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1

Can one do good medical ethics without principles?  

PubMed

The criteria for determining what it is to do good medical ethics are the quality of ethical analysis and ethical justifications for decisions and actions. Justifications for decisions and actions rely on ethical principles, be they the 'famous four' or subsidiary ethical principles relevant to specific contexts. Examples from clinical ethics, research ethics and public health ethics reveal that even when not stated explicitly, principles are involved in ethical justifications. Principles may come into conflict, however, and the resolution of an ethical dilemma requires providing good reasons for preferring one principle over another. PMID:25516941

Macklin, Ruth

2015-01-01

2

WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects  

E-print Network

1 WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical Research of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including first consideration," and the International Code of Medical Ethics declares that, "A physician shall act

Pfeifer, Holger

3

Islam and the four principles of medical ethics.  

PubMed

The principles underpinning Islam's ethical framework applied to routine clinical scenarios remain insufficiently understood by many clinicians, thereby unfortunately permitting the delivery of culturally insensitive healthcare.This paper summarises the foundations of the Islamic ethical theory, elucidating the principles and methodology employed by the Muslim jurist in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics. The four-principles approach, as espoused by Beauchamp and Childress, is also interpreted through the prism of Islamic ethical theory. Each of the four principles (beneficence, nonmaleficence,justice and autonomy) is investigated in turn, looking in particular at the extent to which each is rooted in the Islamic paradigm. This will provide an important insight into Islamic medical ethics, enabling the clinician to have a better informed discussion with the Muslim patient. It will also allow for a higher degree of concordance in consultations and consequently optimise culturally sensitive healthcare delivery. PMID:23975951

Mustafa, Yassar

2014-07-01

4

Shannon and Jake An Application of Medical Ethics Principles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This case was developed to teach first-year medical students the basics of medical ethics. It describes a situation in which a family physician is treating a teenage patient for a sexually transmitted disease. Based on information she gives him, he is concerned not only for her health and welfare, but also for the health and welfare of others. Students read the case and discuss the choices the doctor might make using the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Students then develop a rationale for the physician acting according to one of the ethical principles identified, and prepare a debate for the class supporting the rationale.

Knutson, Doug; Post, Doug M.

2006-01-01

5

Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with

D F Tsai

1999-01-01

6

Is Rorty’s Neopragmatism the “Real” Foundation of Medical Ethics: a Search for Foundational Principles  

PubMed Central

Principlism, the predominate approach to bioethics, has no foundational principles. This absence of foundations reflects the general intellectual climate of postmodern relativism. Even America’s foremost public philosopher, Richard Rorty, whose pragmatism might suggest a philosophy of commonsense, seems to be swimming in the postmodern swamp. Alternatively, principlism’s architects, Beauchamp and Childress, suggest a constantly evolving reflective equilibrium with some basis in common morality as a workable framework for twenty-first century bioethics. The flaw in their approach is failure to conform to real doctors’ and patients’ experiences. Real doctors adopt a scientific paradigm that assumes an objective reality. Patients experience real suffering and seek effective cures, treatments, palliation and solace. The foundation of medical ethics should be that doctors altruistically respond to their patients’ suffering using scientifically acceptable modalities. Compassion, caring, and respect for human dignity are needed as guides in addition to justice, beneficence, nonmaleficence and respect for autonomy. PMID:18528478

Branch, William T

2006-01-01

7

Biomedical Ethics & Medical Humanities  

E-print Network

BEMH Biomedical Ethics & Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration Stanford University School? The Biomedical Ethics and Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration is part of the new initiative at Stanford interactions, neonatology, issues of limited resources, ethics of medical advances, informed consent issues

Ford, James

8

The Secret Kappa Lambda Society of Hippocrates (and the Origin of the American Medical Association's Principles of Medical Ethics).  

PubMed Central

This paper relates the neglected history of an idealistic, secret medical fraternity which existed briefly in Lexington, Kentucky, during the first half of the 19th century. It was created for students in the Medical Department at Transylvania University, the fifth US medical school, founded in 1799. One goal of the fraternity was to counter the widespread dissension and often violent quarrels among doctors that characterized American medicine of that period. And to that end, it was among the first to promote Thomas Percival's code of medical ethics in this country. Branches of the fraternity were established in Philadelphia and New York City, where members became influential in local medical politics but in time encountered hostility from rival physicians. The secret character of the fraternity branches was publicized and maligned during an anti-Masonic movement in this country in the 1830s, which soon led to the demise of the Philadelphia group. The New York branch remained active through the 1860s. Members of both branches were among those who in 1847 established the American Medical Association and devised its Principles of Medical Ethics. PMID:16197729

Ambrose, Charles T.

2005-01-01

9

Defending the four principles approach as a good basis for good medical practice and therefore for good medical ethics.  

PubMed

This paper argues that the four prima facie principles-beneficence, non-maleficence, respect for autonomy and justice-afford a good and widely acceptable basis for 'doing good medical ethics'. It confronts objections that the approach is simplistic, incompatible with a virtue-based approach to medicine, that it requires respect for autonomy always to have priority when the principles clash at the expense of clinical obligations to benefit patients and global justice. It agrees that the approach does not provide universalisable methods either for resolving such moral dilemmas arising from conflict between the principles or their derivatives, or universalisable methods for resolving disagreements about the scope of these principles-long acknowledged lacunae but arguably to be found, in practice, with all other approaches to medical ethics. The value of the approach, when properly understood, is to provide a universalisable though prima facie set of moral commitments which all doctors can accept, a basic moral language and a basic moral analytic framework. These can underpin an intercultural 'moral mission statement' for the goals and practice of medicine. PMID:25516950

Gillon, Raanan

2015-01-01

10

Teaching Ethics in Medical School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the literature regarding the teaching of ethics in medical schools. Defines medical ethics and attempts to determine the scope of medical ethics teaching. Discusses ways medical ethics could be taught and how that teaching can be assessed. Calls for increased attention into the teaching of medical ethics. (TW)

Ewan, Christine

1986-01-01

11

Principles for Professional Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews principles based on assumptions that school psychologists will act as advocates for their clients and will do no harm. Includes sections on professional competency, relationships and responsibilities, and practice in public and private settings. Presents extensive information on procedural guidelines for adjudication of ethical complaints.…

School Psychology Review, 1997

1997-01-01

12

Observing principles of medical ethics during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers in 2007  

PubMed Central

Background: Family planning has been defined in the framework of mothers and children plan as one of Primary Healthcare (PHC) details. Besides quantity, the quality of services, particularly in terms of ethics, such as observing individuals’ privacy, is of great importance in offering family planning services. Objective: A preliminary study to gather information about the degree of medical ethics offered during family planning services at Tehran urban healthcare centers. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was designed for study. In the first question regarding informed consent, 47 clients who were advised about various contraception methods were asked whether advantages and disadvantages of the contraceptive methods have been discussed by the service provider. Then a certain rank was measured for either client or method in 2007. Finally, average value of advantage and disadvantage for each method was measured. In questions about autonomy, justice and beneficence, yes/no answers have been expected and measured accordingly. Results: Health care providers have stressed more on the advantages of pills and disadvantages of tubectomy and have paid less attention to advantages of injection ampoules and disadvantages of pills in first time clients. While they have stressed more on the advantages and disadvantages of tubectomy and less attention to advantages of condom and disadvantages of vasectomy in second time clients. Clients divulged their 100% satisfaction in terms of observing turns and free charges services. Observance degree of autonomy was 64.7% and 77.3% for first time and second- time clients respectively. Conclusion: Applying the consultant’s personal viewpoint for selecting a method will breach an informed consent for first and second time clients. System has good consideration to justice and no malfeasance.

Motevallizadeh, Saeed; Malek Afzali, Hossein; Larijani, Bagher

2011-01-01

13

Ethical Principles: Guiding the Use of Animals in Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents arguments on the use of animals in biological and medical research. Discusses ethical considerations, principles, and animal rights in scientific research. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

Morrison, Adrian R.

2003-01-01

14

The dangers of medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dominant conception of medical ethics being taught in British and American medical schools is at best pointless and at worst dangerous, or so it will be argued. Although it is laudable that medical schools have now given medical ethics a secure place in the curriculum, they go wrong in treating it like a scientific body of knowledge. Ethics is

C Cowley

2005-01-01

15

[Crisis in medical ethics].  

PubMed

There is a disproportion between diagnostic and therapeutic medical achievements and the doctor/patient relationship. Are we allowed to do everything we are able to do in medicine? People are concerned and worried (genetic technology, invasive medicine, embryos in test tubes etc.). The crisis of ethics in medicine is evident. The analysis of the situation shows one of the causes in the shift of the paradigma-modern times to postmodern following scientific positivism-but also a loss of ethics in medicine due to an extreme secularism and to modern philosophical trends (Hans Jonas and the responsibility for the future and on the other hand modern utilitarism). PMID:9036685

Stellamor, K

1996-01-01

16

Ethical Principles for Socially Assistive Robotics David Feil-Seifer and Maja J Matari  

E-print Network

of view (user, caregiver, peer) using core principles from medical ethics (autonomy, beneficence, non. In this paper, we outline commonly accepted core principles from medical ethics and use those principlesEthical Principles for Socially Assistive Robotics David Feil-Seifer and Maja J Matari Interaction

Mataric, Maja J.

17

Agile Principles and Ethical Conduct  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software practitioners experience pressure to compromise their work and their reasonable care for others. Even as software becomes more beneficial, pervasive, and interconnected, the potential for unintended harm grows. Agile Software Development is an approach to building software systems that embodies a set of declared core principles. How do these principles align to an ethical standard of conduct? This paper

Ken H. Judy

2009-01-01

18

Teaching Medical Ethics to Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The evolution and goals of teaching medical ethics, the nature of medical ethics, and integrating such teaching into the curriculum are examined. Because moral considerations are as much a part of medical decisions as technical considerations, teaching is best done in the context of real cases. (Author/MLW)

Loewy, Erich H.

1986-01-01

19

Teaching Medical Ethics during Residency.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three reasons for teaching medical ethics during residency are presented. Key ethical concepts to be addressed include moral aspects of medical practice, obtaining informed consent, dealing with incompetent patients and those who refuse treatment, knowing when to withhold or disclose clinical information, and using medical resources properly. (MSE)

Perkins, Henry S.

1989-01-01

20

Ethical Principles for the Conduct of Human Subject Research: Population-Based Research and Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a halting first step in organizing a set of ethical guidelines for the conduct of population-based research, surveillance and practice. These principles are not distinct from, but an expansion of, traditional ethics. Research ethics, which matured significantly from the Nuremberg Code through to the Helsinki IV and the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS) guidelines,

Lawrence O. Gostin

1991-01-01

21

Modeling Medical Ethics through Intelligent Agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amount of research using health information has increased dramatically over the last past years. Indeed, a significative number of healthcare institutions have extensive Electronic Health Records (EHR), collected over several years for clinical and teaching purposes, but are uncertain as to the proper circumstances in which to use them to improve the delivery of care to the ones in need. Research Ethics Boards in Portugal and elsewhere in the world are grappling with these issues, but lack clear guidance regarding their role in the creation of and access to EHRs. However, we feel we have an effective way to handle Medical Ethics if we look to the problem under a structured and more rational way. Indeed, we felt that physicians were not aware of the relevance of the subject in their pre-clinical years, but their interest increase when they were exposed to patients. On the other hand, once EHRs are stored in machines, we also felt that we had to find a way to ensure that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. Therefore, in this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics and the need for machines that represent ethical principles explicitly. It is also shown how a machine may abstract an ethical principle from a logical representation of ethical judgments and use that principle to guide its own behavior.

Machado, José; Miranda, Miguel; Abelha, António; Neves, José; Neves, João

22

Violence risk assessment as a medical intervention: ethical tensions  

PubMed Central

Risk assessment differs from other medical interventions in that the welfare of the patient is not the immediate object of the intervention. However, improving the risk assessment process may reduce the chance of risk assessment itself being unjust. We explore the ethical arguments in relation to risk assessment as a medical intervention, drawing analogies, where applicable, with ethical arguments raised by general medical investigations. The article concludes by supporting the structured professional judgement approach as a method of risk assessment that is most consistent with the respect for principles of medical ethics. Recommendations are made for the future direction of risk assessment indicated by ethical theory. PMID:25237503

Roychowdhury, Ashimesh; Adshead, Gwen

2014-01-01

23

Ethics needs principles—four can encompass the rest—and respect for autonomy should be “first among equals”  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is hypothesised and argued that “the four principles of medical ethics” can explain and justify, alone or in combination, all the substantive and universalisable claims of medical ethics and probably of ethics more generally. A request is renewed for falsification of this hypothesis showing reason to reject any one of the principles or to require any additional principle(s) that

R Gillon

2003-01-01

24

The new Italian code of medical ethics.  

PubMed Central

In June 1995, the Italian code of medical ethics was revised in order that its principles should reflect the ever-changing relationship between the medical profession and society and between physicians and patients. The updated code is also a response to new ethical problems created by scientific progress; the discussion of such problems often shows up a need for better understanding on the part of the medical profession itself. Medical deontology is defined as the discipline for the study of norms of conduct for the health care professions, including moral and legal norms as well as those pertaining more strictly to professional performance. The aim of deontology is therefore, the in-depth investigation and revision of the code of medical ethics. It is in the light of this conceptual definition that one should interpret a review of the different codes which have attempted, throughout the various periods of Italy's recent history, to adapt ethical norms to particular social and health care climates. PMID:9279746

Fineschi, V; Turillazzi, E; Cateni, C

1997-01-01

25

2015 Summer Ethics Fellowships for Medical Students  

E-print Network

2015 Summer Ethics Fellowships for Medical Students The Fellowships at Auschwitz for the Study of Professional Ethics (FASPE) seeks appli- cations for its 2015 medical fellowships. FASPE Medical, a component of study on medical ethics. FASPE is predicated upon the power of place, and in particular the first

Jenny, Andreas

26

Evaluating ethics competence in medical education  

Microsoft Academic Search

We critically evaluate the ways in which competence in medical ethics has been evaluated. We report the initial stage in the development of a relevant, reliable and valid instrument to evaluate core critical thinking skills in medical ethics. This instrument can be used to evaluate the impact of medical ethics education programmes and to assess whether medical students have achieved

J. Savulescu; R. Crisp; K. W. M. Fulford; T. Hope

1999-01-01

27

How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?  

PubMed Central

General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

Coughlin, Steven S.

2009-01-01

28

Ethics of the electrified mind: Defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care  

PubMed Central

In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209

Cabrera, Laura Y.; Evans, Emily L.; Hamilton, Roy H.

2013-01-01

29

A Medical Ethics Assessment of the Case of Terri Schiavo  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The social, legal, and political discussion about the decision to stop feeding and hydration for Terri Schiavo lacked a medical ethics assessment. The authors used the principles of medical indications, quality of life, patient preference, and contextual features as a guide to medical decision-making in this case. Their conclusions include the…

Preston, Tom; Kelly, Michael

2006-01-01

30

Risk and medical ethics.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative estimates of risk, and their comparison with quantitative estimates of benefit, contribute usefully to decision-making in many fields. In medicine, our assessments of the probability of harm, and of the likelihood of benefit, resulting from many procedures are at present very limited. Moreover, the comparison of risk and of benefit is difficult to make in any quantitative way, whether for a procedure in general or, even more so, for its application in any particular patient. Yet it must be ethically insecure to propose or to use a procedure without some assessment, however approximate, of the hazards involved, and without some indication of whether those hazards will be clearly offset by the likelihood of benefit that should result from use of the procedure. PMID:7154031

Pochin, E

1982-01-01

31

Medical Ethics Education: Past, Present, and Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…

Fox, Ellen; And Others

1995-01-01

32

Medical Ethics Training: A Clinical Partnership.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The ethics training program at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences involves a four-way dialogue among clinical faculty and house staff, ethics faculty and fellows, the medical students, and philosophy ethics students. The program's clinical basis allows participants to become sophisticated about ethical issues in practice.…

Thomasma, David C.

1979-01-01

33

Analysis of Medical Confidentiality from the Islamic Ethics Perspective.  

PubMed

Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

2013-11-24

34

The relationship between medical law and good medical ethics.  

PubMed

In the UK, medical ethics and law are often thought of and taught together, but while 'good medical ethics' is often reflected in law-the need to obtain a patient's adequately informed consent, for example-this is not necessarily the case. Sometimes medical ethics is more demanding than law; at other times, perhaps counterintuitively, the law appears to ask more of doctors than does good medical ethics. PMID:25516946

Jackson, Emily

2015-01-01

35

Medical ethics: problems of theory and practice.  

PubMed

The paper analyzes the development of medical ethics in the USSR, and its socio-psychological, scientific-technological, and organizational factors. Special attention is given to the interdependence of moral-ethical problems with organizational issues. PMID:2809431

Korotkikh, R V

1989-06-01

36

Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

2009-01-01

37

Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum reviews its recent history, examines areas of consensus, and describes teaching objectives and methods, course content, and program evaluation at preclinical and clinical levels. Prerequisites for successful institutionalization of medical ethics education are defined, and its future is…

Miles, Steven H.; And Others

1989-01-01

38

Kitchener's Principle Ethics: Implications for Counseling Practice and Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This extensive literature review examining the influence of K. S. Kitchener's (1984) introduction of principle ethics on counseling and psychology ethics notes the ultimate practicality of principle ethics. The authors maintain that although a strong influence of principle ethics in the area of counselor education emerges through the review, there…

Urofsky, Robert I.; Engels, Dennis W.; Engebretson, Ken

2008-01-01

39

Faculty ethics: ideal principles with practical applications.  

PubMed

Ethics in higher education is the subject of intense public attention, with considerable focus on faculty roles and responsibilities. Media reports and scholarly research have documented egregious misconduct that includes plagiarism, falsification of data, illicit teacher-student relationships, and grading bias. These accounts of wrongdoing often portray faculty ethicality as only a legal issue of obeying rules and regulations, especially in the teaching and research roles. My discussion challenges this narrow perspective and argues that characterizations of faculty ethicality should take into account broader expectations for professionalism such as collegiality, respect, and freedom of inquiry. First, I review the general principles of faculty ethics developed by the American Association of University Professors, as well as professional codes of ethics in specific professional fields. Second, I juxtapose the experiences of women and minority faculty members in relation to these general codes of ethics. This section examines three issues that particularly affect women and minority faculty experiences of ethicality: "chilly and alienating" academic climates, "cultural taxation" of minority identity, and the snare of conventional reward systems. Third, I suggest practical strategies to reconcile faculty practice with codes of ethics. My challenge is to the faculty as a community of practice to engage professional ethics as social and political events, not just legal and moral failures. PMID:20054074

Reybold, L Earle

2009-01-01

40

Suffering, compassion and 'doing good medical ethics'.  

PubMed

'Doing good medical ethics' involves attending to both the biomedical and existential aspects of illness. For this, we need to bring in a phenomenological perspective to the clinical encounter, adopt a virtue-based ethic and resolve to re-evaluate the goals of medicine, in particular the alleviation of suffering and the role of compassion in everyday ethics. PMID:25516944

de Zulueta, Paquita C

2015-01-01

41

The ethical imperative of medical humanities.  

PubMed

Medical humanities purchases its presence on the medical side of university campuses by adopting as its own the ends of medicine and medical ethics. It even justifies its presence by asserting promotion of those ends as an ethical imperative, most of all to improve the caring in medical care. As unobjectionable, even praiseworthy, as this imperative appears, it actually constrains the possibilities for interpersonal relationship in the context of medical practice. Development of those possibilities requires openness of self to the existentially challenging ethical imperative to care also literally for nothing at all. PMID:20635126

Rees, Geoffrey

2010-12-01

42

Medical-Research Ethics under the Microscope.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the growing involvement between medical schools and medical industries and the ethical problems this situation poses. The main concern is that investigators may expose subjects to unnecessary risks because they are driven by financial motives. (SLD)

Mangan, Katherine

2003-01-01

43

Focus: current issues in medical ethics  

PubMed Central

The authors, both child psychiatrists, discuss some of the ethical problems that arise in their practice, in relation to advice given in the British Medical Association's Handbook of Medical Ethics. They find that the main problems occur when multidisciplinary cooperation is needed. Their concern about confidentiality is shared in the papers by Kenny, Pheby and their commentators, which follow this one. PMID:7069737

Black, Dora; Subotsky, Fiona

1982-01-01

44

Good and not so good medical ethics.  

PubMed

In this paper, I provide a brief sketch of the purposes that medical ethics serves and what makes for good medical ethics. Medical ethics can guide clinical practice and biomedical research, contribute to the education of clinicians, advance thinking in the field, and direct healthcare policy. Although these are distinct activities, they are alike in several critical respects. Good medical ethics is coherent, illuminating, accurate, reasonable, consistent, informed, and measured. After this overview, I provide specific examples to illustrate some of the ways in which medical ethics could go wrong as a caution and a reminder that taking on the role of an ethicist involves serious responsibilities that must be exercised with care. PMID:25516940

Rhodes, Rosamond

2015-01-01

45

What is it to practise good medical ethics? A Muslim's perspective.  

PubMed

Good medical ethics should aim at ensuring that all human beings enjoy the highest attainable standard of health. With the development of medical technology and health services, it became necessary to expand the four basic principles of medical ethics and link them to human rights. Despite the claim of the universality of those ethical principles, their perception and application in healthcare services are inevitably influenced by the religious background of the societies in which those services are provided. This paper highlights the methodology and principles employed by Muslim jurists in deriving rulings in the field of medical ethics, and it explains how ethical principles are interpreted through the lens of Islamic theory. The author explains how, as a Muslim obstetrician-gynaecologist with a special interest in medical ethics, including international consideration of reproductive ethics issues, he attempts to 'practise good medical ethics' by applying internationally accepted ethical principles in various healthcare contexts, in ways that are consistent with Islamic principles, and he identifies the evidence supporting his approach. He argues that healthcare providers have a right to respect for their conscientious convictions regarding both undertaking and not undertaking the delivery of lawful procedures. However, he also argues that withholding evidence-based medical services based on the conscientious objection of the healthcare provider is unethical as patients have the right to be referred to services providing such treatment. PMID:25516952

Serour, G I

2015-01-01

46

Western medical ethics taught to junior medical students can cross cultural and linguistic boundaries  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice) and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9) and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7) There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third week of their medical school experience and with minimal instruction. This result was independent of their academic and English language skills suggesting that ethical principles as espoused in the four principal approach may be common to the students' Islamic religious beliefs, allowing them to access complex medical ethical reasoning skills at an early stage in the medical curriculum. PMID:15283868

Ypinazar, Valmae A; Margolis, Stephen A

2004-01-01

47

Doing good medical ethics: a Christian perspective.  

PubMed

Despite the rise of the secular state, religion remains a significant force in society. Within Christianity this encompasses a wide variety of beliefs. These range from simple assertions of theism in a cultural context to complex theologies; from liberal emphases on uncertainty and exploration to dogmatic views of divine revelation. How one 'does' good medical ethics depends on these perspectives. Contingently, the Christian contribution to medical ethics has been huge and constructive. Central to that contribution is a core belief in the intrinsic value of human life, respect for which we are accountable to God. Christianity continues to deserve its place 'in the public square' and, specifically, in medical ethical discourse. PMID:25516951

Saunders, John

2015-01-01

48

[Ethics, bioethics and medical sciences].  

PubMed

The aim of bioethics is to define a wise conduct for humans with regard to their environments, whether living or inanimate. However, owing to their diversity, bioethics can only deal with general problems such as biodiversity. Within the framework of bioethics as a whole, different sectorial bioethics must therefore exist to deal with problems specific to certain environments, for example the Oceans and Seas, the Forests. General bioethics and sectorial bioethics have an important contribution to make to medical sciences but official regulations should be proposed only after an attentive investigation has been made. For instance, the preservation of an apparently threatened biodiversity or the revival of a seriously damaged biodiversity must be the subject of a thorough preliminary scientific study and, if legislative decisions are taken, a very careful scientific control of their consequences must be carried out. One example is given: the decree on the protection of Larids and its impact, with regard to an abusive proliferation of certain gull populations having varied effects on public health. Sectorial bioethics can also have obvious consequences on medical sciences. Thus various harmful attacks on coral reefs (contrary to the concepts of thalassoethics) can lead to the death of corals and the appearance of ciguatera. Thalassoethics, by inciting pollution control, should help to improve the conditions of thalassotherapy. Forest ethics, particularly concerning management, can reduce the greenhouse effect and its consequences on health, as well as protecting plant and animal species inhabiting the ecosystem and bringing new chemical bodies to inspire original pharmacological research. Thus the links between general or sectorial bioethics and medical sciences must always be very close. PMID:9528189

Fontaine, M

1997-10-01

49

Medical ethics as practiced by students, nurses and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Assuming any social role has obligations and fulfilling the related responsibilities has ethical aspects that must be addressed carefully. Each role requires extensive training, which usually takes place in university institutions. Ethics is applied in at least three academic areas, including: a) in education of students' personal growth, b) in patient care, and c) in university communion in population-based health care. Given the importance of this issue in the moral domain, this study examines the correlation among the students, nurses and teacher's opinions regarding principles of medical ethics at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study conducted in 2010. The participants of this research consisted of all medical students, nurses in public hospitals, and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. For validity evaluation, the expert panel method and for reliability evaluation, test-retest method was used. Results: Based on the medical ethics’ scores in these three groups, there was a significant relationship between the mean scores of student-nurses and employed nurses, but there was no significant relationship between those of student-faculties. Also the mean score of the students was the highest in medical ethics. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a list of virtues and moral characteristics of medical staff and found out the method of practicing medical ethics in everyday life of students to improve the moral reasoning of teachers, nurses and students. Moreover, medical ethics, with the presentation of specific criteria for ethical behavior in various domains of human life, especially in dealing with patients, can help practice ethical values in the medical community. PMID:25587553

BAZRAFCAN, LEILA; NABEIEI, PARISA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN; MOADAB, NEDA

2015-01-01

50

The Baylor Experience in Teaching Medical Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The activities of the Center for Ethics, Medicine, and Public Issues (Texas) are described. The center focuses on the clinical teaching of medical ethics, collaborative teaching and research involving ethicists and clinicians, and the training of future practitioners. Problems and achievements are highlighted. (Author/MSE)

Brody, Baruch A.

1989-01-01

51

The forms and limits of medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As medical ethics has evolved over the past several decades, it has come to be regarded as a domain of applied ethics, that is, the application of a rationally based, philosophical theory to moral problems in health care. But an array of difficulties arise in the attempt to apply general moral theories or norms to concrete problems, difficulties that expose

Barry Hoffmaster

1994-01-01

52

Applying the principles of Gestalt theory to teaching ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching ethics poses a dilemma for professors of business. First, they have little or no formal training in ethics. Second, they have established ethical values that they may not want to impose upon their students. What is needed is a well-recognized, yet non-sectarian model to facilitate the clarification of ethical questions. Gestalt theory offers such a framework. Four Gestalt principles

Eugene H. Hunt; Ronald K. Bullis

1991-01-01

53

Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct, focusing on introduction and applicability; preamble; general principles; and ethical standards (resolving ethical issues, competence, human relations, privacy and confidentiality, advertising and other public statements, record keeping and…

American Psychologist, 2002

2002-01-01

54

The literature of medical ethics: Bernard Häring  

PubMed Central

To the general reader and watcher of television programmes medical ethics may appear to be something new. This is not so, for hundreds of articles and many books have appeared over the last 10 years or so to discuss and analyse the problems arising from the practice of medicine. In this study of two larger works - Medical Ethics and Manipulation - both by Bernard Häring, a Roman Catholic theologian - Father Brendan Soane analyses these in some detail and sets their ideas in the context of what has already been written on the major issues of medical ethics and what is likely to be foremost in discussion in the near future. Many readers of this Journal already have the particular background of knowledge to see the problems in medicine which are in fact ethical but the general reader may require help and enlightenment and this is now provided for a special field within the field. PMID:874983

Soane, Brendan

1977-01-01

55

Medical Ethics: Phil 80-245 Professor London  

E-print Network

Medical Ethics: Phil 80-245 Professor London Baker Hall 150A ajlondon@andrew.cmu.edu Class Meetings Description: This course provides a detailed introduction to core ethical issues in medical ethics and public of death. We will also examine specific ethical issues in the conduct of medical research and look

Spirtes, Peter

56

Medical Devices: Principles of Clinical Evaluation of Effectiveness and Safety  

E-print Network

Medical Devices: Principles of Clinical Evaluation of Effectiveness and Safety P1 D11 v2 050521 in trials including ethical issues. However, it goes on to indicate where trials of medical devices need studies (see section 2.3), bias (see section 2.4) and the more important role of the surgeon in device

Oakley, Jeremy

57

Contributions of empirical research to medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research pertaining to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), clinician behaviors related to do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and substituted judgment suggests potential contributions to medical ethics. Research quantifying the likelihood of surviving CPR points to the need for further philosophical analysis of the limitations of the patient autonomy in decision making, the nature and definition of medical futility, and the relationship between futility

Robert A. Pearlman; Steven H. Miles; Robert M. Arnold

1993-01-01

58

Casuistry: A Complement to Principle Ethics and a Foundation for Ethical Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas within any system are created when moral/ethical principles, rules, or guidelines can be cited for opposing actions with neither side presenting the obvious, right course to follow. This condition exposes the intricate interrelationship between abstract moral/ethical principles and the description and evaluation of real-life…

Freeman, Stephen J.; Francis, Perry C.

2006-01-01

59

The Application of Ecological Principles in Establishing an Environmental Ethic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines four ecological principles and their misapplication in common models of environmental ethics. The principles include balance in nature, the fragility of nature, high diversity yielding high stability, and interdependence in nature. Also suggests an alternative way to incorporate each principle in a working environmental ethic. (AIM)

Bicak, Charles J.

1997-01-01

60

What is good medical ethics? A clinician's perspective.  

PubMed

Speaking from the perspective of a clinician and teacher, good medical ethics needs to make medicine better. Over the past 50?years medical ethics has helped shape the culture in medicine and medical practice for the better. However, recent healthcare scandals in the UK suggest more needs to be done to translate ethical reasoning into ethical practice. Focusing on clinical practice and individual patient care, I will argue that, to be good, medical ethics needs to become integral to the activities of health professionals and healthcare organisations. Ethics is like a language which brings a way of thinking and responding to the world. For ethics to become embedded in clinical practice, health professionals need to progress from classroom learners to fluent social speakers through ethical dialogue, ethical reflection and ethical actions. I will end by discussing three areas that need to be addressed to enable medical ethics to flourish and bring about change in everyday clinical care. PMID:25516942

Kong, Wing May

2015-01-01

61

Treating Ed A Medical Ethics Case Study  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ed is dying. How should his wishes for medical treatment be carried out? As the case unfolds, students explore the rights and responsibilities of doctors, patients, and patient representatives regarding difficult medical decisions. Specifically, students consider the ramifications of Advance Directives and Durable Powers of Attorney. The case was written for an introductory biology course, but could easily be used in or modified for a human anatomy and physiology, introductory nursing, or medical ethics course.

Ribbens, Eric

2008-01-01

62

Philosophy of medicine as the source for medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article offers an approach to inquiry about, the foundation of medical ethics by addressing three areas of conceptual presupposition basic to medical ethical theory. First, medical ethics must presuppose a view about the nature of medicine. it is argued that the view required by a cogent medical morality entails that medicine be seen both as a healing relationship and

David C. Thomasma; Edmund D. Pellegrino

1981-01-01

63

Can ethnography save the life of medical ethics?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its inception contemporary medical ethics has been regarded by many of its practitioners as 'applied ethics', that is, the application of philosophical theories to the moral problems that arise in health care. This 'applied ethics' model of medical ethics is, however, beset with internal and external difficulties. The internal difficulties point out that the model is intrinsically flawed. The

Barry Hoffmaster

1992-01-01

64

Teaching Medical Ethics: Some Persistent Questions and Some Responses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Issues in the inclusion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum are discussed, including its relevance, whether or not ethics can be taught, whose ethics should be taught, the contribution of the professional ethicist, and the relevance of humanistic studies outside ethics. (MSE)

Pellegrino, Edmund D.

1989-01-01

65

Preferences for Key Ethical Principles that Guide Business School Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…

Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris

2010-01-01

66

Canadian University Ethics Review: Cultural Complications Translating Principles into Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Drawing from educational research conducted in Canada and Mexico, university researchers explore how culture complicates both the ethics review process and the translation of ethical research principles into practice. University researchers in Canadian contexts seek approval from university Research Ethics Boards to conduct research, following…

Tilley, Susan; Gormley, Louise

2007-01-01

67

Medical ethics and education for social responsibility.  

PubMed Central

The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization. PMID:7405276

Roemer, M. I.

1980-01-01

68

Teaching medical ethics in other countries.  

PubMed

In the past 20 years, around the world, there has been an explosion in the teaching of medical ethics. As the dust begins to settle, it would appear that such teaching is likely to have its most effective impact not during the undergraduate period but at the immediate postgraduate level and in continuing education. Whilst important contributions can be made by teachers of religion, philosophy and law, probably the essential wisdom, capable of standing a doctor in good stead throughout the developments of a lifetime's career, must largely come from those who have studied both medicine and ethics. It would be appropriate if the study of medical ethics were to lead to better international understanding among doctors. PMID:3981565

Wolstenholme, G

1985-03-01

69

Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.  

PubMed

Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine. PMID:22373629

Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

2012-03-01

70

Ethics and the medical uses of radiation  

SciTech Connect

The basis of ethical practice for the medical community in general and for nuclear medicine technology in particular is described as follows: 1) Know and use current guidelines for safe work procedures; 2) Establish and maintain a quality assurance program for equipment and radiopharmaceuticals; 3) Develop work habits incorporating the philosophy of the ALARA concept (radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable); 4) Establish and use protocols for routine procedures; 5) Make exceptions to accepted practices when benefit vs risk warrants these exceptions; 6) Make periodic audits to determine if ethical standards are being applied. (JMT)

Hibbard, W.M.

1982-06-01

71

Medical Ethics in the Next 25 Years  

PubMed Central

In the next 10-15 years most of the major ethical dilemmas facing family physicians will grow more acute. This is not to imply that things are getting worse. On the contrary, it is the simultaneous growth of miraculous methods and frightening risks that will make the dilemmas more acute. In the next 15-25 years, we will learn how to minimize the risks. Several major ethical dilemmas of medical practice are reviewed from this perspective. Finally, some issues are considered that do not fit this pattern and that have the potential to become a much greater challenge to humanity. PMID:11662581

Tiberius, Richard G.

1979-01-01

72

Ethics  

Cancer.gov

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.

73

The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.  

PubMed

When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40?years. PMID:25516923

Campbell, Alastair V

2015-01-01

74

Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics  

E-print Network

Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics August 2012, Volume 14, Number 8: 657 kinds of information about our DNA, but they have also raised ethical questions. Early results from that such genetic patterns may have medical importance. We note two ethical dilemmas posed by the claims made

Fujimura, Joan

75

Casuistry in medical ethics: Rehabilitated, or repeat offender?  

Microsoft Academic Search

For a number of reasons, casuistry has come into vogue in medical ethics. Despite the frequency with which it is avowed, the application of casuistry to issues in medical ethics has been given virtually no systematic defense in the ethics literature. That may be for good reason, since a close examination reveals that casuistry delivers much less than its advocates

Tom Tomlinson

1994-01-01

76

'Medical ethics'--an alternative approach.  

PubMed Central

Contemporary medical ethics is generally concerned with the application of ethical theory to medico-moral dilemmas and with the critical analysis of the concepts of medicine. This paper presents an alternative programme: the development of a medical philosophy which, by taking as its starting point the two questions: what is man? and, what constitutes goodness in life? offers an account of health as one of the primary concepts of value. This view of the subject resembles that implied by ancient theories of goodness, and in later sections of the paper it is shown how Aristotle points us towards a coherent theory of human nature as psycho-physical, which overcomes the inadequacies of dualism and physicalist reductionism. What is on offer therefore, is the prospect of an integrated account of human nature and of what constitutes its flourishing: to be healthy is to be an active unity-of-parts in equilibrium. PMID:3761336

Haldane, J J

1986-01-01

77

Cost-benefit analysis and medical ethics.  

