are particularly controversial given the extent that neurodevelopmental disabilities impact children and their families, yet active treatments options are limited. PMID:24182383

  12. Abortion and America's ethical consciousness.

    PubMed

    Munday, R S

    1989-01-01

    America's practice of abortion is not merely a matter of medical technology but of a changing ethical consciousness. The continuing dispute over legalized abortion since the 1973 Supreme Court decision in Roe v. Wade is a conflict between two historically different ethical views of human life. This survey shows the nature and history of this conflict and its implications for America's future. PMID:10294676

  13. Towards Ethical Decision-Making in Counselling Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Maggie; Cook, Peter; Hunt, Kathy; Alred, Geof; Robson, Dave

    2000-01-01

    Explores the process of ethical decision-making in counseling research and examines to what extent decision-making is based on intuitive thinking. Reviews and considers several models of ethical problem solving. Argues that ethical decisions are reached through intuition, informed by ethical principles, codes of practice, and reference to the laws…

  14. A History of Ethics and Law in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Luce, John M.; White, Douglas B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Because they provide potential benefit at great personal and public cost, the intensive care unit (ICU) and the interventions rendered therein have become symbols of both the promise and the limitations of medical technology. At the same time, the ICU has served as an arena in which many of the ethical and legal dilemmas created by that technology have been defined and debated. In this essay, we outline major events in the history of ethics and law in the ICU. We cover 10 areas: 1) the evolution of ICUs, 2) ethical principles, 3) informed consent and the law, 4) medical decision-making, 5) cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 6) withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy, 7) legal cases involving life support, 8) advance directives, 9) prognostication, and 10) futility and the allocation of medical resources. We emphasize that advancement of the ethical principle of respect for patient autonomy in ICUs increasingly is conflicting with physicians’ concern about their own prerogatives and with the just distribution of medical resources. PMID:19268804

  15. The Ethical Practice of Podiatric Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Daniel J.

    1978-01-01

    A close examination of the Hippocratic Oath and the Code of Ethics of the American Podiatry Association is proposed as a outline for the parameters of ethical professional conduct. Ethical challenges facing the medical community, such as euthanasia, are discussed. (LBH)

  16. Ethics and the University. Professional Ethics Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Michael

    This book brings together the closely related topics of the practice of ethics in the university, "academic ethics," and the teaching of practical, or applied, ethics in the university. The volume considers practical ethics, research ethics, the teaching of ethics, and sexual ethics as related to the university. The chapters are: (1) "The Ethics

  17. Ethical considerations in bioengineering research.

    PubMed

    Naurato, Nicolas; Smith, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    Biomedical science and engineering have made rapid advancements in the field of medicine over the past few decades. New ethical problems arising from this technology are influencing biomedical research more and more. It is disturbing that bioengineering professionals have had relatively little contact with moral and legal theory in light of these developments and particularly since they represent the forefront of new medical innovations. The objective of this communication is to introduce the study of bioethics and the use of principlism when examining bioengineering problems and dilemmas. Specific examples derived from actual proceedings, such as the Baltimore case, will alert scientists to the importance of misconduct in academic society. Cases will be used to illustrate how tools learned in this presentation are applied to analyze bioethical issues. New technology has a large social impact and is setting the standard of care for treatment. The health care system continually relies on researchers to produce improvements in patient therapy. Society will increasingly expect scientists to be morally responsible for the research they perform and uphold those virtues that ensure good ethical conduct. PMID:12724954

  18. MedEthEx Online: A Computer-based Learning Program in Medical Ethics and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleetwood, Janet; Vaught, Wayne; Feldman, Debra; Gracely, Edward; Kassutto, Zach; Novack, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Assessed MedEthEx Online, a computer-based learning program, in improving communication skills as part of a required bioethics course for medical students. Exam scores of users were comparable with non-users, although computerized-learning students scored higher in specific exam areas, felt somewhat more clinically prepared, and rated the course…

  19. Should teachers of medical ethics and health professionals remain value neutral in order to respect the autonomy of students and patients?

    PubMed

    Bøgeskov, Benjamín Olivares

    2013-09-01

    This article describes the pedagogical and ethical problems that ensue when ethical neutrality is mandated as the sole acceptable stance for teachers of ethics and health professionals (especially in public institutions). This paper argues that such a mandate can (1) violate public employees' own ethical integrity by forcing them to adopt the current legal order as their own ethical code; (2) erode trust, by requiring that the professional or teacher betray the honesty that patients and students commonly expect; and, finally, (3) undermine--by affirming that all opinions are equally acceptable--he pedagogical aim of generating critical thinking. Nevertheless, the article warns teachers and professionals against defending their own convictions by appealing to authority or the power of public office. The correct way to avoid ethical neutrality, this article asserts, is by distinguishing "opinion" from "argument": by not merely articulating, but providing convincing arguments for, one's own professional ethical opinions. PMID:24340483

  20. Genetic markers as a predictive tool based on statistics in medical practice: ethical considerations through the analysis of the use of HLA-B*27 in rheumatology in France

    PubMed Central

    Colineaux, Hélène; Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The use of genetic predictive markers in medical practice does not necessarily bear the same kind of medical and ethical consequences than that of genes directly involved in monogenic diseases. However, the French bioethics law framed in the same way the production and use of any genetic information. It seems therefore necessary to explore the practical and ethical context of the actual use of predictive markers in order to highlight their specific stakes. In this study, we document the uses of HLA-B*27, which are an interesting example of the multiple features of genetic predictive marker in general medical practice. Materials and Methods: The aims of this monocentric and qualitative study were to identify concrete and ethical issues of using the HLA-B*27 marker and the interests and limits of the legal framework as perceived by prescribers. In this regard, a thematic and descriptive analysis of five rheumatologists' semi-structured and face-to-face interviews was performed. Results: According to most of the interviewees, HLA-B*27 is an “overframed” test because they considered that this test is not really genetic or at least does not have the same nature as “classical genetic tests”; HLA-B*27 is not concerned by the ethical challenges of genetic test; the major ethics stake of this marker is not linked to its genetic nature but rather to the complexity of the probabilistic information. This study allows also showing that HLA-B*27, validated for a certain usage, may be used in different ways in practice. Discussion: This marker and its clinical uses underline the challenges of translating both statistical concepts and unifying legal framework in clinical practice. This study allows identifying some new aspects and stakes of genetics in medicine and shows the need of additional studies about the use of predictive genetic markers, in order to provide a better basis for decisions and legal framework regarding these practices. PMID:26528326

  1. Microethics in medical education and practice

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, KP; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    “Microethics” is an avant-garde in the field of ethics. When the term “ethics” is brought into discussion in medical education or clinical practice, it customarily points to the traditional ethics, that is, biomedical ethics that deals with the ethical issues faced during unaccustomed or rare clinical circumstances. In contrast, microethics is a continuous ethical science existing in the physician-patient interaction that happens each day in every physician's clinical liaison. These ethical issues of everyday importance need to be introduced in the ethics training programs of medical institutions to provide insight and thereby promoting improvement in medical care and outcome.

  2. Microethics in medical education and practice.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Jharna; Dinoop, K P; Parija, Subhash Chandra

    2015-01-01

    "Microethics" is an avant-garde in the field of ethics. When the term "ethics" is brought into discussion in medical education or clinical practice, it customarily points to the traditional ethics, that is, biomedical ethics that deals with the ethical issues faced during unaccustomed or rare clinical circumstances. In contrast, microethics is a continuous ethical science existing in the physician-patient interaction that happens each day in every physician's clinical liaison. These ethical issues of everyday importance need to be introduced in the ethics training programs of medical institutions to provide insight and thereby promoting improvement in medical care and outcome. PMID:26629449

  3. Ethics of environmental concern

    SciTech Connect

    Attfield, R.

    1983-01-01

    The history of ideas and a philosophical investigation into normative ethics and some of its applications focus in this book on environmental concerns. Part one explores moral traditions, which may appear deficient because traditions have been misrepresented. Attitudes and ideas toward ecological problems have a basis in Jewish and Christian stewardship traditions. Part two re-examines moral principles in light of scientific discoveries that have generated and revealed new side effects of human actions on the complex systems of nature. If all worthwhile life is of intrinsic value, it is necessary to reassess and broaden the human obligation to ecology. The author disagrees with the movement to focus environmental ethics on the biosphere as an organic whole rather than on fellow creatures, although his principles embody constraints in the interests of future creaters. The book concludes with an assessment of principles on pollution, resources, population, and preservation. 302 references.

  4. Towards a Definition of Health Informatics Ethics Hamman W. Samuel

    E-print Network

    Zaiane, Osmar R.

    there is existing lit- erature on ethical issues in medicine, as well as ethics in computing, information technology that information technology and medicine together lead to new issues in ethics. Medical devices and healthcareTowards a Definition of Health Informatics Ethics Hamman W. Samuel Department of Computing Science

  5. EthicsConRep

    Cancer.gov

    The authors also gratefully acknowledge the copy editing assistance of Leslie Alter, MPH and Steve Brown. The Ethical Force Program’s initiative on patient-centered communication is funded in part by the American Medical Association Foundation, The California Endowment, the Commonwealth Fund and the Connecticut Health Foundation.

  6. [Ethics and biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Goussard, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Ethics in biomedical research took off from the 1947 Nuremberg Code to its own right in the wake of the Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. Since then, (inter)national regulations and guidelines providing a framework for clinical studies and protection for study participants have been drafted and implemented, while ethics committees and drug evaluation agencies have sprung up throughout the world. These two developments were crucial in bringing about the protection of rights and safety of the participants and harmonization of the conduct of biomedical research. Ethics committees and drug evaluation agencies deliver ethical and scientific assessments on the quality and safety of the projects submitted to them and issue respectively approvals and authorizations to carry out clinical trials, while ensuring that they comply with regulatory requirements, ethical principles, and scientific guidelines. The advent of biomedical ethics, together with the responsible commitment of clinical investigators and of the pharmaceutical industry, has guaranteed respect for the patient, for whom and with whom research is conducted. Just as importantly, it has also ensured that patients reap the benefit of what is the primary objective of biomedical research: greater life expectancy, well-being, and quality of life. PMID:17875303

  7. Developing an Ethical Basis for Student-Teacher Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehrwein, Teresa

    1996-01-01

    Nursing faculty must not only teach ethics to prospective nurses but also demonstrate it in relationships with students. Principles for ethical educational practice include mutual respect, open communication, boundary setting, consistent behaviors, and personal values. (SK)

  8. Current issues in medically assisted reproduction and genetics in Europe: research, clinical practice, ethics, legal issues and policy

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Joyce C; Geraedts, Joep; Borry, Pascal; Cornel, Martina C; Dondorp, Wybo; Gianaroli, Luca; Harton, Gary; Milachich, Tanya; Kääriäinen, Helena; Liebaers, Inge; Morris, Michael; Sequeiros, Jorge; Sermon, Karen; Shenfield, Françoise; Skirton, Heather; Soini, Sirpa; Spits, Claudia; Veiga, Anna; Vermeesch, Joris Robert; Viville, Stéphane; de Wert, Guido; Macek, Milan

    2013-01-01

    In March 2005, a group of experts from the European Society of Human Genetics and European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology met to discuss the interface between genetics and assisted reproductive technology (ART), and published an extended background paper, recommendations and two Editorials. Seven years later, in March 2012, a follow-up interdisciplinary workshop was held, involving representatives of both professional societies, including experts from the European Union Eurogentest2 Coordination Action Project. The main goal of this meeting was to discuss developments at the interface between clinical genetics and ARTs. As more genetic causes of reproductive failure are now recognised and an increasing number of patients undergo testing of their genome before conception, either in regular health care or in the context of direct-to-consumer testing, the need for genetic counselling and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may increase. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS) thus far does not have evidence from randomised clinical trials to substantiate that the technique is both effective and efficient. Whole-genome sequencing may create greater challenges both in the technological and interpretational domains, and requires further reflection about the ethics of genetic testing in ART and PGD/PGS. Diagnostic laboratories should be reporting their results according to internationally accepted accreditation standards (International Standards Organisation – ISO 15189). Further studies are needed in order to address issues related to the impact of ART on epigenetic reprogramming of the early embryo. The legal landscape regarding assisted reproduction is evolving but still remains very heterogeneous and often contradictory. The lack of legal harmonisation and uneven access to infertility treatment and PGD/PGS fosters considerable cross-border reproductive care in Europe and beyond. The aim of this paper is to complement previous publications and provide an update of selected topics that have evolved since 2005. PMID:24225486

  9. Nanotechnology and environmental ethics.

    PubMed

    Tomoki, Kihira

    2011-01-01

    It seems that the relation between human and nature is not direct, but mediated by the technology. Therefore, it seems that characteristics of the technology defines the relation. If this is true, the problem is whether new technology always makes new relation or not. In this paper I take a brief look at the relation between technology in general and the environmental crisis from the ethical perspective. And then, I investigate the concept of responsible development and the principle of stewardship that is adopted in two reports concerning nanotechnologies. Through these explorations, an ethical stance on the application of nanotechnology is proposed. PMID:21850974

  10. Understanding the lived experiences of patients: application of a phenomenological approach to ethics.

    PubMed

    Greenfield, Bruce H; Jensen, Gail M

    2010-08-01

    This perspective article provides a justification, with an overview, of the use of phenomenological inquiry and the interpretation into the everyday ethical concerns of patients with disabilities. Disability is explored as a transformative process that involves physical, cognitive, and moral changes. This perspective article discusses the advantages of phenomenology to supplement and enhance the principlist process of ethical decision making that guides much of contemporary medical practice, including physical therapy. A phenomenological approach provides a more contextual approach to ethical decision making through probing, uncovering, and interpreting the meanings of "stories" of patients. This approach, in turn, provides for a more coherent and genuine application of ethical principles within the "textured life-world" of patients and their evolving values as they grapple with disability to make ethical and clinical decisions. The article begins with an in-depth discussion of the current literature about the phenomenology of people with disability. This literature review is followed by a discussion of the traditional principlist approach to making ethical decisions, which, in turn, is followed by a discussion of phenomenology and its tools for use in clinical inquiry and interpretation of the experiences of patients with disabilities. A specific case is presented that illustrates specific tools of phenomenology to uncover the moral context of disability from the perspective of patients. The article concludes with a discussion of clinical, educational, and research implications of a phenomenological approach to ethics and clinical decision making. PMID:20539020

  11. [Conflicts of interest in clinical practice. Ethical analysis of some relationships with the pharmaceutical industry].

