Sample records for medical ethics principles

  1. WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    1 WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical Research of Helsinki as a statement of ethical principles for medical research involving human subjects, including first consideration," and the International Code of Medical Ethics declares that, "A physician shall act

  2. Shannon and Jake An Application of Medical Ethics Principles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Doug Knutson

    2006-01-01

    This case was developed to teach first-year medical students the basics of medical ethics. It describes a situation in which a family physician is treating a teenage patient for a sexually transmitted disease. Based on information she gives him, he is concerned not only for her health and welfare, but also for the health and welfare of others. Students read the case and discuss the choices the doctor might make using the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Students then develop a rationale for the physician acting according to one of the ethical principles identified, and prepare a debate for the class supporting the rationale.

  3. Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D F Tsai

    1999-01-01

    The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with

  4. [Ethics and medical research: principles, guidelines, and regulations].

    PubMed

    de Castilho, Euclides Ayres; Kalil, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The issue of ethics in medical research grew in importance at the end of World War II, after the Nuremberg Code. In this period, some cases in the United States had demonstrated the need for the establishment of rules and procedures in medical research. In this article, the authors discuss some ethical concepts and their philosophical basis, stressing aspects related to research. Ethics in medical research is based upon three items: peer approaches, subject informed consent, and confidentiality of individual obtained data. The authors also summarize the Brazilian laws and directives to follow the precepts and to control the process of ethical issues in research with human participants. Finally, they approach practical questions of the Informed Consent Form as a consequence of their experiences analyzing more than one thousand research projects per year as members of the Internal Review Board of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil. PMID:16082484

  5. Ancient Chinese medical ethics and the four principles of biomedical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, D F

    1999-01-01

    The four principles approach to biomedical ethics (4PBE) has, since the 1970s, been increasingly developed as a universal bioethics method. Despite its wide acceptance and popularity, the 4PBE has received many challenges to its cross-cultural plausibility. This paper first specifies the principles and characteristics of ancient Chinese medical ethics (ACME), then makes a comparison between ACME and the 4PBE with a view to testing out the 4PBE's cross-cultural plausibility when applied to one particular but very extensive and prominent cultural context. The result shows that the concepts of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice are clearly identifiable in ACME. Yet, being influenced by certain socio-cultural factors, those applying the 4PBE in Chinese society may tend to adopt a "beneficence-oriented", rather than an "autonomy-oriented" approach, which, in general, is dissimilar to the practice of contemporary Western bioethics, where "autonomy often triumphs". PMID:10461594

  6. [Analysis of the ethical principles in medical oaths used by medical schools of Argentina in relation to the Hippocratic Oath].

    PubMed

    Rancich, A M; Gelpi, R J

    1998-01-01

    Medical oaths have consulted the source of all Medical Ethics through centuries. Since the 60s a new consensus on ethics was sought to apply to the new medical problems. The consensus was on the basic principles: beneficence, non-maleficence, justice and respect for the patient's autonomy with its two rules of confidentiality and veracity. The Hippocratic Oath specifies the principles of beneficence and non-maleficence and the rule of confidentiality. They are included in the texts used in different Medical Schools of the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. The purpose of this analysis is to determine which of those ethical principles are included in the Argentinian Medical Oaths. At present, out of the ten Faculties of Medicine that use a formula, six choose the Declaration of Geneva and the rest use their own texts. No schools use the Hippocratic Oath. Neither of the five different Oaths include the four principles. The rule of confidentiality is the one most frequently mentioned followed by the principles of beneficence and justice. The principles of non-maleficence and of respect for the patient's autonomy, in general, and the rule of veracity, in particular, are not indicated. Revision of the Medical Oaths used in Argentina, is basically for the ethical revision suggested, in order to include all the ethical principles strongly agreed upon. PMID:9706247

  7. Elective non-therapeutic intensive care and the four principles of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Audibert, Gérard; Guibet Lafaye, Caroline; Lafaye, Caroline Guibet; Puybasset, Louis; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Claudot, Frédérique

    2013-03-01

    The chronic worldwide lack of organs for transplantation and the continuing improvement of strategies for in situ organ preservation have led to renewed interest in elective non-therapeutic ventilation of potential organ donors. Two types of situation may be eligible for elective intensive care: patients definitely evolving towards brain death and patients suitable as controlled non-heart beating organ donors after life-supporting therapies have been assessed as futile and withdrawn. Assessment of the ethical acceptability and the risks of these strategies is essential. We here offer such an ethical assessment using the four principles of medical ethics of Beauchamp and Childress applying them in their broadest sense so as to include patients and their families, their caregivers, other potential recipients of intensive care, and indeed society as a whole. The main ethical problems emerging are the definition of beneficence for the potential organ donor, the dilemma between the duty to respect a dying patient's autonomy and the duty not to harm him/her, and the possible psychological and social harm for families, caregivers other potential recipients of therapeutic intensive care, and society more generally. Caution is expressed about the ethical acceptability of elective non-therapeutic ventilation, along with some proposals for precautionary measures to be taken if it is to be implemented. PMID:23355225

  8. The Secret Kappa Lambda Society of Hippocrates (and the Origin of the American Medical Association's Principles of Medical Ethics).

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Charles T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper relates the neglected history of an idealistic, secret medical fraternity which existed briefly in Lexington, Kentucky, during the first half of the 19th century. It was created for students in the Medical Department at Transylvania University, the fifth US medical school, founded in 1799. One goal of the fraternity was to counter the widespread dissension and often violent quarrels among doctors that characterized American medicine of that period. And to that end, it was among the first to promote Thomas Percival's code of medical ethics in this country. Branches of the fraternity were established in Philadelphia and New York City, where members became influential in local medical politics but in time encountered hostility from rival physicians. The secret character of the fraternity branches was publicized and maligned during an anti-Masonic movement in this country in the 1830s, which soon led to the demise of the Philadelphia group. The New York branch remained active through the 1860s. Members of both branches were among those who in 1847 established the American Medical Association and devised its Principles of Medical Ethics. PMID:16197729

  9. [Medical ethics as professional ethics].

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ivo

    2012-09-25

    Contemporary medical ethics is far from the traditional concept of "In-Sul (benevolent art)" or "Yul-Li (?, ethics), which emphasizes so much the personality or the character of a doctor. Nowadays, medical ethics should be considered as "professional ethics" which regulates the acts and medical practices of ordinary doctors in their daily practice. The key concepts of the professional ethics are "autonomy", "integrity", and "professional standard" established by medical organizations such as medical societies or associations. Most of Korean doctors have not been familiar with the concept of professional ethics or professionalism, which is due to the modern history of Korea. However, the concept of professional ethics is really critical to Korean doctors from the perspective of professional dignity and social respect to this profession. The current healthcare system of Korea is suffering from many problems of both private and public sector. Nonetheless, the professional ethics is urgently demanded for that very reason. PMID:23018533

  10. Medical Ethics

    MedlinePLUS

    ... area in medicine that doesn't have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to End of life care: Should ... orders? Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect? ...

  11. Medical Ethics, Boundaries and

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Discussions Jessica Berg, JD, MPH 2:00-3:00 pm Perspective of the State Medical Board William schmidt, JD 3Medical Ethics, Boundaries and Professionalism I N T E N S I V E C O U R S E I N February 2-3, 2012 Medical education Program sponsored by: #12;IntenSIve CourSe In Medical Ethics, Boundaries

  12. Teaching Ethics in Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewan, Christine

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the literature regarding the teaching of ethics in medical schools. Defines medical ethics and attempts to determine the scope of medical ethics teaching. Discusses ways medical ethics could be taught and how that teaching can be assessed. Calls for increased attention into the teaching of medical ethics. (TW)

  13. Ethical Principles: Guiding the Use of Animals in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents arguments on the use of animals in biological and medical research. Discusses ethical considerations, principles, and animal rights in scientific research. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

  14. Dharma and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Seetharam, Sridevi

    2013-01-01

    Despite the numerous policies, regulations and laws aimed at promoting and ensuring ethical practice in healthcare, ethical misconduct remains rampant. Perhaps something more is needed to encourage a genuine and sustained moral attitude and behaviour. To a casual reader, the regulations on ethics read merely as a list of do's and don'ts and their philosophical foundation is not clear. In actuality, morality is often grounded in philosophy. Traditionally, religious and theistic philosophies drove moral behaviour. However, this is changing due to the current trend of secularism. Hindu philosophies are among the oldest philosophies that are still thriving, and this article explores these philosophies and compares and contrasts them with some of the contemporary ethical theories to assess if they can add value to the field of medical ethics. The main theme of the article is dharma or righteous conduct, the concepts related to it and how these can have a bearing on the development of an ethical attitude and the practice of medical ethics. PMID:24152344

  15. The dangers of medical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Cowley

    2005-01-01

    The dominant conception of medical ethics being taught in British and American medical schools is at best pointless and at worst dangerous, or so it will be argued. Although it is laudable that medical schools have now given medical ethics a secure place in the curriculum, they go wrong in treating it like a scientific body of knowledge. Ethics is