PubMed Central

The issue of assessing priorities is one that has become the subject of much debate in the National Health Service particularly in the wake of various documents on priorities from central Government. It has become even more so with the prospect of real cuts in expenditure. Economists claim that their science, or perhaps more accurately art can assist in determining not only how best to achieve various ends but also whether and to what extent competing objectives should be pursued. Such choices cannot be made in the absence of some ethical considerations and it is important that health service decision makers (and in particular the medical profession) are aware if the relationship between economics (and especially cost-benefit analysis) and medical ethics. PMID:6780692

Mooney, G H

1980-01-01

78

There Is More to Ethics than Principles.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In response to Meara et al.'s (1996) article concerning virtue ethics, asserts that moral virtues are not synonymous with moral ideals. Additionally, because virtue ethics can be community specific, they are also in danger of becoming ethnocentric. Suggests that the promotion of virtue ethics itself poses important unanswered question for the…

Kitchener, Karen Strohm

1996-01-01

79

Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.  

SciTech Connect

As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

Shaneyfelt, Wendy

2006-05-01

80

Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

Marsh, Melinda

81

The role of ethical principles in health care and the implications for ethical codes.  

PubMed Central

A common ethical code for everybody involved in health care is desirable, but there are important limitations to the role such a code could play. In order to understand these limitations the approach to ethics using principles and their application to medicine is discussed, and in particular the implications of their being prima facie. The expectation of what an ethical code can do changes depending on how ethical properties in general are understood. The difficulties encountered when ethical values are applied reactively to an objective world can be avoided by seeing them as a more integral part of our understanding of the world. It is concluded that an ethical code can establish important values and describe a common ethical context for health care but is of limited use in solving new and complex ethical problems. PMID:10536764

Limentani, A E

1999-01-01

82

Extensionally defining principles and cases in ethics: An AI model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Principles are abstract rules intended to guide decision-makers in making normative judgments in domains like the law, politics, and ethics. It is difficult, however, if not impossible to define principles in an intensional manner so that they may be applied deductively. The problem is the gap between the abstract, open-textured principles and concrete facts. On the other hand, when expert

Bruce M. Mclaren

2003-01-01

83

Principles and Ethics for Elementary and Junior High School Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The rules and principles approach for developing educators' ethical judgment may be less effective than a centered approach. A centered approach being one that focuses solely on the elementary and junior high teachers. Educators understand the moral and ethical convolution of their role; possess expertise in interpreting their behavior and…

Howard, Kiffany

2010-01-01

84

Quality of publication ethics in the instructions to the authors of Iranian journals of medical sciences.  

PubMed

Providing a perfect instruction to authors can prevent most potential publication ethics errors. This study was conducted to determine the quality of ethical considerations in the instructions to the authors of Iranian research scientific journals of medical sciences (accredited by the Commission for Accreditation and Improvement of Iranian Medical Journals) in October 2011. Checklist items (n=15) were extracted from the national manual of ethics in medical research publications, and the validity of the manual of ethics was assessed. All the accredited Iranian journals of medical sciences (n=198) were entered into the study. The instructions to the authors of 160 accredited Iranian journals were available online and were reviewed. The ANOVA and Kendall Correlation coefficient were performed to analyze the results. A total of 76 (47.5%) of the 160 journals were in English and 84 (52.5%) were in Farsi. The most frequently mentioned items related to publication ethics comprised "commitment not to send manuscripts to other journals and re-publish manuscripts" (85%, 83.8%), "aim and scope" of the journal (81.9%), "principles of medical ethics in the use of human samples" (74.4%), and "review process" (74.4%). On the other hand, the items of "principles of advertising" (1.2%), "authorship criteria" (15%), and "integrity in publication of clinical trial results" (30.6%) were the least frequently mentioned ones. Based on the study findings, the quality of publication ethics, as instructed to the authors, can improve the quality of the journals. PMID:23645959

Salamat, Fatemeh; Sobhani, Abdol-Rasoul; Mallaei, Mahin

2013-03-01

85

Medically assisted reproduction and ethical challenges  

SciTech Connect

Many of the ethical challenges associated with medically assisted reproduction are societal. Should the technique be restricted to only ordinary couples or could it be used also to single females or couples of same sex? Should the future child be entitled to know the identity of the gamete donor? Should there be age limits? Can embryos or gametes be used after the death of the donor? Can surrogate mothers be part of the process? Can preimplantation diagnostics be used to select the future baby's sex? In addition, there are several clearly medical questions that lead to difficult ethical problems. Is it safe to use very premature eggs or sperms? Is the risk for some rare syndromes caused by imprinting errors really increased when using these techniques? Do we transfer genetic infertility to the offspring? Is the risk for multiple pregnancies too high when several embryos are implanted? Does preimplantation diagnosis cause some extra risks for the future child? Should the counselling of these couples include information of all these potential but unlikely risks? The legislation and practices differ in different countries and ethical discussion and professional guidelines are still needed.

Kaeaeriaeinen, Helena [Department of Medical Genetics, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520 Turku (Finland) and Department of Clinical Genetics, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: helena.kaariainen@utu.fi; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry [Department of Human Genetics, University of Leuven (Belgium); Coviello, Domenico [Laboratory of Medical Genetics, ICP, University Hospital of Milan (Italy)

2005-09-01

86

Imparting Medical Ethics: The Role of Mentorship in Clinical Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mentoring and ethics are integral and intersecting components of medical education. Faculty workloads and diffusion of responsibility for teaching impact both ethics and mentoring. In current academic medical center environments, the expectation that traditional one-on-one mentoring relationships will arise spontaneously between medical students…

Rose, Gail L.; Rukstalis, Margaret R.

2008-01-01

87

An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

88

What is it to do good medical ethics?  

PubMed

This brief paper addresses the question of what it is to do good medical ethics in two parts: First, I consider the problem of how to get started in medical ethics, conceived of as an academic discipline rather than simply to get started being ethical in a medical or biomedical context. The second part gives my own take on the question 'what is bioethics for?' PMID:25516931

Harris, John

2015-01-01

89

An international survey of medical ethics curricula in Asia.  

PubMed Central

SETTING: Medical ethics education has become common, and the integrated ethics curriculum has been recommended in Western countries. It should be questioned whether there is one, universal method of teaching ethics applicable worldwide to medical schools, especially those in non-Western developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the medical ethics curricula at Asian medical schools. DESIGN: Mailed survey of 206 medical schools in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 100 medical schools responded, a response rate of 49%, ranging from 23%-100% by country. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The degree of integration of the ethics programme into the formal medical curriculum was measured by lecture time; whether compulsory or elective; whether separate courses or unit of other courses; number of courses; schedule; total length, and diversity of teachers' specialties. RESULTS: A total of 89 medical schools (89%) reported offering some courses in which ethical topics were taught. Separate medical ethics courses were mostly offered in all countries, and the structure of vertical integration was divided into four patterns. Most deans reported that physicians' obligations and patients' rights were the most important topics for their students. However, the evaluation was diverse for more concrete topics. CONCLUSION: Offering formal medical ethics education is a widespread feature of medical curricula throughout the study area. However, the kinds of programmes, especially with regard to integration into clinical teaching, were greatly diverse. PMID:10635508

Miyasaka, M; Akabayashi, A; Kai, I; Ohi, G

1999-01-01

90

A Step Towards Medical Ethics Modeling Miguel Miranda1,  

E-print Network

A Step Towards Medical Ethics Modeling Miguel Miranda1, , José Machado1 , António Abelha1 , Gabriel.pontes@chaa.min-saude.pt Abstract: Modeling of ethical reasoning has been a matter of discussion and research among distinct. In this paper we present some of the modeling lines of ethical reasoning applied to medicine, and defend

Boyer, Edmond

91

Nurse educators and professional ethics--ethical principles and their implementation from nurse educators' perspectives.  

PubMed

This study describes nurse educators' knowledge of the ethical principles of professional codes of ethics and educators' assessment of the implementation of principles of fairness and human respect. Data for this study was collected from nurse educators in Finland. The data was analyzed by SPSS (15.0) for Windows. A total of 342 nurse educators participated. The response rate was 46%. Nurse educators knew well the ethical principles of professional codes governing their work. Older and more experienced educators knew the principles better than younger and less experienced. According to the educators the principle of fairness was implemented the best whereas fair treatment of nurse educators and respect for educators' opinions in the society were implemented the weakest. Educators who knew the principles well assessed themselves to act in a fairer way and to respect other persons' opinions in a better way than educators who knew these principles less well. They also felt themselves to be better treated than educators having less knowledge of the principles. These findings can be utilized to develop nurse educators' ethics education. Further research should focus on students', colleagues' and superiors' assessments of nurse educators' ethical knowledge base to gain comparative data on the phenomenon. PMID:22154952

Salminen, Leena; Metsämäki, Riikka; Numminen, Olivia H; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

2013-02-01

92

[How do first codes of medical ethics inspire contemporary physicians?].  

PubMed

First codes of medical ethics appeared between 18th and 19th century. Their formation was inspired by changes that happened in medicine, positive in general but with some negative setbacks. Those negative consequences revealed the need to codify all those ethical duties, which were formerly passed from generation to generation by the word of mouth and individual example by master physicians. 210 years has passed since the publication of "Medical Ethics" by Thomas Percival, yet essential ethical guidelines remain the same. Similarly, ethical codes published in Poland in 19 century can still be an inspiration to modem physicians. PMID:24720115

Paprocka-Lipi?ska, Anna; Basi?ska, Krystyna

2014-02-01

93

Relevance of the rationalist-intuitionist debate for ethics and professionalism in medical education.  

PubMed

Despite widespread pedagogical efforts to modify discrete behaviors in developing physicians, the professionalism movement has generally shied away from essential questions such as what virtues characterize the good physician, and how are those virtues formed? Although there is widespread adoption of medical ethics curricula, there is still no consensus about the primary goals of ethics education. Two prevailing perspectives dominate the literature, constituting what is sometimes referred to as the "virtue/skill dichotomy". The first perspective argues that teaching ethics is a means of providing physicians with a skill set for analyzing and resolving ethical dilemmas. The second perspective suggests that teaching ethics is a means of creating virtuous physicians. The authors argue that this debate about medical ethics education mirrors the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate in contemporary moral psychology. In the following essay, the authors sketch the relevance of the Rationalist-Intuitionist debate to medical ethics and professionalism. They then outline a moral intuitionist model of virtuous caring that derives from but also extends the "social intuitionist model" of moral action and virtue. This moral intuitionist model suggests several practical implications specifically for medical character education but also for health science education in general. This approach proposes that character development is best accomplished by tuning-up (activating) moral intuitions, amplifying (intensifying) moral emotions related to intuitions, and strengthening (expanding) intuition-expressive, emotion-related moral virtues, more than by "learning" explicit ethical rules or principles. PMID:25319836

Leffel, G Michael; Oakes Mueller, Ross A; Curlin, Farr A; Yoon, John D

2014-10-16

94

I. ASCRC General Education Form Group Group VIII: Ethics and Human Values  

E-print Network

about the relationships between principles and codes of medical ethics and ethical values in the larger society. 4. Students will learn principles of medical ethics found within medical ethics literature in critical thinking and writing in ethics through the consideration of medical ethics issues and cases

Vonessen, Nikolaus

95

Reflections on learning and teaching medical ethics in UK medical schools.  

PubMed

The development of learning, teaching and assessment of medical ethics and law over the last 40?years is reflected upon with particular reference to the roles of the London Medical Group, the Society for the Study of Medical Ethics, its successor Institute of Medical Ethics; the Journal of Medical Ethics and the General Medical Council. Several current issues are addressed. Although the situation seems incomparably better than it was 40?years ago, the relatively recent events in Mid Staffordshire National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust show we cannot be complacent. Whatever role we have in the NHS or medical education, we must all strive to make sure it never happens again. PMID:25516924

Stirrat, Gordon M

2015-01-01

96

Principles for the ethical analysis of clinical and translational research.  

PubMed

Statistical analysis is a cornerstone of the scientific method and evidence-based medicine, and statisticians serve an increasingly important role in clinical and translational research by providing objective evidence concerning the risks and benefits of novel therapeutics. Researchers rely on statistics and informatics as never before to generate and test hypotheses and to discover patterns of disease hidden within overwhelming amounts of data. Too often, clinicians and biomedical scientists are not adequately proficient in statistics to analyze data or interpret results, and statistical expertise may not be properly incorporated within the research process. We argue for the ethical imperative of statistical standards, and we present ten nontechnical principles that form a conceptual framework for the ethical application of statistics in clinical and translational research. These principles are drawn from the literature on the ethics of data analysis and the American Statistical Association Ethical Guidelines for Statistical Practice. PMID:21751225

Gelfond, Jonathan A L; Heitman, Elizabeth; Pollock, Brad H; Klugman, Craig M

2011-10-15

97

Internal Medicine Residents' Preferences regarding Medical Ethics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of residents (N=323) in 6 internal medicine programs investigated the topics students wanted included in the medical ethics curriculum and by which of 17 methods they would prefer to be taught. About three-fourths had previous medical ethics instruction, and most wanted more on specific topics, especially legal and end-of-life issues.…

Jacobson, Jay A.; And Others

1989-01-01

98

Against medical ethics: opening the can of worms.  

PubMed Central

In a controversial paper, David Seedhouse argues that medical ethics is not and cannot be a distinct discipline with it own field of study. He derives this claim from a characterization of ethics, which he states but does not defend. He claims further that the project of medical ethics as it exists and of moral philosophy do not overlap. I show that Seedhouse's views on ethics have wide implications which he does not declare, and in the light of this argue that Seedhouse owes us a defence of his characterization of ethics. Further, I show that his characterization of ethics, which he uses to attack medical ethics, is a committed position within moral philosophy. As a consequence of this, it does not allow the relation between moral philosophy and medical ethics to be discussed without prejudice to its outcome. Finally, I explore the relation between Seedhouse's position and naturalism, and its implications for medical epistemology. I argue that this shows us that Seedhouse's position, if it can be defended, is likely to lead to a fruitful and important line of inquiry which reconnects philosophy and medical ethics. PMID:9549676

Cassell, J

1998-01-01

99

Research Ethics, some general principles 1. The primary responsibility for the ethical conduct of research lies with the  

E-print Network

1 Research Ethics, some general principles 1. The primary responsibility for the ethical conduct ethical guidelines for the conduct of research (see below for links to relevant documents), in particular the Declaration of Helsinki http://www.wma.net/en/20activities/10ethics/10helsinki 2. It is useful to think

Harman, Neal.A.

100

The Effect of a Class in Medical Ethics on First-Year Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of 110 first-year University of Virginia medical students taking a required course in medical ethics found that the curriculum had little effect on student attitudes toward certain ethical questions or on their factual knowledge regarding particular ethical and legal issues. (Author/MSE)

Shorr, Andrew F.; And Others

1994-01-01

101

School Counseling Principles: Ethics and Law  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This practical guide will sensitize the professional school counselor to legal and ethical issues involved in working with minors in school settings. Using a case study approach and more than 100 cases representing school counselors daily dilemmas, chapters help the reader connect the reality of school counseling to critical federal and state…

Stone, Carolyn

2006-01-01

102

Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

2014-01-01

103

Teaching the Ethical Principles of Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the author's rationale, method, and evaluations for teaching a graduate course in ethics and psychology. Discusses the use of a pre-assessment instrument to evaluate student achievement, examines student responses to the course, and considers future teaching directions. (Author/GEA)

McGovern, Thomas V.

1988-01-01

104

Good medical ethics, justice and provincial globalism.  

PubMed

The summer 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa illustrates global health's striking inequalities. Globalisation has also increased pandemics, and disparate health system conditions mean that where one falls ill or is injured in the world can mean the difference between quality care, substandard care or no care at all, between full recovery, permanent ill effects and death. Yet attention to the normative underpinnings of global health justice and distribution remains, despite some important exceptions, inadequate in medical ethics, bioethics and political philosophy. We need a theoretical foundation on which to build a more just world. Provincial globalism (PG), grounded in capability theory, offers a foundation; it provides the components of a global health justice framework that can guide implementation. Under PG, all persons possess certain health entitlements. Global health justice requires progressively securing this health capabilities threshold for every person. PMID:25516948

Ruger, Jennifer Prah

2015-01-01

105

What is it to do good medical ethics? From the perspective of a practising doctor who is in Parliament.  

PubMed

This article is a personal reflection on work as a physician with work as a member of the UK Parliament's House of Lords. Ethical thinking should underpin everything we do; the 'four principles' of medical ethics provide an applicable and relevant ethical framework. This article explores its application in both domains of work-as a clinician and as a legislator-with some examples of its use 'to do good medical ethics' in both roles. Debates around tobacco and drug control, pandemic control, abortion and assisted suicide are explored. PMID:25516943

Finlay, Ilora G

2015-01-01

106

Patient decision-making: medical ethics and mediation.  

PubMed Central

A review of medical ethics literature relating to the importance of the participation of patients in decision-making introduces the role of rights-based mediation as a voluntary process now being developed innovatively in America. This is discussed in relation to the theory of communicative ethics and moral personhood. References are then made to the work of medical ethics committees and the role of mediation within these. Finally it is suggested that mediation is part of an eirenic ethic already being used informally in good patient care, and that there is a case for developing it further. PMID:8798939

Craig, Y J

1996-01-01

107

Ethical framework for medication discontinuation in nursing home residents with limited life expectancy.  

PubMed

A recent editorial by health economist Victor Fuchs summarized the current challenges with health care delivery in this way: “Most physicians want to deliver ‘appropriate’ care. Most want to practice ‘ethically’, but it is difficult to know what is ‘appropriate’ and what is ‘ethical’. This characterization is particularly true for medication use and deprescribing in elderly NH residents with limited life expectancy. Medical ethics sets 4 key principles (beneficence, nonmaleficence, patient autonomy, and justice) to guide practice. However, decisional conflicts will continue between providers and patients, and physicians will continue to struggle with the dilemma of balancing the primacy of patient welfare, values, and beliefs against the desire for promising, but often minimally beneficial and harmful, medications that threaten limited clinical resources. Despite these challenges, physicians should be able to perform systematic medication reviews and monitor discontinuation trials in their NH patients for whom this is consistent with their goals of care. PMID:22500542

Tjia, Jennifer; Givens, Jane

2012-05-01

108

Public Health Leadership Society Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health  

E-print Network

Public Health Leadership Society © 2002 Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health #12;Public Health Leadership Society #12;Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health Version 2 of the Ethical Practice of Public Health 4 Supplemental Materials: Rationale for a Public Health Code of Ethics 5

Biederman, Irving

109

The Ethics of New Medical Therapies and Other Challenges in Everyday Practice  

E-print Network

The Ethics of New Medical Therapies and Other Challenges in Everyday Practice March 24, 2012 Beca I., MD 11:45am Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: New Medical Therapies, Lagging Ethical Standards in Medical Ethics at Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Chair of Ethics Committee in Clínica Alemana, Chair of IRB

110

Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing staff system training. Administration should develop ways to monitor staff compliance with confidentiality policies and should assess diligence in maintaining patient record confidentiality as part of staff annual performance evaluations. Ethical management of IMAC systems is the business of all members of the health care team. Computerized patient records management (including IMAC) should be scrutinized as any other clinical medial ethical issue. If hospitals include these processes in their planning for RIS, IMACS, and HIS systems, they should have time to develop institutional expertise on these questions before and as systems are installed rather than only as ethical dilemmas develop during their use.

Collmann, Jeff R.

1995-05-01

111

The eroding principle of justice in teaching medical professionalism.  

PubMed

This article examines the difficulties encountered in teaching professionalism to medical students in the current social and political climate where economic considerations take top priority in health care decision making. The conflict between the commitment to advocate at all times the interests of one's patients over one's own interests is discussed. With personal, institutional, tech industry, pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payer financial imperatives that stand between patients and the delivery of health care, this article investigates how medical ethics instructors are to teach professionalism in a responsible way that does not avoid dealing with the principle of justice. PMID:23114981

Glenn, Jason E

2012-12-01

112

The ethics and science of medicating children.  

PubMed

Prescriptions for psychiatric drugs to children and adolescents have skyrocketed in the past 10 years. This article presents evidence that the superior effectiveness of stimulants and antidepressants is largely a presumption based on an empirical house of cards, driven by an industry that has no conscience about the implications of its ever growing, and disturbingly younger, list of consumers. Recognizing that most mental health professionals do not have the time, and sometimes feel ill-equipped to explore the controversy regarding pharmacological treatment of children, this article discusses the four fatal flaws of drug studies to enable critical examination of research addressing the drugging of children. The four flaws are illustrated by the Emslie studies of Prozac and children, which offer not only a strident example of marketing masquerading as science, but also, given the recent FDA approval of Prozac for children, a brutal reminder of the danger inherent in not knowing how to distinguish science from science fiction. The authors argue that an ethical path requires the challenge of the automatic medical response to medicate children, with an accompanying demand for untainted science and balanced information to inform critical decisions by child caretakers. PMID:15706694

Sparks, Jacqueline A; Duncan, Barry L

2004-01-01

113

Principles and Ethics in Scientific Communication in Biomedicine  

PubMed Central

Introduction and aim: To present the basic principles and standards of scientific communication and writing a paper, to indicate the importance of honesty and ethical approach to research and publication of results in scientific journals, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. Methods: An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the internet and published literature and personal experience and observations of the author. Results: In the past more than 20 years there is an increasingly emphasized importance of respecting fundamental principles and standards of scientific communication and ethical approach to research and publication of results in peer review journals. Advances in the scientific community is based on honesty and equity of researchers in conducting and publishing the results of research and to develop guidelines and policies for prevention and punishment of publishing misconduct. Today scientific communication standards and definitions of fraud in science and publishing are generally consistent, but vary considerably policies and approach to ethics education in science, prevention and penal policies for misconduct in research and publication of results in scientific journals. Conclusion: It is necessary to further strengthen the capacity for education and research, and raising awareness about the importance and need for education about the principles of scientific communication, ethics of research and publication of results. The use of various forms of education of the scientific community, in undergraduate teaching and postgraduate master and doctoral studies, in order to create an ethical environment, is one of the most effective ways to prevent the emergence of scientific and publication dishonesty and fraud. PMID:24505166

Donev, Doncho

2013-01-01

114

A Required and Elective Curriculum in Ethics for Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An introduction to medical ethics has been incorporated into the core curriculum by the inclusion of four courses in social and behavioral sciences at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine. The ethical dimensions of the subjects being considered are thoroughly explored in the group discussions. (MLW)

Frank, Hugh A.

1988-01-01

115

A two-decade Review of Medical Ethics in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing developments in science and technology have raised ethical challenges which should practically be addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Likewise, challenging issues of medical ethics have also drawn a great deal of academic attention in Iran. In other words, recent decades have been an occasion of considerable development for contemporary bioethics in Iran. At first, the

F Zahedi; SH Emami Razavi; B Larijani

116

Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century.  

PubMed Central

While the practice of Western medicine is known today to doctors of all ethnic and religious groups, its standards are subject to the availability of resources. The medical ethics guiding each doctor is influenced by his/her religious or cultural background or affiliation, and that is where diversity exists. Much has been written about Jewish and Christian medical ethics. Islamic medical ethics has never been discussed as an independent field of ethics, although several selected topics, especially those concerning sexuality, birth control and abortions, have been more discussed than others. Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century will be characterised on the basis of Egyptian fatawa (legal opinions) issued by famous Muslim scholars and several doctors. Some of the issues discussed by Islamic medical ethics are universal: abortions, organ transplants, artificial insemination, cosmetic surgery, doctor-patient relations, etc. Other issues are typically Islamic, such as impediments to fasting in Ramadan, diseases and physical conditions that cause infringement of the state of purity, medicines containing alcohol, etc. Muslims' attitudes to both types of ethical issues often prove that pragmatism prevails and the aim is to seek a compromise between Islamic heritage and the achievements of modern medicine, as long as basic Islamic dogma is not violated. PMID:2614792

Rispler-Chaim, V

1989-01-01

117

A Data Base for Curriculum Design in Medical Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study to provide information about medical students' prior knowledge of and attitudes toward medical ethics is reported. A questionnaire was administered to 845 entering medical students at the University of Toronto. The results support the need for a course that requires thinking rather than rote memory. (Author/MLW)

Tiberius, Richard G.; Cleave-Hogg, Doreen

1984-01-01

118

An Ethical Hierarchy for Decision Making During Medical Emergencies  

PubMed Central

Evidence from well designed clinical trials may guide clinicians, reduce regional variation, and lead to improved outcomes. Many physicians choose to ignore evidence-based practice guidelines. Using unproven therapies outside of a randomized trial slows recruitment into clinical trials that could yield information on clinical and economic efficacy. Using acute stroke therapy as an illustration, we present an ethical hierarchy for therapeutic decision making during medical emergencies. First, physicians should offer standard care. If no standard care option exists, the physician should consider enrollment into a randomized clinical trial. If no trial is appropriate, the physician should consider a non-randomized registry, or consensus based guidelines. Finally, only after considering the first three options, the physician should use best judgment based on previous personal experience and any published case series or anecdotes. Given the paucity of quality randomized clinical trial data for most medical decisions, the “best judgment” option will be used most frequently. Nevertheless, such a hierarchy is needed because of the limited time during medical emergencies for consideration of general principles of clinical decision making. There should be general agreement in advance as to the hierarchy to follow in selecting treatment for critically ill patients. Were more clinicians to follow this hierarchy, and choose to participate in clinical trials, the generation of new knowledge would accelerate, yielding rigorous data supporting or refuting the efficacy and safety of new interventions more quickly, thus benefiting far more patients over time. PMID:20437578

Lyden, Patrick D.; Meyer, Brett C.; Hemmen, Thomas M.; Rapp, Karen S.

2010-01-01

119

Chinese Confucian culture and the medical ethical tradition.  

PubMed Central

The Confucian culture, rich in its contents and great in its significance, exerted on the thinking, culture and political life of ancient China immense influences, unparalleled by any other school of thought or culture. Confucian theories on morality and ethics, with 'goodness' as the core and 'rites' as the norm, served as the 'key notes' of the traditional medical ethics of China. The viewpoints of Confucianism on benevolence and material interests, on good and evil, on kindheartedness, and on character cultivation were all inherited by the medical workers and thus became prominent in Chinese traditional medical ethics. Hence, it is clear that the medical profession and Confucianism have long shared common goals in terms of ethics. Influenced by the excellent Confucian thinking and culture, a rather highly-developed system of Chinese traditional medical ethics emerged with a well-defined basic content, and the system has been followed and amended by medical professionals of all generations throughout Chinese history. This system, just to mention briefly, contains concepts such as the need: to attach great importance to the value of life; to do one's best to rescue the dying and to heal the wounded; to show concern to those who suffer from diseases; to practise medicine with honesty; to study medical skills painstakingly; to oppose a careless style of work; to comfort oneself in a dignified manner; to respect local customs and to be polite; to treat patients, noble or humble, equally, and to respect the academic achievements of others, etc. Of course, at the same time, Confucian culture has its own historical and class limitations, which exerted negative influences on traditional medical ethics. Now, if we are to keep up with the development of modern medicine, a serious topic must be addressed. That is how to retain the essence of our traditional medical ethics so as to maintain historic continuity and yet, at the same time, add on the new contents of medical ethics so as to incorporate modern features into our system. Therefore, when trying to reform medical practice in China, we are faced with the urgent need to inherit and promulgate the essence of Confucian ethics--discarding its obsolete concepts--while at the same time building up the new medical ethics that can meet the requirements of the outside world and the future. PMID:7473645

Guo, Z

1995-01-01

120

Poverty and maternal mortality in Nigeria: towards a more viable ethics of modern medical practice  

PubMed Central

Poverty is often identified as a major barrier to human development. It is also a powerful brake on accelerated progress toward the Millennium Development Goals. Poverty is also a major cause of maternal mortality, as it prevents many women from getting proper and adequate medical attention due to their inability to afford good antenatal care. This Paper thus examines poverty as a threat to human existence, particularly women's health. It highlights the causes of maternal deaths in Nigeria by questioning the practice of medicine in this country, which falls short of the ethical principle of showing care. Since high levels of poverty limit access to quality health care and consequently human development, this paper suggests ways of reducing maternal mortality in Nigeria. It emphasizes the importance of care ethics, an ethical orientation that seeks to rectify the deficiencies of medical practice in Nigeria, notably the problem of poor reproductive health services. Care ethics as an ethical orientation, attends to the important aspects of our shared lives. It portrays the moral agent (in this context the physician) as a self who is embedded in webs of relations with others (pregnant women). Also central to this ethical orientation is responsiveness in an interconnected network of needs, care and prevention of harm. This review concludes by stressing that many human relationships involve persons who are vulnerable, including pregnant women, dependent, ill and or frail, noting that the desirable moral response is that prescribed by care ethics, which thus has implications for the practice of medicine in Nigeria. PMID:18447920

Lanre-Abass, Bolatito A

2008-01-01

121

Risk Assessment and Management for Medically Complex Potential Living Kidney Donors: A Few Deontological Criteria and Ethical Values  

PubMed Central

A sound evaluation of every bioethical problem should be predicated on a careful analysis of at least two basic elements: (i) reliable scientific information and (ii) the ethical principles and values at stake. A thorough evaluation of both elements also calls for a careful examination of statements by authoritative institutions. Unfortunately, in the case of medically complex living donors neither element gives clear-cut answers to the ethical problems raised. Likewise, institutionary documents frequently offer only general criteria, which are not very helpful when making practical choices. This paper first introduces a brief overview of scientific information, ethical values, and institutionary documents; the notions of “acceptable risk” and “minimal risk” are then briefly examined, with reference to the problem of medically complex living donors. The so-called precautionary principle and the value of solidarity are then discussed as offering a possible approach to the ethical problem of medically complex living donors. PMID:22174982

Petrini, Carlo

2011-01-01

122

The Effect of Teaching Medical Ethics on Medical Students' Moral Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of the effect of incorporating medical ethics into the medical curriculum and comparing two teaching methods (lecture and case studies) found higher moral reasoning after instruction, but neither method was significantly more effective. (Author/MSE)

Self, Donnie J; And Others

1989-01-01

123

[Civil, criminal and ethical liability of medical doctors].  

PubMed

In the last years doctors have been the target of a growing number of civil, criminal law suits, as well as ethical procedures. Medicine is a widely targeted career, not only owing to its inherent risks, but also owing to a mistaken approach of the Judiciary Power about the obligations of medical doctors. Decisions of the Medical Board in ethical procedures have an impact in civil and criminal justice and therefore should be followed closely. The purpose of this review is to provide a wide view from a doctor-lawyer perspective of cases involving civil, criminal liability of anesthesiologists as well as ethical procedures against them, in an effort to make them comprehensible to doctors. After a brief historical introduction civil liability foundations and legal articles are examined. Responsibilities of doctors, hospitals and health insurance providers are discussed separately, as well as reparation mechanisms. Crimes possible to occur during medical practice and respective penalties are described; the direct relationship between crime and civil reparation is demonstrated. The administrative nature of ethical procedure is described, emphasizing that the legal character of its penalties often serve as grounds for civil and criminal justice decisions. Prevention is still the best medicine. Good medical practice and a good medical-patient relationship are still the best ways to minimize lawsuits and their repercussions. Doctors should have some knowledge of juridical mechanisms in lawsuits and ethical procedures, but should not take defense initiatives without prior consultation of an attorney. Civil, criminal and ethical liability of physicians. PMID:12205537

Udelsmann, Artur

2002-01-01

124

[Medical ethics in the undergraduate medical curriculum and in the health care system].  

PubMed

In German speaking areas, in the scientific establishment which is occupied with medical ethics in the narrower and wider senses, a vehement discussion has developed as to whether or not medical practitioners must ultimately advocate that which is understood to be modern medical ethics. Against the background of this discussion, this article takes up a position on these questions, not only theoretically, but also with reference to the fields of practice of medical studies, hospitals, and the health system. The article presents the proposals of the Institute for Ethics and Law in Medicine (University of Vienna) for the evaluation and further development of the theme of ethics within the framework of the Medical Curriculum of Vienna (MCW). Among other things, this requires an integrated model of levels of ethical competence. PMID:24322387

Körtner, Ulrich H J; Hofhansl, Angelika; Dinges, Stefan

2014-01-01

125

New trends of short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism: professional and ethical considerations.  

PubMed

Short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism has grown significantly among both clinicians and trainees over the past several years. Increasingly, both volunteers and their respective institutions have faced important challenges in regard to medical ethics and professional codes that should not be overlooked. We explore these potential concerns and their risk factors in three categories: ethical responsibilities in patient care, professional responsibility to communities and populations, and institutional responsibilities towards trainees. We discuss factors increasing the risk of harm to patients and communities, including inadequate preparation, the use of advanced technology and the translation of Western medicine, issues with clinical epidemiology and test utility, difficulties with the principles of justice and clinical justice, the lack of population-based medicine, sociopolitical effects of foreign aid, volunteer stress management, and need for sufficient trainee supervision. We review existing resources and offer suggestions for future skill-based training, organisational responsibilities, and ethical preparation. PMID:23236086

Asgary, Ramin; Junck, Emily

2013-10-01

126

Institutional Responses to Medical Mistakes: Ethical and Legal Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health care institutions must decide whether to inform the patient of a medical error. The barriers to disclosure are an aversion to admitting errors, a concern about implicating other practitioners, and a fear of lawsuits and liabil- ity. However, admission of medical errors is the ethical thing to do and may be required by law. When examined, the barriers to

Andrew E. Thurman

2001-01-01

127

Research on Children: Medical Imperatives, Ethical Quandaries, and Legal Constraints.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book contains the proceedings of a multidisciplinary workshop convened to explore issues relating to the conduct of medical research on children. In the keynote address, John Holt discusses the right of children to informed consent. The main body of presentations is organized into three categories of concerns: medical imperatives, ethical

van Eys, Jan, Ed.

128

Simulation-Based Medical Education: An Ethical Imperative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical training must at some point use live patients to hone the skills of health professionals. But there is also an obligation to provide optimal treatment and to ensure patients' safety and well-being. Balancing these two needs represents a fundamental ethical tension in medical education. Simulation-based learning can help mitigate this tension by developing health professionals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes

Amitai Ziv; Paul Root Wolpe; Stephen D. Small; Shimon Glick

2003-01-01

129

Australian medical students' perceptions of professionalism and ethics in medical television programs  

PubMed Central

Background Medical television programs offer students fictional representations of their chosen career. This study aimed to discover undergraduate medical students' viewing of medical television programs and students' perceptions of professionalism, ethics, realism and role models in the programs. The purpose was to consider implications for teaching strategies. Methods A medical television survey was administered to 386 undergraduate medical students across Years 1 to 4 at a university in New South Wales, Australia. The survey collected data on demographics, year of course, viewing of medical television programs, perception of programs' realism, depiction of ethics, professionalism and role models. Results The shows watched by most students were House, Scrubs, and Grey's Anatomy, and students nominated watching 30 different medical programs in total. There was no statistical association between year of enrolment and perceptions of accuracy. The majority of students reported that friends or family members had asked them for their opinion on an ethical or medical issue presented on a program, and that they discussed ethical and medical matters with their friends. Students had high recall of ethical topics portrayed on the shows, and most believed that medical programs generally portrayed ideals of professionalism well. Conclusions Medical programs offer considerable currency and relevance with students and may be useful in teaching strategies that engage students in ethical lessons about practising medicine. PMID:21798068

2011-01-01

130

Medical photography: principles for orthopedics  

PubMed Central

Background Medical photography is used clinically for patient evaluation, treatment decisions, and scientific documentation. Although standards for medical photography exist in many branches of medicine, we have not encountered such criteria in publications in the area of orthopedics. Purpose This study aims to (1) assess the quality of medical images used in an orthopedic publication and (2) to propose standards for medical photography in this area. Methods Clinical photographs were reviewed from all issues of a journal published between the years 2008 and 2012. A quality of clinical images was developed based on the criteria published for the specialties of dermatology and cosmetic surgery. All images were reviewed on the appropriateness of background, patient preparation, and technique. Results In this study, only 44.9% of clinical images in an orthopedic publication adhered to the proposed conventions. Conclusions Standards have not been established for medical photography in orthopedics as in other specialty areas. Our results suggest that photographic clinical information in orthopedic publications may be limited by inadequate presentation. We propose that formal conventions for clinical images should be established. PMID:24708703

2014-01-01

131

Teaching and assessing medical ethics: where are we now?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To characterise UK undergraduate medical ethics curricula and to identify opportunities and threats to teaching and learning.Design: Postal questionnaire survey of UK medical schools enquiring about teaching and assessment, including future perspectives.Participants: The lead for teaching and learning at each medical school was invited to complete a questionnaire.Results: Completed responses were received from 22\\/28 schools (79%). Seventeen respondents deemed

K Mattick; J Bligh

2006-01-01

132

Sin and suffering in a Catholic understanding of medical ethics.  