    PubMed

    Salas, Sofía P; Osorio F, Marcial; Vial C, Pablo; Rehbein V, Ana María; Salas A, Camila; Beca I, Juan Pablo

    2006-12-01

    Sometimes, the prescription practice of physicians can be influenced by factors that are not related to scientific evidence due to the appearance of several conflicts of interest. These conflicts cause social concern and have prompted actions to regulate the ethics of individual and corporative activities related to healthcare. We analyzed the ethical problems involved in the physician-industry relationship. For this purpose, we considered as the main actors related to this problem, the pharmaceutical industry and their marketing strategies, medical doctors and the independence and objectivity that should guide prescriptions and, finally, patients and their right to receive prescriptions based on scientific evidence. From the point of view of the Bioethics principles, Beneficence would not be respected when gifts or other donations received from the industry affect doctor's independence. Non Maleficence principle could be jeopardized if there is an increased risk of treatment failure and finally Justice could be altered if there is a cost increase for either patients or health institutions. As a conclusion, we consider that the presence of conflicts of interest in the relationship of physicians with the pharmaceutical industry is an important ethical problem. In consequence, this group endorses the recommendations of the Chilean Association of Medical Scientific Societies and advices to include ethical guidelines on this topic in the curriculum of medical schools. PMID:17277877

  12. Professional Ethics for Astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, K. B.

    2005-05-01

    There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

  13. Taking ethical photos of children for medical and research purposes in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Photographs are commonly taken of children in medical and research contexts. With the increased availability of photographs through the internet, it is increasingly important to consider their potential for negative consequences and the nature of any consent obtained. In this research we explore the issues around photography in low-resource settings, in particular concentrating on the challenges in gaining informed consent. Methods Exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions involving medical doctors and researchers who are currently working or have recently worked in low-resource settings with children. Results Photographs are a valuable resource but photographers need to be mindful of how they are taken and used. Informed consent is needed when taking photographs but there were a number of problems in doing this, such as different concepts of consent, language and literacy barriers and the ability to understand the information. There was no consensus as to the form that the consent should take. Participants thought that while written consent was preferable, the mode of consent should depend on the situation. Conclusions Photographs are a valuable but potentially harmful resource, thus informed consent is required but its form may vary by context. We suggest applying a hierarchy of dissemination to gauge how detailed the informed consent should be. Care should be taken not to cause harm, with the rights of the child being the paramount consideration. PMID:23835013

  14. The devil's choice: re-thinking law, ethics, and symptom relief in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2006-01-01

    Health professionals do not always have the luxury of making "right" choices. This article introduces the "devil's choice" as a metaphor to describe medical choices that arise in circumstances where all the available options are both unwanted and perverse. Using the devil's choice, the paper criticizes the principle of double effect and provides a re-interpretation of the conventional legal and ethical account of symptom relief in palliative care. PMID:17144180

  15. "Living in a Shell of Something I'm Not": Transsexuality, Medical Ethics, and the Judeo-Christian Culture.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Mathias

    2015-10-01

    A surgeon participating in a 2008 congress on the topic of trans-identified people posed the question of whether doctors would have to defend themselves when "judgment day" comes for having employed surgical means to turn men into women or vice versa? What might be viewed as a certain level of (medical) irrationality surrounding transgender life, coupled with widely documented cases of violence directed at these groups may well partly be attributable to the deeply internalized doctrine of creation in Judeo-Christian culture. Objections, however, to the use of transgender medicine "in the name of normalization" cannot relate to the biblical tradition, for there is no normative concept of gender and no text whose scope is to articulate theory of gender. In the vast expanse and freedom of the Judeo-Christian creator there is space for diversity, variations, and, above all, for the development of individual freedom. PMID:26156704

  16. Ethics in Science.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Om P

    2015-09-01

    Ethics are a set of moral principles and values a civilized society follows. Doing science with principles of ethics is the bedrock of scientific activity. The society trusts that the results and the projected outcome of any scientific activity is based on an honest and conscientious attempt by the scientific community. However, during the last few decades, there has been an explosion of knowledge and the advent of digital age. We can access the publications of competitors with just a "click". The evaluation parameters have evolved a lot and are based on impact factors, h-index and citations. There is a general feeling that the scientific community is under a lot of pressure for fulfilling the criteria for upward growth and even retention of the positions held. The noble profession of scientific research and academics has been marred by the temptation to falsify and fabricate data, plagiarism and other unethical practices. Broadly speaking, the breach of ethics involves: plagiarism, falsification of data, redundant (duplicate) publication, drawing far-fetched conclusions without hard data, for early publicity, gift authorship (receiving as well as giving), not giving sufficient attention and consideration to scholars and post-docs as per the norms, self promotion at the cost of team-members, treating colleagues (overall all juniors) in a feudal way and Machiavellianism (cunningness and duplicity in general conduct and push to positions of power and pelf). Misconduct in Indian academics and science is also under a lot of focus. It is important and urgent that science, engineering, and health departments and institutions in our country have in place systems for education and training in pursuit of science with ethics by sound and professional courses in Responsible Conduct of Research. All research and academic institution must have the Office of Ethics for information, guidelines, training and professional oversight of conduct of research with the ethos and ethics of research. PMID:26063945

  17. ETHICS IN GERIATRIC MEDICINE RESEARCH

    PubMed Central

    ?lgili, Önder; Arda, Berna; Munir, Kerim

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to evaluate the research process in geriatrics from the ethical point of view. The elderly population is increasing rapidly, but there is no parallel in the amount of research concerning this demographic. On the other hand, in the light of research ethics, this group mainly represents vulnerable people and requires more sensitivity. Taking into account all these features, fundamental principles in research ethics are first considered: the soundness of the scientific project, qualifications of the investigators, ethics committee approval, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice are evaluated. Special ethical issues in geriatric research such as ageism and research inclusion, paucity of research involving elderly people, vulnerability of elderly subjects, and cognitive impairments are discussed separately. PMID:25489272

  18. Ethics of environment and development

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, J.R.; Engel, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    How can we make ethical decisions about our environment in the face of increasingly conflicting needs and opinions This collection of essays offers a wide range of viewpoints representing many of the world's cultural and religious traditions to help readers better make such determinations for themselves. In this paper, the authors seek to clarify the ethical principles surrounding the concept of sustainable development. They provide a synoptic overview of the contemporary moral challenge of sustainable development and the similarities and differences in its interpretation throughout the world. In bringing together contributions by authorities in environmental ethics and developmental ethics, and by those who are addressing these questions from the perspectives of religion and humanistic philosophy, the book develops the concept of sustainability as the ethical approach to reconciling the needs of environmental conservation with economic development.

  19. History and theory in "applied ethics".

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Tom L

    2007-03-01

    Robert Baker and Laurence McCullough argue that the "applied ethics model" is deficient and in need of a replacement model. However, they supply no clear meaning to "applied ethics" and miss most of what is important in the literature on methodology that treats this question. The Baker-McCullough account of medical and applied ethics is a straw man that has had no influence in these fields or in philosophical ethics. The authors are also on shaky historical grounds in dealing with two problems: (1) the historical source of the notion of "practical ethics" and (2) the historical source of and the assimilation of the term "autonomy" into applied philosophy and professional ethics. They mistakenly hold (1) that the expression "practical ethics" was first used in a publication by Thomas Percival and (2) that Kant is the primary historical source of the notion of autonomy as that notion is used in contemporary applied ethics. PMID:17849664

  20. [Ethics: a challenge for education].

    PubMed

    Moreau, D; Larochelle, C

    1993-05-01

    Because of new advances in biomedical science and bio-technology, nurses are confronted with dilemmas for which no easy solutions are available. For this reason, it is becoming increasingly crucial that nursing students develop moral judgement. Nursing students find it difficult to relate the principles of ethics (moral conduct, duty and judgment) to concrete nursing situations. Blondeau (1986) believes the case study to be one of the most effective teaching strategies that can be used to raise moral sensitivity. However, it is very difficult to use this strategy with young adult students. The authors believe that if students learn ethical principles prior to the case study they will become aware of ethical problems and will be better prepared to discuss in depth ethical implications. They designed a self-learning module and compared the results with an equivalent group of students. Post-test cognitive results showed a difference between the two groups. Students using the new case study module expressed great satisfaction with the format, utilization and attitudes of this module. The approach proved useful since students were able to learn at their own pace. The time previously used to teach ethical principles was then allotted to class discussions and the process of ethical decision-making. PMID:8500090

  1. Overservicing in dental practice--ethical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hartshorne, Johan; Hasegawa, Thomas K

    2003-10-01

    Overservicing or the acceptance of unnecessary, inappropriate, excessive or fraudulent treatment is regarded as sanctioned lying, cheating or stealing and thus constitutes unethical conduct and a breach of the integrity of the profession. During the past year the media have repeatedly reported that the private sector is bloated with overservicing: one of the most important factors contributing to the increasing inflation of health care costs. Overservicing is an ethical problem presenting with a conflict situation among the interests of the patient, the provider and the funder. For example, since dentists are in a position to gain financially from their professional recommendations, they are at risk of having a conflict of interest: by overservicing they collect more fees. Low medical aid tariffs, delayed payment of benefits, oversupply of dentists, decreasing business and the spiralling costs of dental materials and equipment are the primary causes of high practice overheads and low cash-flow levels. Dentists may seek alternatives such as overservicing or unnecessary treatment to generate income and to improve their cash flow and/or profit. The main motives for overservicing are economic survival and financial gain. Some dentists may overtreat unintentionally due to out-dated treatment philosophies or where criteria for diagnosis and effective care are not clear, leading to variation in treatment decisions. Some overservicing may be due to patient-initiated demand. Dentists are largely unregulated as to the appropriateness or necessity of treatment decisions because of their professional status. Society trusts that their professionals will put the benefit of those they serve above their own self-interests. The aim of this review is to provide dentists with some guidance to the process of ethical decision making, the ethical principles involved, moral rules, and guidelines for professional standard of care. Business considerations whether profit, financial gain or economic survival should never justify overservicing by the dentist. If the patients' best interests are always considered, the profession of dentistry can ethically exist within a business structure. PMID:14964050

  2. Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Morris M.

    1991-01-01

    According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

  3. Professional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Andrew

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of primary and secondary sources identifies five basic properties of professional ethics codes. The author's own theory, which is related directly to intra- and extraprofessional statuses, is added to the two traditional theories (functional and monopoly) which explain these properties. Professional ethics in America since 1900 are…

  4.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    Welcome to the first edition of the NCI Office of Ethics Newsletter!  We created this newsletter to keep staff up to date on ethics topics, news, and current events.  Please feel free to contact us with questions, requests for newsletter article topics or

  5. Assent as an ethical imperative in the treatment of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Anson J; Sisti, Dominic A

    2015-12-01

    The American Academy of Paediatrics endorses obtaining assent when prescribing medications for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in older children whenever possible. Studies indicate the concept of assent may not be well understood by clinicians, possibly effecting effective and widespread implementation. We argue that though the concept of assent continues to evolve, it is critical in the context of patient-centred care, shared decision-making and in supporting minors' transition to adulthood. Based on the principle of respect for young persons, we argue that obtaining assent is an ethical imperative when prescribing medication for ADHD. We highlight the instrumental benefits of obtaining assent in the paediatric clinical encounter when prescribing medications for treatment of ADHD. PMID:26112613

  6. Morality, ethics, and law: introductory concepts.

    PubMed

    Horner, Jennifer

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to differentiate morality, ethics, and law. Morality refers to a set of deeply held, widely shared, and relatively stable values within a community. Ethics as a philosophical enterprise involves the study of values, and the justification for right and good actions, as represented by the classic works of Aristotle (virtue ethics), Kant (duty-based ethics), and Bentham and Mill (utilitarian and consequentialist ethics). Applied ethics, in contrast, is the use of ethics principles (e.g., respect for autonomy, beneficence, and nonmaleficence, justice) in actual situations, such as in professional and clinical life. Finally, law is comprised of concrete duties established by governments that are necessary for maintaining social order and resolving disputes, as well as for distributing social resources according to what people need or deserve. PMID:14722800

  7. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  8. Positioning of Engineer Ethics from the Standpoint of a Company. And the Ethics Education Towards Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Masaki

    The purpose of a company is contribution to society by operating activities. Therefore, it has a company principle and “Business ethics” conduct codes in each. On the other hand, many engineers with specialties are performing business toward the same purpose at the same company. And it will produce new inconsistency by introducing “Engineer ethics” and “the ethics of each professional” all at once in the situation of that company. Then, the engineer ethics education in company needs to carry out by arranging company conduct codes and Engineer ethics. This paper proposes what the company ethics education should be from exemplifying results by make activities and engineer ethics education of the corporate ethics observance in the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.

  9. Ethical Issues | accrualnet.cancer.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Basic moral principles and patient’s rights are always top of mind in planning and conducting clinical trials. Browse the conversations in this area to find information about ethical issues such as conflict of interest, and informed consent. Or to learn more about Ethical Issues, click here.

  10. Ethical Decision Making: Developmental Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panzl, Barbara; McMahon, Timothy

    This document is a compilation of materials from a presentation on ethical decision making. These components are included: (1) four sample moral dilemmas; (2) graphs of Kohlberg's six stages of moral growth; (3) graphs of Gilligan's Theory of Moral Judgments; (4) graphs of Kitchner's Theory of Ethical Principles; (5) a discussion of the four…

  11. Ethical Realism: A Guide to Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matkin, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to Gary Miller's essay entitled "Ethical Realism and Continuing Education." In his essay, Dr. Miller has provided a valuable opportunity to reflect on the practice of continuing education (CE) leadership. Dr. Miller reviews six principles that are encapsulated in the concept of ethical realism, but are…

  12. Ethical Considerations in Human Movement Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivier, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Highlights ethical issues for human subject research, identifying principles that form the construct of a code of research ethics and evaluating against this construct past human experimentation and current research in human movement studies. The efficacy of legislation and self-regulation is examined. Particular attention is given to the context…

  13. Ethics for Professionals in Education: Perspectives for Preparation and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strike, Kenneth A., Ed.; Ternasky, P. Lance, Ed.

    This book examines ethical principles governing the conduct of teachers, administrators, and other education professionals. The collection of articles, some with conflicting views, provides an overview of the many issues that define the place of ethics in professional preparation and practice. Following the introduction, "Ethics in Educational…

  14. School Counselor Advocacy: When Law and Ethics May Collide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Carolyn B.; Zirkel, Perry A.

    2010-01-01

    Legal rules establish basic duties akin to the floor for acceptable behavior, whereas ethical codes represent aspirational standards for best practice. For school counselors, fulfilling both legal requirements and ethical principles may pose challenges that warrant careful consideration. This article outlines a legal/ethical conflict in the case…

  15. Using Gaming To Help Nursing Students Understand Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Barbara L.; Yankou, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    An ethics game involves nursing students in defending actions in ethics-based scenarios. Benefits include increased confidence, ability to see multiple perspectives, values clarification, and exposure to decision-making models, professional responsibilities, ethical principles, social expectations, and legal requirements. Difficulties include…

  16. Body art and medical need.

    PubMed

    Brassington, I

    2006-01-01

    A company called Biojewelry has proposed to take a sample of bone tissue from a couple and to grow this sample into wedding rings. One of the ethical problems that such a proposal faces is that it implies surgery without medical need. To this end, only couples with a prior need for surgery are being considered. This paper examines the question of whether such a stipulation is necessary. It is suggested that, though medical need and the provision of health and wellbeing is overwhelmingly the warrant for surgical intervention, there is no reason in principle why other, non-medical, projects such as jewelry creation might not also warrant surgical intervention. Implicitly, this line of thought forces us to consider the proper place of surgical intervention--that is, to ask what surgeons are for. PMID:16373516

  17. Information and communication on risks related to medications and proper use of medications for healthcare professionals and the general public: precautionary principle, risk management, communication during and in the absence of crisis situations.