  16. Knowledge of medical ethics among Nigerian medical doctors

    PubMed Central

    Fadare, Joseph O.; Desalu, Olufemi O.; Jemilohun, Abiodun C.; Babatunde, Oluwole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of medical ethics is essential for health care practitioners worldwide. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of medical doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria in the area of medical ethics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving 250 medical doctors of different levels was carried out. The questionnaire, apart from the bio-data, also sought information on undergraduate and postgraduate training in medical ethics, knowledge about the principles of biomedical ethics and the ethical dilemmas encountered in daily medical practice. Results: One hundred and ninety (190) respondents returned the filled questionnaire representing a response rate of 76%. One hundred and fifty-two respondents (80%) have had some sort of medical ethics education during their undergraduate level in the medical education. The median duration of formal training or exposure to medical ethics education was 3.00 hours (range: 0-15). One hundred and twenty-nine respondents have read at least once the code of medical ethics of the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria while 127 (66.8%) have some general knowledge of the principles of biomedical ethics. The breakdown of the identified ethical dilemmas shows that discharge against medical advice was the most identified by the respondents (69.3%) followed by religious/cultural issues (56.6%) while confidentiality was recognized by 53.4%. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical ethics by Nigerian medical doctors is grossly inadequate. There is an urgent need for enhancement of the teaching of the discipline at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Nigeria. PMID:23661883

  17. A comparative analysis of moral principles and behavioral norms in eight ethical codes relevant to health sciences librarianship, medical informatics, and the health professions

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Winkelstein, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Based on the authors' shared interest in the interprofessional challenges surrounding health information management, this study explores the degree to which librarians, informatics professionals, and core health professionals in medicine, nursing, and public health share common ethical behavior norms grounded in moral principles. Methods: Using the “Principlism” framework from a widely cited textbook of biomedical ethics, the authors analyze the statements in the ethical codes for associations of librarians (Medical Library Association [MLA], American Library Association, and Special Libraries Association), informatics professionals (American Medical Informatics Association [AMIA] and American Health Information Management Association), and core health professionals (American Medical Association, American Nurses Association, and American Public Health Association). This analysis focuses on whether and how the statements in these eight codes specify core moral norms (Autonomy, Beneficence, Non-Maleficence, and Justice), core behavioral norms (Veracity, Privacy, Confidentiality, and Fidelity), and other norms that are empirically derived from the code statements. Results: These eight ethical codes share a large number of common behavioral norms based most frequently on the principle of Beneficence, then on Autonomy and Justice, but rarely on Non-Maleficence. The MLA and AMIA codes share the largest number of common behavioral norms, and these two associations also share many norms with the other six associations. Implications: The shared core of behavioral norms among these professions, all grounded in core moral principles, point to many opportunities for building effective interprofessional communication and collaboration regarding the development, management, and use of health information resources and technologies. PMID:25349543

  18. The Person and His Body Medical Ethics and Egyptian Law

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The Person and His Body Medical Ethics and Egyptian Law Baudouin Dupret CNRS-CEDEJ, Cairo. This stands out clearly in the case of the field of medical ethics where all the stakes involved of "therapeutic purpose". I then extend the discussion to include the main principles of medical ethics and, more

  19. Ethics in medical research and publication.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet; Hodzic, Ajla; Mulic, Smaila

    2014-09-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity. PMID:25317288

  20. Ethics in Medical Research and Publication

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hodzic, Ajla; Mulic, Smaila

    2014-01-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity. PMID:25317288

  1. Religion and medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Green, Ronald M

    2013-01-01

    Religious traditions of medical ethics tend to differ from more secular approaches by stressing limitations on autonomous decision-making, by more positively valuing the experience of suffering, and by drawing on beliefs and values that go beyond empiric verification. I trace the impact of these differences for some of the world's great religious traditions with respect to four issues: (1) religious conscientious objection to medical treatments; (2) end-of life decision-making, including euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and the withholding or withdrawing of life-sustaining treatments; (3) definitions of moral personhood (defining life's beginning and end); and (4) human sexuality. PMID:24182368

  2. Teaching Medical Ethics to Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewy, Erich H.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution and goals of teaching medical ethics, the nature of medical ethics, and integrating such teaching into the curriculum are examined. Because moral considerations are as much a part of medical decisions as technical considerations, teaching is best done in the context of real cases. (Author/MLW)

  3. Teaching Medical Ethics during Residency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Henry S.

    1989-01-01

    Three reasons for teaching medical ethics during residency are presented. Key ethical concepts to be addressed include moral aspects of medical practice, obtaining informed consent, dealing with incompetent patients and those who refuse treatment, knowing when to withhold or disclose clinical information, and using medical resources properly. (MSE)

  4. Mortal exposure: on the goodness of writing medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Rees, Geoffrey

    2008-01-01

    Abstract:Narrative ethics has recently been advanced as an alternative to more "principled" and "theoretical" approaches to medical ethics. This turn prompts reflection on the distinctive activity of writing medical ethics. When writing medical ethics is recognized as a distinct activity, the forms of care it accomplishes can be distinguished from medical care. This distinction enables analysis of how caring for one's own needs as a writer of medical ethics is in productive tension with the ends of caring in medicine. One important good of writing medical ethics is that the act of writing forces one to reflect on the common mortal reality that is a condition of medical experience. Because it provides occasions for reflection on one's own mortality, medical ethics may no longer need immediate medical application in order to claim its contribution to caring. PMID:18453722

  5. Teaching and Learning Medical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Tiberius, Richard G.

    1981-01-01

    Three main questions are central to teaching and learning medical ethics. Can ethics be taught? If it can, what are some of its teachable components? And what teaching methods are appropriate? The author supports the concept of ethical competence as the basis of an ethical practice. Ethical competence is a set of insights, skills, understandings, ways of thinking which can be taught. The parallel is drawn between these kinds of competencies and the components of rigorous thinking characteristic of the training and experience of medical problem-solvers. Finally the author takes up four common criticisms of this approach. PMID:11650448

  6. Modeling Medical Ethics through Intelligent Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, José; Miranda, Miguel; Abelha, António; Neves, José; Neves, João

    The amount of research using health information has increased dramatically over the last past years. Indeed, a significative number of healthcare institutions have extensive Electronic Health Records (EHR), collected over several years for clinical and teaching purposes, but are uncertain as to the proper circumstances in which to use them to improve the delivery of care to the ones in need. Research Ethics Boards in Portugal and elsewhere in the world are grappling with these issues, but lack clear guidance regarding their role in the creation of and access to EHRs. However, we feel we have an effective way to handle Medical Ethics if we look to the problem under a structured and more rational way. Indeed, we felt that physicians were not aware of the relevance of the subject in their pre-clinical years, but their interest increase when they were exposed to patients. On the other hand, once EHRs are stored in machines, we also felt that we had to find a way to ensure that the behavior of machines toward human users, and perhaps other machines as well, is ethically acceptable. Therefore, in this article we discuss the importance of machine ethics and the need for machines that represent ethical principles explicitly. It is also shown how a machine may abstract an ethical principle from a logical representation of ethical judgments and use that principle to guide its own behavior.

  7. [Human dignity and medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Munzarová, Marta

    2011-01-01

    The concept of human dignity and the respect to it have issued from various sources--philosophical, religious and cultural. The text deals with the thinking of some philosophers (intrinsic dignity versus attributed dignity), with religious thoughts (explaining the dignity of man as being created in God's image) and discusses the important declarations, especially the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This declaration (UN, 1948) recognizes, in consent with both--the best philosophical tradition and biblical faith, the inherent dignity and worth of every human being (person); it is the first principle and the inescapable grounding for all human rights. The term human dignity is hotly debated in the present bioethics arena; nevertheless it is the source of considerable and dangerous confusion as well. Some bioethicists deny implicitly or even explicitly the dignity of every human being (they conflate intrinsic and attributed dignity), and others proclaim that dignity is a useless concept. But the respect to human dignity is the cornerstone of all medical ethics--this discipline will be changed into ethical parody without it. It is therefore necessary to see the problems in the broader context and to stand firmly on the right side of the dispute: on the side of each and every patient. PMID:22132618

  8. Ethics needs principles—four can encompass the rest—and respect for autonomy should be “first among equals”

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R Gillon

    2003-01-01

    It is hypothesised and argued that “the four principles of medical ethics” can explain and justify, alone or in combination, all the substantive and universalisable claims of medical ethics and probably of ethics more generally. A request is renewed for falsification of this hypothesis showing reason to reject any one of the principles or to require any additional principle(s) that

  9. Evaluating ethics competence in medical education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Savulescu; R. Crisp; K. W. M. Fulford; T. Hope

    1999-01-01

    We critically evaluate the ways in which competence in medical ethics has been evaluated. We report the initial stage in the development of a relevant, reliable and valid instrument to evaluate core critical thinking skills in medical ethics. This instrument can be used to evaluate the impact of medical ethics education programmes and to assess whether medical students have achieved

  10. 2015 Summer Ethics Fellowships for Medical Students

    E-print Network

    Jenny, Andreas

    2015 Summer Ethics Fellowships for Medical Students The Fellowships at Auschwitz for the Study of Professional Ethics (FASPE) seeks appli- cations for its 2015 medical fellowships. FASPE Medical, a component of study on medical ethics. FASPE is predicated upon the power of place, and in particular the first

  11. How Many Principles for Public Health Ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    General moral (ethical) principles play a prominent role in certain methods of moral reasoning and ethical decision-making in bioethics and public health. Examples include the principles of respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. Some accounts of ethics in public health have pointed to additional principles related to social and environmental concerns, such as the precautionary principle and principles of solidarity or social cohesion. This article provides an overview of principle-based methods of moral reasoning as they apply to public health ethics including a summary of advantages and disadvantages of methods of moral reasoning that rely upon general principles of moral reasoning. Drawing upon the literature on public health ethics, examples are provided of additional principles, obligations, and rules that may be useful for analyzing complex ethical issues in public health. A framework is outlined that takes into consideration the interplay of ethical principles and rules at individual, community, national, and global levels. Concepts such as the precautionary principle and solidarity are shown to be useful to public health ethics to the extent that they can be shown to provide worthwhile guidance and information above and beyond principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, and the clusters of rules and maxims that are linked to these moral principles. Future directions likely to be productive include further work on areas of public health ethics such as public trust, community empowerment, the rights of individuals who are targeted (or not targeted) by public health interventions, individual and community resilience and wellbeing, and further clarification of principles, obligations, and rules in public health disciplines such as environmental science, prevention and control of chronic and infectious diseases, genomics, and global health. PMID:20072707