PubMed

Drawing chiefly on recent sources, in Part One I sketch an untraditional way of articulating what I claim to be central elements of traditional Catholic morality, treating it as based in virtues, focused on the recipients ("patients") of our attention and concern, and centered in certain person-to-person role-relationships. I show the limited and derivative places of "natural law," and therefore of sin, within that framework. I also sketch out some possible implications for medical ethics of this approach to moral theory, and briefly contrast these with the influential alternative offered by the "principlism" of Beauchamp and Childress. In Part Two, I turn to a Catholic understanding of the nature and meaning of human suffering, drawing especially on writings and addresses of the late Pope John Paul II. He reminds us that physical and mental suffering can provide an opportunity to share in Christ's salvific sacrifice, better to see the nature of our earthly vocation, and to reflect on the dependence that inheres in human existence. At various places, and especially in my conclusion, I suggest a few ways in which this can inform bioethical reflection on morally appropriate responses to those afflicted by physical or mental pain, disability, mental impairment, disease, illness, and poor health prospects. My general point is that mercy must be informed by appreciation of the person's dignity and status. Throughout, my approach is philosophical rather than theological. PMID:16864134

Garcia, J L A

2006-08-01

133

Ethics Education in U.S. Medical Schools: A Study of Syllabi.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveyed medical schools to determine the scope and content of required, formal ethics components in their curriculums. Found that ethics education is far from homogeneous among medical schools in both content and extensiveness. (EV)

DuBois, James M.; Burkemper, Jill

2002-01-01

134

Autonomy in medical ethics after O’Neill  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following the influential Gifford and Reith lectures by Onora O’Neill, this paper explores further the paradigm of individual autonomy which has been so dominant in bioethics until recently and concurs that it is an aberrant application and that conceptions of individual autonomy cannot provide a sufficient and convincing starting point for ethics within medical practice. We suggest that revision of

G M Stirrat; R Gill

2005-01-01

135

A Computer Conference Format for Teaching Medical Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of Michigan uses computer teleconferencing to extend classroom interaction beyond classroom hours and space. Using this computer conference to present, explore, and discuss medical ethics issues makes students active, thoughtful participants and makes discussion easier. Current case materials are presented before classroom…

Barclay, Mel L.; Elkins, Thomas E.

1991-01-01

136

Codes of medical ethics: Traditional foundations and contemporary practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly

P. Sohl; H. A. Bassford

1986-01-01

137

The Program for Professional Values and Ethics in Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Program for Professional Values and Ethics in Medical Education (PPVEME) at Tulane University School of Medicine. It brings together students, residents, and faculty into learning teams that teach the other teams about one of five themes: integrity, communication, teamwork, leadership, and service. It emphasizes learner-driven self…

Lazarus, Cathy J.; Chauvin, Sheila W.; Rodenhauser, Paul; Whitlock, Robin

2000-01-01

138

Dialyser reuse: a study in applied medical ethics.  

PubMed Central

A dialysis unit's introduction of automated recycling of dialysers is described. The responses of the staff and the patients are outlined, along with the pertinent ethical issues. Suggestions regarding the educational processes necessary with any innovation in long-term medical care are discussed. PMID:3971249

Kaye, M; Lella, J; Gagnon, R; Mulhearn, B; Low, G

1985-01-01

139

Undergraduate International Medical Electives: Some Ethical and Pedagogical Considerations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors argue that attempts to establish more placements to meet the growing demands of undergraduate medical students in North America for international experiences may be outweighing critical reflection on the ethical issues, curricular content, and pedagogical strategies necessary to support equitable engagements with countries of the…

Hanson, Lori; Harms, Sheila; Plamondon, Katrina

2011-01-01

140

Making sense of assessment in medical ethics and law.  

PubMed

Are curricula in medical ethics and law effective in producing ethical doctors? Assessment is central to this question, both in setting the standards that students are expected to meet and in establishing the extent to which learning correlates with these. Medical ethics and law: a practical guide to the assessment of the core content of learning from the Education Steering Group of the Institute of Medical Ethics is an excellent guide for educators in approaching this curriculum task. If the teaching moment is temporally antecedent to assessment, it is not logically prior to assessment decisions as if these were simply retrospective, and we cannot speak meaningfully of assessment without also speaking of intended learning. The IME assessment guide places emphasis on the alignment of learning, teaching and assessment in curriculum design; on specifying in advance the learning opportunities available to students; on delivering these via appropriate forms of learning; and on matching suitable methods for testing this learning in both summative and formative modes. Variety in assessment is essential across the cognitive, the affective and the psychomotor domains of learning, and the IME assessment guide provides illustrative examples of, and templates for, types of assessment that are relevant to these. The practical advice offered is as applicable in schools of nursing and in dental schools as it is in medical education. PMID:24812334

Dowie, Al

2014-10-01

141

What is good medical ethics? A very personal response to a difficult question.  

PubMed

A personal reflection upon a career in medical ethics leads to four conclusions on what makes for 'good medical ethics'. Good medical ethics is practical in approach, philosophically well grounded, cross disciplinary, and while it might not be a necessary feature, the experience of the author suggests that it is the work of 'good people'. PMID:25516935

Farsides, Bobbie

2015-01-01

142

Medication-assisted treatment for opioid use disorders in correctional settings: an ethics review.  

PubMed

Opioid use disorders are a pressing health concern that disproportionately impacts the United States (U.S.) correctional population. Medication-assisted treatment (MAT) is an evidence-based standard of care for opioid use disorders. Despite its availability in the community, MAT and MAT medications (buprenorphine and methadone) are largely unavailable and/or inaccessible for the treatment of opioid use disorders in U.S. prisons and jails. Given that the ethical principles have served as justification for limiting access to MAT on "moral" grounds, this article examines the implications of current correctional policies through the ethical principles of: (1) beneficence/non-maleficence; (2) distributive justice (equivalence-of-care); and (3) autonomy (informed consent). Special attention is paid to the five components of informed consent (capacity, disclosure, understanding, voluntariness, and access), as this facet has been used most often to justify policies that limit access to MAT in the past. Findings highlight that these core ethical principles support the adoption of correctional policies that include MAT. Furthermore, our findings demonstrate that autonomy is maximized during the informed consent process when MAT is available as a treatment option. PMID:25249444

Ludwig, Ariel S; Peters, Roger H

2014-11-01

143

[Retrospections on medical ethics and deontology in Bulgaria].  

PubMed

The paper reviews the emergence and the development of the medical ethics and deontology from the foundations of the Bulgarian state till today. With the foundation of the Bulgarian state / 7th century / the traditions and the culture of Thracians, Slavs and Proto-Bulgarians have mixed, the ethnic rules at the beginning being traditional, closely connected with the customs and the beliefs of the ethnical groups taking part in the ethnogenesis of the Bulgarian people. After the baptizing the Christian faith is in the basis of the moral virtues of the folk healers. After the Liberation from the Turkish yoke the major legal and medical norms are being worked out, the first professional and ethical rules obligatory for all doctors and dentists have been adopted, lecturing on medical deontology and taking a Hippocratic oath have been introduced. During the totalitarian period - immediately after the Second World War the medical ethics and deontology are underestimated to a great extent. A correction is made later on after the Moral Code of the doctor in the Peoples' Republic of Bulgaria, taking of the Hippocratic oath is being renewed, and etc. In the period of democracy fundamental legal and deontological sources are established which are the key means to carry out the health reform, incl. also the deontological aspects of health care. A Code of the professional ethics of the doctors and dentists is adopted, lecturing in medical ethics is introduced, lecturing in deontology is renewed, the Hippocratic oath is being taken, various conventions are being conducted, and etc. PMID:16060044

Radanov, Stoycho

2002-01-01

144

[Can we accept medical progress without progress in ethics?].  

PubMed

Since the mid 20th century progress in biomedical science has been punctuated by the emergence of bioethics which has fashioned the moral framework of its application to both research and clinical practice. Can we, however, consider the advent of bioethics as a form of progress marking the advances made in biomedical science with an adequate ethical stamp? The argument put forward in this chapter is based on the observation that, far from being a mark of progess, the development of bioethics runs the risk of favouring, like modern science, a dissolution of the links that unite ethics and medicine, and so of depriving the latter of the humanist dimensions that underlie the responsibilities that fall to it. Faced with this possible pitfall, this contribution proposes to envisage as a figure of moral progress, consubstantial with the development of biomedical science, an ethical approach conceived as a means of social intervention which takes the first steps towards an ethics of responsibility integrating the bioethical perspective within a hermeneutic and deliberative approach. By the yardstick of a prudential approach, it would pay particular attention to the diverse sources of normativity in medical acts. It is suggested that this ethical approach is a source of progress insofar as it constitutes an indispensable attitude of watchfulness, which biomedical science can lean on as it advances, with a view to ensuring that the fundamental link uniting ethics and medicine is maintained. PMID:23991542

Benaroyo, Lazare

2013-01-01

145

[Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center].  

PubMed

Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service can make a significant contribution to preventative ethics in reducing the number of emerging ethical problems to the satisfaction of all parties involved. PMID:24902533

Richter, G

2014-08-01

146

Medical ethics education: a professor of religion investigates.  

PubMed

A study was carried out in a large teaching hospital to ascertain the current view of members of ten ward teams in regard to certain problems in the field of medical ethics. The investigator accompanied each team on their morning rounds and sat in on their discussions. At the end of each week he interviewed the faculty member, residents, intern, and medical students who comprised that team. Responses to these fifty open-ended interviews were grouped into categories that seemed natural to the data. These were tabulated and commented upon. The conclusions drawn were that there is an urgent need for ethical discourse in medical education, but that there are certain built-in difficulties in bringing this about in a significant way. Focus of attention upon critical incidents that come up in the normal cycle of ward rounds appeared to be the optimum approach to take. PMID:6834405

Belgum, D

1983-03-01

147

Medical bribery and the ethics of trust: the romanian case.  

PubMed

Medical bribery seems to be a global problem from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to China, a diffuse phenomenon, starting with morally acceptable gratitude and ending with institutional bribery. I focus my attention on Romania and analyze similar cases in Eastern European and postcommunist countries. Medical bribery can be regarded as a particular form of human transaction, a kind of primitive contract that occurs when people do not trust institutions or other forms of social contract that are meant to guarantee their rights and protect their interests. Concluding with strategies to fight medical bribery, I will underline better public policies for financing health and social care, and an ethic of trust that may help to restore trustworthiness of institutions and to rebuild interpersonal trust. This should be complemented by an educational program dedicated to understanding the negative consequences and mechanisms of corruption and the importance of ethical behavior. PMID:25503609

Manea, Teodora

2015-02-01

148

Recurring themes arising during medical research ethics committee review.  

PubMed

A standard application form for the ethical review of health-related research studies has recently been adopted by many Irish medical research ethics committees. In order to assess the impact of the new form, we reviewed all comments made by the Beaumont Hospital Ethics Committee during two six-month periods, immediately prior to adoption of the new form (2010), and soon afterwards (2011). Neither volume nor comment type differed significantly between the two observation periods. Participant documentation (information leaflets and consent forms) accounted for the largest proportion of comments (2010; 44%, 2011; 37%). Other common areas prompting queries were study administration (7%), design (12%) and procedures (13%), participant selection and recruitmen (8%), and lastly data protection (9%). Because of these findings, the standard operating procedures of the committee have been revised--use of provided template participant documentation is strongly encouraged, and a "Recurring Review Themes" checklist is highlighted to all applicants. PMID:23909158

Kelleher, E; Stanton, A; Vale, G; Smith, D

2013-06-01

149

Ebola: what it tells us about medical ethics.  

PubMed

Good medical ethics needs to look more to the resources of public health ethics and use more societal, population or community values and perspectives, rather than defaulting to the individualistic values that currently dominate discussion. In this paper I argue that we can use the recent response to Ebola as an example of a major failure of the global community in three ways. First, the focus has been on the treatment of individuals rather than seeing that the priority ought to be public health measures. Second, the advisory committee on experimental interventions set up by the WHO has focused on ethical issues related to individuals and their guidance has been unclear. Third, the Ebola issue can be seen as a symptom of a massive failure of the global community to take sufficient notice of global injustice. PMID:25516949

Dawson, Angus J

2015-01-01

150

Ethics in Perioperative Practice—Principles and Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though often difficult, ethical decision making is necessary when caring for surgical patients. Perioperative nurses have to recognize ethical dilemmas and be prepared to take action based on the ethical code outlined in the American Nurses Association's (ANA's) Code of Ethics for Nurses with Interpretive Statements. In this first of a nine-part series that will help perioperative nurses relate the

Kathryn Schroeter

2002-01-01

151

Ethics, Deafness, and New Medical Technologies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the last 50 years, several new technologies have become enormously important within the Deaf community and have helped significantly to improve deaf people's lives in a hearing world. Current public attention and admiration, however, seems unduly focused on medical technologies that promise to solve "the problem" of being deaf. One reason for…

Hintermair, Manfred; Albertini, John A.

2005-01-01

152

Ethical Challenges in Teaching Genetics for Medical Students  

PubMed Central

Although inclusion of ethics as a study course in medical students’ curricula is a common practice, special approaches in teaching ethics in the context of genetics should be considered. In the realm of genomics, there are several ethically sensitive topics such as diagnosis of genetic diseases, in vitro fertilization, and identification of genetic susceptibility to common diseases. In addition, in communication with the general public, genetic terms should be used with caution. Demonstration of the phenotypes of affected individuals should be regarded as a particular aspect of teaching genetics. In a description of a patient’s phenotype, not only is it necessary to provide scientifically precise characteristics of a patient; voice timbre, facial expression, and body language should also be carefully controlled. Furthermore, in medicine, the theory–practice gap is a problematic aspect, and students often find it difficult to apply knowledge on ethical issues to real situations in clinics. For this purpose, clinical cases are presented during classes and their analysis requires a very respectful attitude on the part of both students and lecturers. For many genetic diseases, evaluation of minor anomalies such as a curved fifth finger, low situated ears, or missing of some teeth is required. Some minor anomalies are found in healthy individuals too, and interpretation of such features must therefore be considered carefully. This article describes our experiences in teaching genetics at Riga Stradinš University, ethical problems faced while teaching genetics, and their solutions. PMID:25574275

Nagle, Erika; Kažoka, Dzintra

2014-01-01

153

Ethical challenges in teaching genetics for medical students.  

PubMed

Although inclusion of ethics as a study course in medical students' curricula is a common practice, special approaches in teaching ethics in the context of genetics should be considered. In the realm of genomics, there are several ethically sensitive topics such as diagnosis of genetic diseases, in vitro fertilization, and identification of genetic susceptibility to common diseases. In addition, in communication with the general public, genetic terms should be used with caution. Demonstration of the phenotypes of affected individuals should be regarded as a particular aspect of teaching genetics. In a description of a patient's phenotype, not only is it necessary to provide scientifically precise characteristics of a patient; voice timbre, facial expression, and body language should also be carefully controlled. Furthermore, in medicine, the theory-practice gap is a problematic aspect, and students often find it difficult to apply knowledge on ethical issues to real situations in clinics. For this purpose, clinical cases are presented during classes and their analysis requires a very respectful attitude on the part of both students and lecturers. For many genetic diseases, evaluation of minor anomalies such as a curved fifth finger, low situated ears, or missing of some teeth is required. Some minor anomalies are found in healthy individuals too, and interpretation of such features must therefore be considered carefully. This article describes our experiences in teaching genetics at Riga Stradinš University, ethical problems faced while teaching genetics, and their solutions. PMID:25574275

Nagle, Erika; Kažoka, Dzintra

2014-12-01

154

Medical and ethical considerations in uterus transplantation.  

PubMed

Transplanting a uterus has unique characteristics, since a successful outcome is represented only by the birth of a viable healthy child. For this reason, critical issues in this type of transplantation differ profoundly from those of other solid organs and, beside a functioning uterus, involve 3 additional steps. First, at the time of implantation, the quality of embryo is tested by specialized decidual cells surrounding the implanting embryo; such testing is aimed at allowing the development of a normal embryo. Second, from early gestation onward, blood supply to the uterus increases from 45 to 750mL per minute. Vascular anastomoses should support such a marked increase in blood flow. Third, full transformation of spiral arterioles in the placental bed is required to direct 75% of the uterine blood flow to the intervillous space. Unfortunately, no suitable animal model is available for experimentation. Three overarching ethical issues must be considered. Should organ transplant be conducted when it is not absolutely necessary as a life-saving or quality-of-life-saving measure? To what extent should medicine delimit its potential in spite of societal desires? Should society demand from medicine the application of whichever technology can be developed and, if so, to what extent? PMID:23987733

Benagiano, Giuseppe; Landeweerd, Laurens; Brosens, Ivo

2013-11-01

155

Ethical Considerations in the Termination of Patient Care The ACOFP Ethics Committee is offering this column to provide a forum for discussion of medical ethical questions.  

E-print Network

this column to provide a forum for discussion of medical ethical questions. By David A. Plundo, DO, FACOFPEthical Considerations in the Termination of Patient Care The ACOFP Ethics Committee is offering, great harm may come from failing to follow medical advice. The most obvious consequence of patient

Solka, Jeff

156

The obesity epidemic: medical and ethical considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obesity is increasingly becoming a problem for Western societies, to the extent that politicians, scientists, patient organisations\\u000a and the media now refer to it as ‘the obesity epidemic’. Concerns about the damaging effect of increasing body weight on public\\u000a health has led to a strong growth in the amount of scientific work on the condition, with the medical professions leading

Jantina de Vries

2007-01-01

157

The need to incorporate professional principles, attitudes and ethics in optometric education.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the development of ethical principles for the profession of optometry over the past 90 years, and how these principles have been modified and expanded in conjunction with the scope of practice during that period. The author discusses the mandated principles of licensing boards as well as Medicare and Medicaid requirements. In addition, areas of "non-mandated" ethical principles are reviewed such as the aging and AIDS patient, over testing, continuing education, corporate employment, patient records and referrals. The author suggests that ethical issues should be incorporated into all optometric courses in the curriculum and not just in a specific ethics course in order that many role models offer their input to students in the development of an ethical model for their professional lives. PMID:1447465

Gordon, D R

1992-11-01

158

Ethical and legal aspects on the use of images and photographs in medical teaching and publication.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to investigate the legal and ethical concerns raised from the use of photographs and images in medical publication. A search in the pertinent literature was performed. It is of paramount importance that the patient's autonomy, privacy and confidentiality is respected. In all cases in which photographs and images contain identifiable information patient's consent for any potential use of this material is mandatory. Patients should be aware that with the evolution of electronic publication, once an image is published, there is no efficient control of its future misuse. Physicians and hospitals have a duty to use with confidentiality any material kept in the patient's medical records. Efforts should be made to anonymised images and photographs used in teaching and publication so that such information does not raise ethical and legal concerns. The procedures for using photographs and images in medical publication and teaching should respect the ethical principles and contain only anonymous information to avoid legal consequences. Continuous scrutiny and reform is required in order to adapt to the changing social and scientific environment. PMID:20671657

Mavroforou, A; Antoniou, G; Giannoukas, A D

2010-08-01

159

What is it to do good medical ethics? On the concepts of 'good' and 'goodness' in medical ethics.  

PubMed

In his book The Varieties of Goodness Georg Henrik von Wright advocates that a useful preliminary to the study of the word 'good' is to compile a list of familiar uses and try to group them under some main headings. The present paper aims at exploring the question, 'What is it to do good medical ethics?', and notably from the vantage point of everyday expressions of the word 'good' and von Wright's grouping of them into six different types of goodness. PMID:25516925

Solbakk, Jan Helge

2015-01-01

160

10th World Conference on BIOETHICS, MEDICAL ETHICS & HEALTH LAW  

E-print Network

ethics & law · environmental ethics & law · ethics & religions · ethics & social sciences · immigration Pollard Austria: Dr. Gabriele Werner Felmayer Azerbaijan: Prof.Vugar Mammadov Bulgaria: Prof. Sashka

Wagner, Stephan

161

Publication ethics and the ghost management of medical publication.  

PubMed

It is by now no secret that some scientific articles are ghost authored - that is, written by someone other than the person whose name appears at the top of the article. Ghost authorship, however, is only one sort of ghosting. In this article, we present evidence that pharmaceutical companies engage in the ghost management of the scientific literature, by controlling or shaping several crucial steps in the research, writing, and publication of scientific articles. Ghost management allows the pharmaceutical industry to shape the literature in ways that serve its interests. This article aims to reinforce and expand publication ethics as an important area of concern for bioethics. Since ghost-managed research is primarily undertaken in the interests of marketing, large quantities of medical research violate not just publication norms but also research ethics. Much of this research involves human subjects, and yet is performed not primarily to increase knowledge for broad human benefit, but to disseminate results in the service of profits. Those who sponsor, manage, conduct, and publish such research therefore behave unethically, since they put patients at risk without justification. This leads us to a strong conclusion: if medical journals want to ensure that the research they publish is ethically sound, they should not publish articles that are commercially sponsored. PMID:19222451

Sismondo, Sergio; Doucet, Mathieu

2010-07-01

162

What is it to do good medical ethics? An orthodox Jewish physician and ethicist's perspective.  

PubMed

This article, dedicated to the 40th anniversary of the Journal of Medical Ethics, approaches the question 'what does it mean to do good medical ethics?' first from a general perspective and then from the personal perspective of a Jewish Orthodox physician and ethicist who tries, both at a personal clinical level and in national and sometimes international discussions and debates, to reconcile his own religious ethical values-especially the enormous value given by Jewish ethics to the preservation of human life-with the prima facie 'principlist' moral norms of contemporary secular medical ethics, especially that of respect for patients' autonomy. PMID:25516953

Steinberg, Avraham

2015-01-01

163

Teaching Medical Ethics in its Contexts: Penn State College of Medicine.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The medical school's ethics program evolved through cooperation with the humanities department. Key aspects of the program include the teaching of medical ethics in the context of other issues of value and meaning in medicine, and involvement of humanities faculty in the medical center. (Author/MSE)

Barnard, David; Clouser, K. Danner

1989-01-01

164

Ethical, Scientific, and Educational Concerns With Unproven Medications  

PubMed Central

Quackery (promotion of products that do not work or have not been proven to work) was once a commonly used term within the pharmacy and medical communities. However, an increasingly anti-scientific national climate culminated in passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, which granted unprecedented legitimacy to “dietary supplements” that had not been scientifically proven to be effective and/or safe. In part, this was facilitated when professional pharmacy magazines and journals published advertisements and articles promoting these unproven medications. Gradually, pharmacy codes of ethics eliminated references to quackery, and some pharmacy organizations seemed to accept the unproven medications they once exhorted the pharmacist not to sell. The profession's shift in attitude toward unproven medications occurred as the medical community at large began to realize the value of evidence-based medicine. Academicians must resist pressure to present unproven therapies as realistic alternatives for medications with scientific proof of safety and efficacy. They must stress the value of evidence-based medicine and urge students and pharmacists to recommend only those medications with evidence-based proof of safety and efficacy. PMID:17332867

Pray, W. Steven

2006-01-01

165

Teaching medical ethics to meet the realities of a changing health care system.  

PubMed

The changing context of medical practice--bureaucratic, political, or economic--demands that doctors have the knowledge and skills to face these new realities. Such changes impose obstacles on doctors delivering ethical care to vulnerable patient populations. Modern medical ethics education requires a focus upon the knowledge and skills necessary to close the gap between the theory and practice of ethical care. Physicians and doctors-in-training must learn to be morally sensitive to ethical dilemmas on the wards, learn how to make professionally grounded decisions with their patients and other medical providers, and develop the leadership, dedication, and courage to fulfill ethical values in the face of disincentives and bureaucratic challenges. A new core focus of medical ethics education must turn to learning how to put ethics into practice by teaching physicians to realistically negotiate the new institutional maze of 21st-century medicine. PMID:24802645

Millstone, Michael

2014-06-01

166

A Comparison of General Medical and Clinical Ethics Consultations: What Can We Learn From Each Other?  

PubMed Central

Despite the emergence of clinical ethics consultation as a clinical service in recent years, little is known about how clinical ethics consultation differs from, or is the same as, other medical consultations. A critical assessment of the similarities and differences between these 2 types of consultations is important to help the medical community appreciate ethics consultation as a vital service in today's health care setting. Therefore, this Special Article presents a comparison of medical and clinical ethics consultations in terms of fundamental goals of consultation, roles of consultants, and methodologic approaches to consultation, concluding with reflections on important lessons about the physician-patient relationship and medical education that may benefit practicing internists. Our aim is to examine ethics consultation as a clinical service integral to the medical care of patients. Studies for this analysis were obtained through the PubMed database using the keywords ethics consultation, medical consultation, ethics consults, medical consults, ethics consultants, and medical consultants. All English-language articles published from 1970 through August 2011 that pertained to the structure and process of medical and ethics consultation were reviewed. PMID:22469350

Geppert, Cynthia M.A.; Shelton, Wayne N.

2012-01-01

167

Law and medical ethics in organ transplantation surgery  

PubMed Central

This article in the series describes how UK law and medical ethics have evolved to accommodate developments in organ transplantation surgery. August committees have formulated definitions of the point of death of the person which are compatible with the lawful procurement of functioning vital organs from cadavers. Some of the complexities of dead donor rules are examined. Live donors are a major source of kidneys and the laws that protect them are considered. Financial inducements and other incentives to donate erode the noble concept of altruism, but should they be unlawful? PMID:20501013

Woodcock, Tom; Wheeler, Robert

2010-01-01

168

Int J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Ethics and observational studies in medical research: various rules in a  

E-print Network

Int J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Page /1 4 Ethics and observational studies in medical research: Fran ois Allaç Abstract Background Research ethics have become universal, because their protocols have not been submitted to an Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics

Boyer, Edmond

169

Lifelong Learning in Ethical Practice: A Challenge for Continuing Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questionnaires and small-group discussions with a physician-ethicist revealed that physicians had very little formal ethics training in medical school. They did not feel they needed a very high level of confidence regarding ethical issues in practice, but lacked a systematic approach to identification and analysis of ethical issues. (Contains 24…

Kenny, Nuala; Sargeant, Joan; Allen, Michael

2001-01-01

170

The patient/client/consumer/service user and medical ethics 40?years on.  

PubMed

This essay, written from my non-doctor's 'lay' perspective, sketches a gradually improving approach to medical ethics over the 40-year period since this journal was founded. A central feature of this improvement has been the increasing focus of medical ethics on the interests and perspectives of the patients/clients/consumers/service users, whose interests doctors and other healthcare workers serve. Events such as misuse of the end of life 'Liverpool Care Pathway' and the shockingly poor care revealed in National Health Service hospitals in Mid-Staffordshire show that these improvements are by no means universal. Nonetheless, there has been a steady improvement in general terms towards putting patients first and it is not flattery to say that in its consistent support for this concern and in its promotion of non-medical involvement in medical ethics education the Journal of Medical Ethics has itself made a significant contribution to 'doing good medical ethics'. PMID:25516927

Neuberger, Julia

2015-01-01

171

Ethics education for medical house officers: long-term improvements in knowledge and confidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of an innovative curriculum on medical house officers' (HOs') knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics. DESIGN: Long term cohort study. The two-year curriculum, implemented by a single physician ethicist with assistance from other faculty, was fully integrated into the programme. It consisted of monthly sessions: ethics morning report alternating with didactic conferences. The

D P Sulmasy; E S Marx

1997-01-01

172

Medical Ethics Teaching Programs at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Washington.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The development of medical ethics education at the University of California, San Francisco, is chronicled and its contributions to bioethics literature are noted. Emphasis is placed on the importance of using medical cases in such instruction. The University of Washington's ethics program and its potential for innovation are then described.…

Jonsen, Albert R.

1989-01-01

173

Private-Sector Research Ethics: Marketing or Good Conflicts Management? The 2005 John J. Conley Lecture on Medical Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pharmaceutical companies are major sponsors of biomedical research. Most scholars and policymakers focus their attention on\\u000a government and academic oversight activities, however. In this article, I consider the role of pharmaceutical companies’ internal\\u000a ethics statements in guiding decisions about corporate research and development (R&D). I review materials from drug company\\u000a websites and contributions from the business and medical ethics literature

Rebecca Dresser

2006-01-01

174

Bariatric Endocrinology: Principles of Medical Practice  

PubMed Central

Obesity, is a chronic, biological, preventable, and treatable disease. The accumulation of fat mass causes physical changes (adiposity), metabolic and hormonal changes due to adipose tissue dysfunction (adiposopathy), and psychological changes. Bariatric endocrinology was conceived from the need to address the neuro-endocrinological derangements that are associated with adiposopathy, and from the need to broaden the scope of the management of its complications. In addition to the well-established metabolic complications of overweight and obesity, adiposopathy leads to hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, dysregulation of gut peptides including GLP-1 and ghrelin, the development of an inflammatory milieu, and the strong risk of vascular disease. Therapy for adiposopathy hinges on effectively lowering the ratio of orexigenic to anorexigenic signals reaching the the hypothalamus and other relevant brain regions, favoring a lower caloric intake. Adiposopathy, overweight and obesity should be treated indefinitely with the specific aims to reduce fat mass for the adiposity complications, and to normalize adipose tissue function for the adiposopathic complications. This paper defines the principles of medical practice in bariatric endocrinology—the treatment of overweight and obesity as means to treat adiposopathy and its accompanying metabolic and hormonal derangements. PMID:24899894

Gonzalez-Campoy, J. Michael; Richardson, Bruce; Gonzalez-Cameron, David; Ebrahim, Ayesha; Strobel, Pamela; Martinez, Tiphani; Blaha, Beth; Ransom, Maria; Quinonez-Weislow, Jessica; Pierson, Andrea; Gonzalez Ahumada, Miguel

2014-01-01

175

Biotechnology entrepreneurship and ethics: principles, paradigms, and products.  

PubMed

Biotechnology, whether in the context of new drugs derived from DNA and genetic technology, genetically modified food, or biologics making use of living cells, raises ethical concerns at a variety of different levels. At the research level, there is concern that the very nature of research is being subverted, rather than enhanced, by entrepreneurship. This area of ethical concern has intensified in the United States as a result of the conflicts of interests resulting from the growing alliance between University academia and private industry in the research enterprise. As we travel down the research path into development of a drug or technology, ethical questions arise with respect to protecting human subjects and society from danger and exploitation by researchers. As development gives way to marketing and dissemination of a new product, government regulators are pressed to get drugs and biologics through the regulatory pipeline into the market faster, walking an ethical tightrope between speed and safety. As new biotechnology products enter the market place, doctors and patients traverse yet another tightrope, that between unknown risk and the promise of benefit. And finally, patent protection is increasingly viewed as a unethical culprit in keeping prices high and depriving the global poor from lifesaving drugs and biologics. Bioethics has, to date, been largely a creation of Western research and medicine. As such it is wholly inadequate to respond to the cascade of ethical issues that flow from a vibrant biotechnology industry. And if biotechnology is in its infancy, as most believe, it is crucial that scientists, entrepreneurs and governments engage in dialogue about the ethical and societal questions raised on the road of scientific progress. PMID:17078522

Kuszler, Patricia C

2006-09-01

176

Ethics and the GMC core curriculum: a survey of resources in UK medical schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To study the resources available and resources needed for ethics teaching to medical students in UK medical schools as required by the new GMC core curriculum. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire was piloted and then circulated to deans of medical schools. SETTING: All UK medical schools. RESULTS: Eighteen out of 28 schools completed the questionnaire, the remainder either indicating that

K W Fulford; A Yates; T Hope

1997-01-01

177

Psychiatrists and the death penalty: Ethical principles and analogies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A doctor's involvement in capital punishment is defined ethically according to the ‘proximity’ to execution per se. There are degrees of ‘proximity’ or ‘remoteness’ which vary according to participation in the criminal justice ‘stages’ of (1) investigation, (2) determination of fitness for trial, (3) verdict determination, (4) sentencing, (5) assessment and treatment for execution, (6) execution per se and (7)

Nigel Eastman; Tim McInerny

1997-01-01

178

Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

Smith, Liz

2008-01-01

179

The reception and implementation of ethical guidelines of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences in medical and nursing practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Questions under study: We conducted a survey among Swiss health care professionals on the reception and implementation of a number of selected ethical guidelines of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences (SAMS). The following guidelines were chosen for evaluation: \\

Eliane Pfister; Nikola Biller-Andorno

180

Ethics and Childbirth Educators: Do Your Values Cause You Ethical Distress?  

PubMed Central

The Code of Ethics for Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators outlines the ethical principles and standards that are derived from childbirth education's core values to assure quality and ethical practice. This article presents a summary of the history of ethics and medical ethics that informs a value-oriented decision-making process in childbirth education. The role of evidence in ethics is explored from the childbirth educator's viewpoint, and scenarios are used to reflect on situations that are examples of ethical distress. The conclusion is that the practice of ethics and ethical decision making includes regular reflection. PMID:19436591

Ondeck, Michele

2009-01-01

181

What is it to do good medical ethics? Minding the gap(s).  

PubMed

This paper discusses the character of medical ethics and suggests that there are significant gaps that warrant greater attention. It describes ways in which the content and form of medical ethics may exclude or marginalise perspectives and contributions, thereby reducing its influence and its potential impact on, and value to, patients, students, carers and society. To consider what it is 'to do good medical ethics' suggests an active approach that seeks out, and learns from, contributions beyond the traditional boundaries of scholarship. PMID:25516937

Bowman, Deborah

2015-01-01

182

The Development of a Medical Ethics Curriculum in a General Internal Medicine Residency Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A three-year curriculum in medical ethics operates at Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University as part of the general internal medicine residency program. The six major topics covered are co-taught as seminars by one or more members of the multidisciplinary ethics faculty (philosopher, internist, and communications specialist) and experienced…

Wartman, Steven A.; Brock, Dan W.

1989-01-01

183

2011-2012BROWNBAGCOLLOQUIUMSERIES Ethical Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources During Public Health  

E-print Network

Wayne State University Law School and a Scholar with the Centers for Law and the Public's HealthCenter" on Facebook Scarcity of resources and services is likely during public health emergencies. Numerous ethical2011-2012BROWNBAGCOLLOQUIUMSERIES Ethical Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources During Public

Berdichevsky, Victor

184

Confronting ethical permissibility in animal research: rejecting a common assumption and extending a principle of justice.  

PubMed

A common assumption in the selection of nonhuman animal subjects for research and the approval of research is that, if the risks of a procedure are too great for humans, and if there is a so-called scientific necessity, then it is permissible to use nonhuman animal subjects. I reject the common assumption as neglecting the central ethical issue of the permissibility of using nonhuman animal subjects and as being inconsistent with the principle of justice used in human subjects research ethics. This principle requires that certain classes of individuals not be subjected to a disproportionate share of the burdens or risks of research. I argue for an extension of this principle to nonhuman animal research and show that a prima facie violation of the principle occurs because nonhuman animals bear an overwhelmingly disproportionate share of the risks of research without sufficient justification or reciprocal benefit. PMID:24658892

Choe Smith, Chong Un

2014-04-01

185

The ethics of forensic psychiatry: moving beyond principles to a relational ethics approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forensic psychiatry has been described as a ‘moral minefield’. The competing obligations at the interface of the justice and healthcare systems raise questions about the very viability of an ethical framework for guiding practice. The explicit need for security and detention, and the implicit ‘untrustworthiness’ of forensic patients shape practitioners' everyday reality. Suspicion colors client–practitioner relationship and fundamental care concepts,

Wendy Austin; Erika Goble; Julija Kelecevic

2009-01-01

186

MEDICAL STUDENT PLEDGE OF ETHICS Similar to the Hippocratic and other oaths taken by those graduating from a medical school, the  

E-print Network

MEDICAL STUDENT PLEDGE OF ETHICS Similar to the Hippocratic and other oaths taken by those graduating from a medical school, the Medical Student Pledge of Ethics prepares students for the four years in my community, to increase access to care for the underserved and to advance medical knowledge. · As I

Leistikow, Bruce N.