    PubMed

    Molimard, Mathieu; Bernaud, Corine; Lechat, Philippe; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Benattia, Cherif; Benkritly, Amel; Braunstein, David; Cabut, Sandrine; David, Nadine; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Gallet, Benoit; Gersberg, Marta; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Lamarque-Garnier, Véronique; Le Jeunne, Claire; Leurs, Irina; Liard, François; Malbezin, Muriel; Micallef, Joelle; Nguon, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Recent drug crises have highlighted the complexity, benefits and risks of medication communication. The difficulty of this communication is due to the diversity of the sources of information and the target audience, the credibility of spokespersons, the difficulty to communicate on scientific uncertainties and the precautionary principle, which is influenced by variable perceptions and tolerances of the risk. Globally, there is a lack of training in risk management with a tendency of modern society to refuse even the slightest risk. Communication on medications is subject to regulatory or legal requirements, often uses tools and messages that are not adapted to the target audience and is often based on a poor knowledge of communication techniques. In order to improve this situation, the available information must be coordinated by reinforcing the unique medication information website and by coordinating communication between authorities by means of a single spokesperson. A particular effort must be made in the field of training in the proper use and risk of medications for both the general population and patients but also for healthcare professionals, by setting up a unified academic on-line teaching platform for continuing medical education on medications and their proper use. PMID:25099666

  18. Ethical issues and accountability in pressure ulcer prevention.

    PubMed

    Welsh, Lynn

    2014-10-28

    Pressure ulcers represent a considerable cost, both in terms of healthcare spending and quality of life. They are increasingly viewed in terms of patient harm. For clinicians involved in pressure ulcer prevention, ethical issues surrounding accountability may arise from both policy and practice perspectives. It may be useful for clinicians to refer to ethical theories and principles to create frameworks when addressing ethical dilemmas. However, such theories and principles have been criticised for their simplicity and over-generalisation. Alternative theories, for example, virtue ethics and experiential learning, can provide more comprehensive guidance and promote a pluralistic approach to tackling ethical dilemmas. PMID:25335632

  19. [Ethics, empiricism and uncertainty].

    PubMed

    Porz, R; Zimmermann, H; Exadaktylos, A K

    2011-01-01

    Accidents can lead to difficult boundary situations. Such situations often take place in the emergency units. The medical team thus often and inevitably faces professional uncertainty in their decision-making. It is essential to communicate these uncertainties within the medical team, instead of downplaying or overriding existential hurdles in decision-making. Acknowledging uncertainties might lead to alert and prudent decisions. Thus uncertainty can have ethical value in treatment or withdrawal of treatment. It does not need to be covered in evidence-based arguments, especially as some singular situations of individual tragedies cannot be grasped in terms of evidence-based medicine. PMID:21181616

  20. Ethical leadership.

    PubMed

    Keselman, David

    2012-01-01

    In today's climate and environment, the conventional relationship between caring, economic, and administrative practices no longer serves the interest of patients, clinicians, or systems. A shift toward human caring values and an ethic of authentic healing relationships is required as systems now have to value human resources and life purposes, inner meaning, and processes for providers and patients alike. The costs of unethical behavior can be even greater for followers. When we assume the benefits of leadership, we also assume ethical burdens. It is the assertion and experience of the author that the triangle of ethics and ethical behavior, followers, and patient's outcomes are closely interrelated and affect each other in a very intimate and direct way. Unethical leadership may lead to follower disappointment and distrust, leading to lack of interest and commitment, consequently negatively impacting patient outcomes and organizational effectiveness. PMID:22864295

  1.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

       Thanks for visiting the NCI Ethics Newsletter webpage!  Click on the links below to access the most current version of the newsletter, as well as the archives.   Volume 1, January 2012  Volume 2, May 2012  Volume 3, September 2012

  2.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    For OGE-450 Filers Confidential Financial Disclosure Report (OGE-450) Employees in certain positions are required by the Ethics in Government Act (EIGA), as amended, to file a Confidential Financial Disclosure Report (OGE-450) because of the responsibilit

  3. Treating an HIV/AIDS Patient's PTSD and Medication Nonadherence with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Principle-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernoff, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    HIV/AIDS patients with medication adherence problems are vulnerable to developing drug resistance, immune system degradation, and opportunistic infections. Poor adherence to antiretroviral medication regimens can be aggravated by psychiatric problems, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article presents the case study of a…

  4. Use of the medical Ethics Consultation Service in a busy Level I trauma center: impact on decision-making and patient care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Laura S; Lesandrini, Jason; Rozycki, Grace S

    2012-07-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess reasons for consultation of the Ethics Consultation Service for trauma patients and how consultations impacted care. We conducted a review of ethics consultations at a Level I trauma center from 2001 to 2010. Data included patient demographics, etiology of injury, and timing/type of the consult, categorized as: shared decision-making, end-of-life, privacy and confidentiality, resource allocation, and professionalism. Consultations were requested on 108 patients (age mean, 46.5 ± 20 years; Injury Severity Score mean, 23 ± 14; length of stay [LOS] mean, 44 ± 44 days), 0.50 per cent of all trauma admissions. Seventy-seven per cent of consultations occurred in the intensive care unit. End of life was the most common consultation (44%) followed by shared decision-making (41%). Average time to consultation was 25 days. Shared decision-making consults occurred much earlier than end-of-life consults as evidenced by a lower consult day/LOS ratio (consult day/LOS = 0.36 ± 0.3 vs 0.77 ± 0.3, P = 0.0001). Conclusions consisted of: 1) ethics consultation on trauma patients are most commonly for end-of-life and shared decision-making issues; 2) most ethics consultations occur while patients are in the intensive care unit; and 3) earlier ethics consultations are likely to be for shared decision-making issues. PMID:22748529

  5. [Ethical issues and countermeasures in AIDS prevention].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Teng, Fei

    2013-08-01

    With the rapid spread of AIDS, the ethical issues of its prevention is intensify more and more, it mainly reflected in the four areas such as discrimination of disease and moral panic, individual rights and public health, privacy and right to know, social responsibility and behavior guidance. To resolve these ethical conflicts and safeguard legitimate rights of AIDS patients, we must adhere to love and tolerance, favorable and fair, the principles of autonomy and coordination, thus promoting AIDS prevention, maintaining social ethics and justice, equal and harmonious reconstruction of the ethical relationship. PMID:24228550

  6. The influence of ethics on leadership.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, A M

    1995-05-01

    Value driven ethical leadership is needed today. The housekeeping field employs a diverse work force, and managers must develop and empower workers to attain organization goals. As managers, we must understand and develop our personal value structures that affect our decision making. This paper reviews Lawrence Kohlberg's study of moral behavior and how those stages are relevant to ethical management practices. It also addresses ways to overcome some obstacles in understanding and dealing with personal values that may threaten moral and ethical practices. Mature ethical principles and good communication are the foundation for and foster strong leadership for the future. PMID:10142527

  7. Ethics in Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowe, Frank G.

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions in providing prenatal services, including testing and genetic engineering, and medical interventions with neonates and other very young children who have severe disabilities. It explores ways to enhance ethical decision making, including recruitment for multidisciplinary teams or other committees of adults…

  8. Human Participants in Engineering Research: Notes from a Fledgling Ethics Committee.

    PubMed

    Koepsell, David; Brinkman, Willem-Paul; Pont, Sylvia

    2015-08-01

    For the past half-century, issues relating to the ethical conduct of human research have focused largely on the domain of medical, and more recently social-psychological research. The modern regime of applied ethics, emerging as it has from the Nuremberg trials and certain other historical antecedents, applies the key principles of: autonomy, respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to human beings who enter trials of experimental drugs and devices (Martensen in J Hist Med Allied Sci 56(2):168-175, 2001). Institutions such as Institutional Review Boards (in the U.S.) and Ethics Committees (in Europe and elsewhere) oversee most governmentally-funded medical research around the world, in more than a hundred nations that are signers of the Declaration of Helsinki (World Medical Association 2008). Increasingly, research outside of medicine has been recognized to pose potential risks to human subjects of experiments. Ethics committees now operate in the US, Canada, the U.K. and Australia to oversee all governmental-funded research, and in other jurisdictions, the range of research covered by such committees is expanding. Social science, anthropology, and other fields are falling under more clear directives to conduct a formal ethical review for basic research involving human participants (Federman et al. in Responsible research: a systems approach to protecting research participants. National Academies Press, Washington, 2003, p. 36). The legal and institutional response for protecting human subjects in the course of developing non-medical technologies, engineering, and design is currently vague, but some universities are establishing ethics committees to oversee their human subjects research even where the experiments involved are non-medical and not technically covered by the Declaration of Helsinki. In The Netherlands, as in most of Europe, Asia, Latin America, or Africa, no laws mandate an ethical review of non-medical research. Yet, nearly 2 years ago we launched a pilot ethics committee at our technical university and began soliciting our colleagues to submit their studies for review. In the past year, we have become officially recognized as a human subjects ethics committee for our university and we are beginning the process of requiring all studies using human subjects to apply for our approval. In this article, we consider some of the special problems relating to protecting human participants in a technology context, and discuss some of our experiences and insights about reviewing human subjects research at a technical university, concluding: that not less than in medical studies, human participants used in technology research benefit from ethical committees' reviews, practical requirements for publications, grants, and avoiding legal liability are also served by such committees, and ethics committees in such contexts have many similarities to, but certain other special foci than medical ethics committees. We believe that this experience, and these observations, are helpful for those seeking to establish such committees in technology research contexts, and for framing the particular issues that may arise in such contexts for the benefit of researchers, and nascent committees seeking to establish their own procedures. PMID:24938695

  9. Cautionary Tales: Ethics and Case Studies in Science

    PubMed Central

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2014-01-01

    Ethical concerns are normally avoided in science classrooms in spite of the fact that many of our discoveries impinge directly on personal and societal values. We should not leave the ethical problems for another day, but deal with them using realistic case studies that challenge students at their ethical core. In this article we illustrate how case studies can be used to teach STEM students principles of ethics. PMID:25574280

  10. The Ethical Implications of the Five-Stage Skill-Acquisition Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Hubert L.; Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    We assume that acting ethically is a skill. We then use a phenomenological description of five stages of skill acquisition to argue that an ethics based on principles corresponds to a beginner's reliance on rules and so is developmentally inferior to an ethics based on expert response that claims that, after long experience, the ethical expert…

  11. Ethics Committees in the Rural Midwest: Exploring the Impact of HIPAA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Having, Karen M.; Hale, Dena; Lautar, Charla J.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Confidentiality of personal health information is an ethical principle and a legislated mandate; however, the impact of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) on ethics committees ethics committees is limited. Purpose: This study investigates the prevalence, activity, and composition of ethics committees located…

  12. Research ethics workshop Wellcome Trust/KEMRI Programme Kilifi, Kenya, 12 March 2004

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    Research ethics workshop ­ Wellcome Trust/KEMRI Programme Kilifi, Kenya, 12 March 2004 Meeting of research ethics in the audience was very varied: some researchers had no previous engagement with research ethics issues; some had extensive knowledge of research ethics principles and issues, particularly

  13. ETHICS AND ETIQUETTE IN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH David S. Touretzky

    E-print Network

    Narasimhan, Priya

    University August, 1998 Page 3 of 28 Ethics Education Scientific integrity training now required in the biological sciences, per NIH policy. Source: Susan Henry. Ethics training is part of many medical school and business school curricula. But not computer science? CMU's Center for the Advancement of Applied Ethics has

  14. Research Ethics: Institutional Review Board Oversight of Art Therapy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaver, Sarah P.

    2011-01-01

    By having their research proposals reviewed and approved by Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), art therapists meet important ethical principles regarding responsibility to research participants. This article provides an overview of the history of human subjects protections in the United States; underlying ethical principles and their application…

  15. Ethics of primate use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs.

  16. [Ethics and ritual circumcision].

    PubMed

    Castagnola, C; Faix, A

    2014-12-01

    Circumcision dates back to ancient times, nowadays, this ritual is practiced mainly in the context of Jewish and Muslim religions. The purpose of this article is to give urologists elements of reflection on the act according to the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. According to a Kantian vision, priority should be given to the respect and wishes of the individuals. In contrast, for the utilitarian theory, circumcision can be justified by a contribution to the happiness of the majority of community members at the expense of a given few. In the event of a request for ritual circumcision, urologists find themselves in the middle, uncomfortable for some, questioning the ethics of its meaning. The main pitfall for the surgeon remains in respecting the child's autonomy. PMID:25199723

  17. Practical virtue ethics: healthcare whistleblowing and portable digital technology.

    PubMed

    Bolsin, S; Faunce, T; Oakley, J

    2005-10-01

    Medical school curricula and postgraduate education programmes expend considerable resources teaching medical ethics. Simultaneously, whistleblowers' agitation continues, at great personal cost, to prompt major intrainstitutional and public inquiries that reveal problems with the application of medical ethics at particular clinical "coalfaces". Virtue ethics, emphasising techniques promoting an agent's character and instructing their conscience, has become a significant mode of discourse in modern medical ethics. Healthcare whistleblowers, whose complaints are reasonable, made in good faith, in the public interest, and not vexatious, we argue, are practising those obligations of professional conscience foundational to virtue based medical ethics. Yet, little extant virtue ethics scholarship seriously considers the theoretical foundations of healthcare whistleblowing. The authors examine whether healthcare whistleblowing should be considered central to any medical ethics emphasising professional virtues and conscience. They consider possible causes for the paucity of professional or academic interest in this area and examine the counterinfluence of a continuing historical tradition of guild mentality professionalism that routinely places relationships with colleagues ahead of patient safety.Finally, it is proposed that a virtue based ethos of medical professionalism, exhibiting transparency and sincerity with regard to achieving uniform quality and safety of health care, may be facilitated by introducing a technological imperative using portable computing devices. Their use by trainees, focused on ethical competence, provides the practical face of virtue ethics in medical education and practice. Indeed, it assists in transforming the professional conscience of whistleblowing into a practical, virtue based culture of self reporting and personal development. PMID:16199607

  18. Statistics and Ethics in Surgery and Anesthesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, John P.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes 46 medical research papers on the effects of innovative versus standard surgical procedures on the health of patients. Results reveal that innovations generally reduce complications. The ethics of experimental surgery are also discussed. (CP)

  19. Sport, Ethics & Education: Vices and or Virtues Mike McNamee is a Professor of Applied Ethics in the College

    E-print Network

    Hickman, Mark

    Sport, Ethics & Education: Vices and or Virtues Mike McNamee is a Professor of Applied Ethics in the College of Human and Health Science, Swansea University, where he teaches medical ethics He has served The College of Education Prestige Lecture Series 2012 Chaired by Dr Nick Draper, Head of School of Sciences

  20. Professional Ethics for Climate Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, K.; Mann, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Several authors have warned that climate scientists sometimes exhibit a tendency to "err on the side of least drama" in reporting the risks associated with fossil fuel emissions. Scientists are often reluctant to comment on the implications of their work for public policy, despite the fact that because of their expertise they may be among those best placed to make recommendations about such matters as mitigation and preparedness. Scientists often have little or no training in ethics or philosophy, and consequently they may feel that they lack clear guidelines for balancing the imperative to avoid error against the need to speak out when it may be ethically required to do so. This dilemma becomes acute in cases such as abrupt ice sheet collapse where it is easier to identify a risk than to assess its probability. We will argue that long-established codes of ethics in the learned professions such as medicine and engineering offer a model that can guide research scientists in cases like this, and we suggest that ethical training could be regularly incorporated into graduate curricula in fields such as climate science and geology. We recognize that there are disanalogies between professional and scientific ethics, the most important of which is that codes of ethics are typically written into the laws that govern licensed professions such as engineering. Presently, no one can legally compel a research scientist to be ethical, although legal precedent may evolve such that scientists are increasingly expected to communicate their knowledge of risks. We will show that the principles of professional ethics can be readily adapted to define an ethical code that could be voluntarily adopted by scientists who seek clearer guidelines in an era of rapid climate change.