  12. Ethics of the electrified mind: Defining issues and perspectives on the principled use of brain stimulation in medical research and clinical care

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Laura Y.; Evans, Emily L.; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, non-pharmacologic approaches to modifying human neural activity have gained increasing attention. One of these approaches is brain stimulation, which involves either the direct application of electrical current to structures in the nervous system or the indirect application of current by means of electromagnetic induction. Interventions that manipulate the brain have generally been regarded as having both the potential to alleviate devastating brain-related conditions and the capacity to create unforeseen and unwanted consequences. Hence, although brain stimulation techniques offer considerable benefits to society, they also raise a number of ethical concerns. In this paper we will address various dilemmas related to brain stimulation in the context of clinical practice and biomedical research. We will survey current work involving deep brain stimulation (DBS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). We will reflect upon relevant similarities and differences between them, and consider some potentially problematic issues that may arise within the framework of established principles of medical ethics: nonmaleficence and beneficence, autonomy, and justice. PMID:23733209

  13. The teaching of medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Sporken, P

    1975-01-01

    The following description of the situation in Maastricht in the Netherlands is unique as this is a new faculty of medicine and the opportunity has been taken to build the teaching of medical ethics into the curriculum from the start. PMID:1225974

  14. A Medical Ethics Assessment of the Case of Terri Schiavo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, Tom; Kelly, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The social, legal, and political discussion about the decision to stop feeding and hydration for Terri Schiavo lacked a medical ethics assessment. The authors used the principles of medical indications, quality of life, patient preference, and contextual features as a guide to medical decision-making in this case. Their conclusions include the…

  15. Biomedical Ethics & Medical Humanities

    E-print Network

    Ford, James

    sciences (including anthropology and sociology). Here are examples of topics within BEMH: the impact of medical and technologic advances (such as genomics, stem cell research, etc); neuroethics; history, scholarly work and research; bioethics and medical humanities meetings; and elective courses. The minimum

  16. An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on Internet Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Page on

    E-print Network

    Redmiles, David F.

    Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues An Informative Interactive Question and Answer Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues Poynter Center Ethics, C...merce Ethics, Web Ethics, Medical Ethics and Other General Ethical Issues http

  17. Medical Ethics Education: Past, Present, and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ellen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the 25-year history of undergraduate medical ethics education. Alternatives to the traditional model that focus more directly on students' personal values, attitudes, and behavior, are discussed. Three incipient trends are identified: everyday ethics, student ethics, and macro-ethics. Specific course and curricula are used as…

  18. Medical Ethics Training: A Clinical Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomasma, David C.

    1979-01-01

    The ethics training program at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences involves a four-way dialogue among clinical faculty and house staff, ethics faculty and fellows, the medical students, and philosophy ethics students. The program's clinical basis allows participants to become sophisticated about ethical issues in practice.…

  19. The Ethics of Prescribing Medications to Older People

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Le Couteur; Hal Kendig; Vasi Naganathan; Andrew J. McLachlan

    \\u000a The four principles of medical ethics – beneficence, nonmaleficence, autonomy, and justice – provide a pragmatic foundation\\u000a and steadying influence to guide prescribing in older people where the evidence base for efficacy is uncertain and concerns\\u000a regarding adverse drug reactions are protean. In most cases, the ethical principles are undermined not by intent, but more\\u000a likely by lack of knowledge,

  20. Analysis of medical confidentiality from the islamic ethics perspective.

    PubMed

    Tavaokkoli, Saeid Nazari; Nejadsarvari, Nasrin; Ebrahimi, Ali

    2015-04-01

    Confidentiality is one of the old rules of the medical profession. While emphasizing the necessity of confidentiality in religious teachings, disclosure of other's secrets to commit sin deserves punishment hereafter known. Today, progress in medical science and invention of new diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, as well as the extent of information and disclosure of the secrets of the patients, have provided more than ever. After explaining the concepts and principles of confidentiality in medical ethics, the Islamic-oriented Virtue Ethics, in a comparative review, share the differences in these two sets of ethical review and explain the issue of confidentiality. In professional medical ethics, only the behaviors of health staff are evaluated and moral evaluation of the features cannot be evaluated, but in Islamic ethics, the moral evaluation of the features that are sensual, confidentiality is more stable, without any external supervision will maintain its efficiency. PMID:24272333

  1. The relationship between medical law and good medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Emily

    2015-01-01

    In the UK, medical ethics and law are often thought of and taught together, but while 'good medical ethics' is often reflected in law-the need to obtain a patient's adequately informed consent, for example-this is not necessarily the case. Sometimes medical ethics is more demanding than law; at other times, perhaps counterintuitively, the law appears to ask more of doctors than does good medical ethics. PMID:25516946

  2. A Survey of Medical Ethics Education in Iran Medical Faculties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatemeh Shidfar; Saeedeh Sadeghi; Ahmad Kaviani

    2007-01-01

    Despite the progresses and attentions made to ethics education in Iran, little is known about the situation of undergraduate ethics education. Therefore, we undertook a study to assess the status of medical ethics education in medical faculties of Iran. Three questionnaires were sent to 32 state medical faculties. A reminding letter was sent to the cases with no response one

  3. Five ethical doctrines for medical education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W T Tweel

    1982-01-01

    In recent years a relative barrage of journal articles has surfaced concerning the formal instruction of medical ethics in our medical schools. Philosophical debates usually ensue over either the conspicuous absence (or, in some cases, the questionable need (I) (2) of a formal ethics course, or the manner and method by which ethics is to be taught (3). There is,

  4. Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Steven H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum reviews its recent history, examines areas of consensus, and describes teaching objectives and methods, course content, and program evaluation at preclinical and clinical levels. Prerequisites for successful institutionalization of medical ethics education are defined, and its future is…

  5. Medical Students' Affirmation of Ethics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrmann, Jon A.; Hoop, Jinger; Hammond, Katherine Green; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Despite the acknowledged importance of ethics education in medical school, little empirical work has been done to assess the needs and preferences of medical students regarding ethics curricula. Methods: Eighty-three medical students at the University of New Mexico participated in a self-administered written survey including 41 scaled…

  6. The four principles: Can they be measured and do they predict ethical decision making?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The four principles of Beauchamp and Childress - autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence and justice - have been extremely influential in the field of medical ethics, and are fundamental for understanding the current approach to ethical assessment in health care. This study tests whether these principles can be quantitatively measured on an individual level, and then subsequently if they are used in the decision making process when individuals are faced with ethical dilemmas. Methods The Analytic Hierarchy Process was used as a tool for the measurement of the principles. Four scenarios, which involved conflicts between the medical ethical principles, were presented to participants who then made judgments about the ethicality of the action in the scenario, and their intentions to act in the same manner if they were in the situation. Results Individual preferences for these medical ethical principles can be measured using the Analytic Hierarchy Process. This technique provides a useful tool in which to highlight individual medical ethical values. On average, individuals have a significant preference for non-maleficence over the other principles, however, and perhaps counter-intuitively, this preference does not seem to relate to applied ethical judgements in specific ethical dilemmas. Conclusions People state they value these medical ethical principles but they do not actually seem to use them directly in the decision making process. The reasons for this are explained through the lack of a behavioural model to account for the relevant situational factors not captured by the principles. The limitations of the principles in predicting ethical decision making are discussed. PMID:22606995

  7. Medical-Research Ethics under the Microscope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the growing involvement between medical schools and medical industries and the ethical problems this situation poses. The main concern is that investigators may expose subjects to unnecessary risks because they are driven by financial motives. (SLD)

  8. Good and not so good medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Rosamond

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I provide a brief sketch of the purposes that medical ethics serves and what makes for good medical ethics. Medical ethics can guide clinical practice and biomedical research, contribute to the education of clinicians, advance thinking in the field, and direct healthcare policy. Although these are distinct activities, they are alike in several critical respects. Good medical ethics is coherent, illuminating, accurate, reasonable, consistent, informed, and measured. After this overview, I provide specific examples to illustrate some of the ways in which medical ethics could go wrong as a caution and a reminder that taking on the role of an ethicist involves serious responsibilities that must be exercised with care. PMID:25516940

  9. Argument-based medical ethics: a formal tool for critically appraising the normative medical ethics literature.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Laurence B; Coverdale, John H; Chervenak, Frank A

    2004-10-01

    Although there are critical appraisal tools for other genres of the medical literature, there currently is no formal tool for physicians to use in their critical appraisal of the normative medical ethics literature. We present a formal assessment tool for the critical appraisal of the normative medical ethics literature that incorporates the intellectual standards of argument-based medical ethics and evidence-based medicine. We draw on the intellectual standards of argument-based ethics, ethical analysis and argument, and the literature on evidence-based medicine. The tool involves 4 questions about normative medical ethics papers: (1) Does the article address a focused ethics question? (2) Are the arguments that support the results of the article valid? (3) What are the results? (4) Will the results help me in clinical practice? Obstetrician-gynecologists can use this tool to appraise the normative literature of ethics in obstetrics and gynecology formally. PMID:15507927

  10. Western medical ethics taught to junior medical students can cross cultural and linguistic boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ypinazar, Valmae A; Margolis, Stephen A