187

Using Faculty Consensus to Develop and Implement a Medical Ethics Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report describes the development and implementation of a required course in medical ethics for second-year medical students at Cornell University Medical College (New York). The planning model stressed achieving faculty consensus. Evaluation indicated that faculty felt the planning sessions added greatly to their teaching and students were…

Ales, Kathy L.; And Others

1992-01-01

188

Narrowing the Gap Between the Rhetoric and the Reality of Medical Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper argues that in the debate over medical ethics and its role in medical education, the divergence of law and reality reflects the law's flawed medical model, which poorly matches the dynamic of the physician-patient relationship and attempts ineffectually to reshape it, and also medicine's autonomous professional culture, which…

Silverman, David R.

1996-01-01

189

THE BELMONT REPORT ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN  

E-print Network

THE BELMONT REPORT ETHICAL PRINCIPLES AND GUIDELINES FOR THE PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS OF RESEARCH The National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research, there-by creating the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical

Weber, David J.

190

[Nursing care as an ethical problem: concepts and principles applied to the act of caring].  

PubMed

In this paper the authors study the nature of the act of care, emphasize the importance of ethics in the professions related to the health of people and develop, in the light of the central tradition of Western moral philosophy, a set of principles that should guide nursing activity. PMID:25590875

Miranda, Alejandro; Contreras, Sebastián

2014-12-01

191

A Reply on Behalf of the Relativist to Mark Mason's Justification of Universal Ethical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Mark Mason, in his "A Justification, After the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals" Educational Philosophy and Theory, 37 (2005), attempts to justify transcultural multiculturalism. In this paper I argue that he fails to refute moral relativism, and that multiculturalism as he interprets it is not morally…

MacKenzie, Jim

2007-01-01

192

Principle?oriented leadership: A case study of ethics in business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four leadership styles are discussed: authoritarian, paternalistic, all?knowing, and manipulative. The drawbacks of each style are shown: they are hierarchical, with centralized structure and process, poorly adapted to contemporary society and the environment of business. In their place Principle?Oriented Leadership is suggested, at the same time effective and ethical, hallmarked by a search for values associated with unity, service, consultation,

Faramarz Ettehadieh

1998-01-01

193

Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: A survey of AAPM members  

PubMed Central

Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents’ assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as “frequent.” Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents’ preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically questionable practices were only frequently recollected with respect to mentorship/guidance. With respect to professional conduct, favoritism, hostile work/learning environment, and maltreatment of subordinates and colleagues were frequently reported. A significantly larger proportion of women reported experiences with hostile work/learning environments, favoritism, poor mentorship, unfairness in educational settings, and concerns about student privacy and confidentiality. Conclusions: The survey found broad interest in ethics/professionalism topics and revealed that these topics were being integrated into the curriculum at many institutions. The incorporation of ethics and professionalism instruction into both graduate education and postgraduate training of medical physicists, and into their subsequent lifelong continuing education is important given the nontrivial number of medical physicists who had direct personal knowledge of unethical or ethically questionable incidents in clinical practice, research, education, and professionalism. PMID:23556930

Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.

2013-01-01

194

Development of a medical humanities and ethics certificate program in Texas.  

PubMed

Education in the medical humanities and ethics is an integral part of the formation of future physicians. This article reports on an innovative approach to incorporating the medical humanities and ethics into the four-year curriculum in a Certificate Program spanning all four years of the medical school experience. The faculty of the McGovern Center for Humanities and Ethics at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston conceived and implemented this program to teach medical students a range of scholarly topics in the medical humanities and to engage the full human experience into the process of becoming a physician. This study follows six years of experience, and we report student experiences and learning in their own words. PMID:25283183

Erwin, Cheryl J

2014-12-01

195

An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on  

E-print Network

Page on Internet Ethics, Computer Ethics, Cyber Ethics, E-Commerce Ethics, Web Ethics, Business Ethics Information in the Twenty-First Century Jewish Business Ethics From Amazon.com httpAn Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web

Redmiles, David F.

196

Initiatives by the government and physician groups to improve awareness of medical ethics: Challenges in Japan  

PubMed Central

Physicians have been required to possess high ethical standards, as medical practice is directly involved with patients' lives. Although ethics arise out of an individual's consciousness, ethical regulations imposed by the nation/government together with self-regulation by physician groups are important in the practice of ethics, for which reason countries around the world undertake various initiatives. This paper investigates physician licensure, organizations governing physician status, the role of physician groups, and the actual conditions of lifelong learning and ethics education in developed countries worldwide, in contrast with which it throws problems in the situation in Japan into relief. Organizations governing physician status, the form of medical associations, and the improvement of lifelong learning are pointed out as critical issues especially in Japan. PMID:22498978

MORIOKA, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

197

The new military medical ethics: legacies of the Gulf Wars and the War on Terror.  

PubMed

United States military medical ethics evolved during its involvement in two recent wars, Gulf War I (1990-1991) and the War on Terror (2001-). Norms of conduct for military clinicians with regard to the treatment of prisoners of war and the administration of non-therapeutic bioactive agents to soldiers were set aside because of the sense of being in a 'new kind of war'. Concurrently, the use of radioactive metal in weaponry and the ability to measure the health consequences of trade embargos on vulnerable civilians occasioned new concerns about the health effects of war on soldiers, their offspring, and civilians living on battlefields. Civilian medical societies and medical ethicists fitfully engaged the evolving nature of the medical ethics issues and policy changes during these wars. Medical codes of professionalism have not been substantively updated and procedures for accountability for new kinds of abuses of medical ethics are not established. Looking to the future, medicine and medical ethics have not articulated a vision for an ongoing military-civilian dialogue to ensure that standards of medical ethics do not evolve simply in accord with military exigency. PMID:21752039

Miles, Steven H

2013-03-01

198

Teaching medical ethics to undergraduate students in post-apartheid South Africa, 2003 2006.  

PubMed

The apartheid ideology in South Africa had a pervasive influence on all levels of education including medical undergraduate training. The role of the health sector in human rights abuses during the apartheid era was highlighted in 1997 during the Truth and Reconciliation Commission hearings. The Health Professions Council of South Africa (HPCSA) subsequently realised the importance of medical ethics education and encouraged the introduction of such teaching in all medical schools in the country. Curricular reform at the University of Stellenbosch in 1999 presented an unparalleled opportunity to formally introduce ethics teaching to undergraduate students. This paper outlines the introduction of a medical ethics programme at the Faculty of Health Sciences from 2003 to 2006, with special emphasis on the challenges encountered. It remains one of the most comprehensive undergraduate medical ethics programmes in South Africa. However, there is scope for expanding the curricular time allocated to medical ethics. Integrating the curriculum both horizontally and vertically is imperative. Implementing a core curriculum for all medical schools in South Africa would significantly enhance the goals of medical education in the country. PMID:17971474

Moodley, Keymanthri

2007-11-01

199

The Positive Role of Professionalism and Ethics Training in Medical Education: A Comparison of Medical Student and Resident Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To assess the perspectives and preferences of medical students and residents regarding professionalism and ethics education. Methods: A new written survey with 124 items (scale: "strongly disagree" = 1, "strongly agree" = 9) was sent to all medical students (n = 308) and PGY 1-3 residents (n = 233) at one academic center. Results: Of…

Roberts, Laura Weiss; Hammond, Katherine A. Green; Geppert, Cynthia M. A.; Warner, Teddy D.

2004-01-01

200

Good medical ethics, from the inside out-and back again.  

PubMed

I argue here that good medical ethics requires an empirically-informed moral psychology of medical virtue along with sound action-guiding prescriptions for virtuous medical practice. After distinguishing between three levels of justification, I indicate how medical virtue ethics can draw constructively on relevant empirical research in developing feasible and realistic aspirational standards for doctors, and in evaluating how policymakers can support doctors in acting on the virtues that doctors agreed to be guided by when they joined the profession. PMID:25516934

Oakley, Justin

2015-01-01

201

Promoting social responsibility amongst health care users: medical tourists’ perspectives on an information sheet regarding ethical concerns in medical tourism  

PubMed Central

Background Medical tourists, persons that travel across international borders with the intention to access non-emergency medical care, may not be adequately informed of safety and ethical concerns related to the practice of medical tourism. Researchers indicate that the sources of information frequently used by medical tourists during their decision-making process may be biased and/or lack comprehensive information regarding individual safety and treatment outcomes, as well as potential impacts of the medical tourism industry on third parties. This paper explores the feedback from former Canadian medical tourists regarding the use of an information sheet to address this knowledge gap and raise awareness of the safety and ethical concerns related to medical tourism. Results According to feedback provided in interviews with former Canadian medical tourists, the majority of participants responded positively to the information sheet and indicated that this document prompted them to engage in further consideration of these issues. Participants indicated some frustration after reading the information sheet regarding a lack of know-how in terms of learning more about the concerns discussed in the document and changing their decision-making. This frustration was due to participants’ desperation for medical care, a topic which participants frequently discussed regarding ethical concerns related to health care provision. Conclusions The overall perceptions of former medical tourists indicate that an information sheet may promote further consideration of ethical concerns of medical tourism. However, given that these interviews were performed with former medical tourists, it remains unknown whether such a document might impact upon the decision-making of prospective medical tourists. Furthermore, participants indicated a need for an additional tool such as a website for continued discussion about these concerns. As such, along with dissemination of the information sheet, future research implications should include the development of a website for ongoing discussion that could contribute to a raised awareness of these concerns and potentially increase social responsibility in the medical tourism industry. PMID:24314027

2013-01-01

202

Ethical principles and the rationing of health care: a qualitative study in general practice  

PubMed Central

Background Researching sensitive topics, such as the rationing of treatments and denial of care, raises a number of ethical and methodological problems. Aim To describe the methods and findings from a number of focus group discussions that examined how GPs apply ethical principles when allocating scarce resources. Design of study A small-scale qualitative study involving purposive sampling, semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Setting Twenty-four GPs from two contrasting areas of London: one relatively affluent and one relatively deprived. Method Initial interviews asked GPs to identify key resource allocation issues. The interviews were transcribed and themes were identified. A number of case studies, each illustrative of an ethical issue related to rationing, were written up in the form of vignettes. In focus group discussions, GPs were given a number of these vignettes to debate. Results With respect to the ethical basis for decision making, the findings from this part of the study emphasised the role of social and psychological factors, the influence of the quality of the relationship between GPs and patients and confusion among GPs about their role in decision making. Conclusion The use of vignettes developed from prior interviews with GPs creates a non-threatening environment to discuss sensitive or controversial issues. The acceptance by GPs of general moral principles does not entail clarity of coherence of the application of these principles in practice. PMID:16105371

Berney, Lee; Kelly, Moira; Doyal, Len; Feder, Gene; Griffiths, Chris; Jones, Ian Rees

2005-01-01

203

Teaching and evaluation methods of medical ethics in the Saudi public medical colleges: cross-sectional questionnaire study  

PubMed Central

Background Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most influential Muslim countries being as the host of the two most holy places for Muslims, namely Makkah and Madina. This was reflected in the emphasis on teaching medical ethics in a lecture-based format as a part of the subject of Islamic culture taught to medical students. Over the last few years, both teaching and evaluation of medical ethics have been changing as more Saudi academics received specialized training and qualifications in bioethics from western universities. Methods This study aims at studying the current teaching methods and evaluation tools used by the Saudi public medical schools. It is done using a self-administered online questionnaire. Results Out of the 14 medical schools that responded, the majority of the responding schools (6; 42.8%), had no ethics departments; but all schools had a curriculum dedicated to medical ethics. These curricula were mostly developed by the faculty staff (12; 85.7%). The most popular teaching method was lecturing (13; 92.8%). The most popular form of student assessment was a paper-based final examination (6; 42.8%) at the end of the course that was allocated 40% or more of the total grade of the ethics course. Six schools (42.8%) allocated 15-30% of the total grade to research. Conclusion Although there is a growing interest and commitment in teaching ethics to medical students in Saudi schools; there is lack of standardization in teaching and evaluation methods. There is a need for a national body to provide guidance for the medical schools to harmonize the teaching methods, particularly introducing more interactive and students-engaging methods on the account of passive lecturing. PMID:24020917

2013-01-01

204

A methodology for teaching ethics in the clinical setting: A clinical handbook for medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pluralism of methodologies and severe time constraints pose important challenges to pedagogy in clinical ethics. We designed a step-by-step student handbook to operate within such constraints and to respect the methodological pluralism of bioethics and clinical ethics. The handbook comprises six steps: Step 1: What are the facts of the case?; Step 2: What are your obligations to your

Laurence B. McCullough; Carol M. Ashton

1994-01-01

205

Informing the gestalt: an ethical framework for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources to states during disasters.  

PubMed

During catastrophic disasters, government leaders must decide how to efficiently and effectively allocate scarce public health and medical resources. The literature about triage decision making at the individual patient level is substantial, and the National Response Framework provides guidance about the distribution of responsibilities between federal and state governments. However, little has been written about the decision-making process of federal leaders in disaster situations when resources are not sufficient to meet the needs of several states simultaneously. We offer an ethical framework and logic model for decision making in such circumstances. We adapted medical triage and the federalism principle to the decision-making process for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources. We believe that the logic model provides a values-based framework that can inform the gestalt during the iterative decision process used by federal leaders as they allocate scarce resources to states during catastrophic disasters. PMID:24612854

Knebel, Ann R; Sharpe, Virginia A; Danis, Marion; Toomey, Lauren M; Knickerbocker, Deborah K

2014-02-01

206

eGrants Additional Information 1 Last updated: 11/07/2014 Applying for an Investigator Award in Medical Humanities or Society and Ethics  

E-print Network

in Medical Humanities or Society and Ethics Introduction Applicants applying for Investigator Awards', select the relevant Funding Area (Medical Humanities or Society and Ethics), Scheme Name (Investigator Science, please see the Wellcome Trust website: Investigator Awards in Medical Humanities Investigator

Rambaut, Andrew

207

Development and Validation of a Test Instrument for Assessing Value Preferences in Medical Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A test instrument for assessing the preferences medical students show for six value categories (aesthetic, economic, political, religious, social, and theoretical) was developed using a case-study approach. Validation was by comparison of medical ethics and general values in nonmedical students. Further research on the social values category is…

Stolman, Cynthia J.; Doran, Rodney L.

1982-01-01

208

THE WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, INC. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI  

E-print Network

1 THE WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, INC. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical consideration," and the International Code of Medical Ethics declares that, "A physician shall act

Pfeifer, Holger

209

Ethical Expert Systems  

PubMed Central

The title is a double entendre. The discussion approaches expert systems from two directions: “What ethical hazards are created by expert systems in medicine?” and “Would it be ethical to design an expert system for solving problems in bioethics?” Computers present new ethical problems to society, some of which are unprecedented. These can be categorized under several rubrics. The paper describes a rudimentary scheme for understanding ethical issues raised by computers, in general, and medical expert systems, in particular. It focuses on bioethical implications of AI in medicine; explores norms, assumptions and taboos; and highlights certain ethical pitfalls. Principles are elucidated, for building ethically sound systems. Finally, a proposal is discussed, for the design of an expert system for moral problem solving, and the ethical implications of this notion are analyzed.

Victoroff, Michael S.

1985-01-01

210

University of Pennsylvania: Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website presents the University of Pennsylvania's Center for Bioethics, "a leader in bioethics research and its deployment in the ethical, efficient, and compassionate practice of the life sciences and medicine." The website offers information about the Center's programs as well as information regarding faculty and staff contact information, research interests, and selected publications. The Faculty & Staff section also links to a number of downloadable faculty publications including "Are We Ready for Mass Genetic Testing: Ethical and Social Hurdles" by Arthur Caplan, "Bioethics and History" by Bob Baker, and "Toward a New Vocabulary of Human Genetic Variation" by Mildred Cho and Pamela Sankar. The current Center Programs include The Ethics of Gene Patenting, Toward as Understanding of Benefit Sharing, and the Penn High School Bioethics Project.

211

The globalization of education in medical ethics and humanities: evolving pedagogy at Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar.  

PubMed

The authors discuss their experience in implementing a Medical Ethics and Humanities course for premedical students at Weill Cornell Medical College in the Arabian Gulf emirate of Qatar. The course, first offered in 2003, is designed to prepare these students for the medical school curriculum to follow and to make global medical knowledge meaningful for their local context. Pedagogical challenges included the cross-cultural tensions that could emerge when introducing themes from Western medical ethics and humanities into this overwhelmingly Islamic context. The authors outline the response to this challenge and strategies to broaden student inquiry without engaging in indoctrination. This seminar-based course was designed around seven thematic areas of increasing biopsychosocial complexity, from nature and biology, to the patient, the physician, and the family, to broader questions of hospital care, the health care system, and the place of law in modern medicine. Readings from the literature of the Western and Arabic traditions were used, including selections by Hippocrates, Thomas, Kafka, Mahfouz, and Pellegrino. It is too early to know the ultimate impact of the course, but students demonstrated enthusiasm for ethics and the medical humanities and a willingness to consider new and novel ways of knowing. The authors anticipate that this grounding in the humanities will complement the students' work in the sciences and help further develop their nascent professional identities in an increasingly global medical community. PMID:15671316

del Pozo, Pablo Rodríguez; Fins, Joseph J

2005-02-01

212

Ethical and professional considerations providing medical evaluation and care to refugee asylum seekers.  

PubMed

A significant number of asylum seekers who largely survived torture live in the United States. Asylum seekers have complex social and medical problems with significant barriers to health care access. When evaluating and providing care for survivors, health providers face important challenges regarding medical ethics and professional codes. We review ethical concerns in regard to accountability, the patient-physician relationship, and moral responsibilities to offer health care irrespective of patient legal status; competing professional responsibility toward society and the judiciary system; concerns about the consistency of asylum seekers' claims; ethical concerns surrounding involving trainees and researching within the evaluation setting; and the implication of broader societal views towards rights and social justice. We discuss contributing factors, including inadequate and insufficient provider training, varying and inadequate institutional commitment, asylum seekers' significant medical and social problems, and the broader health and social system issues. We review existing resources to address these concerns and offer suggestions. PMID:23767428

Asgary, Ramin; Smith, Clyde L

2013-01-01

213

What future for ethical medical practice in the new National Health Service?  

PubMed Central

The British Government is implementing some major alterations to the way health services in Great Britain are organised. As well as the introduction of competition between health care providers, their financial interests are to be linked to their output, in efforts to use market forces to increase efficiency and cut costs. This paper looks at the possible impact of these changes of health care organisation on ethical medical practice. This is investigated with particular reference to the country whose health service has embraced most closely these elements of the market--the United States of America. The question to be answered is whether high standards of ethical care are ensured by factors somehow intrinsic to the medical profession, and are therefore immune to changes in the economics of health care. This assumption is shown to be questionable in light of what is known about the determinants of ethical medical practice. PMID:2033624

Persaud, R D

1991-01-01

214

The debate about physician assistance in dying: 40?years of unrivalled progress in medical ethics?  

PubMed

Some issues in medical ethics have been present throughout the history of medicine, and thus provide us with an opportunity to ascertain: (1) whether there is progress in medical ethics; and (2) what it means to do good medical ethics. One such perennial issue is physician assistance in dying (PAD). This paper provides an account of the PAD debate in this journal over the last 40?years. It concludes that there is some (but limited) progress in the debate. The distinctions, analogies and hypothetical examples have proliferated, as have empirical studies, but very little has changed in terms of the basic arguments. The paper further argues that many of the contributions to the debate fail to engage fully with the concerns people have about the legal introduction of PAD in the healthcare system, perhaps because many of the contributions sit on the borderline between academic analysis and social activism. PMID:25516932

Holm, Søren

2015-01-01

215

Anticholinesterases: Medical applications of neurochemical principles  

SciTech Connect

Cholinesterases form a family of serine esterases that arise in animals from at least two distinct genes. Multiple forms of these enzymes can be precisely localized and regulated by alternative mRNA splicing and by co- or posttranslational modifications. The high catalytic efficiency of the cholinesterases is quelled by certain very selective reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Owing largely to the important role of acetylcholine hydrolysis in neurotransmission, cholinesterase and its inhibitors have been studied extensively in vivo. In parallel, there has emerged an equally impressive enzyme chemistry literature. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used widely as pesticides; in this regard the compounds are beneficial with concomitant health risks. Poisoning by such compounds can result in an acute but usually manageable medical crisis and may damage the ONS and the PNS, as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. Some inhibitors have been useful for the treatment of glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, and others are in clinical trials as therapy for Alzheimer`s dementia. Concurrently, the most potent inhibitors have been developed as highly toxic chemical warfare agents. We review treatments and sequelae of exposure to selected anticholinesterases, especially organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, as they relate to recent progress in enzyme chemistry.

Millard, C.B.; Broomfield, C.A.

1995-12-31

216

Changing ethics in medical practice: a Thai perspective.  

PubMed

The pace of social change in Thailand has seen the rise of various medical services and a global clientele. Currently, medical tourism and cosmetic surgery have an important role in medical practice here. A growing medical market offers a range of services at competitive rates and high levels of efficiency. This essay provides an overview of medical practices in Thailand and their effect on ordinary people. PMID:18630216

Saniotis, Arthur

2007-01-01

217

The importance of listening to medical students' experiences when teaching them medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the change of emphasis that occurred in the teaching of ethics to small groups of clinical students. Although the original focus of the course was on the analysis of ethical dilemmas associated with individual patients known to the students, it soon became evident that there were, for the students themselves, more fundamental ethical dilemmas in their new

L W Osborne; C M Martin

1989-01-01

218

Privacy of Medical Records: From Law Principles to Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulating access to electronic health records has become a major social and technical challenge. Unfortunately, existing access control models fail in translating accurately basic law principles related to the safeguard of personal information (e.g., medical folder). This paper identifies the problem and proposes a solution in the EHR context.

Saïda Medjdoub; Philippe Pucheral

2005-01-01

219

Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust response to the Review of the NHS research ethics committee system in England  

E-print Network

1 Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust response to the Review of the NHS research ethics committee system in England The Medical Research Council (MRC) and Wellcome Trust ("the Trust") welcome the Department of Health's review of the NHS research ethics committee (REC) system in England, and are pleased

Rambaut, Andrew

220

Why would medical publishers not incorporate core bioethical values into their Ethics Guidelines?  

PubMed Central

It is quite universally acknowledged by bioethicists, at least in the western world, that respect for the patients’ autonomy, non-malevolence, beneficence, and justice (also called equity) are four core ethical values in medicine. The Ethics Guidelines of key journals in laboratory medicine are not explicit about the first three of these values, and even implicitly, they seem to miss values of justice. Health equity being one of the main objectives of public health policy across the world, we suggest that values of equity explicitly become part of the Ethics Guidelines of laboratory medicine journals. Biochemia Medica could show the way to other medical publishers by incorporating into its Ethics Guidelines these very important core bioethical values. PMID:24627709

Watine, Joseph

2014-01-01

221

Why would medical publishers not incorporate core bioethical values into their Ethics Guidelines?  

PubMed

It is quite universally acknowledged by bioethicists, at least in the western world, that respect for the patients' autonomy, non-malevolence, beneficence, and justice (also called equity) are four core ethical values in medicine. The Ethics Guidelines of key journals in laboratory medicine are not explicit about the first three of these values, and even implicitly, they seem to miss values of justice. Health equity being one of the main objectives of public health policy across the world, we suggest that values of equity explicitly become part of the Ethics Guidelines of laboratory medicine journals. Biochemia Medica could show the way to other medical publishers by incorporating into its Ethics Guidelines these very important core bioethical values. PMID:24627709

Watine, Joseph

2014-01-01

222

Justice and care: the implications of the Kohlberg-Gilligan debate for medical ethics.  

PubMed

Carol Gilligan has identified two orientations to moral understanding; the dominant 'justice orientation' and the under-valued 'care orientation'. Based on her discernment of a 'voice of care', Gilligan challenges the adequacy of a deontological liberal framework for moral development and moral theory. This paper examines how the orientations of justice and care are played out in medical ethical theory. Specifically, I question whether the medical moral domain is adequately described by the norms of impartiality, universality, and equality that characterize the liberal ideal. My analysis of justice-oriented medical ethics, focuses on the libertarian theory of H.T. Engelhardt and the contractarian theory of R.M. Veatch. I suggest that in the work of E.D. Pellegrino and D.C. Thomasma we find not only a more authentic representation of medical morality but also a project that is compatible with the care orientation's emphasis on human need and responsiveness to particular others. PMID:1492344

Sharpe, V A

1992-12-01

223

Impact of managed care on the development of new medical technology: ethical concerns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last three decades, development of new medical technology has been largely responsible for the spectacular advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many human diseases. This has contributed to improved medical care of our population. However, concerns have been raised that in today's managed care environment of health care, introduction of new medical technology will be difficult. Cost-sensitive health care providers should consider various ethical issues involved before demanding that only those technologies that save money and show highly positive cost benefit ratio will be reimbursed. The impact of such considerations on the innovations of new medical devices and their developments is discussed.

Saha, Pamela; Saha, Subrata

1995-10-01

224

Knowledge, Confidence, and Attitudes Regarding Medical Ethics: How Do Faculty and Housestaff Compare?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…

Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others

1995-01-01

225

Justice and care: The implications of the Kohlberg-Gilligan debate for medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Carol Gilligan has identified two orientations to moral understanding; the dominant ‘justice orientation’ and the under-valued ‘care orientation’. Based on her discernment of a ‘voice of care’, Gilligan challenges the adequacy of a deontological liberal framework for moral development and moral theory. This paper examines how the orientations of justice and care are played out in medical ethical theory. Specifically,

Virginia A. Sharpe

1992-01-01

226

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Rules 15.99.03.V1 Ethics in Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work  

E-print Network

Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Rules 15.99.03.V1 Ethics in Research, Scholarship Medical Diagnostic Lab Rules 15.99.03.V1 Ethics in Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work Page 1 of 2&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Rules 15.99.03.V1 Ethics in Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work Page

227

Human guinea pigs and the ethics of experimentation: the BMJ's correspondent at the Nuremberg medical trial.  

PubMed Central

Though the Nuremberg medical trial was a United States military tribunal, British forensic pathologists supplied extensive evidence for the trial. The BMJ had a correspondent at the trial, and he endorsed a utilitarian legitimation of clinical experiments, justifying the medical research carried out under Nazism as of long term scientific benefit despite the human costs. The British supported an international medical commission to evaluate the ethics and scientific quality of German research. Medical opinions differed over whether German medical atrocities should be given publicity or treated in confidence. The BMJ's correspondent warned against medical researchers being taken over by a totalitarian state, and these arguments were used to oppose the NHS and any state control over medical research. Images Fig 1 PMID:8973237

Weindling, P.

1996-01-01

228

Preoperative Medical Evaluation: Part 1: General Principles and Cardiovascular Considerations  

PubMed Central

A thorough assessment of a patient's medical status is standard practice when dental care is provided. Although this is true for procedures performed under local anesthesia alone, the information gathered may be viewed somewhat differently if the dentist is planning to use sedation or general anesthesia as an adjunct to dental treatment. This article is the first of a 2-part sequence and will address general principles and cardiovascular considerations. A second article will address pulmonary, metabolic, and miscellaneous disorders. PMID:19769423

Becker, Daniel E

2009-01-01

229

The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?  

PubMed Central

In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists’ and the Nazi doctors’ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ‘collective’ or ‘greater good.’ Thus in the 20th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

Faria, Miguel A.

2014-01-01

230

Voluntary and involuntary sterilization: medical, ethical, legal and religious aspects.  

PubMed

Surgical voluntary sterilization has become one of the most widely used methods of contraception, with vasectomy and tubal sterilization being the most commonly employed techniques, associated with a low failure, morbidity, mortality, and long-term sequelae rate. As sterilization is related with the elimination of the possibility for procreation, a number of ethical, legal and religious issues have arisen, leading often to personal misjudgements, legal disputes, and failures in applying family planning. Involuntary sterilization is currently not practiced, except in cases of severely mentally retarded people, who are unable to appreciate the consequences of their acts or care for their children and who may have a high likelihood of propagating hereditary disease. PMID:10534935

Fasouliotis, S J; Schenker, J G

1999-08-01

231

The Person and His Body Medical Ethics and Egyptian Law  

E-print Network

to the light a number of tensions between the normativity of individual choice and that of public morality and heteronomous constraints, i.e. those stemming from an alien normative order. In the second part of this work interpretative principles (e.g. the rationality of the ruler), legal standards (e.g. the good family man

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Ethics, privacy and the legal framework governing medical data: opportunities or threats for biomedical and public health research?  

PubMed Central

Privacy is an important concern in any research programme that deals with personal medical data. In recent years, ethics and privacy have become key considerations when conducting any form of scientific research that involves personal data. These issues are now addressed in healthcare professional training programmes. Indeed, ethics, legal frameworks and privacy are often the subject of much confusion in discussions among healthcare professionals. They tend to group these different concepts under the same heading and delegate responsibility for “ethical” approval of their research programmes to ethics committees. Public health researchers therefore need to ask questions about how changes to legal frameworks and ethical codes governing privacy in the use of personal medical data are to be applied in practice. What types of data do these laws and codes cover? Who is involved? What restrictions and requirements apply to any research programme that involves medical data? PMID:23799934

2013-01-01

233

The medical emergency team, evidence-based medicine and ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical emergency team (MET), which may be summoned by anyone in a hospital to treat a patient who appears acutely unwell, has been generally accepted as scientifically rational, with no adverse clinical outcomes and only modest resource requirements. Despite this, many centres appear to be awaiting \\

Ross K Kerridge; W Peter Saul

234

Primary hyperoxaluria in infants: Medical, ethical, and economic issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Survey on the current medical approach to and the economic issues affecting infants with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Methods: Questionnaire to specialized centers worldwide. Results: Seventy-eight infants were identified: 44% were of Muslim origin and 56% were not. The consanguinity rate was 76% and 0%, respectively. Thirty-three percent were treated in developing countries (group 1) and 67% in developed

Pierre Cochat; Paulo C. Koch Nogueira; M. Ayman Mahmoud; Neville V. Jamieson; Jon I. Scheinman; Marie-Odile Rolland

1999-01-01

235

Simulation-Based Medical Education: An Ethical Imperative.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes simulation-based learning in medical education and presents four these that make a framework for simulations: (1) best standards of care and training; (2) error management and patient safety; (3) patient autonomy; and (4) social justice and resource allocation. (SLD)

Ziv, Amitai; Wolpe, Paul Root; Small, Stephen D.; Glick, Shimon

2003-01-01

236

A Developmental Perspective of Marriage and Family Therapist's Ethical Principles: Support for the Practitioner–Ethics Relationship Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored therapists' professional ethics by assessing therapist “at-risk” behaviors as they relate to ethical proficiency in the field of Marriage and Family Therapy. A survey assessing practice behaviors was distributed among marriage and family therapists (MFTs) of varying levels of experience. Data gathered were analyzed using factor analysis, structural equation modeling, and multiple regression. Results indicate a positive

Shamla L. McLaurin; Ronald J. Ricci; Lenore M. McWey

2004-01-01

237

[Medical, ethical and legal issues in cryopreservation of human embryos].  

PubMed

Embryo cryopreservation improves efficiency and security of assisted reproduction techniques. Nonetheless, it can be questionable, so it must be justified from technical, legal and ethical points of view. This article analyses these perspectives. Embryo cryopreservation maximizes the probability of pregnancy, avoids new ovary stimulations and reduces the occurrence of multiple gestations. There is consensus that the in vitro embryo deserves legal protection by its own, although not as a newborn. Very few countries prohibit embryo cryopreservation based on the legal duty to protect human life since fecundation. Those countries that allow it, privilege women's reproductive rights. In Chile and in Latin America, no laws have been promulgated to regulate human assisted reproduction. The moral status of the embryo depends on how it is considered. Some believe it is a potential person while others think it is just a group of cells, but all recognize that it requires some kind of respect and protection. There is lack of information about the number of frozen embryos and their final destination. As a conclusion the authors propose that women or couples should have the right to decide autonomously, while institutions ought to be clear in their regulations. And the legislation must establish the legal status of the embryo before its implantation, the couples' rights and the regulation of the embryo cryopreservation. Personal, institutional or legal decisions must assume a concept about the moral status of the human embryo and try to avoid their destruction or indefinite storage. PMID:25378010

Beca, Juan Pablo; Lecaros, Alberto; González, Patricio; Sanhueza, Pablo; Mandakovic, Borislava

2014-07-01

238

Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.  

PubMed

This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shih?b al-D?n al-Qar?f? (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures. PMID:23844565

Ghaly, Mohammed

2014-02-01

239

In search of the soul in science: medical ethics' appropriation of philosophy of science in the 1970s.  

PubMed

This paper examines the deployment of science studies within the field of medical ethics. For a short time, the discourse of medical ethics became a fertile ground for a dialogue between philosophically minded bioethicists and the philosophers of science who responded to Thomas Kuhn's challenge. In their discussion of the validity of Kuhn's work, these bioethicists suggested a distinct interpretation of Kuhn, emphasizing the elements in his account that had been independently developed by Michael Polanyi, and propelling a view of science that retreated from idealizations of scientific method without sacrificing philosophical realism. Appropriating Polanyi, they extended his account of science to biology and medicine. The contribution of Karl Popper to the debate on the applicability of philosophy of science to the issues of medical ethics provides the opportunity to discuss the ways in which political agendas of different epistemologies of science intertwined with questions of concern to medical ethics. PMID:19835265

Aronova, Elena

2009-01-01

240

Shared Principles of Ethics for Infant and Young Child Nutrition in the Developing World  

PubMed Central

Background The defining event in the area of infant feeding is the aggressive marketing of infant formula in the developing world by transnational companies in the 1970s. This practice shattered the trust of the global health community in the private sector, culminated in a global boycott of Nestle products and has extended to distrust of all commercial efforts to improve infant and young child nutrition. The lack of trust is a key barrier along the critical path to optimal infant and young child nutrition in the developing world. Discussion To begin to bridge this gap in trust, we developed a set of shared principles based on the following ideals: Integrity; Solidarity; Justice; Equality; Partnership, cooperation, coordination, and communication; Responsible Activity; Sustainability; Transparency; Private enterprise and scale-up; and Fair trading and consumer choice. We hope these principles can serve as a platform on which various parties in the in the infant and young child nutrition arena, can begin a process of authentic trust-building that will ultimately result in coordinated efforts amongst parties. Summary A set of shared principles of ethics for infant and young child nutrition in the developing world could catalyze the scale-up of low cost, high quality, complementary foods for infants and young children, and eventually contribute to the eradication of infant and child malnutrition in the developing world. PMID:20529339

2010-01-01

241

Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

Marvel, Kevin B.

2013-01-01

242

Ethics seminars: a best-practice approach to navigating the against-medical-advice discharge.  

PubMed

Patients who sign out or choose to leave the emergency department (ED) against medical advice (AMA) present important challenges. The current approach to the complex legal, ethical, and medical challenges that arise when adult patients decline medical care in the ED would benefit from a systematic best-practice strategy to maximize patient care outcomes, minimize legal risk, and reach the optimal ethical standard for this at-risk population. Professional responsibilities generated during an AMA encounter include determination of patient decision-making capacity, balancing protection of patient autonomy with prevention of harm, providing the best alternatives for patients who decline some or all of the proposed plan, negotiating to encourage patients to stay, planning for subsequent care, and documenting what transpired. We present two cases that illustrate key insights into a best-practice approach for emergency physicians (EPs) to address problems arising when patients want or need to leave the ED prior to completion of their care. We propose a practical, systematic framework, "AIMED" (assess, investigate, mitigate, explain, and document), that can be consistently applied in situations where patients consider leaving or do leave before their evaluations and urgent treatment are complete. Our goal is to maximize patient outcomes, minimize legal risk, and encourage a consistent and ethical approach to these vulnerable patients. PMID:25269588

Clark, Mark A; Abbott, Jean T; Adyanthaya, Tara

2014-09-01

243

Medical ethics and more: ideal theories, non-ideal theories and conscientious objection.  