  1. Incorporating global components into ethics education.

    PubMed

    Wang, George; Thompson, Russell G

    2013-03-01

    Ethics is central to science and engineering. Young engineers need to be grounded in how corporate social responsibility principles can be applied to engineering organizations to better serve the broader community. This is crucial in times of climate change and ecological challenges where the vulnerable can be impacted by engineering activities. Taking a global perspective in ethics education will help ensure that scientists and engineers can make a more substantial contribution to development throughout the world. This paper presents the importance of incorporating the global and cross culture components in the ethic education. The authors bring up a question to educators on ethics education in science and engineering in the globalized world, and its importance, necessity, and impendency. The paper presents several methods for discussion that can be used to identify the differences in ethics standards and practices in different countries; enhance the student's knowledge of ethics in a global arena. PMID:21769592

  2. [Ecologic ethics: a response for our times].

    PubMed

    Trejo, C

    1991-11-01

    To understand the ethics of our present time (macrocosmos), the patient-physician relationship (microcosmos complex) and its changes through history are analyzed. The patient-physician relationship is no longer between two individuals, it is plural and technified. An individualistic forms of ethic cannot answer the questions that arise from contemporary society. The power (political) of medical science has placed us at the threshold of a qualitative change, new that the human genome can be known and the very nature of the species can be modified. Man's destiny will depend on the way (ethic) he uses his knowledge. An ecological ethic could be the answer. PMID:9723085

  3. GIS and Ethics Undergraduate

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Sunday, April 18, 2010 #12;GIS and Ethics in the Undergraduate Classroom Presentation Overview · Encroachment of Ethics into Classroom · Relationship of GIS and Ethics · Student Perceptions of Ethics 2

  4. Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies in Mathematics and Statistics

    E-print Network

    Hillen, Thomas

    Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Ethics in Mathematics and Statistics Thomas Hillen University of Alberta March 26, 2013 #12;Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Outline Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies #12

  5. Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design.

    PubMed

    Cornet, Gérard

    2013-12-01

    From his experience as ethical expert for two Robot Companion prototype projects aiming at empowering older MCI persons to remain at home and to support their family carers, Gerard Cornet, Gerontologist, review the ethical rules, principles and pragmatic approaches in different cultures. The ethical process of these two funded projects, one European, Companionable (FP7 e-inclusion call1), the other French, Quo vadis (ANR tecsan) are described from the inclusion of the targeted end users in the process, to the assessment and ranking of their main needs and whishes to design the specifications, test the performance expected. Obstacles to turn round and limits for risks evaluation (directs or implicit), acceptability, utility, respect of intimacy and dignity, and balance with freedom and security and frontiers to artificial intelligence are discussed As quoted in the discussion with the French and Japanese experts attending the Toulouse Robotics and medicine symposium (March 26th 2011), the need of a new ethical approach, going further the present ethical rules is needed for the design and social status of ethical robots, having capacity cas factor of progress and global quality of innovation design in an ageing society. PMID:24558735

  6. Ethics in dermatology: toward a new paradigm.

    PubMed

    López-Martín, S; Galera-Martin, C; Guerra-Tapia, A

    2013-01-01

    Medical ethics have evolved over time, and ethical responsibilities have often been shared by priests, the governing classes, and physicians. The emergence of scientific medicine led to the separation of functions, yet physicians have nonetheless continued to enjoy an extraordinary degree of moral authority and great social privilege. From this starting point, professional medical ethics developed as a specific moral system based on special rights and duties (paternalism and medical confidentiality). Various historical events brought this longstanding situation to a point of crisis toward the middle of the 20th century, and for several decades since, medical ethics have been based on freedom of choice for the patient with regard to decisions about his or her own body and health. Recent developments have created a new, still poorly defined model that takes into consideration such matters as euthanasia, abortion, provision of information on the benefits and harm of treatments, the sharing of therapeutic decision-making with the patient and/or family members, the choice of public or private medical providers, therapeutic guidelines, and the extension of the scope of practice to include preventive measures and cosmetic procedures. What is needed now is a new ethical system for plural societies that harbor different religions, beliefs and lifestyles, but that is also rational, universal and subject to ongoing revision-a system always striving for scientific, technical and moral excellence. Such an ethical system would have to be taught in medical schools, as it would need to bear fruit beyond mere good intentions. PMID:22944290

  7. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  8. Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  9. Media debates and 'ethical publicity' on social sex selection through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) technology in Australia.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a critical discourse analysis of media debate over social sex selection in the Australian media from 2008 to 2014. This period coincides with a review of the National Health and Medical Research Council's Ethical Guidelines on the Use of Assisted Reproductive Technology in Clinical Practice and Research (2007), which underlie the regulation of assisted reproductive clinics and practice in Australia. I examine the discussion of the ethics of pre-implatation genetic diagnosis (PGD) within the media as 'ethical publicity' to the lay public. Sex selection through PGD is both exemplary of and interconnected with a range of debates in Australia about the legitimacy of certain reproductive choices and the extent to which procreative liberties should be restricted. Major themes emerging from media reports on PGD sex selection in Australia are described. These include: the spectre of science out of control; ramifications for the contestation over the public funding of abortion in Australia; private choices versus public authorities regulating reproduction; and the ethics of travelling overseas for the technology. It is concluded that within Australia, the issue of PGD sex selection is framed in terms of questions of individual freedom against the principle of sex discrimination - a principle enshrined in legislation - and a commitment to publically-funded medical care. PMID:25803702

  10. Organ transplantation: legal, ethical and islamic perspective in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-07-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

  11. Organ Transplantation: Legal, Ethical and Islamic Perspective in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Bakari, Abubakar A; Abbo Jimeta, Umar S; Abubakar, Mohammed A; Alhassan, Sani U; Nwankwo, Emeka A

    2012-01-01

    Organ transplantation dates back to the ancient times and since then it has become one of the important developments in modern medicine; saving the lives, as well as improving the quality of life of many patients. As the demand for organ transplantation far exceeds the organ availability, the transplant program is often saddled with complex legal and ethical issues. This review article highlights the legal and ethical issues that might arise regarding organ transplantation and appraises the existing legal frame work governing organ transplantation in Nigeria. Information on legal, cultural, religious and medical ethical issues regarding organ transplantation in Nigeria was obtained by searching the PubMed and Google Scholar, conference proceedings, seminar paper presentations, law library and other related publications were collated and analyzed. In decision making for organ transplantation, the bioethical principles like autonomy, beneficence and justice must be employed. It was believed by Catholic theologians that to mutilate one living person to benefit another violates the principle of Totality. Among Muslim scholars and researchers, there are those who throw legal support as to its permissibility while the other group sees it as illegal. Organ/tissues transplantation is considered a medical intervention that touches on the fundamental rights of the donor or the recipient. Where there is an unlawful infringement of the right of such persons in any way may be regarded as against Section 34 of the 1999 Nigerian Constitution dealing with right to dignity of the human person. Worldwide, the researchers and government bodies have agreed on informed consent for organ/tissue donation and for recipient should be obtained without coercion before embarking on such medical treatment Worldwide organ transplantation has become the best medical treatment for patients with end stage organ failure. However, there is no law/legislation backing organ/tissues transplantation in Nigeria. The government should take measures to combat transplantation tourism and the problem of national and international trafficking in human tissues and organs, ethics commission and National Transplant registry should be established in order to monitor and regulate the programme in the country. PMID:24027394

  12. Medical Tourism: Between Entrepreneurship Opportunities and Bioethics Boundaries: Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    BADULESCU, Daniel; BADULESCU, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Nowadays, medical tourism reports impressive growth in terms of number of persons, income and number of countries involved in cross-border flows. So this study was undertaken to clarify entrepreneurship opportunities and bio-ethics boundaries in medical tourism. For tourism entrepreneurs, these outgoing flows related to medical procedures and tourism become an opportunity that cannot be ignored, so a wide range of tourist services related to health care are provided on a private, entrepreneurial basis. However, social and economic boundaries are omnipresent (impaired health services in receiving (incoming) countries, the crisis of the health care systems in emitting (outgoing) countries, over-consumption of medical and tourism services), and, not least, ethical considerations. Transforming medical care in a market tool, reducing human attributes to the status of commodity that can be bought, sold or negotiated, seriously challenges contemporary bioethics principles. It is a significant entering in the area (which is essentially un-ethic) of market transactions, where libertarianism and consumer-oriented attitudes dominates the spectrum of rational choice. So tourism comes to provide an organized and comfortable framework for all these choices, but many issues still re-main controversial and may worsen if national health systems and national and international regulations would not identify their problems and would continue to leave medical tourism to market mechanisms. Market will efficiently allocate the resources, but not always in an ethical manner. PMID:26005650

  13. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way. PMID:19338521

  14. Public health accreditation and metrics for ethics: a case study on environmental health and community engagement.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Ruth Gaare; Stefanak, Matthew; Brandenburg, Terry; Pannone, Aaron; Melnick, Alan

    2013-01-01

    As public health departments around the country undergo accreditation using the Public Health Accreditation Board standards, the process provides a new opportunity to integrate ethics metrics into day-to-day public health practice. While the accreditation standards do not explicitly address ethics, ethical tools and considerations can enrich the accreditation process by helping health departments and their communities understand what ethical principles underlie the accreditation standards and how to use metrics based on these ethical principles to support decision making in public health practice. We provide a crosswalk between a public health essential service, Public Health Accreditation Board community engagement domain standards, and the relevant ethical principles in the Public Health Code of Ethics (Code). A case study illustrates how the accreditation standards and the ethical principles in the Code together can enhance the practice of engaging the community in decision making in the local health department. PMID:23169397

  15. Advancing an ethical framework for long-term care.

    PubMed

    Carter, Mary Whelan

    2002-02-01

    This article represents an effort to formulate an ethical framework for long-term care with the explicit purpose of providing a catalyst to promote further discourse and expand consideration of what an ethic of long-term care might entail. Grounding the discussion, an introduction to traditional ethical philosophy is presented, focusing mainly on the fundamentals of deontological and teleological ethical theories. Attention then shifts to a review of the more frequently cited principles found in the long-term care ethics literature, followed by a critique of the current reliance upon principlism to resolve ethical dilemmas in long-term care. In response to this criticism, an agent-driven ethical framework stressing dignity and respect for personhood, drawn from the philosophy of Immanuel Kant, is advanced. PMID:14598850

  16. Ethical dilemmas in clerkship rotations.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael F; Herb, Alice

    2013-11-01

    A sound clinical education should include the opportunity for medical students to engage in a spirited and informed discussion with faculty about the ethical challenges they will undoubtedly face. Unfortunately, in many medical schools today this goal is thwarted by many factors, including denial that a problem exists, relentless system overload, unprofessional behavior, breakdown in communication, and inertia. What is worse is that this problem is not new, and the fallout is not insignificant. Another potential contributing factor is burnout, which is well documented in a high percentage of medical students, residents, and faculty, and two of its most serious consequences are patient dissatisfaction and medical error.The authors draw on hundreds of student reflections on ethical dilemmas submitted during classroom exercises to examine persistent themes. They posit that classroom and didactic teaching is not enough to enable students to face ethical dilemmas. The authors call for a major culture change in medical education: "buy in" from top administration, especially the dean (and associate/assistant deans), chairs of all departments, and clerkship and residency training directors; the appointing of an ombudsperson and/or ethicist to oversee and resolve issues as they arise; instructional workshops and materials to enhance and impart skills for all teachers; remediation or retiring of errant faculty; and ongoing research and dialogue between and among medical centers about novel solutions. PMID:24072128

  17. Research ethics consultation: ethical and professional practice challenges and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Richard R; Taylor, Holly A; Brinich, Margaret A; Boyle, Mary M; Cho, Mildred; Coors, Marilyn; Danis, Marion; Havard, Molly; Magnus, David; Wilfond, Benjamin

    2015-05-01

    The complexity of biomedical research has increased considerably in the last decade, as has the pace of translational research. This complexity has generated a number of novel ethical issues for clinical investigators, institutional review boards (IRBs), and other oversight committees. In response, many academic medical centers have created formal research ethics consultation (REC) services to help clinical investigators and IRBs navigate ethical issues in biomedical research. Key functions of a REC service include assisting with research design and implementation, providing a forum for deliberative exploration of ethical issues, and supplementing regulatory oversight. As increasing numbers of academic research institutions establish REC services, there is a pressing need for consensus about the primary aims and policies that should guide these activities. Establishing clear expectations about the aims and policies of REC services is important if REC programs are to achieve their full potential. Drawing on the experiences of a Clinical and Translational Science Award Research Ethics Consultation Working Group, this article describes three major ethical and professional practice challenges associated with the provision of REC: (1) managing multiple institutional roles and responsibilities, (2) managing sensitive information, and (3) communicating with consultation requestors about how these issues are managed. The paper also presents several practical strategies for addressing these challenges and enhancing the quality of REC services. PMID:25607942

  18. Lifetime Learning for Physicians; Principles, Practices, Proposals; A Report from the Joint Study Committee in Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryer, Bernard V.