    2004-01-01

    Background Little is known about teaching medical ethics across cultural and linguistic boundaries. This study examined two successive cohorts of first year medical students in a six year undergraduate MBBS program. Methods The objective was to investigate whether Arabic speaking students studying medicine in an Arabic country would be able to correctly identify some of the principles of Western medical ethical reasoning. This cohort study was conducted on first year students in a six-year undergraduate program studying medicine in English, their second language at a medical school in the Arabian Gulf. The ethics teaching was based on the four-principle approach (autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance and justice) and delivered by a non-Muslim native English speaker with no knowledge of the Arabic language. Although the course was respectful of Arabic culture and tradition, the content excluded an analysis of Islamic medical ethics and focused on Western ethical reasoning. Following two 45-minute interactive seminars, students in groups of 3 or 4 visited a primary health care centre for one morning, sitting in with an attending physician seeing his or her patients in Arabic. Each student submitted a personal report for summative assessment detailing the ethical issues they had observed. Results All 62 students enrolled in these courses participated. Each student acting independently was able to correctly identify a median number of 4 different medical ethical issues (range 2–9) and correctly identify and label accurately a median of 2 different medical ethical issues (range 2–7) There were no significant correlations between their English language skills or general academic ability and the number or accuracy of ethical issues identified. Conclusions This study has demonstrated that these students could identify medical ethical issues based on Western constructs, despite learning in English, their second language, being in the third week of their medical school experience and with minimal instruction. This result was independent of their academic and English language skills suggesting that ethical principles as espoused in the four principal approach may be common to the students' Islamic religious beliefs, allowing them to access complex medical ethical reasoning skills at an early stage in the medical curriculum. PMID:15283868

  11. Doing good medical ethics: a Christian perspective.

    PubMed

    Saunders, John

    2015-01-01

    Despite the rise of the secular state, religion remains a significant force in society. Within Christianity this encompasses a wide variety of beliefs. These range from simple assertions of theism in a cultural context to complex theologies; from liberal emphases on uncertainty and exploration to dogmatic views of divine revelation. How one 'does' good medical ethics depends on these perspectives. Contingently, the Christian contribution to medical ethics has been huge and constructive. Central to that contribution is a core belief in the intrinsic value of human life, respect for which we are accountable to God. Christianity continues to deserve its place 'in the public square' and, specifically, in medical ethical discourse. PMID:25516951

  12. Virtue ethics - an old answer to a new dilemma? Part 1. Problems with contemporary medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Misselbrook, David

    2015-02-01

    The commonest practical model used in contemporary medical ethics is Principlism. Yet, while Principlism is a widely accepted consensus statement for ethics, the moral theory that underpins it faces serious challenges in its attempt to provide a coherent and accepted system of moral analysis. This inevitably challenges the stability of such a consensus statement and makes it vulnerable to attack by competitors such as preference consequentialism. This two-part paper proposes an inclusive version of virtue theory as a more grounded system of moral analysis. PMID:25721113

  13. Medical ethics as practiced by students, nurses and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    BAZRAFCAN, LEILA; NABEIEI, PARISA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN; MOADAB, NEDA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Assuming any social role has obligations and fulfilling the related responsibilities has ethical aspects that must be addressed carefully. Each role requires extensive training, which usually takes place in university institutions. Ethics is applied in at least three academic areas, including: a) in education of students' personal growth, b) in patient care, and c) in university communion in population-based health care. Given the importance of this issue in the moral domain, this study examines the correlation among the students, nurses and teacher's opinions regarding principles of medical ethics at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study conducted in 2010. The participants of this research consisted of all medical students, nurses in public hospitals, and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. For validity evaluation, the expert panel method and for reliability evaluation, test-retest method was used. Results: Based on the medical ethics’ scores in these three groups, there was a significant relationship between the mean scores of student-nurses and employed nurses, but there was no significant relationship between those of student-faculties. Also the mean score of the students was the highest in medical ethics. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a list of virtues and moral characteristics of medical staff and found out the method of practicing medical ethics in everyday life of students to improve the moral reasoning of teachers, nurses and students. Moreover, medical ethics, with the presentation of specific criteria for ethical behavior in various domains of human life, especially in dealing with patients, can help practice ethical values in the medical community. PMID:25587553

  14. Medical internet ethics: a field in evolution.

    PubMed

    Dyer, K A; Thompson, C D

    2001-01-01

    As in any new field, the merger of medicine, e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions pertaining to ethical conduct. Key issues include defining the essence of the patient-provider relationship, establishing guidelines and training for practicing online medicine and therapy, setting standards for ethical online research, determining guidelines for providing quality healthcare information and requiring ethical conduct for medical and health websites. Physicians who follow their professional code of ethics are obligated not to exploit the relationship they have with patients, nor allow anyone else working with them to do so. Physicians and therapists are obligated to serve those who place trust in them for treatment, whether in face-to-face or online Internet encounters with patients or clients. This ethical responsibility to patients and clients is often in direct conflict with the business model of generating profits. Healthcare professionals involved in Medical Internet Ethics need to define the scope of competent medical and healthcare on the Internet. The emerging ethical issues facing medicine on the Internet, the current state of medical ethics on the Internet and questions for future directions of study in this evolving field are reviewed in this paper. PMID:11604935

  15. The Baylor Experience in Teaching Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Baruch A.

    1989-01-01

    The activities of the Center for Ethics, Medicine, and Public Issues (Texas) are described. The center focuses on the clinical teaching of medical ethics, collaborative teaching and research involving ethicists and clinicians, and the training of future practitioners. Problems and achievements are highlighted. (Author/MSE)

  16. The forms and limits of medical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Hoffmaster

    1994-01-01

    As medical ethics has evolved over the past several decades, it has come to be regarded as a domain of applied ethics, that is, the application of a rationally based, philosophical theory to moral problems in health care. But an array of difficulties arise in the attempt to apply general moral theories or norms to concrete problems, difficulties that expose

  17. Buddhism and Medical Ethics: A Bibliographic Introduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James J. Hughes

    1995-01-01

    ABSTRACT ,This article provides an introduction to some contemporary issues in medical ethics and the literature which addresses them from a Buddhist perspective. The first part of the article discusses Buddhism,and medicine,and outlines some of the main issues in contemporary,medical ethics. In the rest of the paper three subjects are considered: i) moral personhood, ii) abortion, and iii) death, dying

  18. Is a moral consensus in medical ethics possible?

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, B.

    1976-01-01

    At the moment in Britain and elsewhere the debate inside and outside of Parliament on various medical issues which are essentially moral never ends. Everybody has his own point of view--or principles. But what emerges for society to adopt can often be called in lay terminology 'compromise'. Professor Mitchell argues in this paper that a moral consensus is possible and indeed ought to be achieved, as today the medical practitioner can no longer make his decision only in accordance with the strict code of ethics of the medical profession. The task of the philosopher, says Professor Mitchell, is to interpret the actions and attitudes demanded by modern medical practice. PMID:957368

  19. Time for a unified approach to medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Hamlat, Elissa; McNamee, Turi; Laird, Cyndi

    2009-01-01

    A code of ethics is used by individuals to justify their actions within an environment. Medical professionals require a keen understanding of specific ethical codes due to the potential consequences of their actions. Over the past thirty years there has been an increase in the scope and depth of ethics instruction in the medical profession; however the teaching of these codes is still highly variable. This inconsistency in implementation is problematic both for the medical practitioner and for the patient; without standardized training, neither party can be assured of the practitioner's overall depth of knowledge. Within the field of ethics certain principles have reached a consensus of importance. Incorporation of these concepts in meaningful ways via a consistent curriculum would provide students with an appropriate skill set for navigating their ethical environment. Moreover, this curriculum should also be extended to residents and professionals who may have missed formal ethical training. This would provide a consistent framework of knowledge for practitioners, creating a basis for clear judgment of complex issues. PMID:19737406

  20. The literature of medical ethics: Bernard Häring

    PubMed Central

    Soane, Brendan

    1977-01-01

    To the general reader and watcher of television programmes medical ethics may appear to be something new. This is not so, for hundreds of articles and many books have appeared over the last 10 years or so to discuss and analyse the problems arising from the practice of medicine. In this study of two larger works - Medical Ethics and Manipulation - both by Bernard Häring, a Roman Catholic theologian - Father Brendan Soane analyses these in some detail and sets their ideas in the context of what has already been written on the major issues of medical ethics and what is likely to be foremost in discussion in the near future. Many readers of this Journal already have the particular background of knowledge to see the problems in medicine which are in fact ethical but the general reader may require help and enlightenment and this is now provided for a special field within the field. PMID:874983

  1. Medical Ethics: Phil 80-245 Professor London

    E-print Network

    Spirtes, Peter

    Medical Ethics: Phil 80-245 Professor London Baker Hall 150A ajlondon@andrew.cmu.edu Class Meetings Description: This course provides a detailed introduction to core ethical issues in medical ethics and public of death. We will also examine specific ethical issues in the conduct of medical research and look

  2. 10th World Conference on BIOETHICS, MEDICAL ETHICS & HEALTH LAW

    E-print Network

    Wagner, Stephan

    10th World Conference on BIOETHICS, MEDICAL ETHICS & HEALTH LAW Zefat Bioethics Forum Crowne Plaza of academic institutes · hospital managers · teachers and students of medical,nursing,ethics and associations · governmental & public bodies · speech therapists Main Aspects · bio-ethics and medical ethics