PubMed

Doing 'good medical ethics' requires acknowledgment that it is often practised in non-ideal circumstances! In this article I present the distinction between ideal theory (IT) and non-ideal theory (NIT). I show how IT may not be the best solution to tackle problems in non-ideal contexts. I sketch a NIT framework as a useful tool for bioethics and medical ethics and explain how NITs can contribute to policy design in non-ideal circumstances. Different NITs can coexist and be evaluated vis-à-vis the IT. Additionally, I address what an individual doctor ought to do in this non-ideal context with the view that knowledge of NITs can facilitate the decision-making process. NITs help conceptualise problems faced in the context of non-compliance and scarcity in a better and more realistic way. Deciding which policy is optimal in such contexts may influence physicians' decisions regarding their patients. Thus, this analysis-usually identified only with policy making-may also be relevant to medical ethics. Finally, I recognise that this is merely a first step in an unexplored but fundamental theoretical area and that more work needs to be done. PMID:25516954

Luna, Florencia

2015-01-01

244

Professional Conduct Manual, Containing Principles for Professional Ethics and Guidelines for the Provision of School Psychological Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Consistent with its mission, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) has adopted an integrated set of comprehensive standards for the preparation, credentialing, and professional practice in school psychology. Standards for training and credentialing, ethical principles, and guidelines for practice have undergone review and…

National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda, MD.

245

The hyperreality of clinical ethics: A unitary theory and hermeneutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics nowadays is dominated by a conception of ethics as the application of moral theories and principles. This conception is criticized for its depreciation of the internal morality of medical practice and its narrow view of external morality. This view reflects both a lack of interest in the empirical realities of medicine and a neglect of the socio-cultural value-contexts

1994-01-01

246

Teaching medical ethics: problem-based learning or small group discussion?  

PubMed Central

Lecture is the most common teaching method used in ethics education, while problem-based learning (PBL) and small group discussion (SGD) have been introduced as more useful methods. This study compared these methods in teaching medical ethics. Twenty students (12 female and 8 male) were randomly assigned into two groups. The PBL method was used in one group, and the other group was taught using the SGD method. Twenty-five open-ended questions were used for assessment and at the end of the course, a course evaluation sheet was used to obtain the students’ views about the advantages and disadvantages of each teaching method, their level of satisfaction with the course, their interest in attending the sessions, and their opinions regarding the effect of teaching ethics on students’ behaviors. The mean score in the PBL group (16.04 ± 1.84) was higher than the SGD group (15.48 ± 2.01). The satisfaction rates in the two groups were 3.00 ± 0.47 and 2.78 ± 0.83 respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Since the mean score and satisfaction rate in the PBL group were higher than the SGD group, the PBL method is recommended for ethics education whenever possible. PMID:23908762

Heidari, Akram; Adeli, Seyyed-Hassan; Taziki, Sadegh-Ali; Akbari, Valliollahe; Ghadir, Mohammad-Reza; Moosavi-Movahhed, Seyyed-Majid; Ahangari, Roghayyeh; Sadeghi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Mirzaee, Mohammad-Rahim; Damanpak-Moghaddam, Vahid

2013-01-01

247

The doctor and the market: about the influence of market reforms on the professional medical ethics of surgeons and general practitioners in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

To explore whether market reforms in a health care system affect medical professional ethics of hospital-based specialists on the one hand and physicians in independent practices on the other. Qualitative interviews with 27 surgeons and 28 general practitioners in The Netherlands, held 2-3 years after a major overhaul of the Dutch health care system involving several market reforms. Surgeons now regularly advertise their work (while this was forbidden in the past) and pay more attention to patients with relatively minor afflictions, thus deviating from codes of ethics that oblige physicians to treat each other as brothers and to treat patients according to medical need. Dutch GPs have abandoned their traditional reticence and their fear of medicalization. They now seem to treat more in accordance with patients' preferences and less in accordance with medical need. Market reforms do affect medical professional principles, and it is doubtful whether these changes were intended when Dutch policy makers decided to introduce market elements in the health care system. Policy makers in other countries considering similar reforms should pay attention to these results. PMID:21267659

Dwarswaard, Jolanda; Hilhorst, Medard; Trappenburg, Margo

2011-12-01

248

Practical Divinity and Medical Ethics: Lawful versus Unlawful Medicine in the Writings of William Perkins (1558–1602)  

PubMed Central

This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between “lawful” and “unlawful” medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

Gevitz, Norman

2013-01-01

249

Practical divinity and medical ethics: lawful versus unlawful medicine in the writings of William Perkins (1558-1602).  

PubMed

This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between "lawful" and "unlawful" medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

Gevitz, Norman

2013-04-01

250

Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach. PMID:21982119

2011-01-01

251

The ethics of Soviet medical practice: behaviours and attitudes of physicians in Soviet Estonia.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study and report the attitudes and practices of physicians in a former Soviet republic regarding issues pertaining to patients' rights, physician negligence and the acceptance of gratuities from patients. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire administered to physicians in 1991 at the time of the Soviet breakup. SETTING: Estonia, formerly a Soviet republic, now an independent state. SURVEY SAMPLE: A stratified, random sample of 1,000 physicians, representing approximately 20 per cent of practicing physicians under the age of 65. RESULTS: Most physicians shared information with patients about treatment risks and alternatives, with the exception of cancer patients: only a third of physicians tell the patient when cancer is suspected. Current practice at the time of the survey left patients few options when physician negligence occurred; most physicians feel that under a reformed system physician negligence should be handled within the local facility rather than by the government. It was common practice for physicians to receive gifts, tips, or preferential access to scarce consumer goods from their patients. Responses varied somewhat by facility and physician nationality. CONCLUSION: The ethics of Soviet medical practice were different in a number of ways from generally accepted norms in Western countries. Physicians' attitudes about the need for ethical reform suggest that there will be movement in Estonia towards a system of medical ethics that more closely approximates those in the West. PMID:8932723

Barr, D A

1996-01-01

252

World blindness and the medical profession: conflicting medical cultures and the ethical dilemmas of helping.  

PubMed

This is an account of a thwarted humanitarian effort and the strategic and ethical issues that is raised. Between 14 and 17 million people in the world are blind with cataract, a condition readily corrected by surgery. In 1989 a proposal was developed to attack this problem by supplying volunteer ophthalmologists to the world's leading private voluntary organizations that carry out programs in less developed countries. The proposal was rejected. This article describes the proposal and the issues on which it foundered: cost effectiveness, appropriate technology, changing ideologies of assistance, and conflict between the cultures of medicine and public health. The account illustrates the far-flung consequences of technological change in medicine, as well as the practical and ethical questions facing organizations that carry out overseas assistance programs. PMID:1406499

Gray, B H

1992-01-01

253

The Implementation of the Sharia Law in Medical Practice: A Balance between Medical Ethics and Patients Rights  

PubMed Central

As medical ethics indisputably needs to consider patients’ religious beliefs and spiritual ideas, one can suggest that hospitals are responsible for not only patients’ rights and dignity, but also for her/his religious concerns and expectations. The current study is designed shed some light on the patients’ view of the implementation of religious law in Iranian hospitals, specifically, the right of patients to be visited and delivered health services by professionals from the same sex. This protocol is proposed by the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of the Islamic Republic of Iran as a response to the increasing demand for implementation of the religious law by Iranian patients. This research is a cross-sectional study which was conducted at four teaching general hospitals in Tehran, Iran. The data was collected by the means of a questionnaire distributed to 120 women who were admitted to different wards of the hospitals. These women were asked to express their opinion of the implementation the Same Sex Health Care Delivery (SSHCD) system in Iranian hospitals. All analyses were performed with the use of SPSS software, version 16.0. The results indicate that half of the hospitalized women believed that being visited by a physician from the same gender is necessary who advocated the implementation of SSHCD in a clinical setting; and most of their husbands preferred their wives to be visited exclusively by female physicians. This study highlights the view of the Iranian patients towards the issue and urges the Ministry of Health and Medical Education of the Islamic Republic of Iran to accelerate the implementation of this law. SSHCD is what the majority of Iranian patients prefer, and, considering patients’ rights and the medical ethics, it should be implemented by Iranian policy makers. PMID:23908749

Dargahi, Hossein

2011-01-01

254

Teaching Medical Ethics to First-Year Students by Using Film Discussion to Develop Their Moral Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A Texas A & M University study found that using a series of short films and weekly discussions of medical ethics issues was an effective way of improving medical students' moral reasoning skills and that students with longer exposure to the course (n=37) developed better skills than those with shorter exposure (n=48). (Author/MSE)

Self, Donnie J.; And Others

1993-01-01

255

From Cure to Care: Assessing the Ethical and Professional Learning Needs of Medical Learners in a Care-Based Facility  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to assess the ethical and professional learning needs of medical trainees on clinical placements at a care-based facility, as they shifted from acute care to care-based philosophy. Using qualitative data analysis and grounded theory techniques, 12 medical learners and five clinical supervisors were interviewed. Five…

Hall, Pippa; O'Reilly, Jane; Dojeiji, Sue; Blair, Richard; Harley, Anne

2009-01-01

256

Medical management of patients after bariatric surgery: Principles and guidelines  

PubMed Central

Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ? 40 kg/m2 and those with BMI > 35 kg/m2 with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review. PMID:25429323

Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E

2014-01-01

257

The philosophical moment of the medical decision: revisiting emotions felt, to improve ethics of future decisions  

PubMed Central

The present investigation looks for a solution to the problem of the influence of feelings and emotions on our ethical decisions. This problem can be formulated in the following way. On the one hand, emotions (fear, pity and so on) can alter our sense of discrimination and lead us to make our wrong decisions. On the other hand, it is known that lack of sensitivity can alter our judgment and lead us to sacrifice basic ethical principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non?maleficence and justice. Only emotions can turn a decision into an ethical one, but they can also turn it into an unreasonable one. To avoid this contradiction, suggest integrating emotions with the decisional factors of the process of “retrospective thinking”. During this thinking, doctors usually try to identify the nature and impact of feelings on the decision they have just made. In this retrospective moment of analysis of the decision, doctors also question themselves on the feelings they did not experience. They do this to estimate the consequences of this lack of feeling on the way they behaved with the patient. PMID:17664307

Coz, Pierre Le; Tassy, Sebastien

2007-01-01

258

[Fundamental ethical principles in the European framework programmes for research and development].  

PubMed

The European Commission is one of the most important international funding bodies for research conducted in Europe and beyond, including developing countries and countries in transition. Through its framework programmes for research and development, the European Union finances a vast array of projects concerning fields affecting the citizens' health, as well as the researchers' mobility, the development of new technologies or the safeguard of the environment. With the agreement of the European Parliament and of the Council of Ministers, the two decisional authorities of the European Union, the 7th framework programmes was started on December 2006. This program has a budget of 54 billion Euros to be distributed over a 7-year period. Therefore, the European Union aims to fully address the challenge as stated by the European Council of Lisbon (of March 2000) which declared the idea of providing 3% of the GDP of all the Member States for the purpose of research and development. One of the important conditions stated by the Members of the European Parliament to allocate this financing is to ensuring that "the funding research activities respect the fundamental ethical principles". In this article, we will approach this aspect of the evaluation. PMID:19765393

Hirsch, François; Karatzas, Isidoros; Zilgalvis, P?teris

2009-01-01

259

The Colorado School of Mines Financial Aid Office has adopted and will follow the Statement of Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct for Financial Aid Professionals created by the National Association of  

E-print Network

of Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct for Financial Aid Professionals created by the National Association) Statement of Ethical Principles And Code of Conduct For Institutional Financial Aid Professionals NASFAA and commitment to ethical standards. National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA

260

Luxury Primary Care, Academic Medical Centers, and the Erosion of Science and Professional Ethics  

PubMed Central

Medical schools and teaching hospitals have been hit particularly hard by the financial crisis affecting health care in the United States. To compete financially, many academic medical centers have recruited wealthy foreign patients and established luxury primary care clinics. At these clinics, patients are offered tests supported by little evidence of their clinical and/or cost effectiveness, which erodes the scientific underpinnings of medical practice. Given widespread disparities in health, wealth, and access to care, as well as growing cynicism and dissatisfaction with medicine among trainees, the promotion by these institutions of an overt, two-tiered system of care, which exacerbates inequities and injustice, erodes professional ethics. Academic medical centers should divert their intellectual and financial resources away from luxury primary care and toward more equitable and just programs designed to promote individual, community, and global health. The public and its legislators should, in turn, provide adequate funds to enable this. Ways for academic medicine to facilitate this largesse are discussed. PMID:14748866

Donohoe, Martin

2004-01-01

261

The rise of empirical research in medical ethics: a MacIntyrean critique and proposal.  

PubMed

Hume's is/ought distinction has long limited the role of empirical research in ethics, saying that data about what something is cannot yield conclusions about the way things ought to be. However, interest in empirical research in ethics has been growing despite this countervailing principle. We attribute some of this increased interest to a conceptual breakdown of the is/ought distinction. MacIntyre, in reviewing the history of the is/ought distinction, argues that is and ought are not strictly separate realms but exist in a close relationship that is clarified by adopting a teleological orientation. We propose that, instead of recovering a teleological orientation, society tends to generate its own goals via democratic methods like those described by Rousseau or adopt agnosticism about teleology such as described by Richard Rorty. In both latter scenarios, the distinction between is and ought is obscured, and the role for empirical research grows, but for controversial reasons. MacIntyre warns that the is/ought distinction should remain, but reminds ethicists to make careful arguments about when and why it is legitimate to move from is to ought. PMID:21339390

Lawrence, Ryan E; Curlin, Farr A

2011-04-01

262

The medical ethics of Dr J Marion Sims: a fresh look at the historical record  

PubMed Central

Vesicovaginal fistula was a catastrophic complication of childbirth among 19th century American women. The first consistently successful operation for this condition was developed by Dr J Marion Sims, an Alabama surgeon who carried out a series of experimental operations on black slave women between 1845 and 1849. Numerous modern authors have attacked Sims's medical ethics, arguing that he manipulated the institution of slavery to perform ethically unacceptable human experiments on powerless, unconsenting women. This article reviews these allegations using primary historical source material and concludes that the charges that have been made against Sims are largely without merit. Sims's modern critics have discounted the enormous suffering experienced by fistula victims, have ignored the controversies that surrounded the introduction of anaesthesia into surgical practice in the middle of the 19th century, and have consistently misrepresented the historical record in their attacks on Sims. Although enslaved African American women certainly represented a “vulnerable population” in the 19th century American South, the evidence suggests that Sims's original patients were willing participants in his surgical attempts to cure their affliction—a condition for which no other viable therapy existed at that time. PMID:16731734

Wall, L L

2006-01-01

263

The Physician's Role in Ethical Decisions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many medical issues today require ethical as well as strictly medical decisions. Described is the need for the inclusion of medical ethics in the schools, beginning with science ethics in the secondary level and continuing through medical school. (MA)

Chevalier, Robert B.

1977-01-01

264

A Data-Generated Basis for Medical Ethics Education: Categorizing Issues Experienced by Students during Clinical Training.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 249 students at the State University of New York at Buffalo identified medical ethics issues arising during clinical training in professional norms, limits of intervention, defensive shielding of professional colleagues, respect toward patients, communication, and student boundaries. Concerns differed by student year, supporting…

Bissonette, Raymond; And Others

1995-01-01

265

At the Edge of Viability: Moral and Ethical Guideline Proposals*  

PubMed Central

The paper proposes moral and ethical guidelines for medical treatment at the edge of viability. The proposed principles are defended on the grounds of a general conceptual framework presented by elucidating the notions of viability, the edge of viability, person, sanctity of human life, dignity, and the slope of dignity protection, as well as the distinction between ethics and morality. PMID:23908825

Kasher, Asa

2011-01-01

266

Ethical and legal implications of elective ventilation and organ transplantation: "medicalization" of dying versus medical mission.  

PubMed

A critical controversy surrounds the type of allowable interventions to be carried out in patients who are potential organ donors, in an attempt to improve organ perfusion and successful transplantation. The main goal is to transplant an organ in conditions as close as possible to its physiological live state. "Elective ventilation" (EV), that is, the use of ventilation for the sole purpose of retrieving the organs of patients close to death, is an option which offsets the shortage of organ donation. We have analyzed the legal context of the dying process of the organ donor and the feasibility of EV in the Italian context. There is no legal framework regulating the practice of EV, neither is any real information given to the general public. A public debate has yet to be initiated. In the Italian cultural and legislative scenario, we believe that, under some circumstances (i.e., the expressed wishes of the patient, even in the form of advance directives), the use of EV does not violate the principle of beneficence. We believe that the crux of the matter lies in the need to explore the real determination and will of the patient and his/her orientation towards the specific aim of organ donation. PMID:25126582

Frati, Paola; Fineschi, Vittorio; Gulino, Matteo; Montanari Vergallo, Gianluca; Di Luca, Natale Mario; Turillazzi, Emanuela

2014-01-01

267

Ethical and Legal Implications of Elective Ventilation and Organ Transplantation: “Medicalization” of Dying versus Medical Mission  

PubMed Central

A critical controversy surrounds the type of allowable interventions to be carried out in patients who are potential organ donors, in an attempt to improve organ perfusion and successful transplantation. The main goal is to transplant an organ in conditions as close as possible to its physiological live state. “Elective ventilation” (EV), that is, the use of ventilation for the sole purpose of retrieving the organs of patients close to death, is an option which offsets the shortage of organ donation. We have analyzed the legal context of the dying process of the organ donor and the feasibility of EV in the Italian context. There is no legal framework regulating the practice of EV, neither is any real information given to the general public. A public debate has yet to be initiated. In the Italian cultural and legislative scenario, we believe that, under some circumstances (i.e., the expressed wishes of the patient, even in the form of advance directives), the use of EV does not violate the principle of beneficence. We believe that the crux of the matter lies in the need to explore the real determination and will of the patient and his/her orientation towards the specific aim of organ donation. PMID:25126582

Frati, Paola; Montanari Vergallo, Gianluca; Di Luca, Natale Mario; Turillazzi, Emanuela

2014-01-01

268

Introduction to Ethics What is Ethics?  

E-print Network

Introduction to Ethics #12;What is Ethics? Morality concerns the norms (rules, principles) we accept regarding how to treat one another. Ethics is the study of these norms ­ what they are and how we attempt to justify them. #12;What Ethics Isn't Morality and religion are not the same thing; the norms

Callender, Craig

269

Legal and ethical issues in neuroimaging research: human subjects protection, medical privacy, and the public communication of research results.  

PubMed

Humans subjects research entails significant legal and ethical obligations. Neuroimaging researchers must be familiar with the requirements of human subjects protection, including evolving standards for the protection of privacy and the disclosure of risk in "non-therapeutic" research. Techniques for creating veridical surface renderings from volumetric anatomical imaging data raise new privacy concerns, particularly under the federal medical privacy regulation. Additionally, neuroimaging researchers must consider their obligation to communicate research results responsibly. The emerging field of neuroethics should strive to raise awareness of these issues and to involve neuroimaging researchers in the legal, ethical, and policy debates that currently surround human subjects research. PMID:12480482

Kulynych, Jennifer

2002-12-01

270

Students' evaluation of a team-based course on research and publication ethics: attitude change in medical school graduate students.  

PubMed

In response to a growing need for students to appreciate ethical issues in medical research and publication, a brief team-based learning (TBL) course was presented to graduate students in the medical school of Hallym University in October and November 2007. To gather information as a basis for improving the course, questionnaires were distributed to 19 students and the feedback was evaluated. The questionnaire consisted of four categories: general course content (7 items), changes in attitudes toward research and publication ethics (6 items), the TBL format (6 items), and an open-ended question about the class (1 item). The most positive response had to do with the importance of the material. Students reported that their knowledge about ethical issues increased, and they expressed satisfaction regarding the communication with their tutors within the TBL format. Most students showed positive responses to the subject as well as to TBL. Since this was the first trial offering of this material in the graduate program at this medical school, it may have been novel to the students. The attitude change and the knowledge acquisition reported by students reflect a very positive outcome of this class. After adjustments to improve weaknesses, such as the short time allocation and students' lack of prior background, the outcomes of this TBL course on research and publication ethics provide a good basis for its continuation. PMID:19224000

Kim, Soo Young

2008-01-01

271

Students' Evaluation of a Team-based Course on Research and Publication Ethics: Attitude Change in Medical School Graduate Students  

PubMed Central

In response to a growing need for students to appreciate ethical issues in medical research and publication, a brief team-based learning (TBL) course was presented to graduate students in the medical school of Hallym University in October and November 2007. To gather information as a basis for improving the course, questionnaires were distributed to 19 students and the feedback was evaluated. The questionnaire consisted of four categories: general course content (7 items), changes in attitudes toward research and publication ethics (6 items), the TBL format (6 items), and an open-ended question about the class (1 item). The most positive response had to do with the importance of the material. Students reported that their knowledge about ethical issues increased, and they expressed satisfaction regarding the communication with their tutors within the TBL format. Most students showed positive responses to the subject as well as to TBL. Since this was the first trial offering of this material in the graduate program at this medical school, it may have been novel to the students. The attitude change and the knowledge acquisition reported by students reflect a very positive outcome of this class. After adjustments to improve weaknesses, such as the short time allocation and students' lack of prior background, the outcomes of this TBL course on research and publication ethics provide a good basis for its continuation. PMID:19224000

2008-01-01

272

[Ethical reflection on multidisciplinarity and confidentiality of information in medical imaging through new information and communication technologies].  

PubMed

Technological advances in medical imaging has resulted in the exponential increase of the number of images per examination, caused the irreversible decline of the silver film and imposed digital imaging. This digitization is a concept whose levels of development are multiple, reflecting the complexity of this process of technological change. Under these conditions, the use of medical information via new information and communication technologies is at the crossroads of several scientific approaches and several disciplines (medicine, ethics, law, economics, psychology, etc.) surrounding the information systems in health, doctor-patient relationship and concepts that are associated. Each day, these new information and communication technologies open up new horizons and the space of possibilities, spectacularly developing access to information and knowledge. In this perspective of digital technology emergence impacting the multidisciplinary use of health information systems, the ethical questions are numerous, especially on the preservation of privacy, confidentiality and security of medical data, and their accessibility and integrity. PMID:22521872

Béranger, J; Le Coz, P

2012-05-01

273

Medical and Genetic Differences in the Adverse Impact of Sleep Loss on Performance: Ethical Considerations for the Medical Profession  

PubMed Central

The Institute of Medicine recently concluded that-on average-medical residents make more serious medical errors and have more motor vehicle crashes when they are deprived of sleep. In the interest of public safety, society has required limitations on work hours in many other safety sensitive occupations, including transportation and nuclear power generation. Those who argue in favor of traditional extended duration resident work hours often suggest that there are inter- individual differences in response to acute sleep loss or chronic sleep deprivation, implying that physicians may be more resistant than the average person to the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on performance, although there is no evidence that physicians are particularly resistant to such effects. Indeed, recent investigations have identified genetic polymorphisms that may convey a relative resistance to the effects of prolonged wakefulness on a subset of the healthy population, although there is no evidence that physicians are over-represented in this cohort. Conversely, there are also genetic polymorphisms, sleep disorders and other inter-individual differences that appear to convey an increased vulnerability to the performance-impairing effects of 24 hours of wakefulness. Given the magnitude of inter-individual differences in the effect of sleep loss on cognitive performance, and the sizeable proportion of the population affected by sleep disorders, hospitals face a number of ethical dilemmas. How should the work hours of physicians be limited to protect patient safety optimally? For example, some have argued that, in contrast to other professions, work schedules that repeatedly induce acute and chronic sleep loss are uniquely essential to the training of physicians. If evidence were to prove this premise to be correct, how should such training be ethically accomplished in the quartile of physicians and surgeons who are most vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss on performance without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

Czeisler, Charles A.

2009-01-01

274

Psychiatric ethics in war and peace  

PubMed Central

Practice of psychiatry is a complex activity because the psychiatrist generally practises his art in an emotionally charged environment with patients who may not be in a in a state of mind to exercise autonomy as a result of cognitive impairment and preoccupation with symptoms. No one principle of ethics will be suitable to guide right conduct in widely variable situations. Making ethical judgements in the military context can be difficult and may have potential for abuse as for an uniformed psychiatrist mission takes priority over man. However mission centered and medical text book centred ethics need not be compartamentalised. The present paper seeks to offer a brief overview of ethical principles and specific situations in which one may have to make ethical judgements. PMID:24459379

Raju, M. S. V. K.

2013-01-01

275

Access to Medical Records.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although confidentiality with regard to medical records is supposedly protected by the American Medical Associaton's principles of Ethics and the physician-patient privilege, there are a number of laws that require a physician to release patient information to public authorities without the patient's consent. These exceptions include birth and…

Cooper, Nancy

276

Ethical Challenges  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

Morris, Michael

2004-01-01

277

Resolving a Conflict between APA Learning Goals and APA Ethical Principles  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although American Psychological Association (APA) Ethical Standards make it clear that instructors cannot require students to disclose personal information in class-related activities, an APA learning goal for undergraduate psychology students is that they reflect on their experiences to develop insight into their behavior and mental processes.…

Corty, Eric W.

2008-01-01

278

School Psychology: How Universal Are Ethical Principles Approved by International Associations?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Globalization is a dominant issue in all aspects of business and professional activities in the 21st Century. The International School Psychology Association and the International Test Commission have adopted ethics and competency guidelines to raise the standards of practice for their members. Other international organizations are doing likewise.…

Pettifor, Jean L.

2004-01-01

279

Guidelines for Medical and Health Information Sites on the Internet: Principles Governing AMA Web Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although developed for American Medical Association Websites and their users, these recently released guidelines and principles may prove useful to other providers and users of online medical information. Available from the Journal of the American Medical Association in HTML or .pdf format, the guidelines address issues such as the development and posting of Website content, acquisition and posting of online advertising and sponsorship, visitors's and patients's rights to privacy and confidentiality, and effective and secure means of e-commerce.

Andrews, Karen.

2000-01-01

280

The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical committees and how the issues of informed consent and capacity to consent were dealt with. The study

M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; S. Lauque; L. Frolich; B. Vellas; W. J. M. Dekkers

2005-01-01

281

Policy makers ignoring science and scientists ignoring policy: the medical ethical challenges of heroin treatment  

PubMed Central

A decade of research in Switzerland, The Netherlands, Germany, and Spain now constitutes a massive body of work supporting the use of heroin treatment for the most difficult patients addicted to opiates. These trials concur on this method's safety and efficacy and are now serving as a prelude to the institution of heroin treatment in clinical practice throughout Europe. While the different sampling and research protocols for heroin treatment in these studies were important to the academic claims about specific results and conclusions that could be drawn from each study, the overall outcomes were quite clear – and uniformly positive. They all find that the use of prescribed pharmaceutical heroin does exactly what it is intended to do: it reaches a treatment refractory group of addicts by engaging them in a positive healthcare relationship with a physician, it reduces their criminal activity, improves their health status, and increases their social tenure through more stable housing, employment, and contact with family. The Canadian trial (NAOMI), now underway for over a year, but not yet completed, now faces a dilemma about what to do with its patients who have successfully completed 12 months of heroin and must be withdrawn from heroin and transferred to other treatments in accordance with the research protocol approved by Government of Canada, federal granting body and host institutions. The problem is that the principal criterion for acceptance to NAOMI was their history of repeated failure in these very same treatment programs to which they will now be referred. The existence of the results from abroad (some of which were not yet available when NAOMI was designed and initiated) now raises a very important question for Canada: is it ethical to continue to prohibit the medical use of heroin treatment that has already been shown to be feasible and effective in numerous medical studies throughout the world? And while this is being worked out, is it acceptable to require patients who have been successfully treated with heroin in Canada, to be forced to move back to less effective treatments (treatments that failed to be efficacious in the past)? This essay discusses this dilemma and places it in the broader context of ethics, science, and health policy. It makes the case for continuation of the current successful patients in heroin treatment and the institution of heroin treatment to all Canadian patients living with active addictions who qualify. PMID:16670010

Small, Dan; Drucker, Ernest

2006-01-01

282

Ethics Matter: The Morality and Justice Principles of Elected City Officials and their Impact of Urban Issues  

E-print Network

these constraints, especially if they feel a strong ethical compulsion to do so. Most generally, ethics are normative considerations about how one ought to choose and act. Laura Stoker (1992: 370] provides a useful conception of ethics: "Judgments expressed...

Schumaker, Paul; Kelly, Marisa J.

2012-08-01

283

Rationale and Architecture Principles for Medical Application Platforms John Hatcliff  

E-print Network

of a notion of a medical application platform (MAP) that would provide device and health information systems University Andrew King, Insup Lee University of Pennsylvania Alasdair MacDonald eHealth Technology Anura in many critical domains. Such systems allow information to be pulled from a variety of sources, ana

Huth, Michael

284

Medical ethics in the wake of the Holocaust: departing from a postwar paper by Ludwik Fleck.  

PubMed

In 1948 Ludwik Fleck published a paper in Polish discussing the use of humans in medical experiments, thereby addressing his peers. Though the paper has so far not been translated or studied, it has been taken to indicate Fleck's deep commitment to ethical questions, notably the question of informed consent. In being written by a former victim of the Nazi policy and a survivor of the Holocaust also acting as an expert witness in the trial of the IG Farben in Nuremberg, the paper is of interest. A scrutiny of Fleck's text and related sources discloses, however, not only the complexity of the issue at the centre of the Nuremberg trial, but also Fleck's unexpected stance in seemingly adducing his arguments from both the German defendants and the prosecution, heavily informed by US scientists. Further, the contentious discussion of the past in Fleck's paper reveals its links to modern bioethical discussion. Though sometimes oblivious of that past, it still faces the same questions. PMID:17893071

Hedfors, Eva

2007-09-01

285

Principles of ethics and code of professional conduct with official advisory opinions revised to May 1992.  

PubMed

The ethical statements which have historically been subscribed to by the dental profession have had the benefit of the patient as their primary goal. Recognition of this goal, and of the education and training of a dentist, has resulted in society affording to the profession the privilege and obligation of self-government. The Association calls upon members of the profession to be caring and fair in their contact with patients. Although the structure of society may change, the overriding obligation of the dentist will always remain the duty to provide quality care in a competent and timely manner. All members must protect and preserve the high standards of oral health care provided to the public by the profession. They must strive to improve the care delivered--through education, training, research and, most of all, adherence to a stringent code of ethics, structured to meet the needs of the patient. PMID:1517524

1992-09-01

286

Germ-Line Gene Modification and Disease Prevention: Some Medical and Ethical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable debate about the ethics of human germ-line gene modification. As a result of recent advances in the micromanipulation of embryos and the laboratory development of transgenic mice, a lively discussion has begun concerning both the technical feasibility and the ethical acceptability of human germ-line modification for the prevention of serious disease. This article summarizes some of

Nelson A. Wivel; Leroy Walters

1993-01-01

287

Problems in deceptive medical procedures: an ethical and legal analysis of the administration of placebos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of placebos in therapy or research poses ethical questions. What are the benefits and the costs in ethical terms of condoning deception of the patient or subject? What does the deception mean for the patient's or subject's right to give informed consent to his treatment?Doctors are rightly expected to disclose to their patient facts which would in their

Beth Simmons

1978-01-01

288

Seeking evidence to support usability principles for medication-related clinical decision support (CDS) functions.  

PubMed

There is a need for evidence-based usability principles to support the design of usable medication-related computerized CDS functions and systems. Such evidence requires establishing scientific relationships between usability principles, their violation in terms of usability flaws, issuing usage problems and their consequences or outcomes in the clinical work and patient care. This kind of evidence is not currently directly available in scientific evaluation studies of medication CDS functions. A possible proxy to seek evidence is systematic review of existing scientific evaluation reports. We rely on a four-stage framework describing the chain of consequences and inferences linking usability principles to clinical outcomes to design the systematic review methodology and interpretation principles. This paper describes the four-stage framework and the resulting consequences for the systematic review design. PMID:23920590

Marcilly, Romaric; Beuscart-Zéphir, Marie-Catherine; Ammenwerth, Elske; Pelayo, Sylvia

2013-01-01

289

Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms* (Extended Abstract)  

PubMed Central

We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals. PMID:25599096

Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Hatcliff, John

2014-01-01

290

Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement  

PubMed Central

Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates. PMID:19580661

Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

2009-01-01

291

Psychiatric Residents' Needs for Education about Informed Consent, Principles of Ethics and Professionalism, and Caring for Vulnerable Populations: Results of a Multisite Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors examined psychiatric residents' perceived needs for education in informed consent, principles of ethics and professionalism, and treating vulnerable populations. Method: A written survey was distributed to psychiatric residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in 2005. The survey contained 149 questions in 10…

Jain, Shaili; Lapid, Maria I.; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

2011-01-01

292

Is the non-respect of ethical principles by doctors during Down's syndrome screening by first-trimester ultrasound damaging to  

E-print Network

Is the non-respect of ethical principles by doctors during Down's syndrome screening by first Biomédicale (IIREB). Key words: Prenatal diagnosis, Down syndrome, nuchal translucency, informed consent population know about Down's syndrome screening by nuchal translucency?, what is the personal position

Boyer, Edmond

293

Policies Regarding Use of Animals in Research 5.94 Research-General Principles (See Also Chapter 3 for Ethics and Conduct  

E-print Network

for Ethics and Conduct Policies) C. Protections in Research Involving the Use of Animals. As a land grantPolicies Regarding Use of Animals in Research 5.94 Research-General Principles (See Also Chapter 3 and regulations, the university supports the use of animals in research, education, and as agricultural resources

Johnson, Eric E.

294

Conversations about challenging end-of-life cases: ethics debriefing in the medical surgical intensive care unit.  

PubMed

Clinicians frequently encounter and grapple with complex ethical issues and perplexing moral dilemmas in critical care settings. Intensive care unit (ICU) clinicians often experience moral distress in situations in which the ethically right course of action is intuitively known, but cannot be acted on. Most challenging cases pertain to end-of-life issues. Researchers have shown that moral distress and moral residue are common among critical care nurses. It is, therefore, essential that all ICU clinicians (and nurses, in particular) have an ongoing opportunity to work safely through these ethical dilemmas and conflicts. In this article, we describe the medical surgical intensive care unit (MSICU) experience with its monthly ethics initiative and explore the next steps to enhance its use through maximizing attendance and value to MSICU clinicians. To optimize attendance of staff a small group discussion among critical care clinicians (n = 8) was conducted asking about their perceptions of the debriefing sessions and their suggestions on how to promote their use. Process changes were implemented based on the group's suggestions. The process changes resulted in increased awareness of the benefits, increased frequency of sessions and demonstrated utility. Lessons learned from the MSICU experience will inform the development of education curricula to help critical care nurses with challenging end-of-life situations. PMID:22279847

Santiago, Cecilia; Abdool, Steve

2011-01-01

295

Principlism, medical individualism, and health promotion in resource-poor countries: can autonomy-based bioethics promote social justice and population health?  

PubMed Central

Through its adoption of the biomedical model of disease which promotes medical individualism and its reliance on the individual-based anthropology, mainstream bioethics has predominantly focused on respect for autonomy in the clinical setting and respect for person in the research site, emphasizing self-determination and freedom of choice. However, the emphasis on the individual has often led to moral vacuum, exaggeration of human agency, and a thin (liberal?) conception of justice. Applied to resource-poor countries and communities within developed countries, autonomy-based bioethics fails to address the root causes of diseases and public health crises with which individuals or communities are confronted. A sociological explanation of disease causation is needed to broaden principles of biomedical ethics and provides a renewed understanding of disease, freedom, medical practice, patient-physician relationship, risk and benefit of research and treatment, research priorities, and health policy. PMID:20082703

2010-01-01

296

The Teaching of Ethics and the Ethics of Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship between psychological ethics and the teaching of psychology. Reviews the manner in which ethics is presented in college psychology instruction through textbooks and specific ethics courses. Analyzes ethical psychology instruction principles set forth by the American Psychological Association and how these principles

Matthews, Janet R.