    Historical and present-day developments indicate that the continuing education of physicians is one of the most important problems in medical education today. The gap between scientific knowledge and application is increasing, largely because of the rapid advance of research, imbalance in the quantity, quality, and availability of opportunities…

  19. From environmental to ecological ethics: toward a practical ethics for ecologists and conservationists.

    PubMed

    Minteer, Ben A; Collins, James P

    2008-12-01

    Ecological research and conservation practice frequently raise difficult and varied ethical questions for scientific investigators and managers, including duties to public welfare, nonhuman individuals (i.e., animals and plants), populations, and ecosystems. The field of environmental ethics has contributed much to the understanding of general duties and values to nature, but it has not developed the resources to address the diverse and often unique practical concerns of ecological researchers and managers in the field, lab, and conservation facility. The emerging field of "ecological ethics" is a practical or scientific ethics that offers a superior approach to the ethical dilemmas of the ecologist and conservation manager. Even though ecological ethics necessarily draws from the principles and commitments of mainstream environmental ethics, it is normatively pluralistic, including as well the frameworks of animal, research, and professional ethics. It is also methodologically pragmatic, focused on the practical problems of researchers and managers and informed by these problems in turn. The ecological ethics model offers environmental scientists and practitioners a useful analytical tool for identifying, clarifying, and harmonizing values and positions in challenging ecological research and management situations. Just as bioethics provides a critical intellectual and problem-solving service to the biomedical community, ecological ethics can help inform and improve ethical decision making in the ecology and conservation communities. PMID:18985441

  20. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2005-01-01

    The Ethical Challenges scenario in the June 2004 issue of the American Journal of Evaluation focused on an evaluator-client disagreement concerning the wisdom of having consumer representation on a steering committee that would help plan and oversee an evaluation in an agency providing community-based residential services to the chronically…

  1.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

      May 2012 NCI ETHICS OFFICE UPDATES Widely Attended Gathering Form Now Available in NEES The NIH-2803 Request for Approval to Accept Free Attendance under the Widely Attended Gathering (WAG) exception is now ready for use by employees in the NIH Enterpri

  2. Media Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. L.

    A return to excellence and ethics can end the bashing of the press and earn it respect. H. L. Mencken was an outstanding press-basher. One problem he identified is that journalists see themselves as professionals, when they are no more than "hired hands" unable to control admission to the craft. A solution Mencken offered was to improve schools of…

  3.              NCI Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    Award Analysis Sheet: Award-Analysis-Sheet-2-8-11.doc Request for Approval to Accept Gifts Associated With An Award from an Outside Organization: nih-2854-Award.pdf Link: http://ethics.od.nih.gov/topics/awards-new.htm

  4. [From bioethics to the new technology ethics].

    PubMed

    Pompidou, A

    2000-01-01

    Just as what we can all "technoscience" is emerging in our everyday life, a reflection should be conducted concerning the implications of the scientific and technical progress within our society from now on globalised. We will tackle successively: 1. The ambiguities and paradoxes related to the development of new technologies: in the field of bioethics: artificial reproduction, mammal cloning, genetically modified organisms. towards the ethics of new technologies: ethics of information and communication technologies and ethics of space policy; 2. Nature, foundation and characteristics of the ethical approach; the precaution principle must be completed with two other principles: the principle of experience and the principle of vigilance; 3. The modalities of a democratic management of the ethical approach: it is a matter of defining the role of the three main actors, i.e.: experts, politicians and citizens representing public opinion. It is necessary to promote the ethical approach within a democratic context, that is to ensure a dialogue between experts, policy decision-makers and public opinion on all of the applications of science and technology. It is from such a permanent and renewed dialogue that will emerge the image we give from ourselves in the present world. PMID:11475899

  5. Respect for patient autonomy as a medical virtue.

    PubMed

    Cook, Thomas; Mavroudis, Constantine D; Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Mavroudis, Constantine

    2015-12-01

    Respect for patient autonomy is an important and indispensable principle in the ethical practice of clinical medicine. Legal tenets recognise the centrality of this principle and the inherent right of patients of sound mind - properly informed - to make their own personal medical decisions. In the course of everyday medical practice, however, challenging cases may result in ethical dilemmas for the patient, the physician, and society. Resolution of these dilemmas requires a thorough understanding of the underlying principles that allow the clinician to make informed decisions and to offer considered therapeutic options to the patient. We argue in this paper that there is also need for a transition of moral competency from understanding principles to attaining virtue in the classic Aristotelian tradition. Achieving moral virtue is based on a lifetime of learning, practising, and watching how others, who have achieved virtue, act and perform their duties. We further claim that learning moral virtue in medical practice is best realised by incorporating the lessons learnt during daily rounds where frank discussions and considered resolutions can occur under the leadership of senior practitioners who have achieved a semblance of moral excellence. PMID:26675613

  6. Ethics in American health 1: ethical approaches to health policy.

    PubMed

    Ruger, Jennifer Prah

    2008-10-01

    I trace the evolution of ethical approaches to health policy in the United States and examine a number of critical unresolved issues pertaining to the current set of frameworks. Several themes emerge. First, fair procedures claim more attention than substantive and procedural principles. Second, in the case of public deliberation, more focus has been placed on factors such as procedural mechanisms than on understanding how individuals and groups value different aspects of health and agree on health-related decisions. Third, the nation needs workable frameworks to guide collective choices about valuable social ends and their trade-offs; purely procedural strategies are limited in illuminating overarching health policy and ethics questions. There is a need to integrate consequential and procedural approaches to health ethics and policy. PMID:18703449

  7. Ethical Analysis of Withdrawing Ventricular Assist Device Support

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Paul S.; Swetz, Keith M.; Freeman, Monica R.; Carter, Kari A.; Crowley, Mary Eliot; Severson, Cathy J. Anderson; Park, Soon J.; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe a series of patients with heart failure supported with a ventricular assist device (VAD) who requested (or whose surrogates requested) withdrawal of VAD support and the legal and ethical aspects pertaining to these requests. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from March 1, 2003, through January 31, 2009, who requested (or whose surrogates requested) withdrawal of VAD support and for whom the requests were fulfilled. We then explored the legal and ethical permissibility of carrying out such requests. RESULTS: The median age of the 14 patients identified (13 men, 1 woman) was 57 years. Requests were made by 2 patients and 12 surrogates. None of the patients' available advance directives mentioned the VAD. For 11 patients, multidisciplinary care conferences were held before withdrawal of VAD support. Only 1 patient had an ethics consultation. All 14 patients died within 1 day of withdrawal of VAD support. CONCLUSION: Patients have the right to refuse or request the withdrawal of any unwanted treatment, and we argue that this right extends to VAD support. We also argue that the cause of death in these cases is the underlying heart disease, not assisted suicide or euthanasia. Therefore, patients with heart failure supported with VADs or their surrogates may request withdrawal of this treatment. In our view, carrying out such requests is permissible in accordance with the principles that apply to withdrawing other life-sustaining treatments. PMID:20584919

  8. Maternal request for caesarean section: an ethical consideration.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Hannah

    2014-12-01

    Caesarean section (CS) is a method of delivering a baby through a surgical incision into the abdominal wall. Until recently in the UK, it was preserved as a procedure which was only carried out in certain circumstances. These included if the fetus lay in a breech position or was showing signs of distress leading to a requirement for rapid delivery. CS is perceived as a safe method of delivery due to the recommendation by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in these situations. As a result, the opportunity for maternal request for CS arose, whereby the mother requests the operation despite no medical indication. There are risks associated with CS, as with all surgery, however, these risks in current and future pregnancies may not be fully understood by the mother. The ethics of exposing mothers to these risks, as well as performing surgery on what is otherwise a healthy patient, become entangled with the demand for patient choice, as well as the increasing financial strain on our healthcare system. The main question to be examined in this essay is whether it is ethical to allow women to choose a CS in the absence of obstetric indication, taking into account the increased risk to the mother and her future offspring in order to potentially decrease the risk to the current baby. Alongside a case report, this analysis will apply Beauchamp and Childress' four principles of biomedical ethics and an exploration of the scientific literature. PMID:24248807

  9. Do Ethics Classes Teach Ethics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curzer, Howard J.; Sattler, Sabrina; DuPree, Devin G.; Smith-Genthôs, K. Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    The ethics assessment industry is currently dominated by the second version of the Defining Issues Test (DIT2). In this article, we describe an alternative assessment instrument called the Sphere-Specific Moral Reasoning and Theory Survey (SMARTS), which measures the respondent's level of moral development in several respects. We describe…

  10. The Government-Medical Education Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Califano, Joseph A., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Issues addressed in this speech to the Association of American Medical Colleges include: oversupply of doctors, geographic maldistribution, demographic changes needed by medical schools, federal strategies, medical ethics, preventive medicine, and the economics of health care.

  11. Ethical dilemmas in journal publication.

    PubMed

    Babalola, Olubukola; Grant-Kels, Jane M; Parish, Lawrence Charles

    2012-01-01

    Physicians often face tremendous pressures and incentives to publish, sometimes leading to a compromise of ethical standards, either consciously or unconsciously. From the vantage of ethical authorship, we discuss what constitutes authorship; avoidance of ghost authorship; plagiarism, as well as self-plagiarism and duplicate publication; falsification; and fabrication. Editors also face ethical challenges, including how best to manage peer-review bias, to address reviewer tardiness, and to locate reviewers with appropriate expertise and professionalism. Editors need to deal with authors who fragment their work into multiple publications to enhance their curriculum vitae ("salami factor"), as well as to manage the financial benefits of advertising and to avoid conflicts of interest for the journal. Both authors and editors should be straightforward and principled throughout the publication process. PMID:22330669

  12. Medical Assisting Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This guide presents the standard curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The curriculum addresses the minimum competencies for a medical assisting program. The program guide is designed to relate primarily to the development of those skills needed by individuals in the medical assisting field, such as medical law and ethics, typing,…

  13. American Medical Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... site. CPT®–Current Procedural Terminology Our experts develop codes and descriptions to provide a common language to describe healthcare services. AMA Code of Medical Ethics Since 1847, the AMA has ...

  14. Eer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Orwant, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    Intelligent agents are personified as epers, electronic personas. Epers can take on various roles as business representatives, financial agents, game players, teachers or civil servants. The ethical deployment of epers requires that they be accountable to their originators, who, in turn, are responsible to the cyberspace communities in which they are involved. Epers must maintain integrity of information, carry out tasks as directed and report accurately on task status. Epers can be custodians of the truth, responsible for certifying that data has not been altered. Public service epers could chair electronic meetings, collect and validate votes on local issues and referee online {open_quotes}flame{close_quotes} wars. Epers` rights include those of privacy, autonomy and anonymity. They could decline to produce information aside from key identifiers and have the right to be protected from arbitrary deletion. Ethical issues include privacy protections, maintenance of appropriate access restrictions, and carrying out business in a secure and trustworthy manner.

  15. Code of Ethics for the American Association of Physicists in Medicine: report of Task Group 109.

    PubMed

    Serago, Christopher F; Adnani, Nabil; Bank, Morris I; BenComo, Jose A; Duan, Jun; Fairobent, Lynne; Freedman, D Jay; Halvorsen, Per H; Hendee, William R; Herman, Michael G; Morse, Richard K; Mower, Herbert W; Pfeiffer, Douglas E; Root, William J; Sherouse, George W; Vossler, Matthew K; Wallace, Robert E; Walters, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive Code of Ethics for the members of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) is presented as the report of Task Group 109 which consolidates previous AAPM ethics policies into a unified document. The membership of the AAPM is increasingly diverse. Prior existing AAPM ethics polices were applicable specifically to medical physicists, and did not encompass other types of members such as health physicists, regulators, corporate affiliates, physicians, scientists, engineers, those in training, or other health care professionals. Prior AAPM ethics policies did not specifically address research, education, or business ethics. The Ethics Guidelines of this new Code of Ethics have four major sections: professional conduct, research ethics, education ethics, and business ethics. Some elements of each major section may be duplicated in other sections, so that readers interested in a particular aspect of the code do not need to read the entire document for all relevant information. The prior Complaint Procedure has also been incorporated into this Code of Ethics. This Code of Ethics (PP 24-A) replaces the following AAPM policies: Ethical Guidelines for Vacating a Position (PP 4-B); Ethical Guidelines for Reviewing the Work of Another Physicist (PP 5-C); Guidelines for Ethical Practice for Medical Physicists (PP 8-D); and Ethics Complaint Procedure (PP 21-A). The AAPM Board of Directors approved this Code or Ethics on July 31, 2008. PMID:19235389

  16. [Environmental ethics].

    PubMed

    Fisso, M B

    1998-01-01

    After analyzing the origins of environmental ethics the Author describes the various non-anthropocentric theories in order to criticize their significance. Then she examines the anthropocentric theories. She describes "moderate" or "weak" anthropocentrism based on the idea of a duty to defend and preserve nature and which admits a kind of limited moral relevance of nature in its relationship with man. In conclusion, it is auspiciated a collaborative action of all anthropocentric philosophic models to realize an authentic environmental protection. PMID:9810753

  17. Pediatric Nurses’ Information and Applications Related To Ethical Codes

    PubMed Central

    Turkmen, Ayse Sonay; Savaser, Sevim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethics is defined as the entirety of moral principles that form the basis of individuals’ behavior; it can also be defined as “moral theory” or “theoretical ethics”. Objectives: To determinate information and applications related to ethical codes of pediatric nurses. Patients and Methods: Participants were nurses attending the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Nursing Course and the Pediatric Nursing Course conducted in Istanbul between September 2011 and December 2012. A total of nurses attending the courses at the specified dates and who agreed to participate in the study were included in the analysis. Data were collected through a questionnaire that we developed in accordance with current literature on nursing ethics. Results 140 nurses participated in this study. Information and applications were related to ethical codes of nurses including four categories; autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice. The principle of confidentiality/keeping secrets. Exactly 64.3% of nurses reported having heard of nursing ethical codes. The best-known ethical code was the principle of justice. Furthermore, while the rates were generally low, some nurses engaged in unethical practices such as patient discrimination and prioritizing acquaintances. Conclusions: We conclude that most nurses working in pediatric clinics act in compliance with ethical codes. We also found that the majority of nurses wanted to learn about ethical codes. For this reason, we recommended that nurses working in clinics and future nurses in training be informed of the appropriate ethical behavior and codes. PMID:26199697

  18. Playing with a "Full DECK": A Creative Application of the Integrative Decision-Making Framework of Ethical Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Jan C.; Plaisance, Pamela M.; Renfrow, Jennifer J.; Olivier, Brandi N.