  3. Nurse prescribing ethics and medical marketing.

    PubMed

    Adams, J

    This article suggests that nurse prescribers require an awareness of key concepts in ethics, such as deontology and utilitarianism to reflect on current debates and contribute to them. The principles of biomedical ethics have also been influential in the development of professional codes of conduct. Attention is drawn to the importance of the Association of the British Pharmaceutical Industry's code of practice for the pharmaceutical industry in regulating marketing aimed at prescribers. PMID:21500692

  4. Contributions of empirical research to medical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Pearlman; Steven H. Miles; Robert M. Arnold

    1993-01-01

    Empirical research pertaining to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), clinician behaviors related to do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and substituted judgment suggests potential contributions to medical ethics. Research quantifying the likelihood of surviving CPR points to the need for further philosophical analysis of the limitations of the patient autonomy in decision making, the nature and definition of medical futility, and the relationship between futility

  5. The teaching of medical ethics to medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Glick, S M

    1994-01-01

    Teaching medical ethics to medical students in a pluralistic society is a challenging task. Teachers of ethics have obligations not just to teach the subject matter but to help create an academic environment in which well motivated students have reinforcement of their inherent good qualities. Emphasis should be placed on the ethical aspects of daily medical practice and not just on the dramatic dilemmas raised by modern technology. Interdisciplinary teaching should be encouraged and teaching should span the entire duration of medical studies. Attention should be paid particularly to ethical problems faced by the students themselves, preferably at the time when the problems are most on the students' minds. A high level of academic demands, including critical examination of students' progress is recommended. Finally, personal humility on the part of teachers can help set a good example for students to follow. PMID:7861430

  6. The Terri Schiavo case: legal, ethical, and medical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Perry, Joshua E; Churchill, Larry R; Kirshner, Howard S

    2005-11-15

    Although tragic, the plight of Terri Schiavo provides a valuable case study. The conflicts and misunderstandings surrounding her situation offer important lessons in medicine, law, and ethics. Despite media saturation and intense public interest, widespread confusion lingers regarding the diagnosis of persistent vegetative state, the judicial processes involved, and the appropriateness of the ethical framework used by those entrusted with Terri Schiavo's care. First, the authors review the current medical understanding of persistent vegetative state, including the requirements for patient examination, the differential diagnosis, and the practice guidelines of the American Academy of Neurology regarding artificial nutrition and hydration for patients with this diagnosis. Second, they examine the legal history, including the 2000 trial, the 2002 evidentiary hearing, and the subsequent appeals. The authors argue that the law did not fail Terri Schiavo, but produced the highest-quality evidence and provided the most judicial review of any end-of-life guardianship case in U.S. history. Third, they review alternative ethical frameworks for understanding the Terri Schiavo case and contend that the principle of respect for autonomy is paramount in this case and in similar cases. Far from being unusual, the manner in which Terri Schiavo's case was reviewed and the basis for the decision reflect a broad medical, legal, and ethical consensus. Greater clarity regarding the persistent vegetative state, less apprehension of the presumed mysteries of legal proceedings, and greater appreciation of the ethical principles at work are the chief benefits obtained from studying this provocative case. PMID:16287796

  7. The Application of Ecological Principles in Establishing an Environmental Ethic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bicak, Charles J.

    1997-01-01

    Examines four ecological principles and their misapplication in common models of environmental ethics. The principles include balance in nature, the fragility of nature, high diversity yielding high stability, and interdependence in nature. Also suggests an alternative way to incorporate each principle in a working environmental ethic. (AIM)

  8. What is good medical ethics? A clinician's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wing May

    2015-01-01

    Speaking from the perspective of a clinician and teacher, good medical ethics needs to make medicine better. Over the past 50?years medical ethics has helped shape the culture in medicine and medical practice for the better. However, recent healthcare scandals in the UK suggest more needs to be done to translate ethical reasoning into ethical practice. Focusing on clinical practice and individual patient care, I will argue that, to be good, medical ethics needs to become integral to the activities of health professionals and healthcare organisations. Ethics is like a language which brings a way of thinking and responding to the world. For ethics to become embedded in clinical practice, health professionals need to progress from classroom learners to fluent social speakers through ethical dialogue, ethical reflection and ethical actions. I will end by discussing three areas that need to be addressed to enable medical ethics to flourish and bring about change in everyday clinical care. PMID:25516942

  9. The use of narrative in Jewish medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Jotkowitz, Alan

    2013-09-01

    Anne Jones has pointed out that over the last three decades, stories have been important to medical ethics in at least three ways: (1). Stories as cases for teaching principle-based medical ethics (2). Narratives for moral guides on what is considered living a good life (3). Stories as testimonials written by both patients and physicians. A pioneer in this effort, particularly in regard to using narratives as moral guides, has been the ethicist and philosopher Stanley Hauerwas. Heavily influenced by virtue ethics, Hauerwas believes that it is a person's particular narrative tradition that provides one with convictions that form the basis of one's morality. Befitting a Protestant theologian, he is particularly concerned with the Christian narrative. From a Jewish perspective, there has been much less written on the use of narrative in medical ethics. However, it is a mistake to think that narrative has little, if any, role in Rabbinic ethical decision making. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the centrality of narrative in the thought of Orthodox Jewish decisors and the problems inherent in this methodology. PMID:22395754

  10. A Systematic Review of Ethical Principles in the Plastic Surgery Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kevin C.; Pushman, Allison G.; Bellfi, Lillian T.

    2009-01-01

    Background: To perform a systematic review to identify articles that discuss ethical issues relating to the field of plastic and reconstructive surgery and to evaluate whether ethical issues are underrepresented in the plastic surgery literature. Methods: Four medical databases were selected to search through the medical literature with specific inclusion criteria to disqualify irrelevant articles from the study. Appropriate articles were extracted, and their quality and validity were assessed by multiple investigators to maximize reproducibility. The data were then synthesized and analyzed for associations amongst the ethical principles. Results: Out of a total library search of >100,000 plastic surgery oriented articles, only 110 clearly focused on ethical principles. Autonomy (53%) was the most common major theme, whereas distributive justice (15%) represented the least frequently emphasized ethical principle. The proportions of each ethical principle were tested against each other for equality using Cochran's Q test; the Q test reached statistical significance (Q = 67.04, df =3, P < 0.0001), indicating that the ethical principles were not discussed equally in plastic surgery literature, which was expected because autonomy represented 53% of the manuscripts whereas distributive justice represented only 15% of manuscripts. When examining both major and minor themes, over half of the articles (61%) addressed 2 or more ethical principles. Beneficence and nonmaleficence were strongly associated (Pearson's x2 = 55.38, df =1, P<0.0001). Conclusions: Despite the extensive amount of ethical issues that plastic surgeons face, a relatively small proportion of plastic surgery literature was dedicated to discussing ethical principles. PMID:20009860

  11. Treating Ed A Medical Ethics Case Study

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Eric Ribbens

    2008-01-01

    Ed is dying. How should his wishes for medical treatment be carried out? As the case unfolds, students explore the rights and responsibilities of doctors, patients, and patient representatives regarding difficult medical decisions. Specifically, students consider the ramifications of Advance Directives and Durable Powers of Attorney. The case was written for an introductory biology course, but could easily be used in or modified for a human anatomy and physiology, introductory nursing, or medical ethics course.

  12. Philosophy of medicine as the source for medical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David C. Thomasma; Edmund D. Pellegrino

    1981-01-01

    The article offers an approach to inquiry about, the foundation of medical ethics by addressing three areas of conceptual presupposition basic to medical ethical theory. First, medical ethics must presuppose a view about the nature of medicine. it is argued that the view required by a cogent medical morality entails that medicine be seen both as a healing relationship and

  13. The restoration of medical ethics.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, A

    1984-01-01

    The ethical behaviour of doctors has been influenced by recent social and political changes. This paper discusses some of the changes which may have resulted from two far-reaching changes, a major political change, the nationalisation of medicine in the National Health Service (NHS), and a social change, the establishment of the permissive society. Some of the ethical consequences of these changes which are not considered of benefit to the profession or its patients are discussed. The recognition of these changes and their open debate is now essential so that the restitution of professional standards may take place. PMID:6502634

  14. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East europe in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144

  15. Ethical principles for physician rating sites.

    PubMed

    Strech, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    During the last 5 years, an ethical debate has emerged, often in public media, about the potential positive and negative effects of physician rating sites and whether physician rating sites created by insurance companies or government agencies are ethical in their current states. Due to the lack of direct evidence of physician rating sites' effects on physicians' performance, patient outcomes, or the public's trust in health care, most contributions refer to normative arguments, hypothetical effects, or indirect evidence. This paper aims, first, to structure the ethical debate about the basic concept of physician rating sites: allowing patients to rate, comment, and discuss physicians' performance, online and visible to everyone. Thus, it provides a more thorough and transparent starting point for further discussion and decision making on physician rating sites: what should physicians and health policy decision makers take into account when discussing the basic concept of physician rating sites and its possible implications on the physician-patient relationship? Second, it discusses where and how the preexisting evidence from the partly related field of public reporting of physician performance can serve as an indicator for specific needs of evaluative research in the field of physician rating sites. This paper defines the ethical principles of patient welfare, patient autonomy, physician welfare, and social justice in the context of physician rating sites. It also outlines basic conditions for a fair decision-making process concerning the implementation and regulation of physician rating sites, namely, transparency, justification, participation, minimization of conflicts of interest, and openness for revision. Besides other issues described in this paper, one trade-off presents a special challenge and will play an important role when deciding about more- or less-restrictive physician rating sites regulations: the potential psychological and financial harms for physicians that can result from physician rating sites need to be contained without limiting the potential benefits for patients with respect to health, health literacy, and equity. PMID:22146737

  16. Preferences for Key Ethical Principles that Guide Business School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyette, Roger; Piotrowski, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Business ethics is presently a major component of the business school curriculum. Although there has been much attention focused on the impact of such coursework on instilling ethical decision-making (Nguyen et al., 2008), there is sparse research on how business students view the major ethical principles that serve as the foundation of business…

  17. Teaching Medical Ethics: Some Persistent Questions and Some Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Edmund D.