1991-01-01

297

on education Code of Ethics  

E-print Network

the forum Abroad on education Code of Ethics for Education Abroad #12;The Forum on Education Abroad Code of Ethics for Education Abroad Contents Page Section I Preamble 2 Section II Ethical Principles for Education Abroad 3 Section III Ethical Guidelines: Examples of Ethical Best 6 Practices for Education Abroad

Illinois at Chicago, University of

298

Testing public health ethics: why the CDC's HIV screening recommendations may violate the least infringement principle.  

PubMed

The CDC's HIV screening recommendations for health care settings advocate abandoning two important autonomy protections: (1) pretest counseling and (2) the requirement that providers obtain affirmative agreement from patients prior to testing. The recommendations may violate the least infringement principle because there is insufficient evidence to conclude that abandoning pretest counseling or affirmative agreement requirements will further the CDC's stated public health goals. PMID:21561521

Pierce, Matthew W; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; King, Elizabeth J; Wyckoff, Sarah C

2011-01-01

299

Ethical aspects of obstetric care: expectations and experiences of patients in South East Nigeria  

PubMed Central

Background Medical ethics is not given due priority in obstetric care in many developing countries, and the extent to which patients value compliance with ethical precepts is largely unexplored. Objective To describe the expectations and experiences of obstetric patients in South East Nigeria with respect to how medical ethics principles were adhered to during their care. Methods This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study involving parturient women followed in three tertiary hospitals in South East Nigeria. Results A total of 1,112 women were studied. The mean age of respondents was 29.7 ± 4.1 years. Approximately 98% had at least secondary education. Ninety-six percent considered ethical aspects of care as important. On the average, over 75% of patients expected their doctors to comply with the different principles of medical ethics and specifically, more than 76% of respondents expected their doctors to comply with ethical principles related to information and consent during their antenatal and delivery care. There was a statistically significant difference between the proportions of women who expected compliance of doctors with ethical principles and those who did not (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that increasing levels of skilled occupation (odds ratio [OR] 9.35, P < 0.001), and residence in urban areas (OR 2.41, P < 0.001) increased the likelihood of patients expecting to be informed about their medical conditions and their opinions being sought. Although the self-reported experiences of patients concerning adherence to ethical principles by doctors were encouraging, experiences fell short of expectations, as the level of expectation of patients was significantly higher than the level of observed compliance for all the principles of medical ethics. Conclusion The level of practice of medical ethics principles by doctors during obstetric care in South East Nigeria was encouraging but still fell short of the expectations of patients. It is recommended that curriculum-based training of doctors and medical students should be implemented, and hospital policy makers should do more to promote ethical aspects of care, by providing official written guidelines for adherence to medical ethical principles during obstetric care. PMID:24043956

Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Ezugwu, Frank O; Ugwu, George O; Lawani, Osaheni L; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K

2013-01-01

300

Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

Boyle, Philip

1989-01-01

301

The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

2012-01-01

302

Ethics education and physician morality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics education remains an important venue of moral education. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, the desired outcomes of medical ethics education remain obscure, undefined and largely untested. In the first part of this study, the goals of medical ethics are operationalized along cognitive, behavioral and attitudinal dimensions. This includes a written moral judgment test, a survey

Michael L. Gross

1999-01-01

303

Towards clinical bioethics (or a return to clinical ethics?).  

PubMed

Medical ethics has traditionally been oriented towards the clinical setting. Since the middle of the last century, however, various circumstances (associated mainly, though not exclusively, with rapid advances in technology and knowledge) have considerably broadened both the field of enquiry and the scope of this discipline. This is due partly to the overlap between medical ethics and bioethics, which in recent decades has acquired its own identity and concerns a multitude of ethical aspects in the biomedical field. Clinical ethics taps into the vast wealth of deontology, so that it has no need for additional criteria or principles, or for the definition of new values: rather, it recognizes the need to apply existing criteria, principles and values to contingent circumstances and contexts. A special role is reserved for ethics committees and, above all, for clinical ethics consultants, although in some countries the former are concerned mainly with authorisations for clinical trials. Clinical ethics consultants, however, may have a more incisive influence in clinical decisions: the special requisites and skills they need have been defined and discussed in various documents which are mentioned briefly in the present article. The presence of these consultants does not exonerate clinical physicians from their responsibilities or from liability for their decisions, in the formation of which they must refer constantly to codes of professional ethics. PMID:24424236

Petrini, C

2013-01-01

304

Health sciences librarians' awareness and assessment of the Medical Library Association Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship: the results of a membership survey  

PubMed Central

Objective: The Medical Library Association (MLA) Board of Directors and president charged an Ethical Awareness Task Force and recommended a survey to determine MLA members' awareness of and opinions about the current Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship. Methods: The task force and MLA staff crafted a survey to determine: (1) awareness of the MLA code and its provisions, (2) use of the MLA code to resolve professional ethical issues, (3) consultation of other ethical codes or guides, (4) views regarding the relative importance of the eleven MLA code statements, (5) challenges experienced in following any MLA code provisions, and (6) ethical problems not clearly addressed by the code. Results: Over 500 members responded (similar to previous MLA surveys), and while most were aware of the code, over 30% could not remember when they had last read or thought about it, and nearly half had also referred to other codes or guidelines. The large majority thought that: (1) all code statements were equally important, (2) none were particularly difficult or challenging to follow, and (3) the code covered every ethical challenge encountered in their professional work. Implications: Comments provided by respondents who disagreed with the majority views suggest that the MLA code could usefully include a supplementary guide with practical advice on how to reason through a number of ethically challenging situations that are typically encountered by health sciences librarians. PMID:25349544

Byrd, Gary D.; Devine, Patricia J.; Corcoran, Kate E.

2014-01-01

305

Retrieving organs from non-heart-beating organ donors: a review of medical and ethical issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  The increasing gap between numbers of individuals awaiting organ replacement surgery and the supply of organs available for\\u000a transplant underpins attempts to increase the number of organs available. One practice, used in other countries, is the recovery\\u000a of organs from non-heart-beating organ donors (NHBD). The purpose of this review is to discuss ethical issues surrounding\\u000a the use of organs from

Christopher James Doig; Graeme Rocker

2003-01-01

306

Establishment of a successful donor embryo program: medical, ethical, and policy issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine how couples prefer to dispose of their extra embryos and to establish a donor embryo program for the treatment of infertile couples.Design: Cohort study.Setting: University-based IVF program.Patient(s): Patients (n = 365) with cryopreserved embryos in storage for >2 years and eight patients who desired donated embryos for transfer.Intervention(s): An IVF ethics committee was formed to discuss the

Bradley J Van Voorhis; Dan M Grinstead; Amy E. T Sparks; Janice L Gerard; Robert F Weir

1999-01-01

307

Teaching the Ethics of Biology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

2000-01-01

308

ETHIC AND DEONTOLOGY IN HEALTHCARE SERVICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the appearance of medical ethics as a science is a recently preoccupation, the ancient writings show that ethics precepts have been always modulated the medical practices. At the origin of medical ethics, in archaic societies and also in the most evolved ones from antiquity we are always found three elements: the ethics exigencies which the practician had to respect,

Lelia Chiru

2008-01-01

309

A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems  

PubMed Central

The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of human factors principles in current clinical information systems using alerts to provide medication decision support. Last, we suggest actionable recommendations for delivering effective clinical decision support using alerts. A review of studies from the medical informatics literature suggests that many basic human factors principles are not followed, possibly contributing to the lack of acceptance of alerts in clinical information systems. We evaluate the limitations of current alerting philosophies and provide recommendations for improving acceptance of alerts by incorporating human factors principles in their design. PMID:20819851

Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Seger, Diane L; Schedlbauer, Angela; Avery, Anthony J; Bates, David W

2010-01-01

310

A medical humanities special study module on principles of medical theory and practice at the Charité, Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany.  

PubMed

The authors are members of a committee in charge of a special study module (SSM) entitled Principles of Medical Theory and Practice in a problem-based and integrated reformed curriculum track at the Charité, the medical school and university hospital of the Humboldt University, Berlin, Germany. The SSM contextualizes medicine by highlighting the societal contexts of the doctor-patient relationship and the medical profession. Integrating the humanities into medical education helps students develop an awareness of the strengths and limitations of modern medicine, develop their own personalities and sense of social responsibility, and generally broaden their outlook. Teachers in the SSM seminars are from different disciplines, such as the history of medicine, bioethics, sociology, anthropology, and complementary medicine. Once a week, one or two teachers meet with as many as 21 students per group for a 90-minute course. Twelve courses constitute a seminar. Students are required to participate in four seminars during five years of studies. They can choose different topics from a set range. Although this SSM has been largely successful, some problems have occurred. Results from the course evaluations and experiences show that the seminars differ from one another in many ways. Financial restraints and the departmental structure of the faculty have influenced implementation of the SSM. However, the SSM is a new concept and is continuously reviewed and renewed. Future plans will be to specify outcomes, continue to discuss reasonable seminar topics, establish continuous support and training for teachers, and motivate students to become actively involved in the seminar discussions. PMID:14534104

Kiessling, Claudia; Müller, Thomas; Becker-Witt, Claudia; Begenau, Jutta; Prinz, Vincent; Schleiermacher, Sabine

2003-10-01

311

Medical management of radiation accidents: capabilities and deployment principles of the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology.  

PubMed

Radiation accidents are fortunately infrequent occurrences, but since their consequences can be very serious as in the Chernobyl and the Fukushima nuclear accidents, medical management of radiation accidents is of great importance. Besides several other tasks, medical management of radiation accidents is one of the key tasks of the Bundeswehr Institute of Radiobiology. Within a Task Force Unit for medical chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) Defense, the institute provides designated personnel who will perform clinical investigations on the scene and will liaise with the institute, where different methods for biological dosimetry and dose reconstruction will be performed. The most important aspects of efficient medical management of radiation accidents are diagnosis of radiation-induced health damage, determination of the cause, dealing with contamination/incorporation, pathophysiological and therapeutic principles, preparatory planning, national and international cooperation and training. Military and non-military institutions have to work closely together when it comes to radiation accidents and since national resources are limited and could be exhausted, international networks can help to ensure medical treatment for radiation accident victims. PMID:22987120

Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

2012-10-01

312

American Dental Association principles of ethics and code of professional conduct. With official advisory opinions revised to January 1990. Council on Ethics, Bylaws, and Judicial Affairs.  

PubMed

The ethical statements which have historically been subscribed to by the dental profession have had the benefit of the patient as their primary goal. Recognition of this goal, and of the education and training of a dentist, has resulted in society affording to the profession the privilege and obligation of self-government. The Association calls upon members of the profession to be caring and fair in their contact with patients. Although the structure of society may change, the overriding obligation of the dentist will always remain the duty to provide quality care in a competent and timely manner. All members must protect and preserve the high standards of oral health care provided to the public by the profession. They must strive to improve the care delivered--through education, training, research, and most of all, adherence to a stringent code of ethics, structured to meet the needs of the patient. PMID:2335677

1990-05-01

313

American Dental Association Principles of Ethics and Code of Professional Conduct. With official advisory opinions revised to July 1988. Council on Ethics, Bylaws, and Judicial Affairs.  

PubMed

The ethical statements which have historically been subscribed to by the dental profession have had the benefit of the patient as their primary goal. Recognition of this goal, and of the education and training of a dentist, has resulted in society affording to the profession the privilege and obligation of self-government. The Association calls upon members of the profession to be caring and fair in their contact with patients. Although the structure of society may change, the overriding obligation of the dentist will always remain the duty to provide quality care in a competent and timely manner. All members must protect and preserve the high standards of oral health care provided to the public by the profession. They must strive to improve the care delivered--through education, training, research and, most of all, adherence to a stringent code of ethics, structured to meet the needs of the patient. PMID:3225377

1988-10-01

314

Working ethics: William Beaumont, Alexis St. Martin, and medical research in antebellum America.  

PubMed

Analyzing William Beaumont's relationship with his experimental subject, Alexis St. Martin, this article demonstrates how the "research ethics" of antebellum America were predicated on models of employment, servitude, and labor. The association between Beaumont and St. Martin drew from and was understood in terms of the ideas and practices of contract labor, informal domestic servitude, indentures, and military service. Beaumont and St. Martin lived through an important period of transition in which personal master-servant relations existed alongside the "free" contract labor of market capitalism. Their relationship reflected and helped constitute important developments in nineteenth-century American labor history. PMID:20657054

Green, Alexa

2010-01-01

315

From Goya to Afghanistan – an essay on the ratio and ethics of medical war pictures  

Microsoft Academic Search

For centuries pictures of the dead and wounded have been part and parcel of war communications. Often the intentions were clear, ranging from medical instructions to anti-war protests. The public's response could coincide with or diverge from the publisher's intention. Following the invention of photography in the nineteenth century, and the subsequent claim of realism, the veracity of medical war

Leo van Bergen; Heidi de Mare; Frans J. Meijman

2010-01-01

316

[Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].  

PubMed

The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396

Menin, Marco

2012-01-01

317

The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.  

PubMed

As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education. PMID:23418365

Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

2013-06-01

318

Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics.  

PubMed

The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed. PMID:20644192

Heim, Lori

2010-01-01

319

21A.215 Medical Anthropology: Culture, Society, and Ethics in Disease and Health, Fall 2008  

E-print Network

This course looks at medicine from a cross-cultural perspective, focusing on the human, as opposed to biological, side of things. Students learn how to analyze various kinds of medical practice as cultural systems. Particular ...

Jackson, Jean

320

Ethical Study on the Reform and Development of Medical and Health Services in China.  

PubMed

At an early stage of its foundation, new China became clear about the nature of public welfare and quickly developed medical and health services, which was well received by the World Health Organization. The marketization and the reduction of input into medical and health services from the 1980s created severe adverse consequences. After the SARS' outbreak in 2003, China started to give serious consideration to its medical and health system, and to work at developing medical and health services. The new healthcare reform launched in 2009 re-emphasizes fairness and public welfare, and China's achievements have been remarkable. Of course, there are still many problems to be solved in the reform, which also paves the way for increasing the reform in future. PMID:25395061

Yang, Tong-Wei; Li, En-Chang

2014-11-14

321

Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

Balsam, Joshua Michael

322

Towards a Confucian Virtue Bioethics: Reframing Chinese Medical Ethics in a Market Economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay addresses a moral and cultural challenge facing health care in the People’s Republic of China: the need to create\\u000a an understanding of medical professionalism that recognizes the new economic realities of China and that can maintain the\\u000a integrity of the medical profession. It examines the rich Confucian resources for bioethics and health care policy by focusing\\u000a on the

Ruiping Fan

2006-01-01

323

Biomedical, ethical, and moral issues being forced by advanced medical technologies.  

PubMed

Technology is rampant, exponentially growing beyond the bounds normally comprehensible by the human mind. Many of these technologies are so fundamentally disruptive that they challenge the very practice of science. Discoveries once unimaginable except in science fiction are appearing at such a rapid rate that there is no time to evaluate their moral and ethical implications in a deliberate and measured fashion. Genetic engineering, human cloning, tissue engineering, intelligent robotics, nanotechnology, suspended animation, regeneration, and species prolongation are but a few that will revolutionize what it means to be human and what the ultimate fate of the species may be. Unless these issues are addressed at this time, we shall face the consequences of an uncontrolled and unprepared future. PMID:14606491

Satava, Richard M

2003-09-01

324

End-of-Life Decisions about Withholding or Withdrawing Therapy: Medical, Ethical, and Religio-Cultural Considerations.  

PubMed

Towards the end of life, physicians face dilemmas of discontinuing life-sustaining treatments or interventions. In some circumstances, these treatments are no longer of benefit, while in others the patient or family no longer want them. The physician plays an essential role in clarifying the goals of medical treatment, defining the care plan, initiating discussions about life-sustaining therapy, educating patients and families, helping them deliberate, making recommendations, and implementing the treatment plan. Communication is key. It should be clarified that when inevitable death is imminent, it is legitimate to refuse or limit forms of treatment that would only secure a precarious and burdensome prolongation of life, for as long as basic humane, compassionate care is not interrupted. Agreement to DNR status does not preclude supportive measures that keep patients free from pain and suffering as possible. Acceptable clinical practice on withdrawing or withholding treatment is based on an understanding of the medical, ethical, cultural, and religious issues. There is a need to individualize care option discussions to illness status, and patient and family preferences, beliefs, values, and cultures. The process of shared decision making between the patient, the family, and the clinicians should continue as goals evolve and change over time. PMID:25278756

Manalo, Maria Fidelis C

2013-01-01

325

Medical error disclosure: from the therapeutic alliance to risk management: the vision of the new Italian code of medical ethics  

PubMed Central

Background The Italian code of medical deontology recently approved stipulates that physicians have the duty to inform the patient of each unwanted event and its causes, and to identify, report and evaluate adverse events and errors. Thus the obligation to supply information continues to widen, in some way extending beyond the doctor-patient relationship to become an essential tool for improving the quality of professional services. Discussion The new deontological precepts intersect two areas in which the figure of the physician is paramount. On the one hand is the need for maximum integrity towards the patient, in the name of the doctor’s own, and the other’s (the patient’s) dignity and liberty; on the other is the physician’s developing role in the strategies of the health system to achieve efficacy, quality, reliability and efficiency, to reduce errors and adverse events and to manage clinical risk. Summary In Italy, due to guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health and to the new code of medical deontology, the role of physicians becomes a part of a complex strategy of risk management based on a system focused approach in which increasing transparency regarding adverse outcomes and full disclosure of health- related negative events represent a key factor. PMID:25023339

2014-01-01

326

Research ethics: challenges in the Eastern Mediterranean Region.  

PubMed

The foundations of ethical principles in the Eastern Mediterranean Region can be found within the 3 major religions of the Region; Judaism, Christianity and Islam. Today, there are numerous ethical issues that have emerged as result of the technological advances of the 20th century and this paper addresses some of those related to biomedical research. The Islamic principles in relation to medicine and biomedical research are described, and in particular research involving human subjects. The paper also outlines the endeavours being made by the Islamic Organization for Medical Sciences to address such issues and draw up recommendations and rulings. PMID:17037684

Khayat, M Haytham

2006-01-01

327

Jehovah's Witness parents' refusal of blood transfusions: Ethical considerations for psychologists.  

PubMed

Psychologists in medical settings may be confronted with Jehovah's Witness parents refusing blood transfusions for their children as an ethical dilemma. The purpose of this discussion is to help psychologists provide informed, ethical consultations and support by investigating the values of the Jehovah's Witness community and the origin of the blood transfusion taboo, how medical and legal professionals have approached this dilemma, exploring relevant ethical principles and standards for psychologists, and suggestions for how to move toward a better understanding of harm with Jehovah's Witness families. PMID:25476572

Hoffman, Anna

2014-12-01

328

"Murder or mercy?" An innovative module helping UK medical students to articulate their own ethical viewpoints regarding end-of-life decisions.  

PubMed

This module was designed to equip UK medical students to respond ethically and sensitively to requests encountered as qualified doctors regarding euthanasia and assisted dying. The aim was to expose students to relevant opinions and experiences and provide opportunities to explore and justify their own views and rehearse ethical decision making in a safe learning environment.The module is delivered by a multidisciplinary team, providing students with the working knowledge to actively discuss cases, articulate their own views and practice ethical reasoning. Visits to intensive care units, palliative care wards and hospices are integrated with theory. Student assessment comprises a dissertation, debate and reflection. Module impact was evaluated by analysis of student coursework and a questionnaire.Students greatly appreciated the clinical context provided by the visits and opportunities to apply ethical reasoning to cases and debate issues with peers. They reported increased discernment of the ethical and legal position and practical considerations and greater awareness of the range of professional and lay viewpoints held. Many participants were less strongly in favor of euthanasia and assisted dying on module completion than at the outset, but all of them believed they were better equipped to justify their own viewpoint and respond to patient requests. The multi-disciplinary nature of this course helps to prepare students to deal effectively and sensitively with ethical dilemmas they will encounter in their medical career. Use of an integrated, learner-centred approach equips students to actively engage with their peers in discussion of such issues and to formulate and defend their own position. PMID:21941154

Bell, David; Crawford, Vivienne

2011-10-01

329

The Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube: Medical and Ethical Issues in Placement  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Offering and recommending PEG tube placement to patients has been a topic of considerable interest in the medical literature. The role of individual health care professionals in the decision making process is poorly defined. PEG tubes are often placed inappropriately because of unrealistic and inaccurate expectations of what they can accomplish in patients unable to tolerate adequate oral intake. We

Floyd Angus; Robert Burakoff

2003-01-01

330

Sickle Cell Screening: Medical, Legal, Ethical, Psychological and Social Problems; A Sickle Cell Crisis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,…

Bowman, James E.

331

Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review  

E-print Network

.Ethics, Medical. 3.Ethical review - standards. 4.Ethics committees. 5.Patient selection. 6.Guidelines. IStandards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health-Related Research with Human expedited call separation ideas #12;Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health

Rosen, Jay

332

Ethical challenges of medicine and health on the Internet: a review.  

PubMed

Knowledge and capabilities, particularly of a new technology or in a new area of study, frequently develop faster than the guidelines and principles needed for practitioners to practice ethically in the new arena; this is particularly true in medicine. The blending of medicine and healthcare with e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions involving what sort of ethical conduct should be expected by practitioners and developers of the medical Internet. Some of the early pioneers in medical and healthcare Web sites pushed the ethical boundaries with questionable, even unethical, practices. Many involved with the medical Internet are now working to reestablish patient and consumer trust by establishing guidelines to determine how the fundamentals of the medical code of ethical conduct can best be adapted for the medical/healthcare Internet. Ultimately, all those involved in the creation, maintenance, and marketing of medical and healthcare Web sites should be required to adhere to a strict code of ethical conduct, one that has been fairly determined by an impartial international organization with reasonable power to regulate the code. This code could also serve as a desirable, recognizable label-of-distinction for ethical Web sites within the medical and healthcare Internet community. One challenge for those involved with the medical and healthcare Internet will be to determine what constitutes "Medical Internet Ethics" or "Healthcare Internet Ethics," since the definition of medical ethics can vary from country to country. Therefore, the emerging field of Medical/ Healthcare Internet Ethics will require careful thought and insights from an international collection of ethicists in many contributing areas. This paper is a review of the current status of the evolving field of Medical/Healthcare Internet Ethics, including proposed definitions and identification of many diverse areas that may ultimately contribute to this multidisciplinary field. The current role that medicine and health play in the growing area of Internet communication and commerce and many of the ethical challenges raised by the Internet for the medical community are explored and some possible ways to address these ethical challenges are postulated. PMID:11720965

Dyer, K A

2001-01-01

333

Ethical Challenges of Medicine and Health on the Internet: A Review  

PubMed Central

Knowledge and capabilities, particularly of a new technology or in a new area of study, frequently develop faster than the guidelines and principles needed for practitioners to practice ethically in the new arena; this is particularly true in medicine. The blending of medicine and healthcare with e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions involving what sort of ethical conduct should be expected by practitioners and developers of the medical Internet. Some of the early pioneers in medical and healthcare Web sites pushed the ethical boundaries with questionable, even unethical, practices. Many involved with the medical Internet are now working to reestablish patient and consumer trust by establishing guidelines to determine how the fundamentals of the medical code of ethical conduct can best be adapted for the medical/healthcare Internet. Ultimately, all those involved in the creation, maintenance, and marketing of medical and healthcare Web sites should be required to adhere to a strict code of ethical conduct, one that has been fairly determined by an impartial international organization with reasonable power to regulate the code. This code could also serve as a desirable, recognizable label-of-distinction for ethical Web sites within the medical and healthcare Internet community. One challenge for those involved with the medical and healthcare Internet will be to determine what constitutes "Medical Internet Ethics" or "Healthcare Internet Ethics," since the definition of medical ethics can vary from country to country. Therefore, the emerging field of Medical/ Healthcare Internet Ethics will require careful thought and insights from an international collection of ethicists in many contributing areas. This paper is a review of the current status of the evolving field of Medical/Healthcare Internet Ethics, including proposed definitions and identification of many diverse areas that may ultimately contribute to this multidisciplinary field. The current role that medicine and health play in the growing area of Internet communication and commerce and many of the ethical challenges raised by the Internet for the medical community are explored and some possible ways to address these ethical challenges are postulated. PMID:11720965

2001-01-01

334

Patient safety: the ethical imperative.  

PubMed

Nurses have the ethical obligation to prevent and manage medical errors. Ethical theories for justification of stance are provided along with suggestions for disclosing errors to patients. PMID:18549129

Lachman, Vicki D

2008-04-01

335

Ethical Principles Associated with the Publication of Research in ASHA's Scholarly Journals: Importance and Adequacy of Coverage  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The purpose of this 2-part study was to determine the importance of specific topics relating to publication ethics and adequacy of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association's (ASHA's) policies regarding these topics. Method: A 56-item Web-based survey was sent to (a) ASHA journal editors, associate editors, and members of the…

Ingham, Janis C.; Minifie, Fred D.; Horner, Jennifer; Robey, Randall R.; Lansing, Charissa; McCartney, James H.; Slater, Sarah C.; Moss, Sharon E.

2011-01-01

336

Treading the lines between self-interest, cultural relativism and universal principles : Ethics in the global marketplace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The aim of this paper is to introduce this special issue of Management Decision by exploring the themes of the issue and the contribution of each of the articles in the collection. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper reviews notions of ethics, justice and responsibility. It then uses the framework developed through this review as the basis for an appreciation

David Lamond

2008-01-01

337

Parental role in medical decision-making: fact or fiction? A comparative study of ethical dilemmas in French and American neonatal intensive care units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neonatal intensive care has been studied from an epidemiological, ethical, medical and even sociological perspective, but little is known about the impact of parental involvement in decision-making, especially in critical cases. We rely here on a comparative, case-based approach to study the parental role in decision-making within two technologically identical but culturally and institutionally different contexts: France and the United

Kristina Orfali

2004-01-01

338

Practicing ethics: where's the action?  

PubMed

Kass uses the occasion of the Hastings Center's 20th anniversary to critique contemporary bioethics. He describes what he terms seven "dominant fashions" in the modern practice of ethics that he believes have resulted in a theoretical and rationalistic approach with grave weaknesses. He raises questions about the relationship between moral theory and moral action, and about the nature and formation of a moral life. In discussing the future work of the Hastings Center, Kass calls for less thinking about doctrine and principles and more thinking about education and institutions, particularly those involved with medical practice. PMID:2312273

Kass, L R

1990-01-01

339

Living Organ Donation: An Ethical Evolution or Evolution of Ethics?  

PubMed Central

The disparity between available and needed organs is rapidly increasing, and the number of patients dying while still on the waiting list is growing exponentially. As a partial solution to this disparity, living unrelated transplantation is being performed more frequently, and some have proposed providing financial incentives to donors. The aim of this discussion is to illustrate that with an ever-increasing number of living unrelated transplantations, society and the transplant community should adopt a more active role in developing specific strategies to scrutinize the process. The current paper will also examine the viewpoint that medical ethics is not separable from the prevailing needs of society and involves a constant balancing of often opposing goods. Issues surrounding living unrelated donor transplantation illustrate ethics as a dynamically evolving field, which is often influenced by necessity and which evolves with progression of science and society. As part of this evolution, it is the collective responsibility of society and the transplant community to devise safeguards to guarantee adherence to basic principles of ethics and to avoid “situational ethics.” PMID:25013566

Ghahramani, N.

2010-01-01

340

The NAFSA Ethics Program. Ethical Practice in International Educational Exchange.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet contains complete information on the NAFSA Ethics Program developed by NAFSA: the Association of International Educators. It includes the NAFSA Code of Ethics, the Principles of International Educational Exchange, and details of procedures for ethics-related complaints. The Association of International Educators promotes the exchange…

NAFSA - Association of International Educators, Washington, DC.

341

The Ethics of Integrity: Educational Values Beyond Postmodern Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

I address the problems of diminished moral responsibility and of moral relativism, typically associated with education in late modern society, by developing, beyond the problematic contemporary formulations of postmodern ethics, an ethics of integrity as a moral resource for education. This ethics is constituted by the principles of respect for the dignity of persons, and the acceptance of responsibility for

Mark Mason

2001-01-01

342

Medical Assistant. [FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC).] 2002 Revision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum for a medical assistant program is designed for students interested in caring for the sick, injured, convalescent, or disabled under the direction of the family, physicians, and credentialed nurses. The curriculum is divided into 12 units: orientation to medical assisting; principles of medical ethics; risk management; infection…

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

343

[Paracelsianism, astrology and medical ethics in the polemical writings of Tommaso Bovio (1521-1609)].  

PubMed

Tommaso Bovio was a representative of North Italian non-academic medicine in the early modern period. His "dialogues", published in the second half of the 16th century, were written in the Italian vernacular and enjoyed a certain popularity also in Germany. Although Bovio used to exaggerate for rhetorical effect, his portrayal of patients, illness and treatments provides interesting insights into everyday urban life in his time. Sympathising with Paracelsus, Bovio propagated an image of empirics as humanitarians and fought for the recognition of his own practical knowledge and skills. Bovio was a most original figure in the medicine of the period of counter reformation. His writings exemplify the lively debate between the learned medical tradition and unorthodox reform. PMID:15015853

Bondio, Mariacarla Gadebusch

2004-01-01

344

Code of Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet expresses the ethical principles and values of the Canadian Counseling Association and serves as a guide to the professional conduct of all its members. It also informs the public served by the association of the standards of ethical conduct for which members are to be responsible and accountable. This guide reflects the values of…

Sheppard, Glenn W.; Schulz, William E.; McMahon, Sylvia-Anne

345

Code of Ethics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

2009-01-01

346

Reflections on Ethics in Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Each profession has its own code of ethics. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2008) defines professional ethics as "the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." The Code of Ethics of the American Library Association (ALA Council 2008) has served librarians for seventy years and reflects the ideals toward which all librarians…

Adams, Helen R.

2009-01-01

347

Ethics versus corruption in globalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Individuals and organizations will exhaust all available gains from trade and the resulting allocation of resources will be efficient when allocation will reflect accurately society's opportunities and preferences – including preferences related to individuals' ethical standards. Which behaviours are ethical and which are unethical? International society due to globalization has to develop and establish common ethical principles of behaviour in

Georgios I. Zekos

2004-01-01

348

"Understanding Information Ethics: Replies to Comments" Luciano Floridi1, 2  

E-print Network

, from business ethics to environmental ethics, from medical ethics to the ethics of nanotechnologies"Understanding Information Ethics: Replies to Comments" Luciano Floridi1, 2 1 Research Chair Campus, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB, UK; l.floridi@herts.ac.uk Foreword Information Ethics (IE

Floridi, Luciano

349

Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

Lindorff, Margaret

2010-01-01

350

ACA Ethical Standards Casebook. Fifth Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perhaps the most basic function of a professional code of ethics is to educate members about sound ethical conduct. This casebook is designed to provide a foundation for analytic evaluation of the standards and guidance in applying ethical principles. It can be utilized in an ethics course or in a practicum or internship. The illustrative…

Herlihy, Barbara; Corey, Gerald

351

Teaching Ethics across the Public Relations Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggests ways of incorporating ethics across the undergraduate public relations curriculum. Reviews current coverage of ethics in public relations principles, writing, cases, and textbooks. Suggests other methods that teachers can use to incorporate ethical pedagogical tools in all public relations courses in an effort to develop students' ethical

Hutchison, Liese L.

2002-01-01

352

Ethical consideration.  

PubMed

The twofold distinction between interventions into the germ line and interventions into somatic cells on the one hand and between the treatment of diseases and enhancement on the other hand resulted in the concept of somatic gene therapy. There is a nearly unanimous agreement that somatic gene therapy has a high-ranking moral objective and uses methods that extend current techniques for treating diseases in a morally acceptable way. In its experimental phase principles of research ethics as the autonomy and the informed consent of the patient or the test person, a fair selection of test persons and a careful weighing of risks and benefits have to be taken into account and several specific points have to be considered. Experimental somatic gene therapy requires a positive vote of a competent and independent ethics committee. PMID:21590407

Fuchs, Michael

2011-01-01

353

Towards a Definition of Health Informatics Ethics Hamman W. Samuel  

E-print Network

in medicine leads to new ethical issues that are not covered by medical or computing ethics. We define that information technology and medicine together lead to new issues in ethics. Medical devices and healthcare. Copyright 2010 ACM 978-1-4503-0030-8/10/11 ...$10.00. ethics comes into play. The Therac-25 medical

Zaiane, Osmar R.

354

Psychological and ethical implications related to infertility.  

PubMed

Being a parent is deeply demanding and one of the most important events in life; parents experience the deepening of human relationships with their partner, within their families, and in society, and moreover the fundamental relationship between parent and child. Every medical, social, and political effort must be made to prevent infertility but also to offer infertile couples the best diagnostic and therapeutic paths. Understanding the suffering of the couple and their families prevents and helps ease the possible psychological and social complications of infertility. Therefore, infertility concerns not only biomedical sciences but also psychological and social ones-ethics and law-in their combined efforts to identify areas of understanding and of research for solutions while respecting the dignity of the couple and unborn child. The Catholic Church offers an ongoing contribution through dialogue in looking for ethical principles guiding scientific and medical research respectful of the true life of human beings. PMID:24156989

Minucci, Daria

2013-12-01

355

FAQs for Ethics Education in Science and Engineering Program Announcement  

NSF Publications Database

... without review. Q: Will proposals addressing medical or biomedical ethics be considered? A: No, the ... focused on ethics for medical students or in medical education. EESE will not consider proposals ...

356

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL ETHICS POLICY  

E-print Network

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT RESEARCH COUNCIL ETHICS POLICY Guiding Principles The following principles provide the ethical framework that we aspire to while working in the UK and abroad. In relationships. Consider ethical challenges which arise from new or possibly risky research at the limits of our knowledge

Brierley, Andrew

357

American Medical Association  

MedlinePLUS

... language to describe healthcare services. AMA Code of Medical Ethics Since 1847, the AMA has provided guidance on ... Psychiatry JAMA Surgery Virtual Mentor - A Forum for Medical Ethics AMA Membership Join / Renew Your Membership AMA MVP ...

358

An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

2008-01-01

359

Towards ethical decision-making in counselling research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the process of ethical decision-making in counselling research and asks the question: after following ethical guidelines, reviewing ethical principles and consulting codes of practice, to what extent is our decision-making based on intuitive thinking? The paper begins by examining Kitchener's model of ethical justification and the ethical principles upon which it rests. Bond's approach to ethical problem-solving

Maggie Robson; Peter Cook; Kathy Hunt; Geof Alred; Dave Robson

2000-01-01

360

Transplant in a patient with comorbid psychiatric illness: an ethical dilemma.  

PubMed

This article addresses a difficult ethical dilemma that transplant surgeons may potentially encounter: whether a patient with a psychiatric illness is a good candidate for a liver transplant. This case study illustrates the challenges involved when considering the ethical principles of patient self-determination, distributive justice of scarce medical resources, "social worth," and protection of vulnerable patient populations. Are patients with psychiatric illness able to provide consent for transplantation? Is it possible to avoid misallocating valuable donor organs and, at the same time, fairly allocate these resources? This article seeks to answer these questions and provide insight into this ethical dilemma. PMID:25509229

Boyum, Eric N; Brown, Douglas; Zihni, Ahmed M; Keune, Jason D; Hong, Barry A; Kodner, Ira J; Ray, Shuddhadeb

2014-11-01

361

'I'm more sick than my doctors think': ethical issues in managing somatization in developing countries.  

PubMed

Several ethical issues confront the healthcare professional who is managing somatization in developing countries where cost constraints, low literacy, poverty, poor nutrition and infections and inadequate access to healthcare are common. The paper discusses these in the context of the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. Some of the ethical issues in managing somatization include being influenced by patient distress rather than rational medical decision-making, inadequate attention to the cultural meaning of symptoms, psychologizing versus medicalizing, the ethics of nomenclature and labels, communicating ethically with patients, and managing them adequately given lack of evidence and training. An ethical approach to managing somatization in this context would include using an integrated and simultaneous medical and psychiatric approach. To ensure patient beneficence, the medical, psychological and social assessment should be undertaken side-by-side as much as possible and should be cost effective. Respecting patient autonomy by using adequate communication methods and the patient's cultural model of the illness as part of management is also integral to ethical practice. In the developing world, issues of equity are also an important ethical concern. When more serious illnesses are the health priority, functional syndromes may not get equal importance or resources. PMID:23383669

Chandra, Prabha S; Satyanarayana, Veena A

2013-02-01

362

Forum Response: Ethics in Business and Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the teaching of business ethics. Draws conclusions about teaching business ethics noting that such instruction must start with the principles of capitalism and the functions of a market economy. (SG)

Anderson, James A.