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitation practitioners are faced with a variety of complex ethical decisions in a dynamic, changing world. Attention to principle ethics, virtue ethics, critical thinking, and creativity are essential for best practice. This article presents one tool (DECK--Decision-Making that Enhances Counselor Know-How) to facilitate such ethical

  19. Voluntary palliated starvation: a lawful and ethical way to die?

    PubMed

    White, Ben; Willmott, Lindy; Savulescu, Julian

    2014-12-01

    Increasingly, individuals want control over their own destiny. This includes the way in which they die and the timing of their death. The desire for self-determination at the end of life is one of the drivers for the ever-increasing number of jurisdictions overseas that are legalising voluntary euthanasia and/or assisted suicide, and for the continuous attempts to reform State and Territory law in Australia. Despite public support for law reform in this field, legislative change in Australia is unlikely in the near future given the current political landscape. This article argues that there may be another solution which provides competent adults with control over their death and to have any pain and symptoms managed by doctors, but which is currently lawful and consistent with prevailing ethical principles. "Voluntary palliated starvation" refers to the process which occurs when a competent individual chooses to stop eating and drinking, and receives palliative care to address pain, suffering and symptoms that may be experienced by the individual as he or she approaches death. The article argues that, at least in some circumstances, such a death would be lawful for the individual and doctors involved, and consistent with principles of medical ethics. PMID:25715538

  20. Engineering Ethics Book Engineering Ethics Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Engineering Ethics Book Engineering Ethics ­ Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes 2nd edition - ©2008 A 372-page engineering ethics reference book published by the National Institute for Engineering Ethics Description of Contents: Engineering Ethics ­ Concepts, Viewpoints, Cases and Codes

  1. 440 journaloflaw,medicine&ethics Partnership in

    E-print Network

    Winickoff, David

    a potential "third way" for treating the ownership of personal information, tissue, DNA, and intellectual subjects.2 In brief, biobanks are unsettling relations between genes, tissue, medical records, and persons constitutive of the ethical order;4 second, because recent disputes around the ownership of medical records

  2. Teaching Ethics in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes arguments for and against teaching ethics within science education, and clarifies what might be the several aims of teaching ethics in science. Discusses how ethics instruction might be incorporated into the science curriculum. (Contains 120 references.) (WRM)

  3. RUTGERS ROBERT WOOD JOHNSON MEDICAL SCHOOL NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY

    E-print Network

    Garfunkel, Eric

    Education Committee Medical Records Committee Library Committee Pharmacy Committee Transfusion Committee Ethics Committee Medical Education Committee Blood Utilization Committee Medical Records Committee Cancer Q/A Trauma Committee Humanism & Professionalism Committee Radiation Safety Committee Medical Records

  4. Ethics and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Macnaughton, M

    1990-04-01

    In Western culture, the ethical principles of respect for persons can be further divided into 2 categories - a) autonomy and b) protection of the vulnerable; beneficence; and justice. The principles of ethics can be directed towards 2 levels: microethics - concerned with the individual and macroethics - concerned with the greater community. In the case of obstetrical procedures such as in vitro fertilization, prenatal diagnosis, and fetal sex selection, the principles of microethics and macroethics conflict. The exact number and/or kind of babies may benefit the parents by they may not benefit a society that is expected to accommodate these new members. This aspect can also be addressed when dealing with abortion. Support for and against has led to a questioning and reexamining of present abortion laws; the aim is to either restrict abortion or reduce the abortion time limit from 28 to 24 weeks. Policies of the United States have an effect on other policies, worldwide. Abortions are needed as a form of birth control in developing countries; 500,000 women/year die from birthing complications and 100,000 die from complications of illegal abortions. There has also been some questioning of in vitro fertilization. Why fertilize a certain number of eggs which may never be allowed to grow and mature? There has also been some questioning of whether or not an embryo in vitro fertilization is a person or not. Deciding the status of the embryo has opened up research possibilities in the United State and the United Kingdom. Discussion on in vitro fertilization has opened up discussion on surrogacy. There seems to be more support for surrogacy in the United States than in the United Kingdom - where there is a restrictive ban on commercial surrogacy. PMID:2327460

  5. The Ethical Significance of Antimicrobial Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Littmann, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the ethical challenges that arise in the context of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), which includes an introduction to the contributions to the symposium in this issue. We begin by discussing why AMR is a distinct ethical issue, and should not be viewed purely as a technical or medical problem. In the second section, we expand on some of these arguments and argue that AMR presents us with a broad range of ethical problems that must be addressed as part of a successful policy response to emerging drug resistance. In the third section, we discuss how some of these ethical challenges should be addressed, and we argue that this requires contributions from citizens, ethicists, policy makers, practitioners and industry. We conclude with an overview of steps that should be taken in moving forward and addressing the ethical problems of AMR. PMID:26566395

  6. Beyond a code of ethics for bioengineers: the role of ethics in an integrated compliance program.

    PubMed

    Heller, J C

    2000-01-01

    Developing a code of ethics for biomedical engineering professionals is a very important first step in clarifying their professional obligations and in helping to establish and maintain their professional autonomy. However, it is only that--a first step. Unless ways can be found to bring the principles contained in this code to bear on the everyday decision making of these professionals, this code will have little practical influence. One effective way to bring a code of ethics to bear on decision making is to integrate it into organizational compliance programs. Such programs often have company-specific codes of ethics attached to them, and these company-specific codes can either include the principles contained in the professional code of ethics or reference the code by title. After defining what I take to be the challenge of compliance, I consider four (4) roles that codes of ethics and ethics generally can play in helping to create and sustain programs at the organizational level that integrate ethics and compliance and thereby aim to make a practical difference in the everyday decision making of bioengineering professionals. These four roles include: framing the program, grounding the standards, achieving critical distance, and creating and sustaining an ethical organizational culture. PMID:11108222

  7. Environmental ethics.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, J J

    2000-03-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the first meeting on environmental ethics sponsored by the Scientific Advisory Panel and Board on 10-11 December 1998 in Arlington, Virginia (1). The report from the meeting will more completely inform scientists and the community of current issues. This editorial should serve as an initial brief of this meeting [which was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948)]. PMID:10706536

  8. Environmental ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, J J

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) held the first meeting on environmental ethics sponsored by the Scientific Advisory Panel and Board on 10-11 December 1998 in Arlington, Virginia (1). The report from the meeting will more completely inform scientists and the community of current issues. This editorial should serve as an initial brief of this meeting [which was held on the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Human Rights (adopted by the United Nations on 10 December 1948)]. Images pA108-a PMID:10706536

  9. Medical ghostwriting and informed consent.

    PubMed

    Almassi, Ben

    2014-11-01

    Ghostwriting in its various forms has received critical scrutiny from medical ethicists, journal editors, and science studies scholars trying to explain where ghostwriting goes wrong and ascertain how to counter it. Recent analyses have characterized ghostwriting as plagiarism or fraud, and have urged that it be deterred through stricter compliance with journal submission requirements, conflict of interest disclosures, author-institutional censure, legal remedies, and journals' refusal to publish commercially sponsored articles. As a supplement to such efforts, this paper offers a critical assessment of medical ghostwriting as contrary to good patient care, on the grounds that it contradicts established general principles guiding clinical ethics. Specifically, I argue that ghostwriting undermines trust relationships between authors and their readers, and between these readers and their trusting patients, and in so doing contradicts the duty of respect for patient autonomy by obstructing informed consent. For this reason, complicity in ghostwriting practices should be understood as a violation of the professional ethical duties of physicians and other healthcare workers. PMID:23444836

  10. Ethics and the professional team physician.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Andrew M

    2004-04-01

    The professional team physician may face ethical questions that are unique to the practice of sports medicine. There are numerous pressures that potentially may affect or interfere with ethical medical decision-making. The purpose of this article is to highlight some of these issues and to increase awareness of them for the practicing team physician and trainers and others involved in professional sports. PMID:15183569

  11. Cystic fibrosis and lung transplantation: ethical concerns.

    PubMed

    Dickinson-Herbst, D

    2001-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disorder affecting respiratory, digestive, integumentary, and reproductive systems. Despite the medical advancements treating cystic fibrosis, lung disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children and adults. A case study of a 21-year-old's struggle to undergo double lung transplantation is presented, and four ethical considerations are identified. An ethical decision-making model provides an avenue for discussing these concerns. PMID:12025156

  12. The ethics of psychopharmacological research in legal minors

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jacinta OA; Koelch, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Research in psychopharmacology for children and adolescents is fraught with ethical problems and tensions. This has practical consequences as it leads to a paucity of the research that is essential to support the treatment of this vulnerable group. In this article, we will discuss some of the ethical issues which are relevant to such research, and explore their implications for both research and standard care. We suggest that finding a way forward requires a willingness to acknowledge and discuss the inherent conflicts between the ethical principles involved. Furthermore, in order to facilitate more, ethically sound psychopharmacology research in children and adolescents, we suggest more ethical analysis, empirical ethics research and ethics input built into psychopharmacological research design. PMID:19063724

  13. Behavioral Ethics and Teaching Ethical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drumwright, Minette; Prentice, Robert; Biasucci, Cara

    2015-01-01

    Business education often renders students less likely to act ethically. An infusion of liberal learning in the form of behavioral ethics could improve this situation by prompting students to develop higher levels of professionalism that encompass ethics, social responsibility, self-critical reflection, and personal accountability. More…

  14. Teaching Business Ethics or Teaching Business Ethically?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stablein, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    Notes that one of the most important contexts for ethical decision-making is the nature and operation of "contemporary capitalisms." Suggests that rather than issuing a call for teaching business ethics, the author emphasizes the need for more ethical business teaching. (SG)

  15. Ethical Issues of Transplanting Organs from Transgenic Animals into Human Beings

    PubMed Central

    Behnam Manesh, Shima; Omani Samani, Reza; Behnam Manesh, Shayan

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important applications of transgenic animals for medical purposes is to transplant their organs into human’s body, an issue which has caused a lot of ethical and scientific discussions. we can divide the ethical arguments to two comprehensive groups; the first group which is known as deontological critiques (related to the action itself regardless of any results pointing the human or animal) and the second group, called the consequentialist critiques (which are directly pointing the consequences of the action). The latter arguments also can be divided to two subgroups. In the first one which named anthropocentrism, just humankind has inherent value in the moral society, and it studies the problem just from a human-based point of view while in second named, biocentrism all the living organism have this value and it deals specially with the problem from the animal-based viewpoint. In this descriptive-analytic study, ethical issues were retrieved from books, papers, international guidelines, thesis, declarations and instructions, and even some weekly journals using keywords related to transgenic animals, organ, and transplantation. According to the precautionary principle with the strong legal and ethical background, due to lack of accepted scientific certainties about the safety of the procedure, in this phase, transplanting animal’s organs into human beings have the potential harm and danger for both human and animals, and application of this procedure is unethical until the safety to human will be proven. PMID:25383334

  16. Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS?

    PubMed Central

    Angoff, N. R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper responds to the question: Do physicians have an ethical obligation to care for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)? First, the social and political milieu in which this question arises is sampled. Here physicians as well as other members of the community are found declaring an unwillingness to be exposed to people with AIDS. Next, laws, regulations, ethical codes and principles, and the history of the practice of medicine are examined, and the literature as it pertains to these areas is reviewed. The obligation to care for patients with AIDS, however, cannot be located in an orientation to morality defined in rules and codes and an appeal to legalistic fairness. By turning to the orientation to morality that emerges naturally from connection and is defined in caring, the physicians' ethical obligation to care for patients with AIDS is found. Through an exploration of the writings of modern medical ethicists, it is clear that the purpose of the practice of medicine is healing, which can only be accomplished in relationship to the patient. It is in relationship to patients that the physician has the opportunity for self-realization. In fact, the physician is physician in relationship to patients and only to the extent that he or she acts virtuously by being morally responsible for and to those patients. Not to do so diminishes the physician's ethical ideal, a vision of the physician as good physician, which has consequences for the physician's capacity to care and for the practice of medicine. PMID:1788990

  17. Ethics and Power: Implications for the Principal's Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Karl

    1986-01-01

    The ethics associated with the use of power by school administrators are discussed. Certain power tactics are analyzed and questioned in relation to ethical issues. The analysis is based on the belief that the guiding principles for leadership are transactional, not coercive or charismatic, and that power needs to be used with respect. (MD)

  18. Ethical Perspectives on Qualitative Research in Applied Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haverkamp, Beth E.

    2005-01-01

    The present article explores ethical issues that emerge in qualitative research conducted by applied psychologists. The utility and relevance of the Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (American Psychological Association, 2002) for qualitative research are examined. The importance of psychology's fiduciary relationship with…

  19. Ethical Perspectives in Open and Distance Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anitha, C.; Harsha, T. S.

    2013-01-01

    Today, e-learning and various online education applications are used in many countries and educational institutions than ever before. Ethics deals with the principle governing ideal or good behavior, it focuses on what is right or what is wrong. Although in education, the ethical issues that they may be facing are not about of life and death…

  20. Gender Differences in Academic Ethics with Recommendations for Curricular Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miori, Virginia M.; Doyle, Kelly A.; Campbell, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    An extensive study has been performed on the importance of building ethical principles into secondary school and college curricula. In published surveys, females are almost universally found to be more ethical, but experience tells us females lag behind males in their ability to maintain and act upon their convictions in the workplace. We examined…

  1. The Academic Ethics of Open Access to Research and Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John; Alperin, Juan Pablo

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we present the case for regarding the principles by which scholarly publications are disseminated and shared as a matter of academic ethics. The ethics of access have to do with recognizing people's right to know what is known, as well as the value to humanity of having one of its best forms of arriving at knowledge as widely…

  2. Clinically assisted hydration and the Liverpool Care Pathway: Catholic ethics and clinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Nowarska, Anna

    2015-08-01

    The Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP), a framework introduced for providing comfortable care at the last stage of life, has recently become highly contentious. Among the most serious allegations levelled against it, has been that the LCP may be used as a covert form of euthanasia by withdrawal of clinically assisted hydration (CAH). This concern has been raised, in particular by a number of Catholic medical professionals, who have asserted that the LCP is incompatible with Catholic ethics. This paper examines the key Catholic ethical principles relevant to treatment and care towards the end of life (the sanctity/inviolability of life principle, the distinction between ordinary and extraordinary means). Relevant current clinical evidence regarding CAH in relation to terminal thirst, dehydration, prolongation of life and possible negative impacts on the dying is also scrutinised. It is argued that for some patients at the very end of life it may be permissible and even desirable to withhold or withdraw it. Thus, as administration of CAH may become extraordinary, forgoing it in some situations is fully compatible with Catholic ethics. The article therefore concludes that the stance of the LCP in respect of provision of CAH is fully in alignment with Catholic teaching. PMID:25034970

  3. What to Do While Waiting for an Environmental Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Richard A.

    1987-01-01

    Suggests that the world and national societies are far from establishing an environmental ethic and principles of conduct. Argues that more can be done to help rationalize the tradeoffs in public policy for managing natural resources. (TW)

  4. Research Ethics & Compliance Support

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    Research Ethics & Compliance Support Dr Ted Rohr, Director RECS #12;http://research.unsw.edu.au/research-ethics-and-compliance-support-recs #12;Research is considered by: Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) A and B: · All human research involving more than low risk Human Research Ethics Advisory Panels (HREAPs) A to I: · All human research

  5. Seamless Integration of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beggs, Jeri Mullins

    2011-01-01

    The ineffectiveness of business ethics education has received attention from the popular press and the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business after repeated ethics scandals. One possibility is that teaching ethics is different from other content areas because ethics is best learned when the student does not know it is being taught.…

  6. OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy

    E-print Network

    Kunkle, Tom

    OFFICIAL POLICY Ethics Policy 1.0 PREFACE It is the intent of this Ethics Policy to state those standards of ethical conduct that are expected of all members of the College Community. These standards must the minimum standards of ethical conduct that are required by South Carolina law and reflect the aspirations

  7. Broadening Student Perspectives on Marketing Research Ethics: Development and Applications of a Teaching Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handlin, Amy

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an ethics module developed by the author to engage marketing research students during the fall semester, when they are bombarded by political polls. The module matches ethically questionable polling practices to similarly troubling practices in marketing research. The goals are to show that ethical principles are not topic- or…

  8. Developing an Ethical Framework in Decision Making of Rural Elementary School Principals in Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hozien, Wafa Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe individual Pennsylvania rural elementary principals' experiences of ethical decision-making in a complex era. Ethical dilemma, in this case, is the term used to depict an incident which calls for a decision to be made when moral values or ethical principles were in conflict. Also, to learn how…

  9. Teaching Business Ethics: The Effectiveness of Common Pedagogical Practices in Developing Students' Moral Judgment Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosco, Susan M.; Melchar, David E.; Beauvais, Laura L.; Desplaces, David E.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of pedagogical practices used to teach business ethics. The business community has greatly increased its demands for better ethics education in business programs. Educators have generally agreed that the ethical principles of business people have declined. It is important, then, to examine how common…

  10. Human Subjects Protection: A Source for Ethical Service-Learning Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendler, Rachael

    2012-01-01

    Human subjects research ethics were developed to ensure responsible conduct when university researchers learn by interacting with community members. As service-learning students also learn by interacting with community members, a similar set of principles may strengthen the ethical practice of service-learning. This article identifies ethical

  11. Focus on Ethics and Public Relations Practice in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smudde, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Public relations action relies on sound decision making about how to inspire cooperation between an organization and its publics. Such thinking must uphold principles for ethical communication. Effectively combining ethics with public relations practice for students is key. A pedagogical approach to public relations ethics, hinging on selected…

  12. A Constructivist Approach to Business Ethics: Developing a Student Code of Professional Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willey, Lorrie; Burke, Debra D.