    1989-01-01

    Issues in the inclusion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum are discussed, including its relevance, whether or not ethics can be taught, whose ethics should be taught, the contribution of the professional ethicist, and the relevance of humanistic studies outside ethics. (MSE)

  18. Can ethnography save the life of medical ethics?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barry Hoffmaster

    1992-01-01

    Since its inception contemporary medical ethics has been regarded by many of its practitioners as 'applied ethics', that is, the application of philosophical theories to the moral problems that arise in health care. This 'applied ethics' model of medical ethics is, however, beset with internal and external difficulties. The internal difficulties point out that the model is intrinsically flawed. The

  19. Medical ethics and education for social responsibility.

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, M. I.

    1980-01-01

    The physician, said Henry Sigerist in 1940, has been acquiring an increasingly social role. For centuries, however, codes of medical ethics have concentrated on proper behavior toward individual patients and almost ignored the doctor's responsibilities to society. Major health service reforms have come principally from motivated lay leadership and citizen groups. Private physicians have been largely hostile toward movements to equalize the economic access for people to medical care and improve the supply and distribution of doctors. Medical practice in America and throughout the world has become seriously commercialized. In response, governments have applied various strategies to constrain physicians and induce more socially responsible behavior. But such external pressures should not be necessary if a broad socially oriented code of medical ethics were followed. Health care system changes would be most effective, but medical education could be thoroughly recast to clarify community health problems and policies required to meet them. Sigerist proposed such a new medical curriculum in 1941; if it had been introduced, a social code of medical ethics would not now seem utopian. An international conference might well be convened to consider how physicians should be educated to reach the inspiring goals of the World Health Organization. PMID:7405276

  20. Perspective: Medical education in medical ethics and humanities as the foundation for developing medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

    2012-03-01

    Medical education accreditation organizations require medical ethics and humanities education to develop professionalism in medical learners, yet there has never been a comprehensive critical appraisal of medical education in ethics and humanities. The Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) I Workshop, convened in May 2010, undertook the first critical appraisal of the definitions, goals, and objectives of medical ethics and humanities teaching. The authors describe assembling a national expert panel of educators representing the disciplines of ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. This panel was tasked with describing the major pedagogical goals of art, ethics, history, and literature in medical education, how these disciplines should be integrated with one another in medical education, and how they could be best integrated into undergraduate and graduate medical education. The authors present the recommendations resulting from the PRIME I discussion, centered on three main themes. The major goal of medical education in ethics and humanities is to promote humanistic skills and professional conduct in physicians. Patient-centered skills enable learners to become medical professionals, whereas critical thinking skills assist learners to critically appraise the concept and implementation of medical professionalism. Implementation of a comprehensive medical ethics and humanities curriculum in medical school and residency requires clear direction and academic support and should be based on clear goals and objectives that can be reliably assessed. The PRIME expert panel concurred that medical ethics and humanities education is essential for professional development in medicine. PMID:22373629

  1. Ethics and the medical uses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbard, W.M.

    1982-06-01

    The basis of ethical practice for the medical community in general and for nuclear medicine technology in particular is described as follows: 1) Know and use current guidelines for safe work procedures; 2) Establish and maintain a quality assurance program for equipment and radiopharmaceuticals; 3) Develop work habits incorporating the philosophy of the ALARA concept (radiation dose as low as reasonably achievable); 4) Establish and use protocols for routine procedures; 5) Make exceptions to accepted practices when benefit vs risk warrants these exceptions; 6) Make periodic audits to determine if ethical standards are being applied. (JMT)

  2. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40?years. PMID:25516923

  3. Ethics

    Cancer.gov

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office of Human Research Protection (OHRP) has mandated that all research sites outside the United States that participate in research funded by the U.S. Government must file documentation certifying that each research site observes the Declaration of Helsinki on Ethical Principles for Medical Research Involving Human Subjects and has an independent ethics committee. Sites participating in trials sponsored by the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) must also undergo regular on-site audits.

  4. Ethical principles and guidelines for the development of cognitive systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Shaneyfelt, Wendy

    2006-05-01

    As cognitive systems technologies emerge, so too do the ethical issues surrounding their development and use. To develop cognitive systems technologies responsibly, Sandia National Laboratories is establishing a framework to proactively address both real and potential ethical issues. This report contains the principles and guidelines developers can use to guide them as they are confronted with ethical issues related to developing cognitive systems technologies as they apply to U.S. national security. A process to apply these principles offers a practical way to transfer these principles from paper to a working strategy. Case studies are presented to reflect upon potential scenarios and to consider resolution strategies.

  5. Medical Ethics Activities and Plans in Iran at a Glance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bagher Larijani; Farzaneh Zahedi

    2007-01-01

    The new biomedical sciences and technologies have been associated with increasing ethical debates worldwide in particular in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Advances in genetic engineering, stem cell research, cloning and organ transplantation are some of the medical issues that have raised ethical concerns. Considering ever-increasing renewed interest in medical ethics in the country, great strides have been made in

  6. Casuistry in medical ethics: Rehabilitated, or repeat offender?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Tomlinson

    1994-01-01

    For a number of reasons, casuistry has come into vogue in medical ethics. Despite the frequency with which it is avowed, the application of casuistry to issues in medical ethics has been given virtually no systematic defense in the ethics literature. That may be for good reason, since a close examination reveals that casuistry delivers much less than its advocates

  7. 'Medical ethics'--an alternative approach.

    PubMed Central

    Haldane, J J

    1986-01-01

    Contemporary medical ethics is generally concerned with the application of ethical theory to medico-moral dilemmas and with the critical analysis of the concepts of medicine. This paper presents an alternative programme: the development of a medical philosophy which, by taking as its starting point the two questions: what is man? and, what constitutes goodness in life? offers an account of health as one of the primary concepts of value. This view of the subject resembles that implied by ancient theories of goodness, and in later sections of the paper it is shown how Aristotle points us towards a coherent theory of human nature as psycho-physical, which overcomes the inadequacies of dualism and physicalist reductionism. What is on offer therefore, is the prospect of an integrated account of human nature and of what constitutes its flourishing: to be healthy is to be an active unity-of-parts in equilibrium. PMID:3761336

  8. Contributions of empirical research to medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Pearlman, R A; Miles, S H; Arnold, R M

    1993-09-01

    Empirical research pertaining to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), clinician behaviors related to do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and substituted judgment suggests potential contributions to medical ethics. Research quantifying the likelihood of surviving CPR points to the need for further philosophical analysis of the limitations of the patient autonomy in decision making, the nature and definition of medical futility, and the relationship between futility and professional standards. Research on DNR orders has identified barriers to the goal of patient involvement in these life and death discussions. The initial data on surrogate decision making also points to the need for a reexamination of the moral basis for substituted judgment, the moral authority of proxy decision making and the second-order status of the best interests standard. These examples of empirical research suggest that an interplay between empirical research, ethical analysis and policy development may represent a new form of interdisciplinary scholarship to improve clinical medicine. PMID:8259527

  9. Ethical and medical dilemmas of space tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Melinda

    Space tourism is an important new venture, however it raises several issues that must be addressed; namely, the medical implications associated with space flight and potential for ethical problems surrounding the safety of such travel. It seems highly likely that businesses involved in space tourism could find themselves liable for any passenger deaths or injuries, if they are found to have been negligent. This paper, therefore, discusses such issues as the medical facilities that need to be made available on board a space facility, and the companies' duty to disclose to potential passengers the risks associated with microgravity and the likelihood of space sickness, loss of bone density, disease, and pregnancy.

  10. Gandhian Principles in Social Work Practice: Ethics Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Tom; Ritchie, Heather

    2000-01-01

    Argues that the thought of Mahatma Gandhi, as revealed in his social activism, is relevant to social work ethics and a resource for its ethical enrichment. Proposes that principles such as seeking truth through service to others, individual self-development, nonviolent social action, and material simplicity could enhance the current National…

  11. Jewish medical ethics and end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Kinzbrunner, Barry M

    2004-08-01

    While Judaism espouses the infinite value of human life, Judaism recognizes that all life is finite and, as such, its teachings are compatible with the principles of palliative medicine and end-of-life care as they are currently practiced. Jewish medical ethics as derived from Jewish law, has definitions for the four cardinal values of secular medical ethics: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice, with the major difference between Jewish law and secular medical ethics being that orthodox or traditional Jews are perceived to limit their autonomy by choosing, with the assistance and advice of their rabbis, to follow God's law as defined by the Bible and post-Biblical sources. With an understanding of Jewish medical ethics as defined by Jewish law, various issues pertaining to the care of Jewish patients who are near the end-of-life can be better understood. Jewish tradition contains within its textual sources the concept of terminal illness. The shortening of life through suicide, assisted suicide, or euthanasia is categorically forbidden. For patients who are terminally ill, treatments that are not potentially curative may be refused, especially when harm may result. Under certain circumstances, treatments may be withheld, but active treatment already started may not usually be withdrawn. While patients should generally not be lied to regarding their conditions, withholding information or even providing false information may be appropriate when it is felt that the truth will cause significant harm. Pain and suffering must be treated aggressively, even if there is an indirect risk of unintentionally shortening life. Finally, patients may execute advance directives, providing that the patient's rabbi is involved in the process. PMID:15353100

  12. [Ethics and medicine: the experience of the Peruvian Medical Association].