2003-01-01

363

HETHR -Harvard Ethics Training in Human Research Harvard Ethics Training in Human Research  

E-print Network

HETHR - Harvard Ethics Training in Human Research Harvard Ethics Training in Human Research of the Harvard Ethics Training in Human Research (HETHR) curriculum. This certification is effective on 01 and the following required topics: · History · Definitions · Ethical Principles · Informed Consent · Regulations

Church, George M.

364

Teaching ethics in neonatal and perinatal medicine: What is happening in Canada?  

PubMed Central

Ethically challenging clinical situations are frequently encountered in neonatal and perinatal medicine (NPM), resulting in a complex environment for trainees and a need for ethics training during NPM residency. In the present study, the authors conducted a brief environmental scan to investigate the ethics teaching strategies in Canadian NPM programs. Ten of 13 (77%) accredited Canadian NPM residency programs participated in a survey investigating teaching strategies, content and assessment mechanisms. Although informal ethics teaching was more frequently reported, there was significant variability among programs in terms of content and logistics, with the most common topics being ‘The medical decision making process: Ethical considerations’ and ‘Review of bioethics principles’ (88.9% each); lectures by staff or visiting staff was the most commonly reported formal strategy (100%); and evaluation was primarily considered to be part of their overall trainee rotation (89%). This variability indicates the need for agreement and standardization among program directors regarding these aspects, and warrants further investigation. PMID:24627657

Daboval, Thierry; Moore, Gregory P; Rohde, Kristina; Moreau, Katherine; Ferretti, Emanuela

2014-01-01

365

Portrayal of negative qualities in a doctor as a potential teaching tool in medical ethics and humanism: Journey to the End of Night by Louis?Ferdinand Céline  

PubMed Central

Fictional stories about physicians and patients are increasingly used as a powerful teaching resource for medical students. Very often, but not exclusively, stories of physicians as positive role models are selected to teach students virtues and ethical values. Negative role models are rarely used and if so, physicians are rather described as medical quacks in such fiction then exhibiting primarily a corrupted character. I suggest that a fictional story that presents exclusively a negative role model of a physician could also be a valuable, admittedly difficult, teaching resource to demonstrate the consequences of absolute loss of ethical standards and virtues in physicians. A not widely known example of this genre is Louis?Ferdinand Céline's (1894–1961) novel Voyage au bout de la nuit (Journey to the End of the Night), published in 1932. Having a strong autobiographical background, the novel described the adventures of the medicine student, Ferdinand Bardamu, during the first world war, in the African colonies as a trader, in the United States of America as factory worker, and later after finishing his education, as a doctor for the poor. Unfortunately, Dr Bardamu develops an unprofessional, even criminal behaviour, and may serve as a negative role model for the virtues of physicians. This article will familiarise the reader with the novel and its physician author. PMID:16461481

Wolf, G

2006-01-01

366

Medical Education and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Review of Ethical Guidelines and Their Implications for Psychiatric Training  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: This article reviews and summarizes eight ethical guidelines of major professional organizations regarding the pharmaceutical industry's role in the psychiatric education of trainees. Method: The author conducted a literature review of research and guidelines pertaining to the pharmaceutical industry's relationship to trainees, with…

Geppert, Cynthia M. A.

2007-01-01

367

Evoking the Moral Imagination: Using Stories to Teach Ethics and Professionalism to Nursing, Medical, and Law Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program that brings together students entering demanding professions (law, medicine, and nursing) to explore issues of ethics and professionalism is described. The course uses thought-provoking stories, classroom discussion, student journals, and collaborative teaching. Lessons learned from teaching the course a number of times are also…

Weisberg, Mark; Duffin, Jacalyn

1995-01-01

368

Towards a Sexual Ethics for Adolescence  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view, the principle of valid consent, takes competence…

Steutel, Jan

2009-01-01

369

Making inpatient medication reconciliation patient centered, clinically relevant and implementable: a consensus statement on key principles and necessary first steps.  

PubMed

Medication errors and adverse events caused by them are common during and after a hospitalization. The impact of these events on patient welfare and the financial burden, both to the patient and the healthcare system, are significant. In 2005, The Joint Commission put forth medication reconciliation as National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) No. 8 in an effort to minimize adverse events caused during these types of care transitions. However, the meaningful and systematic implementation of medication reconciliation, as expressed through NPSG No. 8, proved to be extraordinarily difficult for healthcare institutions around the country. Given the importance of accurate and complete medication reconciliation for patient safety occurring across the continuum of care, the Society of Hospital Medicine convened a stakeholder conference in 2009 to begin to identify and address: (1) barriers to implementation; (2) opportunities to identify best practices surrounding medication reconciliation; (3) the role of partnerships among traditional healthcare sites and nonclinical and other community-based organizations; and (4) metrics for measuring the processes involved in medication reconciliation and their impact on preventing harm to patients. The focus of the conference was oriented toward medication reconciliation for a hospitalized patient population; however, many of the themes and concepts derived would also apply to other care settings. This paper highlights the key domains needing to be addressed and suggests first steps toward doing so. An overarching principle derived at the conference is that medication reconciliation should not be viewed as an accreditation function. It must, first and foremost, be recognized as an important element of patient safety. From this principle, the participants identified ten key areas requiring further attention in order to move medication reconciliation toward this focus. 1 There is need for a uniformly acceptable and accepted definition of what constitutes a medication and what processes are encompassed by reconciliation. Clarifying these terms is critical to ensuring more uniform impact of medication reconciliation. 2 The varying roles of the multidisciplinary participants in the reconciliation process must be clearly defined. These role definitions should include those of the patient and family/caregiver and must occur locally, taking into account the need for flexibility in design given the varying structures and resources at healthcare sites. 3 Measures of the reconciliation processes must be clinically meaningful (i.e., of defined benefit to the patient) and derived through consultation with stakeholder groups. Those measures to be reported for national benchmarking and accreditation should be limited in number and clinically meaningful. 4 While a comprehensive reconciliation system is needed across the continuum of care, a phased approach to implementation, allowing it to start slowly and be tailored to local organizational structures and work flows, will increase the chances of successful organizational uptake. 5 Developing mechanisms for prospectively and proactively identifying patients at risk for medication-related adverse events and failed reconciliation is needed. Such an alert system would help maintain vigilance toward these patient safety issues and help focus additional resources on high risk patients. 6 Given the diversity in medication reconciliation practices, research aimed at identifying effective processes is important and should be funded with national resources. Funding should include varying sites of care (e.g., urban and rural, academic and nonacademic, etc.). 7 Strategies for medication reconciliation-both successes and key lessons learned from unsuccessful efforts-should be widely disseminated. 8 A personal health record that is integrated and easily transferable between sites of care is needed to facilitate successful medication reconciliation. 9 Partnerships between healthcare organizations and community-based organizations create opportunities to reinforce medication

Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Halasyamani, Lakshmi; Greene, Jan; LaCivita, Cynthia; Stucky, Erin; Benjamin, Bona; Reid, William; Griffin, Frances A; Vaida, Allen J; Williams, Mark V

2010-10-01

370

Sport, Ethics & Education: Vices and or Virtues Mike McNamee is a Professor of Applied Ethics in the College  

E-print Network

Sport, Ethics & Education: Vices and or Virtues Mike McNamee is a Professor of Applied Ethics in the College of Human and Health Science, Swansea University, where he teaches medical ethics He has served editor of Ethics and Sport and the founding editor of the international journal Sport, Ethics

Hickman, Mark

371

Ethics of studies of drugs in pregnancy.  

PubMed

Pregnant women with illness require efficacious and safe drug therapy during pregnancy; however, their treatment is often hindered by a lack of information regarding the use of medications during pregnancy. Ethical challenges are encountered in conducting drug trials in pregnant women, who are often excluded from participation due to fear of harm to the fetus. However, as the health of the fetus is ultimately affected by that of the pregnant woman, inclusion of pregnant women in studies of medications that they may require for their own benefit may also benefit the unborn child. The principle of autonomy argues for the pregnant woman being able to make an informed choice to take part in a clinical trial, and the principle of justice dictates that she not be denied the benefits of drug research. PMID:25412606

Matsui, Doreen

2015-02-01

372

Narrative Ethics, Authentic Integrity, and an Intrapersonal Medical Encounter in David Foster Wallace's "Luckily the Account Representative Knew CPR".  

PubMed

In Wallace's short story "Luckily the Account Representative Knew CPR," a vice president (VP) suffers cardiac arrest. As an account representative (AR) administers CPR, he discovers his own impersonality mirrored back to him by the VP-a disturbing vision of himself that the AR wishes to escape. Because modern moral theories would have the AR respond impersonally to the VP, those theories would only exacerbate his existential predicament. In contrast, by regarding the AR's act as one that he, in particular, should perform, narrative ethics can discern a resolution for his predicament: because the AR still values his diminished capacities for care and spontaneity, this situation offers him an opportunity to revive those former traits. Doing so would give him greater authentic integrity, or narrative continuity with the most important aspects of his past. Authentic integrity can serve narrative ethics as a helpful starting point for understanding how the life stories of patients, clinicians, and others might appropriately unfold. PMID:25473862

Nash, Woods

2015-01-01

373

How do medical device manufacturers’ websites frame the value of health innovation? An empirical ethics analysis of five Canadian innovations  

Microsoft Academic Search

While every health care system stakeholder would seem to be concerned with obtaining the greatest value from a given technology,\\u000a there is often a disconnect in the perception of value between a technology’s promoters and those responsible for the ultimate\\u000a decision as to whether or not to pay for it. Adopting an empirical ethics approach, this paper examines how five

P. Lehoux; M. Hivon; B. Williams-Jones; F. A. Miller; D. R. Urbach

374

[Ethical issues of artificial nutritional support].  

PubMed

This review article discusses some ethical issues of clinical nutrition according to the Beauchamp and Childress principles of bioethics: "respect for autonomy, nonmaleficence, beneficence, and justice". PMID:24568858

Weimann, Arved

2014-03-01

375

Selecting candidates for liver transplantation: a medical ethics perspective on the microallocation of a scarce and rationed resource.  

PubMed

Liver transplantation has evolved over the past 35 years from an experimental procedure with high perioperative mortality to an accepted form of treatment with an approximate 85% one-year and 80% three-year patient survival rate. Following the success and acceptance of transplantation in the treatment of end-stage liver disease, there has been a progressive increase in the number of patients seeking a limited supply of donor organs. The ethical focus, on a microallocation level, has therefore changed from that of the 1960s, when the question was whether the procedure should be offered at all, to that of the 1990s and beyond, when the focus is on the proper allocation of a scarce, life-saving resource. The ethical issues concerning fair allocation surrounding liver transplantation are explored, from both the referring physician's perspective and the perspective of the transplant physician. In particular, the contrasting viewpoints of bioethicists Nicholas Rescher and James Childress, with respect to nonmedical and social criteria in the selection of patients for scarce, life-saving therapies are explored. Lastly, some alternative ethical models for patients selection are reviewed. PMID:9582546

Yoshida, E M

1998-04-01

376

Ethics Education: Using Inductive Reasoning to Develop Individual, Group, Organizational, and Global Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical

Taft, Susan H.; White, Judith

2007-01-01

377

Ethics in sports medicine.  

PubMed

Physicians have struggled with the medical ramifications of athletic competition since ancient Greece, where rational medicine and organized athletics originated. Historically, the relationship between sport and medicine was adversarial because of conflicts between health and sport. However, modern sports medicine has emerged with the goal of improving performance and preventing injury, and the concept of the "team physician" has become an integral part of athletic culture. With this distinction come unique ethical challenges because the customary ethical norms for most forms of clinical practice, such as confidentiality and patient autonomy, cannot be translated easily into sports medicine. The particular areas of medical ethics that present unique challenges in sports medicine are informed consent, third parties, advertising, confidentiality, drug use, and innovative technology. Unfortunately, there is no widely accepted code of sports medicine ethics that adequately addresses these issues. PMID:17218662

Dunn, Warren R; George, Michael S; Churchill, Larry; Spindler, Kurt P

2007-05-01

378

Exploring the ethics of prescribing medicines.  

PubMed

The delivery of holistic care should incorporate patient empowerment through the promotion of health and self-help measures, including pain relief. In this article, the author, a newly qualified independent prescriber, explains why she believes that encouraging patients to buy over-the-counter medication is morally acceptable and based on the principles of beneficence and non-malevolence. She also reflects on her prescribing decisions in the context of ethics, health economics and personal perspective for four patients with similar injuries. The author works in Wales, where prescriptions are free to residents. PMID:20527454

Jackson, Jan

2010-05-01

379

Basic principles of design and functioning of multifunctional laser diagnostic system for non-invasive medical spectrophotometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The devising of a general engineering theory of multifunctional diagnostic systems for non-invasive medical spectrophotometry is an important and promising direction of modern biomedical engineering. We aim in this study to formalize in scientific engineering terms objectives for multifunctional laser non-invasive diagnostic system (MLNDS). The structure-functional model as well as a task-function of generalized MLNDS was formulated and developed. The key role of the system software for MLNDS general architecture at steps of ideological-technical designing has been proved. The basic principles of block-modules composition of MLNDS hardware are suggested as well.

Rogatkin, D. A.; Sokolovski, S. G.; Fedorova, K. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Sidorov, V. V.; Rafailov, E. U.

2011-03-01

380

Using NAEYC's Code of Ethics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how to deal with an ethical dilemma concerning a caregiver's dislike for a child. Recognizes that no statement in NAEYC's Code of Ethical Conduct requires that a professional must like each child, and presents some ideals and principles from the code that may guide professionals through similar situations. (BAC)

Young Children, 1995

1995-01-01

381

Incorporating the principles of the patient-centered medical home into a student-run free clinic  

PubMed Central

As the health care delivery landscape changes, medical schools must develop creative strategies for preparing future physicians to provide quality care in this new environment. Despite the growing prominence of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) as an effective model for health care delivery, few medical schools have integrated formal education on the PCMH into their curricula. Incorporating the PCMH model into medical school curricula is important to ensure that students have a comprehensive understanding of the different models of health care delivery and can operate effectively as physicians. The authors provide a detailed description of the process by which the Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC), a student-run free clinic, has integrated PCMH principles into a service-learning initiative. The authors assessed patient demographics, diagnoses, and satisfaction along with student satisfaction. During the year after a PCMH model was adopted, 112 students and 19 licensed physicians volunteered their time. A review of the 174 patients seen from July 2011 to June 2012 found that the most common medical reasons for visits included management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, arthritis, anxiety, and depression. During the year after the adoption of the PCMH model, 87% were very or extremely satisfied with their care, and 96% of the patients would recommend the WCCC to others. Students who participate in the WCCC gain hands-on experience in coordinating care, providing continuity of care, addressing issues of accessibility, and developing quality and safety metrics. The WCCC experience provides an integrative model that links service-learning with education on health care delivery in a primary care setting. The authors propose that adoption of this approach by other student-run clinics provides a substantial opportunity to improve medical education nationwide and better prepare future physicians to practice within this new model of health care delivery. PMID:25246814

Riddle, Megan C; Lin, Jiahui; Steinman, Jonathan B; Salvi, Joshua D; Reynolds, Margaret M; Kastor, Anne S; Harris, Christina; Boutin-Foster, Carla

2014-01-01

382

Coercion and the Mentally Ill: Ethical Perspectives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Legal procedures have long been implemented to protect the rights of persons with mental illness, to mandate treatment for those unable to care for themselves, and to protect society from dangerous behavior. Although legal, mandated treatment poses ethical concerns. This article analyzes ethical issues emerging from a case study. Ethical principles, considered within a common morality framework, are applied to

Cindy Diamond Zolnierek

2007-01-01

383

The ethics of health communication.  

PubMed

The scope of application of ethical principles in health communication is discussed with particular reference to the influence of the mass media on people's perceptions of benefit and risk in the field of health care. PMID:8018285

Strasser, T; Gallagher, J

1994-01-01

384

A Taxonomy of Ethical Ideologies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assesses the reliability and validity of the Ethics Position Questionnaire: an instrument with two scales, one measuring idealism and another measuring the rejection of universal moral principles in favor of relativism. (Author/SS)

Forsyth, Donelson R.

1980-01-01

385

Responsible Oversight of Human Stem Cell Research: The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine's Medical and Ethical Standards  

Microsoft Academic Search

California voters recently approved $3 billion over 10 years for public funding of stem cell research through the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine (CIRM). Geoffrey Lomax and colleagues discuss the principles that guided the CIRM regulations.

Geoffrey P. Lomax; Zach W. Hall; Bernard Lo

2007-01-01

386

A Study in Engineering and Military Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Human nature and social awareness can often cause individuals to act or make decisions that are not considered moral or proper by the majority. Merriam-Webster defines ethics as a set of moral principles or a system of moral values.1 Most occupations that require the trust of the general public are held to high ethical standards. These professions include law, medical, engineering, and military, all of which have adopted systems that guide subscribed individuals through moral decision making processes. Most learned professions that uphold such standards prescribe a system of non-mandatory codes of conduct.2 Perhaps the most recognized professional code of ethics was reported by the National Society of Professional Engineers, which defines fundamental canons and includes explicit guidance on professional conduct. Because ethical behavior is essential to the profession of engineering, ABET Inc., has addressed this topic in Criterion 3, outcome (f): graduates will have an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility. The environmental engineering program criteria (ABET Criterion 9) also requires an understanding of professional practice issues.3 There are numerous examples in the literature on how professional practice issues might be included in engineering curricula, but limited data on methods for assessment. The United States Military Academy (USMA) Environmental Engineering Program has a robust military ethical education and training program that spans the entire four year West Point experience. It is thought that the moral character development programs at USMA strongly support the professional practice requirements of EC2000.3 The USMA environmental engineering program has been assessing attainment of ethics and other professional practice requirements since ca. 1999. Because all graduates of the USMA environmental engineering program (unless granted a waiver by the program director) are required to take the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam (FEE), it has been used as a metric for this purpose since FEE subject data has been available. Longitudinal data on ethics questions, from the FEE, is presented in Figure 1. The USMA Environmental Engineering cadets have been tracking with the national average (for environmental engineers) on ethics since 2002.

Butkus, Michael; David, Gayle

2009-09-10

387

Council Adopts New AERA Code of Ethics: Ethics Committee to Emphasize Ethics Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At its February 2011 meeting, the AERA Council adopted unanimously a new Code of Ethics. The Code articulates a set of standards for education researchers in education and provides principles and guidance by which they can build ethical practices in professional, scholarly, and scientific activities. The Code reflects the Association's strong…

Herrington, Carolyn D.

2011-01-01

388

Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.  

PubMed

The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity , informed consent, and confidentiality. PMID:22056907

Barbosa, António

2012-01-01

389

Problems for clinical judgement: 5. Principles of influence in medical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE BASIC SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY HAS IDENTIFIED specific ingrained responses that are fundamental elements of human nature, underpin common influence strategies and may apply in medical settings. People feel a sense of obligation to repay a per- ceived debt. A request becomes more attractive when preceded by a marginally worse request. The drive to act consistently will persist even if

Donald A. Redelmeier; Robert B. Cialdini

390

University of Bath BITE SIZE GUIDE TO ETHICS IN RESEARCH  

E-print Network

University of Bath BITE SIZE GUIDE TO ETHICS IN RESEARCH We must apply the highest ethical to be conducted according to ethical principles To promote the aims of the research to extend knowledge and avoid and scholarship (http://www.bath.ac.uk/research/pdf/ethics/Allegations_of_misconduct_procedure_Oct_2009.pdf

Burton, Geoffrey R.

391

Ethics and Involuntary Treatment.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the ethical issues related to involuntary psychiatric treatment, including the conflicts between the principles of beneficence, autonomy, and nonmaleficence with regard to involuntary treatment for the patient's interests versus those of society. Describes moral problems as centering around disagreements regarding the patient's…

Wettstein, Robert M.

1987-01-01

392

Lessons for Business Ethics from Bioethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three widely accepted principles – autonomy, beneficence and justice – provide a useful analytic framework for considering controversies and conflicts in bioethics. Since these principles capture key concepts found in diverse normative theories they provide a starting point from which consistent ethical analysis and comparison can begin. While justice is commonly discussed in the business ethics literature, the other two

Josie Fisher

2001-01-01

393

Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review  

PubMed Central

Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances. PMID:24031310

Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

2009-01-01

394

ETHICS and CSR INSTRUMENTS IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR  

E-print Network

1 ETHICS and CSR INSTRUMENTS IN THE FORESTRY SECTOR Davide Pettenella University of Padova - Italy ..." (Kotler, Armstrong, Saunders, Wong, 2001 mod.) ... in the light of ethical principles... Marketing based on ethical principles: · safety and health of workers, consumers, local population · no discrimination

395

The Ethics of Human Genetic Intervention: A Postmodern Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy for a particular disease like Parkinson's involves ethical principles worked out for other diseases. The major ethical issues for gene therapy (and the corresponding ethical principles) are safety (nonmalfeasance), efficacy (beneficence), informed consent (autonomy), and allocation of resources (justice). Yet genetic engineering (germ-line interventions or interventions to enhance human potentialities) raises emotions and fears that might cause resistance

Allen R. Dyer

1997-01-01

396

The problem of 'thick in status, thin in content' in Beauchamp and Childress' principlism.  

PubMed

For many, Thomas Beauchamp and James Childress have elaborated moral reasoning by using the four principles whereby all substantive problems of medical ethics (and of ethics more generally) can be properly analysed and cogent philosophical solutions for the problems can be found. It seems that their 'principlism' gets updated, with better features being added during the course of the six editions of Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Nonetheless, Beauchamp and Childress seem to have been losing their way when it comes to the common-morality justification, which is the epistemological (and perhaps metaphysical) backbone of their method, and this is shown more vividly in their most recent (2009) edition of Principles of Biomedical Ethics. The author points out what he calls the problem of 'thick in status, thin in content' in principlism. The problem exists because principlism cannot adequately explain how the prescriptive sense of common morality it supports is consistent with the existence of what Beauchamp and Childress call the 'legitimate moral diversity in the world'. Because of this problem, first, the practical end that principlism allegedly accomplishes (ie, providing practical moral guidelines in a relatively 'thick' content, based on common morality) is frustrated, and, second, principlism makes itself the method of common morality de jure and of moral pluralism de facto. PMID:20817819

Lee, Marvin J H

2010-09-01

397

The importance of ethic in the field of human tissue banking.  

PubMed

A tissue bank is accountable before the community in fulfilling the expectations of tissue donors, their families and recipients. The expected output from the altruistic donation is that safe and high quality human tissue grafts will be provided for the medical treatment of patients. Thus, undertakings of tissue banks have to be not only authorised and audited by national competent health care authorities, but also comply with a strong ethical code, a code of practices and ethical principles. Ethical practice in the field of tissue banking requires the setting of principles, the identification of possible deviations and the establishment of mechanisms that will detect and hinder abuses that may occur during the procurement, processing and distribution of human tissues for transplantation. The opinions and suggestions manifested by the authors in this paper may not be necessarily a reflection of those within the institutions or community they are linked to. PMID:21161412

Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Herson, Marisa Roma

2012-03-01

398

The application of Belmont Report principles to policy development.  

PubMed

Attention to ethical issues is a routine part of medical research. In this article, we propose that health policy development, like research, include a formal review of these issues. Ethical knowledge is a critical component of epistemology and inherent in development of laws and principles of justice. However, we cannot assume that new policies are subject to a formal ethics review. The Belmont Report of 1978 provides a platform for this process. Prior to the Belmont Report, there was no foundation defining this process in medical research. Based on this history, we propose that health care payment policy development include a formal assessment of risks and benefits using an approach that is familiar to all researchers. PMID:24219075

Adams, David P; Miles, Toni P

2013-12-01

399

The ethics of human stem cell research.  

PubMed

The medical and clinical promise of stem cell research is widely heralded, but moral judgments about it collide. This article takes general stock of such judgments and offers one specific resolution. It canvasses a spectrum of value judgments on sources, complicity, adult stem cells, and public and private contexts. It then examines how debates about abortion and stem cell research converge and diverge. Finally, it proposes to extend the principle of "nothing is lost" to current debates. This extension links historical discussions of the ethics of direct killing with unprecedented possibilities that in vitro fertilization procedures yield. A definite normative region to inhabit is located, within a larger range of rival value judgments. The creation of embryos for research purposes only should be resisted, yet research on "excess' embryos is permissible by virtue of an appeal to the "nothing is lost" principle. PMID:12476917

Outka, Gene

2002-06-01

400

MedEthEx Online: A Computer-based Learning Program in Medical Ethics and Communication Skills.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed MedEthEx Online, a computer-based learning program, in improving communication skills as part of a required bioethics course for medical students. Exam scores of users were comparable with non-users, although computerized-learning students scored higher in specific exam areas, felt somewhat more clinically prepared, and rated the course…

Fleetwood, Janet; Vaught, Wayne; Feldman, Debra; Gracely, Edward; Kassutto, Zach; Novack, Dennis

2000-01-01

401

Ethical Issues in Pharmacogenetics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how pharmacogenetics promises drugs specific to an individual's condition. However, it poses some ethical concerns: invasion of medical privacy, unequal distribution of benefits, discrimination because it involves genetic tests, and research/business conflict-of-interest.

Carol Isaacson Barash (Genetics, Ethics & Policy Consulting, Inc.; )

2001-02-01

402

EthicsConRep  

Cancer.gov

The authors also gratefully acknowledge the copy editing assistance of Leslie Alter, MPH and Steve Brown. The Ethical Force Program’s initiative on patient-centered communication is funded in part by the American Medical Association Foundation, The California Endowment, the Commonwealth Fund and the Connecticut Health Foundation.

403

Ethics of environmental concern  

SciTech Connect

The history of ideas and a philosophical investigation into normative ethics and some of its applications focus in this book on environmental concerns. Part one explores moral traditions, which may appear deficient because traditions have been misrepresented. Attitudes and ideas toward ecological problems have a basis in Jewish and Christian stewardship traditions. Part two re-examines moral principles in light of scientific discoveries that have generated and revealed new side effects of human actions on the complex systems of nature. If all worthwhile life is of intrinsic value, it is necessary to reassess and broaden the human obligation to ecology. The author disagrees with the movement to focus environmental ethics on the biosphere as an organic whole rather than on fellow creatures, although his principles embody constraints in the interests of future creaters. The book concludes with an assessment of principles on pollution, resources, population, and preservation. 302 references.

Attfield, R.

1983-01-01

404

Patients' ethical obligation for their health.  

PubMed Central

In contemporary medical ethics health is rarely acknowledged to be an ethical obligation. This oversight is due to the preoccupation of most bioethicists with a rationalist, contract model for ethics in which moral obligation is limited to truth-telling and promise-keeping. Such an ethics is poorly suited to medicine because it fails to appreciate that medicine's basis as a moral enterprise is oriented towards health values. A naturalistic model for medical ethics is proposed which builds upon biological and medical values. This perspective clarifies ethical obligations to ourselves and to others for life and health. It provides a normative framework for the doctor-patient relationship within which to formulate medical advice and by which to evaluate patient choice. PMID:6502640

Sider, R C; Clements, C D

1984-01-01

405

A Canadian Perspective on Using Vignettes to Teach Ethics in Psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vignettes depicting ethical dilemmas are used widely in teaching and learning professional ethics. Such an approach can facilitate learning by allowing opportunities to work through ethical dilemmas using practical, realistic, and complex material that enables participants to: engage in discussion; explore applicable ethical principles; and ideally, to achieve a deeper level of ethical understanding. Despite their widespread use, little research

Michelle C. E. McCarron; Donald W. Stewart

2011-01-01

406

Ethics Updates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Created in 1994 by Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego, the Ethics Updates site is designed primarily to be used to ethics instructors and their students. However, the site is rather interesting, so members of the general public may find themselves making a few return visits. Visitors can use the drop-down tabs on the top of the homepage to make their way through sections that cover some of the basic theories of ethics and also learn more about applied ethics in relation to such issues as animal rights, torture, and world hunger. Moving on, the "Resources" area includes case studies for discussion, a glossary of terms, classic texts in ethics, and ethics surveys. The site is rounded out by a search engine and a selection of videos that deal with various topics in ethics.

Hinman, Lawrence M.

407

Professional Ethics for Astronomers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a growing recognition that professional ethics is an important topic for all professional scientists, especially physical scientists. Situations at the National Laboratories have dramatically proven this point. Professional ethics is usually only considered important for the health sciences and the legal and medical professions. However, certain aspects of the day to day work of professional astronomers can be impacted by ethical issues. Examples include refereeing scientific papers, serving on grant panels or telescope allocation committees, submitting grant proposals, providing proper references in publications, proposals or talks and even writing recommendation letters for job candidates or serving on search committees. This session will feature several speakers on a variety of topics and provide time for questions and answers from the audience. Confirmed speakers include: Kate Kirby, Director Institute for Theoretical Atomic and Molecular Physics - Professional Ethics in the Physical Sciences: An Overview Rob Kennicutt, Astrophysical Journal Editor - Ethical Issues for Publishing Astronomers Peggy Fischer, Office of the NSF Inspector General - Professional Ethics from the NSF Inspector General's Point of View

Marvel, K. B.

2005-05-01

408

[Ethical and legal issues in late stage of dementia].  

PubMed

As we enter the 21st century, growth of the elderly population, the costs of care, and the advances of medical science and technology will continue to have an impact on the patient-physician relationship. Transformation of the health care system will also raise ethical issues inherent to changing roles. The special nature of Alzheimer's patients and the natural course of their disease require special care on the part of physicians to meet the ethical challenges and establish medical goals, in conjunction with their patients and their families. In spite of these rapid advances in biomedical sciences, were not sufficiently developed in the most fitness answers, regarding special moral and ethical attitudes, which must be taken into account, in particular when we try to understand the experience of people with dementia. This article explores emerging issues in relation to awareness in dementia and its impact on legal and ethical matters. The different approaches and principles demonstrated in relation to ethical issues are discussed, with an exploration of the concepts of mental capacity, testamentary capacity, power of attorney, court of protection, advance directives, decision making, participation in research and treatment, informed consent and older people driving. The tensions that exist between the imperatives of doing no harm and of maintaining autonomy in addressing legal and ethical issues are highlighted. The review emphasizes the importance of considering competency and awareness as being multi-faceted, to be understood in the context of social interaction, trying to deal with the challenge of protecting, but not overprotecting, people with dementia. Late stage of dementia is a terminal disease where the goal of the care may not be prolongation of life at all costs, but rather achievement: quality of life, dignity and comfort. In the initial late dementia, quality of life is the target, treating medical problems and psychiatric symptoms. The dignity of people with severe dementia will be preserved, mostly when this influences patient's behaviour, maximizing individual Independence in daily living activities. Finally, comfort is the last and the most important goal of care in late stages of dementia, using appropriate medical strategies and eliminating aggressive interventions (cardiopulmonary resuscitation, acute care setting, tube feeding and antibiotic treatment). The future work will focus on promoting more evidence-based decision-making on treatment and guidelines for prognostic information. Physician must be knowledgeable about broadly intersecting medical, legal, finance and ethics, underlying the long-term management of dementia. PMID:18489837

Fernandes, Lia

2008-01-01

409

Ethics Education and Value Prioritization among Members of U.S. Hospital Ethics Committees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calls for ethics education for members of hospital ethics commit- tees presume that the effects and benefits of such education are well-established. This is not the case. A review of the literature reveals that studies consistently have failed to uncover any significant effect of ethics education on the moral reasoning, moral competency, and\\/or moral development of medical profession- als. The

Adrian Bardon

2004-01-01

410

[Conflicts of interest in clinical practice. Ethical analysis of some relationships with the pharmaceutical industry].  

PubMed

Sometimes, the prescription practice of physicians can be influenced by factors that are not related to scientific evidence due to the appearance of several conflicts of interest. These conflicts cause social concern and have prompted actions to regulate the ethics of individual and corporative activities related to healthcare. We analyzed the ethical problems involved in the physician-industry relationship. For this purpose, we considered as the main actors related to this problem, the pharmaceutical industry and their marketing strategies, medical doctors and the independence and objectivity that should guide prescriptions and, finally, patients and their right to receive prescriptions based on scientific evidence. From the point of view of the Bioethics principles, Beneficence would not be respected when gifts or other donations received from the industry affect doctor's independence. Non Maleficence principle could be jeopardized if there is an increased risk of treatment failure and finally Justice could be altered if there is a cost increase for either patients or health institutions. As a conclusion, we consider that the presence of conflicts of interest in the relationship of physicians with the pharmaceutical industry is an important ethical problem. In consequence, this group endorses the recommendations of the Chilean Association of Medical Scientific Societies and advices to include ethical guidelines on this topic in the curriculum of medical schools. PMID:17277877

Salas, Sofía P; Osorio F, Marcial; Vial C, Pablo; Rehbein V, Ana María; Salas A, Camila; Beca I, Juan Pablo

2006-12-01

411

Operations Manual for the Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs)  

E-print Network

and Medical Research Council (NHMRC), 2007. 2. Governance Arrangements for NHS Research Ethics Committees for Medical Law and Ethics, King's College, London (Fifth edition, 1997). 6. Guidelines and RecommendationsOperations Manual for the Human Research Ethics Committees (HRECs) August 2010 #12;Version 2

Blennerhassett, Peter

412

Taking ethical photos of children for medical and research purposes in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background Photographs are commonly taken of children in medical and research contexts. With the increased availability of photographs through the internet, it is increasingly important to consider their potential for negative consequences and the nature of any consent obtained. In this research we explore the issues around photography in low-resource settings, in particular concentrating on the challenges in gaining informed consent. Methods Exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions involving medical doctors and researchers who are currently working or have recently worked in low-resource settings with children. Results Photographs are a valuable resource but photographers need to be mindful of how they are taken and used. Informed consent is needed when taking photographs but there were a number of problems in doing this, such as different concepts of consent, language and literacy barriers and the ability to understand the information. There was no consensus as to the form that the consent should take. Participants thought that while written consent was preferable, the mode of consent should depend on the situation. Conclusions Photographs are a valuable but potentially harmful resource, thus informed consent is required but its form may vary by context. We suggest applying a hierarchy of dissemination to gauge how detailed the informed consent should be. Care should be taken not to cause harm, with the rights of the child being the paramount consideration. PMID:23835013

2013-01-01

413

During the course of the Medical Genetics residency training program, each trainee must acquire an understanding of basic genetic principles and familiarity with all of the major  

E-print Network

During the course of the Medical Genetics residency training program, each trainee must acquire an understanding of basic genetic principles and familiarity with all of the major sub disciplines of the field. This will include (1) detailed knowledge regarding the basic science of genetics in general and human genetics

Stephens, Matthew

414

Application of Software Design Principles and Debugging Methods to an Analgesia Prescription Reduces Risk of Severe Injury From Medical Use of Opioids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prescription is a health-care program implemented by a physician or other qualified practitioner in the form of instructions that govern the plan of care for an individual patient. Although the algorithmic nature of prescriptions is axiomatic, this insight has not been applied systematically to medication safety. We used software design principles and debugging methods to create a “Patient-oriented Prescription

SM Belknap; H Moore; SA Lanzotti; PR Yarnold; M Getz; DL Deitrick; A Peterson; J Akeson; T Maurer; RC Soltysik; GA Storm; I Brooks

2008-01-01

415

Ethics of vaccination programs.  

PubMed

Ethical issues are present at each stage in the vaccine product life cycle, the period extending from the earliest stages of research through the eventual design and implementation of global vaccination programs. Recent developments highlight fundamental principles of vaccine ethics and raise unique issues for ongoing vaccination activities worldwide. These include the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccination campaign, renewed attention to the potential global eradication of polio, and the ongoing evaluation of vaccine risk controversies, most notably the alleged link between childhood vaccines and autism. These cases present ethical challenges for public health policy-makers, scientists, physicians, and other stakeholders in their efforts to improve the health of individuals, communities, and nations through vaccination. PMID:22440783

Schwartz, Jason L; Caplan, Arthur L

2011-10-01

416

[Respect for self-determination and use of coercion in the treatment of mentally ill persons: an ethical position statement of the DGPPN].  