    2011-01-01

    Business ethics may be defined as "the principles, values and standards that guide behavior in the world of business." The importance of ethical awareness in business transactions and education is widely recognized, and evidence shows that ethics education can influence decision making in the workplace. As a result, colleges of business often…

  13. 76 FR 71343 - Ethics, Independence, Arm's-Length Role, Ex Parte Communications and Open Government

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... Ethics, Independence, Arm's-Length Role, Ex Parte Communications and Open Government AGENCY: Farm Credit... of the Farm Credit System (System) and the public. The FCA Board also is committed to the ethics principles and laws governing all Executive Branch employees and to the Agency's strong ethics program....

  14. Ethics and infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-06-01

    Bioethics apparently suffers from a misdistribution of research resources analogous to the '10/90' divide in medical research. Though infectious disease should be recognized as a topic of primary importance for bioethics, the general topic of infectious disease has received relatively little attention from the discipline of bioethics in comparison with things like abortion, euthanasia, genetics, cloning, stem cell research, and so on. The fact that the historical and potential future consequences of infectious diseases are almost unrivalled is one reason that the topic of infectious disease warrants more attention from bioethicists. The 'Black Death' eliminated one third of the European population during the 14th Century; the 1989 flu killed between 20 and 100 million people; and, in the 20th Century smallpox killed perhaps three times more people than all the wars of that period. In the contemporary world, epidemics (AIDS, multi-drug resistant turberculosis, and newly emerging infectious diseases such as SARS) continue to have dramatic consequences. A second reason why the topic of infectious disease deserves further attention is that it raises difficult ethical questions of its own. While infected individuals can threaten the health of other individuals and society as a whole, for example, public health care measures such as surveillance, isolation, and quarantine can require the infringement of widely accepted basic human rights and liberties. An important and difficult ethical question asks how to strike a balance between the utilitarian aim of promoting public health, on the one hand, and libertarian aims of protecting privacy and freedom of movement, on the other, in contexts involving diseases that are--to varying degrees--contagious, deadly, or otherwise dangerous. Third, since their burden is most heavily shouldered by the poor (in developing countries), infectious diseases involve issues of justice--which should be a central concern of ethics. I conclude by providing sociological and historical explanations of why the topic of infectious disease has not already received more attention from bioethicists. PMID:16167406

  15. Can ethics survive the onslaught of science?

    PubMed

    Lupton, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The issue on which I will attempt to cast some light is certainly not novel. It has been ongoing for many years but the pace of scientific progress is gathering and the retreat of ethical barriers is relentless. I will illustrate my thesis by using examples of legal decisions from the realm of assisted human procreation and the posthumous conception of children from the sperm of deceased fathers e.g., the cases of Diane Blood, Parpalaix and Nikolas Coltan Evans. I will also highlight the recent case of Ashley X, a nine year old girl whose parents authorised radical medical treatment to arrest her development. I will argue that the law is being driven to roll back the ethical standards derived from our legacy of Natural Law by the imperatives of human rights e.g., the right to found a family, and the quest for patient autonomy. These are both admirable goals but fulfilling these goals comes at a cost to cherished ethical values e.g., that children are conceived by living fathers and that indulging the personal desires of every individual cannot forever be encompassed. As our legislators and courts chip away at our core network of ethical values, are they replacing them with equivalent values or do their decisions amount to a hollowing out of the core ethical values e.g., Thou shalt not kill and that human life is sacrosanct? Yet abortion is legal in many countries as is euthanasia. Paradoxically there is legislative protection for embryos by limiting experimentation on these clusters of cells. How do you construct a rational ethical framework with such blatant legal inconsistencies in the protection of human life? The sanctity of human life constitutes one of the fundamental pillars of ethical values which, in turn, support much more of the structure of ethics. Is a society that permits freezing the development of a nine year old child not a society whose ethics are so compromised that it is doomed to defend an ever diminishing mass of ethical values? Is there a core of ethics which is sacrosanct or is every ethical frontier fair game for invasion? Are the Ethics Committees, which approve and monitor research in the field of bioethics in Universities. Hospitals and laboratories failing in their duty as gatekeepers? They are after all the first line of defence for the survival of crucial ethical values. Can we continue to indulge the whims and needs of every individual under the guise of human rights or patient autonomy? Can a civilised society endure as such with an ever diminishing mass of ethical values? PMID:24340480

  16. The main indicators for Iranian hospital ethical accreditation

    PubMed Central

    ENJOO, SEYED ALI; AMINI, MITRA; TABEI, SEYED ZIAADIN; MAHBUDI, ALI; KAVOSI, ZAHRA; SABER, MAHBOOBEH

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The application of organizational ethics in hospitals is one of the novel ways to improve medical ethics. Nowadays achieving efficient and sufficient ethical hospital indicators seems to be inevitable. In this connection, the present study aims to determine the best indicators in hospital accreditation. Methods 69 indicators in 11 fields to evaluate hospital ethics were achieved through a five-step qualitative and quantitative study including literature review, expert focus group, Likert scale survey, 3 rounded Delphi, and content validity measurement. Expert focus group meeting was conducted, employing Nominal Group Technique (NGT). After running NGT, a three rounded Delphi and parallel to Delphi and a Likert scale survey were performed to obtain objective indicators for each domain. The experts were all healthcare professionals who were also medical ethics researchers, teachers, or PhD students. Content validity measurements were computed, using the viewpoints of two different expert groups, some ethicists, and some health care professionals (n=46). Results After conducting NGT, Delphi, Likert survey, 11 main domains were listed including:  Informed consent, Medical confidentiality, Physician-patient economic relations, Ethics consultation policy in the hospital, Ethical charter of hospital, Breaking bad medical news protocol, Respect for the patients’ rights, Clinical ethics committee, Spiritual and palliative care unit programs in the hospitals, Healthcare professionals’ communication skills, and Equitable access to the healthcare. Also 71 objective indicators for these 11 domains were listed in 11 tables with 5 to 8 indicators per table. Content Validity Ratio (CVR) measurements were done and 69 indicators were highlighted. Conclusion The domains listed in this study seem to be the most important ones for evaluating hospital ethics programs and services. Healthcare organizations’ accreditation and ranking are crucial for the improvement of healthcare services. Ethics programs would also motivate hospitals to improve their services and move towards patients’ satisfaction. In this regard, more involvement of bioethicists can help healthcare organizations to develop ethics programs and ensure ethics-based practice in hospitals. PMID:26269789

  17. Ebola, epidemics, and ethics - what we have learned

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The current Ebola epidemic has presented challenges both medical and ethical. Although we have known epidemics of untreatable diseases in the past, this particular one may be unique in the intensity and rapidity of its spread, as well as ethical challenges that it has created, exacerbated by its geographic location. We will look at the infectious agent and the epidemic it is causing, in order to understand the ethical problems that have arisen. PMID:25342227

  18. Development and pilot testing of an online module for ethics education based on the Nigerian National Code for Health Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The formulation and implementation of national ethical regulations to protect research participants is fundamental to ethical conduct of research. Ethics education and capacity are inadequate in developing African countries. This study was designed to develop a module for online training in research ethics based on the Nigerian National Code of Health Research Ethics and assess its ease of use and reliability among biomedical researchers in Nigeria. Methodology This was a three-phased evaluation study. Phase one involved development of an online training module based on the Nigerian Code of Health Research Ethics (NCHRE) and uploading it to the Collaborative Institutional Training Initiative (CITI) website while the second phase entailed the evaluation of the module for comprehensibility, readability and ease of use by 45 Nigerian biomedical researchers. The third phase involved modification and re-evaluation of the module by 30 Nigerian biomedical researchers and determination of test-retest reliability of the module using Cronbach’s alpha. Results The online module was easily accessible and comprehensible to 95% of study participants. There were significant differences in the pretest and posttest scores of study participants during the evaluation of the online module (p?=?0.001) with correlation coefficients of 0.9 and 0.8 for the pretest and posttest scores respectively. The module also demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency as shown by Cronbach’s alpha coefficients of 0.92 and 0.84 for the pretest and posttest respectively. Conclusion The module based on the Nigerian Code was developed, tested and made available online as a valuable tool for training in cultural and societal relevant ethical principles to orient national and international biomedical researchers working in Nigeria. It would complement other general research ethics and Good Clinical Practice modules. Participants suggested that awareness of the online module should be increased through seminars, advertisement on government websites and portals used by Nigerian biomedical researchers, and incorporation of the Code into the undergraduate medical training curriculum. PMID:23281968

  19. Boldt v. Boldt: A pediatric ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Diekema, Douglas S

    2009-01-01

    On balance, the potential harms and benefits of circumcision in an older child or adolescent are sufficiently closely aligned that parents should be permitted to make decisions about circumcision on behalf of their children. To make a case for prohibition, medical harms would have to be of such likelihood and magnitude that no reasonable potential benefit (social, religious, cultural, or medical) could justify doing it to a child. However, I would suggest that the following additional principles should apply: (1) Informed permission from parents is essential. Only about half of the parents considering neonatal circumcision are given any substantive information about the procedure. That practice is not acceptable for a procedure that is not medically essential and carries some risk of harm. A fully informed consent is essential, and must include a balanced discussion of potential harms and benefits of the procedure to the child. Parents should be given accurate and impartial information and allowed to make an informed decision regarding what is in the best interest of the child. (2) Consent of both parents should be required when the procedure is not medically required. It should not be performed in the face of parental disagreement. (3) Absent a significant medical indication, circumcision should not be performed on older children and adolescents in the face of dissent or less than enthusiastic assent. (4) Circumcision should be performed competently and safely by adequately trained providers.29 This should include infection-control measures, a sterile environment for the procedure, and no mouth-penis contact. (5) Analgesia is safe and effective. Adequate analgesia and post-operative pain control must be provided. In the case of Jimmy Boldt, I would suggest that without some compelling medical reason for performing a circumcision, the procedure should not be performed in the absence of agreement between his parents. The fact that Jimmy's father had sole custody does not eliminate the mother's ethical right and obligation to look after the welfare of her son. While the mother may not have legal decision-making authority, that legal determination does not appear to be related either to a lack of interest in her son's welfare or an inability to carry out that role. Jimmy is her son, and she has an interest in seeing his welfare protected. Whether or not she has legal rights, I would be very reluctant to perform an elective procedure for cultural or religious reasons without the permission of both parents and the unambiguous assent of Jimmy himself. Neither appears to be present in the case as it presented to the courts. PMID:19845198

  20. Virtue vs utility: Alternative foundations for computer ethics

    SciTech Connect

    Artz, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Ethical decisions within the field of computers and information systems are made at two levels by two distinctly different groups of people. At the level of general principles, ethical issues are debated by academics and industry representatives in an attempt to decide what is proper behavior on issues such as hacking, privacy, and copying software. At another level, that of particular situations, individuals make ethical decisions regarding what is good and proper for them in their particular situation. They may use the general rules provided by the experts or they may decide that these rules do not apply in their particular situation. Currently, the literature on computer ethics provides some opinions regarding the general rules, and some guidance for developing further general rules. What is missing is guidance for individuals making ethical decisions in particular situations. For the past two hundred years, ethics has been dominated by conduct based ethical theories such as utilitarianism which attempt to describe how people must be behave in order to be moral individuals. Recently, weaknesses in conduct based approaches such as utilitarianism have led moral philosophers to reexamine character based ethical theories such as virtue ethics which dates back to the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle. This paper will compare utilitarianism and virtue ethics with respect to the foundations they provide for computer ethics. It will be argued that the very nature of computer ethics and the need to provide guidance to individuals making particular moral decisions points to the ethics of virtue as a superior philosophical foundation for computer ethics. The paper will conclude with the implications of this position for researchers, teachers and writers within the field of computer ethics.

  1. Ethics and images of suffering bodies in humanitarian medicine.

    PubMed

    Calain, Philippe

    2013-12-01

    Media representations of suffering bodies from medical humanitarian organisations raise ethical questions, which deserve critical attention for at least three reasons. Firstly, there is a normative vacuum at the intersection of medical ethics, humanitarian ethics and the ethics of photojournalism. Secondly, the perpetuation of stereotypes of illness, famine or disasters, and their political derivations are a source of moral criticism, to which humanitarian medicine is not immune. Thirdly, accidental encounters between members of the health professions and members of the press in the humanitarian arena can result in misunderstandings and moral tension. From an ethics perspective the problem can be specified and better understood through two successive stages of reasoning. Firstly, by applying criteria of medical ethics to the concrete example of an advertising poster from a medical humanitarian organisation, I observe that media representations of suffering bodies would generally not meet ethical standards commonly applied in medical practice. Secondly, I try to identify what overriding humanitarian imperatives could outweigh such reservations. The possibility of action and the expression of moral outrage are two relevant humanitarian values which can further be spelt out through a semantic analysis of 'témoignage' (testimony). While the exact balance between the opposing sets of considerations (medical ethics and humanitarian perspectives) is difficult to appraise, awareness of all values at stake is an important initial standpoint for ethical deliberations of media representations of suffering bodies. Future pragmatic approaches to the issue should include: exploring ethical values endorsed by photojournalism, questioning current social norms about the display of suffering, collecting empirical data from past or potential victims of disasters in diverse cultural settings, and developing new canons with more creative or less problematic representations of suffering bodies than the currently accepted stereotypes. PMID:22877932

  2. Teaching Business Ethics through Service Learning Metaprojects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vega, Gina

    2007-01-01

    The urgent messages of good business include the importance of ethical management behaviors, focus on corporate citizenship, recognition of principled leadership, moral awareness, and participation in social change. This article describes the Service Learning Metaproject (a nested set of projects required of all students) and shows what students…

  3. Induced Abortion: An Ethical Conundrum for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millner, Vaughn S.; Hanks, Robert B.