    PubMed

    Mendoza F, Alfonso

    2011-12-01

    This article shows the work of the Peruvian Medical Association with respect to ethical disciplinary procedures, but also shows how, beyond the ethical control, the Order has promoted through a set of actions, a technically competent health care that respects the dignity and fundamental human rights. Part of these actions are the establishment of the Patient's Day, the emphasis in improving the quality and safety in the care of the users of the health services, the initiative to prevent and treat adverse events, the regulation and improvement of the physicians training both in pre as in post-graduate levels, and the demand for the establishment of an optimal health system and policies that will realize the right to health in the context of the principles of bioethics. PMID:22241266

  13. Quality of publication ethics in the instructions to the authors of Iranian journals of medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Fatemeh; Sobhani, Abdol-Rasoul; Mallaei, Mahin

    2013-03-01

    Providing a perfect instruction to authors can prevent most potential publication ethics errors. This study was conducted to determine the quality of ethical considerations in the instructions to the authors of Iranian research scientific journals of medical sciences (accredited by the Commission for Accreditation and Improvement of Iranian Medical Journals) in October 2011. Checklist items (n=15) were extracted from the national manual of ethics in medical research publications, and the validity of the manual of ethics was assessed. All the accredited Iranian journals of medical sciences (n=198) were entered into the study. The instructions to the authors of 160 accredited Iranian journals were available online and were reviewed. The ANOVA and Kendall Correlation coefficient were performed to analyze the results. A total of 76 (47.5%) of the 160 journals were in English and 84 (52.5%) were in Farsi. The most frequently mentioned items related to publication ethics comprised "commitment not to send manuscripts to other journals and re-publish manuscripts" (85%, 83.8%), "aim and scope" of the journal (81.9%), "principles of medical ethics in the use of human samples" (74.4%), and "review process" (74.4%). On the other hand, the items of "principles of advertising" (1.2%), "authorship criteria" (15%), and "integrity in publication of clinical trial results" (30.6%) were the least frequently mentioned ones. Based on the study findings, the quality of publication ethics, as instructed to the authors, can improve the quality of the journals. PMID:23645959

  14. Quality of Publication Ethics in the Instructions to the Authors of Iranian Journals of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Salamat, Fatemeh; Sobhani, Abdol-Rasoul; Mallaei, Mahin

    2013-01-01

    Providing a perfect instruction to authors can prevent most potential publication ethics errors. This study was conducted to determine the quality of ethical considerations in the instructions to the authors of Iranian research scientific journals of medical sciences (accredited by the Commission for Accreditation and Improvement of Iranian Medical Journals) in October 2011. Checklist items (n=15) were extracted from the national manual of ethics in medical research publications, and the validity of the manual of ethics was assessed. All the accredited Iranian journals of medical sciences (n=198) were entered into the study. The instructions to the authors of 160 accredited Iranian journals were available online and were reviewed. The ANOVA and Kendall Correlation coefficient were performed to analyze the results. A total of 76 (47.5%) of the 160 journals were in English and 84 (52.5%) were in Farsi. The most frequently mentioned items related to publication ethics comprised “commitment not to send manuscripts to other journals and re-publish manuscripts” (85%, 83.8%), “aim and scope” of the journal (81.9%), “principles of medical ethics in the use of human samples” (74.4%), and “review process” (74.4%). On the other hand, the items of “principles of advertising” (1.2%), “authorship criteria” (15%), and “integrity in publication of clinical trial results” (30.6%) were the least frequently mentioned ones. Based on the study findings, the quality of publication ethics, as instructed to the authors, can improve the quality of the journals. PMID:23645959

  15. Medically assisted reproduction and ethical challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Kaeaeriaeinen, Helena [Department of Medical Genetics, University of Turku, Kiinamyllynkatu 10, 20520 Turku (Finland) and Department of Clinical Genetics, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland)]. E-mail: helena.kaariainen@utu.fi; Evers-Kiebooms, Gerry [Department of Human Genetics, University of Leuven (Belgium); Coviello, Domenico [Laboratory of Medical Genetics, ICP, University Hospital of Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-01

    Many of the ethical challenges associated with medically assisted reproduction are societal. Should the technique be restricted to only ordinary couples or could it be used also to single females or couples of same sex? Should the future child be entitled to know the identity of the gamete donor? Should there be age limits? Can embryos or gametes be used after the death of the donor? Can surrogate mothers be part of the process? Can preimplantation diagnostics be used to select the future baby's sex? In addition, there are several clearly medical questions that lead to difficult ethical problems. Is it safe to use very premature eggs or sperms? Is the risk for some rare syndromes caused by imprinting errors really increased when using these techniques? Do we transfer genetic infertility to the offspring? Is the risk for multiple pregnancies too high when several embryos are implanted? Does preimplantation diagnosis cause some extra risks for the future child? Should the counselling of these couples include information of all these potential but unlikely risks? The legislation and practices differ in different countries and ethical discussion and professional guidelines are still needed.

  16. [Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Ruyter, K W

    1997-12-10

    50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students. PMID:9456583

  17. An Analysis of Student Choices in Medical Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woloshin, Phyllis Lerman

    This report describes a study undertaken to assess student choices in medical ethical dilemmas. Medical ethical dilemmas are interpreted to include problems such as abortion, euthanasia, sterilization, experimentation on humans, allocation of scarce medical resources, and physician and health personnel training. The major purpose of the study was…

  18. Islamic medical ethics in the 20th century

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V Rispler-Chaim

    1989-01-01

    While the practice of Western medicine is known today to doctors of all ethnic and religious groups, its standards are subject to the availability of resources. The medical ethics guiding each doctor is influenced by his\\/her religious or cultural background or affiliation, and that is where diversity exists. Much has been written about Jewish and Christian medical ethics. Islamic medical

  19. Imparting Medical Ethics: The Role of Mentorship in Clinical Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Gail L.; Rukstalis, Margaret R.

    2008-01-01

    Mentoring and ethics are integral and intersecting components of medical education. Faculty workloads and diffusion of responsibility for teaching impact both ethics and mentoring. In current academic medical center environments, the expectation that traditional one-on-one mentoring relationships will arise spontaneously between medical students…

  20. Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics

    E-print Network

    Fujimura, Joan

    Virtual Mentor American Medical Association Journal of Ethics August 2012, Volume 14, Number 8: 657 that such genetic patterns may have medical importance. We note two ethical dilemmas posed by the claims made Rajagopalan, PhD, and Joan H. Fujimura, PhD In the last 5 years, medical geneticists have been conducting

  1. A Step Towards Medical Ethics Modeling Miguel Miranda1,

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    A Step Towards Medical Ethics Modeling Miguel Miranda1, , José Machado1 , António Abelha1 , Gabriel.pontes@chaa.min-saude.pt Abstract: Modeling of ethical reasoning has been a matter of discussion and research among distinct. In this paper we present some of the modeling lines of ethical reasoning applied to medicine, and defend

  2. Comparative analysis of the Code of Professional Ethics in Bulgaria and the Hippocratic Oath, Declaration of Geneva and International Code of Medical Ethics.

    PubMed

    Aleksandrova, Silviya

    2005-09-01

    In this paper I aim at making a comparative analysis of The Code of Professional Ethics in Bulgaria (CPEB), The Hippocratic Oath, The Declaration of Geneva, and The World Medical Association International Code of Medical Ethics. Two problems of special interest are explored: whether the leading principles of fundamental ethical codes are presented in CPEB and whether the code itself is relevant to the current medical professional and social situation in the country. The conclusion reached after a step-by-step analysis is that CPEB attempts to cover a wide range of principles and problems in medical practice and corresponds with the fundamental ethical codes. Although the code is criticized in some points, it could be very useful, provided that it is well publicized in the profession. PMID:16229385

  3. [The Hippocratic Oath: source of medical ethics].

    PubMed

    Petit, E P

    2002-01-19

    The Hippocratic Oath is twenty-five centuries old. Probably drawn-up by Hippocrates himself, it intervenes in a particular cultural, political and religious context: that of Greece at the time of Pericles. It guaranteed the Asclepiad doctors of the continuity of their knowledge within their community. Medicine was highly esteemed because of it. The Oath, more than any other work of the Hippocratic collection, has outlived the centuries. It still remains one of the symbols of the medical profession. Despite its age, it provides insight into some of the questions of medical ethics even today. Its topicality is, without doubt, due to the transcendent nature of the values it proclaimed. PMID:11850985

  4. I. ASCRC General Education Form Group Group VIII: Ethics and Human Values

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    about the relationships between principles and codes of medical ethics and ethical values in the larger society. 4. Students will learn principles of medical ethics found within medical ethics literature in critical thinking and writing in ethics through the consideration of medical ethics issues and cases