PubMed

Respect for patient self-determination is a central ethical principle of medical care. Every person has the right to make decisions regarding his or her health autonomously, even if these decisions appear irrational to third parties. Free and informed consent is the necessary prerequisite for every diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. A patient's ability for self-determination is one requirement for valid consent. In illness, the ability for self-determination may be limited or absent in individual cases. An ethical dilemma arises if severely ill patients who are unable to make autonomous decisions put their health at significant risk and refuse medical procedures in this situation. While non-treatment can be severely detrimental to health, forced procedures can result in traumatization and can damage the relationship of trust between the doctor and patient. The dilemma is intensified in cases of danger to others. In these difficult situations doctors, therapists and nursing staff require ethical guidance for the professional conduct. The primary objective thereby is to avoid coercion. For this purpose recommendations for medical practice are formulated that can reduce the use of forced procedures (e.g. de-escalation procedures, communication competency, clinical ethics counseling, treatment agreements and patient living wills) or if they are unavoidable, that allow them to be conducted in an ethically and legally appropriate way. Further and continued education must pay greater attention to this ethical objective; therefore, for ethical reasons adequate personnel, spatial and structural are vital in hospitals. PMID:25388831

2014-11-01

417

[Public health, genetics and ethics].  

PubMed

Genetics research has shown enormous developments in recent decades, although as yet with only limited clinical application. Bioethical analysis has been unable to deal with the vast problems of genetics because emphasis has been put on the principlism applied to both clinical and research bioethics. Genetics nevertheless poses its most complex moral dilemmas at the public level, where a social brand of ethics ought to supersede the essentially interpersonal perspective of principlism. A more social understanding of ethics in genetics is required to unravel issues such as research and clinical explorations, ownership and patents, genetic manipulation, and allocation of resources. All these issues require reflection based on the requirements of citizenry, consideration of common assets, and definition of public policies in regulating genetic endeavors and protecting the society as a whole Bioethics has privileged the approach to individual ethical issues derived from genetic intervention, thereby neglecting the more salient aspects of genetics and social ethics. PMID:12471377

Kottow, Miguel H

2002-10-01

418

Ethics of environment and development  

SciTech Connect

How can we make ethical decisions about our environment in the face of increasingly conflicting needs and opinions This collection of essays offers a wide range of viewpoints representing many of the world's cultural and religious traditions to help readers better make such determinations for themselves. In this paper, the authors seek to clarify the ethical principles surrounding the concept of sustainable development. They provide a synoptic overview of the contemporary moral challenge of sustainable development and the similarities and differences in its interpretation throughout the world. In bringing together contributions by authorities in environmental ethics and developmental ethics, and by those who are addressing these questions from the perspectives of religion and humanistic philosophy, the book develops the concept of sustainability as the ethical approach to reconciling the needs of environmental conservation with economic development.

Engel, J.R.; Engel, J.G.

1990-01-01

419

ETHICS IN GERIATRIC MEDICINE RESEARCH.  

PubMed

This article aims to evaluate the research process in geriatrics from the ethical point of view. The elderly population is increasing rapidly, but there is no parallel in the amount of research concerning this demographic. On the other hand, in the light of research ethics, this group mainly represents vulnerable people and requires more sensitivity. Taking into account all these features, fundamental principles in research ethics are first considered: the soundness of the scientific project, qualifications of the investigators, ethics committee approval, informed consent, confidentiality and privacy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice are evaluated. Special ethical issues in geriatric research such as ageism and research inclusion, paucity of research involving elderly people, vulnerability of elderly subjects, and cognitive impairments are discussed separately. PMID:25489272

Ilgili, Onder; Arda, Berna; Munir, Kerim

2014-01-01

420

Ethics Updates  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Lawrence M. Hinman of the University of San Diego provides ethics students with a unique kind of meta-page where the user can choose from a wide array of information formats within each of the 23 topics under the main sub-headings of ethical theory and applied ethics. Topics covered include ethical relativism, utilitarianism, race and ethnicity, and euthanasia, among others. Information formats include links to web sites, bibliographies, court decisions, legislation, relevant documents, and articles in popular and professional literature. Much of the site content is adapted from Hinman's books.

421

Clinical ethics in Croatia: an overview of education, services and research (an appeal for change).  

PubMed

The aim of this paper is to delineate current position of clinical ethics in the Croatian healthcare system by analyzing the following: representation of clinical ethics contents in the curricula of medical and associated schools; composition and role of clinical ethics consultations; and establishment of an ethical/legal framework for the conduct of research. Curriculum investigation, literature review, arid analysis of the Croatian Act on the Protection of Patients' Rights were performed. The contents of clinical ethics are offered through 63 obligatory and elective subjects at 12 institutions. It is wrongly placed either too early or too late within the curriculum. Continuity at all levels of health professional education is needed. Croatian experience with clinical ethics consultations is shaped only by ethics committees. Problematic is the review of research protocols indicated as their main activity. Inclusion of team and individual consultations would increase the availability and facilitate the usage of ethics support services. The Act on the Protection of Patients' Rights is based on the principles of humanity and availability, ensuring the right to protection when participating in clinical trials. Unfortunately, the outdated paradigm of paternalistic medicine aggravates the respect for patients' rights in cure, care and research. A shift towards the patient/person-centered healthcare system would put the Act into everyday practice. Although clinical ethics has entered the Croatian healthcare system in a formal and practical way, the authors wish to emphasize the need to approach the European and other international standards regarding the recent Croatian accession to the European Union. PMID:25163232

Turina, Iva Sorta-Bilajac; Brkljaci?, Morana; Cengi?, Tomislav; Ratz, Aleksandar; Rotim, Ante; Kes, Vanja Basi?

2014-06-01

422

Egocentric Ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethical judgments are often egocentrically biased, such that moral reasoners tend to conclude that self-interested outcomes are not only desirable but morally justifiable. Although such egocentric ethics can arise from deliberate self-interested reasoning, we suggest that they may also arise through unconscious and automatic psychological mechanisms. People automatically interpret their perceptions egocentrically, automatically evaluate stimuli on a semantic differential as

Nicholas Epley; Eugene M. Caruso

2004-01-01

423

Publication aspects of ethics in photogrammetry  

USGS Publications Warehouse

According to the Code of Ethics of the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), the principles on which ethics are founded consist of honesty, justice, and courtesy, forming a moral philosophy associated with mutual interest among men. We will cover in particular the ethical problems of publication of photogrammetric material in the various media. There are many such problems, and we often face a dilemma in selecting a course which is the right thing to do.

Thompson, Morris M.

1991-01-01

424

Outcomes Research and the Quality of Health Care: The Beacon of an Ethics of Evidence.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposes an "ethics of evidence" as an approach to medical uncertainty and a vital component of biomedical ethics. Calls for use of the best possible scientific evidence for every phase of medical decision making. (SLD)

Mike, Valerie

1999-01-01

425

Ethics and gastrointestinal artificial feeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical ethics is the study of human values as they relate to the practice of medicine. Ethics intersects with gastroenterology\\u000a primarily involving issues of gastric and intestinal artificial feeding at the end of life. Language imparts meaning. Gastric\\u000a artificial feeding is not the same as eating. Recent data suggest that gastric artificial feeding does not prolong life in\\u000a patients with

Timothy O. Lipman

2004-01-01

426

Ethics CORE  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Ethics CORE Digital Library, funded by the National Science Foundation, "brings together information on best practices in research, ethics instruction and responding to ethical problems that arise in research and professional life." It's a remarkable site where visitors can make their way through ethics resources for dozens of different professions and activities. The Resources by Discipline area is a great place to start. Here you will find materials related to the biological sciences, business, computer & information science, along with 14 additional disciplines. The Current News area is a great place to learn about the latest updates from the field. Of note, these pieces can easily be used in the classroom or shared with colleagues. The dynamism of the site can be found at the Interact with Ethics CORE area. Active learning exercises can be found here, along with instructional materials and visitors' own lessons learned.

427

Ethics guidelines for destination therapy.  

PubMed

The introduction of the left ventricular assist device as a destination therapy for patients with heart failure introduces several ethical issues. These issues are discussed to help destination therapy teams design ethically sound policies and procedures. This article addresses ethical issues pertaining to informed decision making, device failure, and change out, as well as guidelines for deactivation, fair employment of medical and psychosocial criteria, the nature of destination therapy as an elective end-of-life therapy, and advance care planning strategies. PMID:16564238

Dudzinski, Denise M

2006-04-01

428

Positioning of Engineer Ethics from the Standpoint of a Company. And the Ethics Education Towards Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of a company is contribution to society by operating activities. Therefore, it has a company principle and “Business ethics” conduct codes in each. On the other hand, many engineers with specialties are performing business toward the same purpose at the same company. And it will produce new inconsistency by introducing “Engineer ethics” and “the ethics of each professional” all at once in the situation of that company. Then, the engineer ethics education in company needs to carry out by arranging company conduct codes and Engineer ethics. This paper proposes what the company ethics education should be from exemplifying results by make activities and engineer ethics education of the corporate ethics observance in the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.

Sato, Masaki

429

Fifty years of paediatric ethics.  

PubMed

In 1965, when the first issue of Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health appeared, medical ethics was just becoming established as a discipline. The sub-speciality of paediatric ethics did not make an appearance until the late 1980s, with the first key texts appearing in the 1990s. Professional concern to practice ethically in paediatrics obviously goes much further back than that, even if not named as such. In clinical areas of paediatrics, the story of the last 50 years is essentially a story of progress - better understanding of disease, better diagnosis, more effective treatment, better outcomes. In paediatric ethics, the story of the last 50 years is a bit more complicated. In ethics, the idea of progress, rather than just change, is not so straightforward and is sometimes hotly contested. There has certainly been change, including some quite radical shifts in attitudes and practices, but on some issues, the ethical debate now looks remarkably similar to that of 40-50 years ago. This is the story of some things that have changed in paediatric ethics, some things that have stayed the same and the key ethical ideas lying beneath the surface. PMID:25586839

Gillam, Lynn

2015-01-01

430

[About ethics in psychiatry and psychiatrists facing ethics].  

PubMed

The plug in account of the suffering, notably psychological, in a consultation, puts the problem of the relationship between suffering and ethics. However, the originality of the ethical step is justly not to be confined to the social norm conformism, but being specific to the individual dimension. The psychiatric pathology offers in this area of particularities interesting. The neurotic, as the obsessed, suffering inwardly pathological manifestations that he judges absurd, replies to the medical moral in asking a care. The psychotic, which projects his suffering on the other, does not feel sick, requests no therapeutic assistance. As such he contests the medical order in an immoral position by definition, and the patient represents from then on a social and medical scandal. In front of a such clinical diversity, we can easily underline that approaching the theme of ethics in psychiatry isn't a well-off exercise, and necessitates a precise locating registered in the history of the patient. PMID:10668615

Palazzolo, J; Julerot, J M; Lachaux, B

1999-01-01

431

Professional ethics and the responsible engineer  

SciTech Connect

There are five basic ethical principles: truth, honesty, trustworthiness; respect for human life; welfare; and posterity; fair play; openness; and competence. A process has to be established to avoid ethical crises. The NRC procedure for differing professional opinions is outlined. (DLC)

Vaughen, V.C.A.

1987-01-01

432

Genetic Counseling: Ethical and Professional Role Implications.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Genetic counseling assists people in identifying potential or manifest genetic problems, understanding their implications, making decisions about what course to follow, and working through psychological and social aspects as they affect individuals or couples. Four ethical principles and related ethical issues pertaining to autonomy, beneficence…

Witmer, J. Melvin; And Others

1986-01-01

433

Ethical Challenges Scenario: Youth Involvement in Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

Cooksy, Leslie J.

2007-01-01

434

Public Administration EthicsA Postmodern Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Public administration ethics today is dominated by two distinct ethical frameworks: the bureaucratic ethos, which stresses efficiency and strict obedience to elected officials, and the democratic ethos, which stresses adherence to certain higher order moral principles embedded in the notion of democratic government. Both the bureaucratic and democratic ethos are foundational in that each is based on the search for

Gary M. Woller; Kelly D. Patterson

1997-01-01

435

Ethical Issues | accrualnet.cancer.gov  

Cancer.gov

Basic moral principles and patient’s rights are always top of mind in planning and conducting clinical trials. Browse the conversations in this area to find information about ethical issues such as conflict of interest, and informed consent. Or to learn more about Ethical Issues, click here.

436

The Ethical Dilemma of Coached Malingering Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Ethical dilemmas surrounding research in which the efficacy of various coaching strategies designed to outsmart validity scales are discussed in the context of competing demands between the requirement of the ethical principles of the American Psychological Association and the need to give detailed descriptions of research procedures in scientific…

Ben-Porath, Yossef S.

1994-01-01

437

Postgraduate Medical Education Clinician Investigator Program (CIP)  

E-print Network

1 Postgraduate Medical Education Clinician Investigator Program (CIP .................................................4 1.2.1 Medical Research Expert.6 ACADEMIC SESSIONS AND ETHICS TRAINING ..................................................................10

Hitchcock, Adam P.

438

Managing wildlife ethics issues ethically  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wildlifers seldom write about ethics, yet ethical issues are among the most intractable of wildlife management issues. Society's value orientations about wildlife have been changing slowly over the last several decades. An increasingly urbanized and educated population no longer unequivocally supports wildlife management programs that tend to regard wildlife as utilitarian objects. State wildlife agencies and their employees have been

R. Bruce Gill

2000-01-01

439

Top 10 things you can do to improve your REB application: Avoiding common errors in research ethics submissions  

E-print Network

Top 10 things you can do to improve your REB application: Avoiding common errors in research ethics submissions Research Ethics, Dalhousie University 1. Complete the online Course on Research Ethics, Tri principles of research ethics and help you prepare to present the ethical implications of your proposed

Brownstone, Rob

440

University of Nebraska State Museum Code of Ethics  

E-print Network

#12;1 University of Nebraska State Museum Code of Ethics Approved by Curators 27 April 1987 Revised of Ethics, and all work-study students, volunteers, and temporary help will be given an opportunity to read of Nebraska State Museum Code of Ethics endorses, in principle, the guidelines set forth in the following

Farritor, Shane

441

Illinois Institute of Technology Standards of Ethics and Business Conduct  

E-print Network

1 Illinois Institute of Technology Standards of Ethics and Business Conduct MESSAGE FROM with the information needed to act appropriately. As you will see, these Standards of Ethical Business Conduct memorialize the ethical and legal principles that have long governed business dealings by IIT and its faculty

Heller, Barbara

442

Teaching business ethics: Questioning the assumptions, seeking new directions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An examination of leading textbooks suggests the predominance of a principle-based model in the teaching of business ethics. The model assumes that by teaching students the rudiments of ethical reasoning and ethical theory, we can hope to create rational, independent, autonomous managers who will apply such theory to the many quandary situations of the corporate world. This paper challenges these

Frida Kerner Furman

1990-01-01

443

Ethics for Professionals in Education: Perspectives for Preparation and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book examines ethical principles governing the conduct of teachers, administrators, and other education professionals. The collection of articles, some with conflicting views, provides an overview of the many issues that define the place of ethics in professional preparation and practice. Following the introduction, "Ethics in Educational…

Strike, Kenneth A., Ed.; Ternasky, P. Lance, Ed.

444

Operations Research and Ethics: Responsibility, Sharing and Cooperation  

E-print Network

Operations Research and Ethics: Responsibility, Sharing and Cooperation Giorgio Gallo Revised, are analyzed. Then, two ethical principles, which can help O.R. researchers and practitioners in their activity or software. Keywords: Societal problem analysis, Ethics, Social implications of Oper- ations Research

Gallo, Giorgio

445

Curriculum Guidelines on Ethics and Professionalism in Dentistry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Guidelines developed by the American Association of Dental Schools for curriculum development aids are presented. The dental ethics curriculum should provide opportunities for refining skills of ethical analysis so students are able to apply ethical principles to problems in the profession. (MLW)

Journal of Dental Education, 1989

1989-01-01

446

School Counselor Advocacy: When Law and Ethics May Collide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Legal rules establish basic duties akin to the floor for acceptable behavior, whereas ethical codes represent aspirational standards for best practice. For school counselors, fulfilling both legal requirements and ethical principles may pose challenges that warrant careful consideration. This article outlines a legal/ethical conflict in the case…

Stone, Carolyn B.; Zirkel, Perry A.

2010-01-01

447

Ethical Issues of Scientific Inquiry in Health Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This monograph contains 13 papers on the ethics of planning, conducting, and reporting research in health sciences education. It includes four background papers and nine perspective papers. The titles are: (1) "The Imperative for Ethical Conduct in Scientific Inquiry" (Steve M. Dorman); (2) "Fundamental Principles of Ethical Research in Health…

Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr., Ed.

1994-01-01

448

Background Reading: Ethical Perspectives and Theories  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource is a PDF that provides short background reading describing values, morals, and ethics, as well as these perspectives: Moral Rules and Duties, Outcomes, Virtues, Principles, and Care/Feminist.

2008-01-01

449

Bioethics in developing countries: ethics of scarcity and sacrifice.  

PubMed Central

Contemporary issues such as euthanasia, surrogate motherhood, organ transplantation and gene therapy, which occupy the minds of ethicists in the industrialized countries are, for the moment, irrelevant in most developing countries. There, the ethics of scarcity, sacrifice, cross-cultural research, as well as the activities of multinational companies, are germane. In this article, only the ethics of scarcity and sacrifice will be discussed. Structural adjustment programmes, designed to solve the economic problems of the developing countries, muddied the waters. The dilemma confronting practitioners in developing countries is how to adhere to the basic principles of medical ethics in an atmosphere of hunger, poverty, war and ever-shrinking and often non-existent resources. Nowhere else in the world is the true meaning of scarcity portrayed as vividly as in the developing countries. Consequently, the doctor's clinical freedom may have to be sacrificed by the introduction of an essential drugs list and practice guidelines. The principle of greater good, while appealing, must be carefully interpreted and applied in the developing countries. Thus, while health promotion and disease prevention must be the primary focus, health planners should avoid pushing prevention at the expense of those currently sick. Health care reform in developing countries must not merely re-echo what is being done in the industrialized countries, but must respond to societal needs and be relevant to the community in question. PMID:7996563

Olweny, C

1994-01-01

450

[Ethical aspects of tuberculosis control under fascism].  

PubMed

At the instance of the development of the tuberculosis control in the period from 1933 to 1945 is tried to elaborate the ethical principles which are the basis of the medical care of the German population in fascist Germany. The utilitaristic and biologistic opinions of the value dominating at this time proved as altogether characterized by the social aims of fascism and at the same time serve for their realization in the field of health politics. Also in the tuberculosis control--like in other social fields--transitory progress in organisation and prophylaxis and finally to be paid with deranging setbacks which reveal the inhumanity of fascism also in this field. PMID:6880311

Hahn, S

1983-05-01

451

MONTREAL NEUROLOGICAL INSTITUTE AND HOSPITAL Procedures and Policies of the Research Ethics Board (REB)  

E-print Network

and the resulting progress of science in many areas of medical research, research ethics has become a growing research proposals. The Medical Research Council of Canada Standing Committee on Ethics in Experimentation of the community from which they arise. One of the main purposes of a medical research ethics committee

Shoubridge, Eric

452

Throwaway ethic in America  

SciTech Connect

The throwaway ethic is the belief that it is desirable to use and discard products rapidly, rather than maintain and reuse them for a long period of time. The purpose of this dissertation is to show how and why the throwaway ethic evolved in America, and to describe its place in the structure of American society. The approach used is that of material culture: the study of a society's attitudes through its artifacts. The three artifact groups chosen are watches, paper products, and bottles, representing durable products, nondurable products, and packaging, the three broad categories of consumer products. Changing patterns in the use and disposal of these artifacts, from the eighteenth century to the present, are described in depth. We find that throwaway products and habits appear in the late nineteenth century. The throwaway ethic as a recognized and articulated principle of conduct emerges after World War II. The final conclusion is that the throwaway ethic is a result both of mass production, which alters the monetary value of products, and affluence, which alters the social values of leisure and thrift, and as such is intimately related to the economic foundations of industrial society.

Busch, J.C.

1983-01-01

453

Ethics (lesson)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students examine some examples of ethical issues that have resulted from our expanded knowledge of neuroscience. They are asked to write a position paper describing their own point of view on one of these controversial topics.

2009-04-14

454

Sustainability and the principle of respect for community as a means of enhancing healthcare equality.  

PubMed

Global short-term dental or medical volunteerism has grown significantly in recent years. Dental and medical schools, their faculty, and students, are becoming increasingly interested in the experience of providing care to individuals in low-resource communities around the world. A laudable goal of such care is to provide care to individuals in low-resource communities and to work to achieve equity in health for all people. These goals are consistent with the American Dental Association's ethical principles of justice, beneficence, and nonmaleficence. This paper will discuss ethical guidelines for conducting these volunteer experiences with an emphasis placed on sustainability--the provision of ongoing collaborative care, between the institution overseeing the experience and the local community, after the visiting group has departed. The ultimate goal, global health care equity, requires transforming these shortterm efforts into long-term sustainable solutions. This goal is based on an ethical principle entitled respect for communities. This ethic can be likened to a community-wide application of the ethic of respect for autonomy as routinely applied to individuals such as patients. A tripartite model is proposed as a means for transforming short-term efforts into long-term sustainable solutions. PMID:25080668

Schloss, Alexander J; Bavishi, Rini M; Garetto, Lawrence P; Shah, Mihir

2014-01-01

455

Primer on Ethics and Crossing Species Boundaries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

When you cross species boundaries, you combine the genetic or cellular material of two species. This peer-reviewed issue oriented article addresses whether it is ethical to experiment with part-human animals? Do the potential medical benefits outweigh the ethical concerns? Should guidelines be constructed for such research? How far should science go in pursuit of knowledge?

FranÃÂçoise Baylis and Jason Scott Robert (Dalhousie University and Arizona State University;)

2006-05-01

456

Giving Ourselves: The Ethics of Anatomical Donation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In some European countries, such as Italy, medical education is threatened by a dearth of anatomical specimens. Such a shortage could spread to other nations, including the United States. This article addresses two ethical questions in body donation. Why might people choose to donate their bodies to education and science? What sorts of ethical

Gunderman, Richard B.

2008-01-01

457

Cautionary Tales: Ethics and Case Studies in Science  

PubMed Central

Ethical concerns are normally avoided in science classrooms in spite of the fact that many of our discoveries impinge directly on personal and societal values. We should not leave the ethical problems for another day, but deal with them using realistic case studies that challenge students at their ethical core. In this article we illustrate how case studies can be used to teach STEM students principles of ethics. PMID:25574280

Herreid, Clyde Freeman

2014-01-01

458

Research ethics workshop Wellcome Trust/KEMRI Programme Kilifi, Kenya, 12 March 2004  

E-print Network

Research ethics workshop ­ Wellcome Trust/KEMRI Programme Kilifi, Kenya, 12 March 2004 Meeting of research ethics in the audience was very varied: some researchers had no previous engagement with research ethics issues; some had extensive knowledge of research ethics principles and issues, particularly

Rambaut, Andrew

459

The Ethical Implications of the Five-Stage Skill-Acquisition Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We assume that acting ethically is a skill. We then use a phenomenological description of five stages of skill acquisition to argue that an ethics based on principles corresponds to a beginner's reliance on rules and so is developmentally inferior to an ethics based on expert response that claims that, after long experience, the ethical expert…

Dreyfus, Hubert L.; Dreyfus, Stuart E.

2004-01-01

460

Ethically justified guidelines for defining sexual boundaries between obstetrician-gynecologists and their patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: This article proposes ethically justified guidelines that should govern the ethical obligations of obstetrician-gynecologists when they experience sexual feelings toward patients. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed literature on physician-patient sexual contact and related that literature to ethical principles. RESULTS: Existing guidelines that prohibit sexual contact between physicians and patients are based on an ethical argument that such relationships violate the

Laurence B. McCullough; Frank A. Chervenak; John H. Coverdale

1996-01-01

461

Information and communication on risks related to medications and proper use of medications for healthcare professionals and the general public: precautionary principle, risk management, communication during and in the absence of crisis situations.  

PubMed

Recent drug crises have highlighted the complexity, benefits and risks of medication communication. The difficulty of this communication is due to the diversity of the sources of information and the target audience, the credibility of spokespersons, the difficulty to communicate on scientific uncertainties and the precautionary principle, which is influenced by variable perceptions and tolerances of the risk. Globally, there is a lack of training in risk management with a tendency of modern society to refuse even the slightest risk. Communication on medications is subject to regulatory or legal requirements, often uses tools and messages that are not adapted to the target audience and is often based on a poor knowledge of communication techniques. In order to improve this situation, the available information must be coordinated by reinforcing the unique medication information website and by coordinating communication between authorities by means of a single spokesperson. A particular effort must be made in the field of training in the proper use and risk of medications for both the general population and patients but also for healthcare professionals, by setting up a unified academic on-line teaching platform for continuing medical education on medications and their proper use. PMID:25099666

Molimard, Mathieu; Bernaud, Corine; Lechat, Philippe; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Benattia, Cherif; Benkritly, Amel; Braunstein, David; Cabut, Sandrine; David, Nadine; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Gallet, Benoit; Gersberg, Marta; Goni, Sylvia; Jolliet, Pascale; Lamarque-Garnier, Véronique; Le Jeunne, Claire; Leurs, Irina; Liard, François; Malbezin, Muriel; Micallef, Joelle; Nguon, Marina

2014-01-01

462

University of Pittsburgh Consortium Ethics Program Weekend Conference  

E-print Network

. Participants will compare and contrast the relationship between law and ethics with respect to medical decisionUniversity of Pittsburgh Consortium Ethics Program Weekend Conference: HEALTH CARE LAW & CLINICAL ETHICS: PRACTICAL APPROACHES September 12-14, 2014 Oglebay Resort & Conference Center 465 Lodge Drive

Jiang, Huiqiang

463

Public health nursing, ethics and human rights.  

PubMed

Public health nursing has a code of ethics that guides practice. This includes the American Nurses Association Code of Ethics for Nurses, Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health, and the Scope and Standards of Public Health Nursing. Human rights and Rights-based care in public health nursing practice are relatively new. They reflect human rights principles as outlined in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and applied to public health practice. As our health care system is restructured and there are new advances in technology and genetics, a focus on providing care that is ethical and respects human rights is needed. Public health nurses can be in the forefront of providing care that reflects an ethical base and a rights-based approach to practice with populations. PMID:23586767

Ivanov, Luba L; Oden, Tami L

2013-05-01

464

Ethics of primate use  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article provides an overview of the ethical issues raised by the use of non-human primates (NHPs) in research involving scientific procedures which may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It is not an exhaustive review of the literature and views on this subject, and it does not present any conclusions about the moral acceptability or otherwise of NHP research. Rather the aim has been to identify the ethical issues involved and to provide guidance on how these might be addressed, in particular by carefully examining the scientific rationale for NHP use, implementing fully the 3Rs principle of Russell and Burch (1959) and applying a robust "harm-benefit assessment" to research proposals involving NHPs.

Prescott, M. J.

2010-11-01

465

Country Ethics Authority contact person address phone number email address Notes Afghanistan Ministry of Health http://moph.gov.af/en  

E-print Network

.com/departments/doh.asg.htm Azerbaijan Ethics Committee of Azerbaijan Medical Association Nariman Namaz Safarli Head of Ethics Committee/user/index.php?action=view&db=G EO1&id=888& Bangladesh National Research Ethics Committee (NREC) c/o Bangladesh Medical Research.gv.at Bangladesh Medical Research Council, Ethics Review Committee website; http://www.bmrcbd.org Bhutan Research

New South Wales, University of

466

Statistics and Ethics in Surgery and Anesthesia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes 46 medical research papers on the effects of innovative versus standard surgical procedures on the health of patients. Results reveal that innovations generally reduce complications. The ethics of experimental surgery are also discussed. (CP)

Gilbert, John P.; And Others

1977-01-01

467

Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies in Mathematics and Statistics  

E-print Network

Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies Ethics in Mathematics Questions ? Case Studies Outline Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies #12;Ethics AMS Ethics Guide SSC Ethical Code Questions ? Case Studies References · Laura Shanner, Prof

Hillen, Thomas

468

Ethical Considerations in the Early Composite Tissue Allograft Experience: A Review of the Louisville Ethics Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the formulation and evolution of the ethical component in one of the earliest clinical composite tissue allograft (CTA) programs, the hand transplantation program in Louisville, Kentucky, USA. The purpose was to derive lessons and define principles to give guidance for future programs and introduction of new CTA. We reviewed the initial ethical considerations, including input from respected

G. R. Tobin; W. C. Breidenbach; M. M. Klapheke; F. R. Bentley; D. J. Pidwell; P. D. Simmons

2005-01-01

469

Treating an HIV/AIDS Patient's PTSD and Medication Nonadherence with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: A Principle-Based Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

HIV/AIDS patients with medication adherence problems are vulnerable to developing drug resistance, immune system degradation, and opportunistic infections. Poor adherence to antiretroviral medication regimens can be aggravated by psychiatric problems, including depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. This article presents the case study of a…

Chernoff, Robert A.

2007-01-01

470

Ethical ideology and ethical judgment regarding ethical issues in business  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in ethical ideology are thought to influence individuals' reasoning about moral issues (Forsyth and Nye, 1990; Forsyth, 1992). To date, relatively little research has addressed this proposition in terms of business-related ethical issues. In the present study, four groups, representing four distinct ethical ideologies, were created based on the two dimensions of the Ethical Position Questionnaire (idealism and relativism),

Tim Barnett; Ken Bass; Gene Brown

1994-01-01

471

The Role of National Ethics Commissions in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThere are six national ethics commissions in Finland. The National Advisory Board on Research Ethics was first established in 1991, followed by the National Advisory Board on Biotechnology and the Board on Gene Technology in 1995. The National Advisory Board on Health Care Ethics was established in 1998, followed by its Sub-Committee on Medical Research Ethics in 1999. The Co-operation

Ritva Halila

2003-01-01

472

Robot companions and ethics a pragmatic approach of ethical design.  

PubMed

From his experience as ethical expert for two Robot Companion prototype projects aiming at empowering older MCI persons to remain at home and to support their family carers, Gerard Cornet, Gerontologist, review the ethical rules, principles and pragmatic approaches in different cultures. The ethical process of these two funded projects, one European, Companionable (FP7 e-inclusion call1), the other French, Quo vadis (ANR tecsan) are described from the inclusion of the targeted end users in the process, to the assessment and ranking of their main needs and whishes to design the specifications, test the performance expected. Obstacles to turn round and limits for risks evaluation (directs or implicit), acceptability, utility, respect of intimacy and dignity, and balance with freedom and security and frontiers to artificial intelligence are discussed As quoted in the discussion with the French and Japanese experts attending the Toulouse Robotics and medicine symposium (March 26th 2011), the need of a new ethical approach, going further the present ethical rules is needed for the design and social status of ethical robots, having capacity cas factor of progress and global quality of innovation design in an ageing society. PMID:24558735

Cornet, Gérard

2013-12-01

473

Undergraduate Research Ethics Cases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do you help undergraduate students learn about research ethics? Well you might try the three case studies developed by the University of Delaware's Undergraduate Science Education Program and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute designed to help students learn about this important subject. On this site, visitors will find the following studies: "Tripped Up," "Helping Hand," and "Organic Reactions." Each study describes a potentially tricky or nuanced ethical conundrum that an undergraduate student might encounter. For example, "Tripped Up" involves a student whose scientific results are "too hot for public consumption" and is told by his supervisor that he cannot present the findings at a national meeting. Each case study is complemented by a set of discussion questions and additional resources.

2012-01-13

474

RUTGERS ROBERT WOOD JOHNSON MEDICAL SCHOOL NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY  

E-print Network

Ethics Committee Medical Education Committee Blood Utilization Committee Medical Records Committee CancerRUTGERS ROBERT WOOD JOHNSON MEDICAL SCHOOL NEW BRUNSWICK, NEW JERSEY GRADUATE MEDICAL EDUCATION MANUAL POLICY#: V. 2 SECTION: RESPONSIBILITIES & SUPERVISION SUBJECT: HOUSESTAFF INVOLVEMENT IN MEDICAL

Garfunkel, Eric

475

Ethics in dermatology: toward a new paradigm.  

PubMed

Medical ethics have evolved over time, and ethical responsibilities have often been shared by priests, the governing classes, and physicians. The emergence of scientific medicine led to the separation of functions, yet physicians have nonetheless continued to enjoy an extraordinary degree of moral authority and great social privilege. From this starting point, professional medical ethics developed as a specific moral system based on special rights and duties (paternalism and medical confidentiality). Various historical events brought this longstanding situation to a point of crisis toward the middle of the 20th century, and for several decades since, medical ethics have been based on freedom of choice for the patient with regard to decisions about his or her own body and health. Recent developments have created a new, still poorly defined model that takes into consideration such matters as euthanasia, abortion, provision of information on the benefits and harm of treatments, the sharing of therapeutic decision-making with the patient and/or family members, the choice of public or private medical providers, therapeutic guidelines, and the extension of the scope of practice to include preventive measures and cosmetic procedures. What is needed now is a new ethical system for plural societies that harbor different religions, beliefs and lifestyles, but that is also rational, universal and subject to ongoing revision-a system always striving for scientific, technical and moral excellence. Such an ethical system would have to be taught in medical schools, as it would need to bear fruit beyond mere good intentions. PMID:22944290

López-Martín, S; Galera-Martin, C; Guerra-Tapia, A

2013-01-01

476

Between same-sex marriages and the Large Hadron Collider: making sense of the precautionary principle.  

PubMed

The Precautionary Principle is a guide to coping with scientific uncertainties in the assessment and management of risks. In recent years, it has moved to the forefront of debates in policy and applied ethics, becoming a key normative tool in policy discussions in such diverse areas as medical and scientific research, health and safety regulation, environmental regulation, product development, international trade, and even judicial review. The principle has attracted critics who claim that it is fundamentally incoherent, too vague to guide policy, and makes demands that are logically and scientifically impossible. In this paper we will answer these criticisms by formulating guidelines for its application that ensure its coherence as a useful normative guide in applied and policy ethics debates. We will also provide analyses of cases that demonstrate how our version of the principle functions in practice. PMID:19757190

Petrenko, Anton; McArthur, Dan

2010-09-01

477

The Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the background and activities of the Poynter Center for the Study of Ethics and American Institutions at Indiana University. Maintains that the center's programs focus on topics such as ethics and the professions, medical ethics, research ethics, and religion and the morality of professions. Provides a list of center publications. (CFR)

Granbois, Judith A.

1994-01-01

478

The UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO University Council on Research Ethics Involving Human Participants  

E-print Network

Research Institute Chair, Health Sciences Research Ethics Board Chair, Non-medical Research Ethics BoardThe UNIVERSITY of WESTERN ONTARIO SENATE University Council on Research Ethics Involving Human to the ethics review of research involving human participants conducted by faculty, staff, students and post

Lennard, William N.

479

Paediatrics at the cutting edge: do we need clinical ethics committees?  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the need for hospital clinical ethics committees by studying the frequency with which ethical dilemmas arose, the perceived adequacy of the process of their resolution, and the teaching and training of staff in medical ethics. DESIGN: Interviews with individuals and three multidisciplinary teams; questionnaire to randomly selected individuals. SETTING: Two major London children's hospitals. RESULTS: Ethical dilemmas

V F Larcher; B Lask; J M McCarthy

1997-01-01

480

Environmental Ethics  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dr. Ron Epstein of San Francisco State University has compiled this comprehensive online source of information on environmental ethics. The site is simply presented, consisting of a straightforward menu of topics that link mostly to related external Web pages. Topics covered include environmental effects of war, genetic engineering, cloning, indigenous peoples, and much more. While some of the provided links appear to be duds, anyone interested in exploring the field of environmental ethics should find this convenient and well-organized collection of lin