    2002-01-01

    Induced abortion is one of the most controversial moral issues in American culture, but counselor value struggles regarding abortion are seldom addressed in counseling literature. This article considers the conflictual nature of the ethical principles of autonomy, fidelity, justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence as they can occur within the…

  4. Medical and scientific uses of human tissue.

    PubMed Central

    O'Neill, O

    1996-01-01

    Inevitably a policy-oriented report on issues as complex and as rapidly changing as the medical and scientific uses of human tissue can achieve neither philosophical purity nor regulatory completeness. The council's strategy has been to begin with robust ethical principles, for which sound philosophical arguments can be given, which will (it is hoped) command widespread support. The council went on to argue for guidelines of sufficient, but not vapid, generality which could be of practical use to the various medical intermediaries, professional and regulatory bodies and research ethics committees which will carry out the tasks of detailed regulation and of making decisions that affect uses of human tissue. The council's hope is that the recommendations of the report can be absorbed into regulatory and professional practice, and where needed into government policy. If they can, the increasing diversity of uses of human tissues need lead neither to overt nor to covert 'commercialisation of the human body', but will also not put unnecessary restrictions on advances in research and medical practice. PMID:8932718

  5. Ethical issues in the geriatric patient with advanced cancer 'living to the end'.

    PubMed

    Daher, M

    2013-10-01

    Cancer incidence will increase as the population ages; there will be a 50% increase in new cancer cases over the next 20 years, and the biggest rates of increase will occur in the developing world. Owing to technical advances in the care of critical illness, as it is the case in elderly people with advanced cancer, physicians, patients and families are often confronted with ambiguous circumstances in which medical advances may inadvertently prolong suffering and the dying process rather than bring healing and recovery. In this review of the ethical issues confronting physicians who care for patients with advanced life-limiting illnesses like cancer, a philosophical debate continues in the medical community regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain actions (e.g. physician-assisted death, euthanasia), while at the same time there is a strong desire to find a common ground for moral discourse that could guide medical decision-making in this difficult period in the lives of our patients. We will discuss how a good palliative care can be an alternative to these ethical dilemmas. Although some issues (e.g. the role of physician-assisted death in addressing suffering) remain very controversial, there is much common ground based on the application of the four major principles of medical ethics, no malfeasance, beneficence, autonomy and justice. Thus, the physician's primary commitment must always be the patient's welfare and best interests, whether the physician is treating illness or helping patients to cope with illness, disability and death. A key skill here is the communication of bad news and to negotiate a treatment plan that is acceptable to the patient, the family and the healthcare team. Attention to psychosocial issues demands involvement of the patients and their families as partners. Physicians should be sensitive to the range of psychosocial distress and social disruption common to dying patients and their families. Spiritual issues often come to the fore. An interdisciplinary healthcare team can help in these areas. The goals of this review are to raise the awareness of doctors, nurses and other members of the healthcare team to the important ethical issues that must be addressed in providing medical care to elderly patients with advanced cancer; and also to encourage members of the healthcare team to take the ethical issues seriously so that we can improve the circumstances of a vulnerable group of patients-the elderly patients with cancer. PMID:24001765

  6. Ethical considerations in hibernation research.

    PubMed

    Jinka, Tulasi R; Duffy, Lawrence K

    2013-07-01

    Ethical research practices are a key component of scientific integrity and of public support for research. Hibernation research presents specific ethical issues in regard to animal welfare. In this article, the authors apply the '3Rs' principles of humane experimental technique (replacement, reduction and refinement) to hibernation research. They provide recommendations for hibernation researchers and suggest future directions for addressing issues specific to hibernation research. They discuss the use of appropriate behavioral and physiological monitoring procedures, the development of species-specific brain atlases for placement of brain probes, the provision of environmental enrichment and the management of studies involving pharmacological induction of torpor. Addressing these issues in hibernation research will lead to improvements in research outcomes and in welfare of hibernating species. PMID:23783315

  7. Ethics in psychiatry: a framework

    PubMed Central

    LOLAS, FERNANDO

    2006-01-01

    Defining bioethics as the rational use of dialogue in the formulation, justification, and application of ethical principles, with the aim ofgenerating good practices in research, clinical practice, and advocacy, this paper focuses on methods for bioethical deliberation relevantto psychiatry. Stressing that bioethics fuses the two main ethical traditions in Western thought, the deontological and the teleological, thepaper emphasizes the three conditions that any intervention, if considered in the context of bioethics, should fulfil: it should be appropriateto the problem at hand, it should be good (in the sense that it does good to those who receive it but also to those who perform it),and it should be just (in the sense that its outcomes can be generalized to the whole of society). Some implications of these notions for thepractice and teaching of psychiatry are presented. PMID:17139356

  8. Practical virtue ethics: healthcare whistleblowing and portable digital technology

    PubMed Central

    Bolsin, S; Faunce, T; Oakley, J

    2005-01-01

    Virtue ethics, emphasising techniques promoting an agent's character and instructing their conscience, has become a significant mode of discourse in modern medical ethics. Healthcare whistleblowers, whose complaints are reasonable, made in good faith, in the public interest, and not vexatious, we argue, are practising those obligations of professional conscience foundational to virtue based medical ethics. Yet, little extant virtue ethics scholarship seriously considers the theoretical foundations of healthcare whistleblowing. The authors examine whether healthcare whistleblowing should be considered central to any medical ethics emphasising professional virtues and conscience. They consider possible causes for the paucity of professional or academic interest in this area and examine the counterinfluence of a continuing historical tradition of guild mentality professionalism that routinely places relationships with colleagues ahead of patient safety. Finally, it is proposed that a virtue based ethos of medical professionalism, exhibiting transparency and sincerity with regard to achieving uniform quality and safety of health care, may be facilitated by introducing a technological imperative using portable computing devices. Their use by trainees, focused on ethical competence, provides the practical face of virtue ethics in medical education and practice. Indeed, it assists in transforming the professional conscience of whistleblowing into a practical, virtue based culture of self reporting and personal development. PMID:16199607

  9. Ethical concerns in early 21st century organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Waness, Abdelkarim

    2011-01-01

    Medical ethics is an indispensible and challenging aspect of clinical practice. This is particularly prominent in the field of organ transplantation. In this paper, initially, a clinical case with brain death that ended up as an organ donor will be presented. Following the presentation, important moral challenges which initially formed medical ethics and some highlights of it in organ transplantation will be discussed in detail. The impact of complex modern influential factors that might interfere with the practice of medical ethics in this field such as patients’ vulnerability, financial temptations, and legal regulations will be also dealt with. Finally, we shall propose practical guidelines aiming at improving the practice of medical ethics in the emerging issue of organ transplantation. PMID:23908752

  10. Ethics and public health emergencies: restrictions on liberty.

    PubMed

    Wynia, Matthew K

    2007-02-01

    Responses to public health emergencies can entail difficult decisions about restricting individual liberties to prevent the spread of disease. The quintessential example is quarantine. While isolating sick patients tends not to provoke much concern, quarantine of healthy people who only might be infected often is controversial. In fact, as the experience with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) shows, the vast majority of those placed under quarantine typically don't become ill. Efforts to enforce involuntary quarantine through military or police powers also can backfire, stoking both panic and disease spread. Yet quarantine is part of a limited arsenal of options when effective treatment or prophylaxis is not available, and some evidence suggests it can be effective, especially when it is voluntary, home-based and accompanied by extensive outreach, communication and education efforts. Even assuming that quarantine is medically effective, however, it still must be ethically justified because it creates harms for many of those affected. Moreover, ethical principles of reciprocity, transparency, non-discrimination and accountability should guide any implementation of quarantine. PMID:17366181

  11. Common ground: An environmental ethic for Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Menlove, F.L.

    1991-01-01

    Three predominant philosophies have characterized American business ethical thinking over the past several decades. The first phase is the ethics of self-interest'' which argues that maximizing self-interest coincidentally maximizes the common good. The second phase is legality ethics.'' Proponents argue that what is important is knowing the rules and following them scrupulously. The third phase might be called stake-holder ethics.'' A central tenant is that everyone affected by a decision has a moral hold on the decision maker. This paper will discuss one recent initiative of the Los Alamos National Laboratory to move beyond rules and regulations toward an environmental ethic that integrates the values of stakeholder ethics'' into the Laboratory's historical culture and value systems. These Common Ground Principles are described. 11 refs.

  12. Ethics of palliative care in late-stage cancer management and end-of-life issues in a depressed economy.

    PubMed

    Chukwuneke, F N

    2015-12-01

    The Hippocratic Oath has often been referred to as the ethical foundation of medical practice with the key restriction "cause no harm" which is also the principle of benevolence in bioethics. In medical profession, the Oath still exemplifies the key virtues of a doctor in its emphasis on the obligations toward the well-being of the individual patient. In management of end-stage cancer in a depressed economy such as Nigeria, we frequently encounter a wide range of ethical issues that arise in the provision of palliative care mostly due to the prevailing economic situation and cultural setting. Since most of these patients came from a lower economic class of the society, with little or no formal education and lived at a subsistence level, they often find it difficult to provide the medications needed. In a poor setting where health inequity is rife, and ignorance and poverty are commonplace, a good understanding of medical ethics with a good model of health care system will contribute to the health professional's decision-making that will be in the best interest of the patients. Physicians must protect the lives of their patients and should never hasten their death. In end-stage cancer management, we have to relieve suffering and pains, promote palliative care, and give psychological support but never abandoning the patient or initiate terminating their life. This presentation is a clinical analysis of the ethical issues regarding the management of end-stage cancer patients in a poor economy with a critical overview of end-of-life issues in African perspective. PMID:26620617

  13. 4th annual primary care ethics conference: ethics education and lifelong learning

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, John; McKenzie-Edwards, Emma; Misselbrook, David

    2014-01-01

    Primary care ethics is a field of study that has recently found new life, with calls to establish the relevance of ethical discussion in general practice, to gather a body of literature and to carve out an intellectual space for primary care on the academic landscape of bioethics. In this report, we reflect on the key strands of the 4th primary care ethics conference held at the Royal Society of Medicine, on a theme of ethics education and lifelong learning: first, to produce insights that have relevance for policy and practice; and second, to illustrate the idea that not only is ethics relevant in primary care, but primary care is relevant in medical ethics. Core themes included the advantages and disadvantages of prescriptive ways of doing ethics in education, ethical reflection and potential risk to professional status, the need to deal with societal change and to take on board the insights gained from empirical work, whether this is about different kinds of fatherhood, or work on the causes of moral distress in healthcare workers. PMID:25949739

  14. Ethical Issues in Maternal-Fetal Care Emergencies.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nyima; Coonrod, Dean V; McCormick, Thomas R

    2016-01-01

    Ethical issues that arise in the care of pregnant women are challenging to physicians, especially in critical care situations. By familiarizing themselves with the concepts of medical ethics in obstetrics, physicians will become more capable of approaching complex ethical situations with a clear and structured framework. This review discusses ethical approaches regarding 3 specific scenarios: (1) the life of the fetus versus the life of the mother and situations of questionable maternal decision making; (2) withdrawal of care in a brain-dead pregnant patient; and (3) domestic violence and the pregnant patient. PMID:26600450

  15. Professional Ethics, System Design Methods

    E-print Network

    Wright, Dawn Jeannine

    Professional Ethics, System Design Methods and Geospatial Data Quality #12;Objectives #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics #12;Geospatial Data Uncertainty and Ethics

  16. The nature and ethics of natural experiments.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus; Sim, Julius

    2015-10-01

    Natural experiments are an important methodology often used to answer research questions that would, otherwise, be impossible to address, or employed because of ethical concerns about the use of randomisation to interventions that carry known risks. The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) recently produced an extremely useful document discussing the nature and significance of natural experiments within medical and public health research. In this paper, however, we suggest that the MRC document's definition of the term 'natural experiment' is insufficiently precise. In response, we offer a taxonomy of different types of natural experiments and related methods, and explore the ethical implications of these different types. We argue that while the ethical issues that may arise within natural experiments in relation to risks of harm or informed consent may differ from those within the randomised controlled trial, they are not thereby less pressing. The implications of the argument are explored and recommendations made for those involved in research governance. PMID:26187285

  17. Ethical and policy issues in rehabilitation medicine.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Arthur L; Callahan, Daniel; Haas, Janet

    1987-08-01

    The field of medical rehabilitation is relatively new.... Until recently, the ethical problems of this new field were neglected. There seemed to be more pressing concerns as rehabilitation medicine struggled to establish itself, sometimes in the face of considerable skepticism or hostility. There also seemed no pressing moral questions of the kind and intensity to be encountered, say, in high-technology acute care medicine or genetic engineering.... Those in biomedical ethics could and did easily overlook the quiet, less obtrusive issues of rehabilitation.... The Hastings Center set out in 1985 to rectify that situation.... To explore the issues, the Center assembled a group of practitioners in the field, Hastings Center staff members, and individuals experienced in other areas of medical ethics.... The report that follows was written by Arthur Caplan and Daniel Callahan, assisted by Dr. Janet Haas of the Moss Rehabilitation Hospital in Philadelphia.... PMID:11653784

  18. Learning from Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Havens, Mark D.

    1987-01-01

    Reports analysis of 60 case studies of ethical dilemmas faced by experiential educators. Identifies issues which enhance likelihood of moral dilemmas: funding, residential programming, and risk-taking. Exposes need for a professional "code of ethics." (NEC)

  19. Ethics for Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaques, Elliott

    2003-01-01

    Notes that it is essential that business organizations establish organizational systems that require satisfactory ethical business behaviors from everyone concerned, regardless of differences in personal outlooks. Outlines what needs to be done in order to effectively teach business ethics. (SG)

  20. Ethical considerations in sex selection

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhaari, Tasnim Eghbal; Nejatizadeh, Abdol Azim; Rajaei, Minoo; Soleimanian, Saeede; Fallahi, Soghra; Ghaffarzadegan, Rahman; Mahmoudi, Forough

    2015-01-01

    Advances in modern medicine are resulted from unrestricted and unlimited research disregarding many essentials of a research including ethical issues. Following ethical issues, many of unwanted pregnancies and abortions can be avoided. Several factors such as medical issues including X linked disease, has encouraged couples to select traditional or modern techniques in selecting the gender of their children. Some of these methods are corrected Swim-up method or washing of spermatozoa, Percoll gradient sperm separation method, grass wool column filter method method, albumin separation method, microsort method using FISH (Fluorescence in situ hybridization), free electrophoresis method, Ph adjustment method, pre implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)/fluorescence in situ hybridization. This technology is confronted with many ethical issues. Ethical considerations PGD in the SEX SELECTION differ in different religions and their perspectives on this issue. In this this review, electronic databases, books and Internet sites were completely searched and full articles including required keywords and techniques were obtained and reviewed. The rites and religions, were different and had legal perspectives and opinions about PGD. In some non-Islamic countries there are strict rules to control the use of technology. Some of these methods are costly and even risky. They also involve ethical issues such as legitimacy of the conceived fetus; recommending final touches in sex selection is still considered a taboo and a big issue in some cultures or mono-sexual families. Islamic views and beliefs are more flexible and the use of these technologies are allowed to preserve the health and lives permit. Islam strongly favors humanity and supports different issues if they are not in conflict with the primary concept of legitimate reproduction and are beneficial to human beings. PMID:26097846