  5. Antiprogestin drugs: ethical, legal and medical issues.

    PubMed

    Cook, R J; Grimes, D A

    1992-01-01

    RU 486 allows women the choice of a medical rather than a surgical abortion, and, for most women, the choice is one of procedure, not of whether to have an abortion. Issues surrounding RU 486 were explored in an American Society of Law and Medicine conference in December 1991 entitled "Antiprogestin Drugs: Ethical, Legal and Medical Issues." An introduction to 14 conference papers provides an overview of the proceedings. Baulieu, the father of RU 486, described updated developments in its use and the medically supervised method of abortion. Bygdeman and Swahn presented their work in Sweden on combining RU 486 with a prostaglandin to make abortion more effective. They suggested that the drug may be an attractive postovulation contraceptive. Greenslad et al. discussed service delivery aspects of the use of RU 486. Holt considered the implications of use of the drug in low-resource settings. A survey of obstetricians and gynecologists, presented by Heilig, indicates that 22% more physicians would perform a medical abortion. Patient perspectives were addressed by David, who stated that measuring acceptability of an abortion technique is difficult; women have historically used whatever method is available. A collaborative research project in India and Cuba on why women chose certain methods was reported by Winikoff et al. (90% of women would choose medical abortion if faced with the choice again). Berer analyzed French data on women's perspectives on medical vs. surgical abortion. The question of adolescent use of the drug was considered by Senderowitz, who lamented the lack of data on the subject and described what is known about adolescent pregnancy. Macklin proposed a framework for ethical analysis and used facts to address ethical questions. Weinstein provided another ethical framework, to analyze whether pharmacists have a right to refuse to provide abortifacient drugs. Buc approached the subject from a legal point of view and concluded that, whereas legal problems are minimal, political problem are of first concern. Boland described differences in introduction of the drug in France and Britain and the US. The theory of "use it or lose it" in patent legislation is applied differently in the US, France, and the UK. Hayhurst, in a complementary legal analysis, noted that Canadian importation would open access to affluent US women. Pine reported on the legal case Benten vs. Kessler, which did not result in successful importation of the drug for personal use, but resulted in some supportive language from the courts. By refusing to apply to the FDA for marketing approval, RU 486's manufacturer may be setting itself up for a boycott. Approaching the problem from these various perspectives addressed the challenge between medical advances and politics and highlighted the need to balance the benefits to women with perceived threats to values. PMID:1434754

  6. Dialectical principlism: an approach to finding the most ethical action.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Most forensic psychiatrists occasionally face complex situations in forensic work in which ethics dilemmas cause discomfort. They want to determine the most ethical action, but the best choice is unclear. Fostering justice is primary in forensic roles, but secondary duties such as traditional biomedical ethics and personal values like helping society, combating racism, and being sensitive to cultural issues can impinge on or even outweigh the presumptive primary duty in extreme cases. Similarly, in treatment the psychiatrists' primary duty is to patients, but that can be outweighed by secondary duties such as protecting children and the elderly or maintaining security. The implications of one's actions matter. In forensic work, if the psychiatrist determines that he should not assist the party who wants to hire him, despite evidence clearly supporting its side, the only ethical option becomes not to accept the case at all, because the evidence does not support the better side. Sometimes it can be ethical to accept cases only for one side. In ethics-related dilemmas, I call the method of prioritizing and balancing all types of conflicting principles, duties, and personal and societal values in a dialectic to resolve conflicts among them dialectical principlism. This approach is designed to help determine the most ethical action. It is aspirational and is not intended to get the psychiatrist into trouble. PMID:25770274

  7. Internal Medicine Residents' Preferences regarding Medical Ethics Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Jay A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A survey of residents (N=323) in 6 internal medicine programs investigated the topics students wanted included in the medical ethics curriculum and by which of 17 methods they would prefer to be taught. About three-fourths had previous medical ethics instruction, and most wanted more on specific topics, especially legal and end-of-life issues.…

  8. Ethical and Privacy Principles for Learning Analytics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Abelardo; Siemens, George

    2014-01-01

    The massive adoption of technology in learning processes comes with an equally large capacity to track learners. Learning analytics aims at using the collected information to understand and improve the quality of a learning experience. The privacy and ethical issues that emerge in this context are tightly interconnected with other aspects such as…

  9. Empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning of physicians and molecular biologists – the importance of the four principles of biomedical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mette Ebbesen; Birthe D Pedersen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study presents an empirical investigation of the ethical reasoning and ethical issues at stake in the daily work of physicians and molecular biologists in Denmark. The aim of this study was to test empirically whether there is a difference in ethical considerations and principles between Danish physicians and Danish molecular biologists, and whether the bioethical principles of the

  10. The Effect of a Class in Medical Ethics on First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorr, Andrew F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of 110 first-year University of Virginia medical students taking a required course in medical ethics found that the curriculum had little effect on student attitudes toward certain ethical questions or on their factual knowledge regarding particular ethical and legal issues. (Author/MSE)

  11. Medication monitoring and drug testing ethics project.

    PubMed

    Payne, Richard; Moe, Jeffrey L; Sevier, Catherine Harvey; Sevier, David; Waitzkin, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Duke University initiated a research project, funded by an unrestricted research grant from Millennium Laboratories, a drug testing company. The project focused on assessing the frequency and nature of questionable, unethical, and illegal business practices in the clinical drug testing industry and assessing the potential for establishing a business code of ethics. Laboratory leaders, clinicians, industry attorneys, ethicists, and consultants participated in the survey, were interviewed, and attended two face-to-face meetings to discuss a way forward. The study demonstrated broad acknowledgment of variations in the legal and regulatory environment, resulting in inconsistent enforcement of industry practices. Study participants expressed agreement that overtly illegal practices sometimes exist, particularly when laboratory representatives and clinicians discuss reimbursement, extent of testing, and potential business incentives with medical practitioners. Most respondents reported directly observing probable violations involving marketing materials, contracts, or, in the case of some individuals, directly soliciting people with offers of clinical supplies and other "freebies." While many study respondents were skeptical that voluntary standards alone would eliminate questionable business practices, most viewed ethics codes and credentialing as an important first step that could potentially mitigate uneven enforcement, while improving quality of care and facilitating preferred payment options for credentialed parties. Many were willing to participate in future discussions and industry-wide initiatives to improve the environment. PMID:25750169

  12. Good medical ethics, justice and provincial globalism.

    PubMed

    Prah Ruger, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The summer 2014 Ebola virus outbreak in Western Africa illustrates global health's striking inequalities. Globalisation has also increased pandemics, and disparate health system conditions mean that where one falls ill or is injured in the world can mean the difference between quality care, substandard care or no care at all, between full recovery, permanent ill effects and death. Yet attention to the normative underpinnings of global health justice and distribution remains, despite some important exceptions, inadequate in medical ethics, bioethics and political philosophy. We need a theoretical foundation on which to build a more just world. Provincial globalism (PG), grounded in capability theory, offers a foundation; it provides the components of a global health justice framework that can guide implementation. Under PG, all persons possess certain health entitlements. Global health justice requires progressively securing this health capabilities threshold for every person. PMID:25516948

  13. Public Health Leadership Society Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health

    E-print Network

    Biederman, Irving

    Public Health Leadership Society © 2002 Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health #12;Public Health Leadership Society #12;Principles of the Ethical Practice of Public Health Version 2 of the Ethical Practice of Public Health 4 Supplemental Materials: Rationale for a Public Health Code of Ethics 5

  14. The Ethics of New Medical Therapies and Other Challenges in Everyday Practice

    E-print Network

    The Ethics of New Medical Therapies and Other Challenges in Everyday Practice March 24, 2012 Beca I., MD 11:45am Resolving Ethical Dilemmas: New Medical Therapies, Lagging Ethical Standards in Medical Ethics at Clínica Alemana de Santiago, Chair of Ethics Committee in Clínica Alemana, Chair of IRB

  15. Ethics and Information Technology: Some Principles To Guide Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodi, Sonia

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the ethical challenges of information technology, particularly electronic indexes and the Internet; considers principles to guide students; and discusses possible librarian responses. Topics include Kant's categorical imperative, ownership, right to privacy, social responsibility, self-respect, plagiarism and copyrights, and three…

  16. Some principles of Islamic ethics as found in Harrisian philosophy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sahin Aksoy

    2010-01-01

    John Harris is one of the prominent philosophers and bioethicists of our time. He has published tens of books and hundreds of papers throughout his professional life. This paper aims to take a ‘deep-look’ at Harris' works to argue that it is possible to find some principles of Islamic ethics in Harrisian philosophy, namely in his major works, as well

  17. Some principles of Islamic ethics as found in Harrisian philosophy.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Sahin

    2010-04-01

    John Harris is one of the prominent philosophers and bioethicists of our time. He has published tens of books and hundreds of papers throughout his professional life. This paper aims to take a 'deep-look' at Harris' works to argue that it is possible to find some principles of Islamic ethics in Harrisian philosophy, namely in his major works, as well as in his personal life. This may be surprising, or thought of as a 'big' and 'groundless' claim, since John Harris has nothing to do with any religion in his intellectual works. The major features of Harrisian philosophy could be defined as consequentialism or utilitarianism with liberal overtones. Despite some significant and fundamental differences in the application of principles (ie, abortion, euthanasia), the similarities between the major principles in Harrisian philosophy and Islamic ethics are greater at some points than the similarities between Islamic ethics and some other religious ethics (ie, Christian, Judaism). In this study I compare Harrisian teachings with major Islamic principles on 'Responsibility', 'Side-effects and Double-effects', 'Equality', 'Vicious choice, guilt and innocence', 'Organ transplantation and property rights' and 'Advance directives'. PMID:20338934

  18. Reflecting on the ethical administration of computerized medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collmann, Jeff R.

    1995-05-01

    This presentation examines the ethical issues raised by computerized image management and communication systems (IMAC), the ethical principals that should guide development of policies, procedures and practices for IMACS systems, and who should be involved in developing a hospital's approach to these issues. The ready access of computerized records creates special hazards of which hospitals must beware. Hospitals must maintain confidentiality of patient's records while making records available to authorized users as efficiently as possible. The general conditions of contemporary health care undermine protecting the confidentiality of patient record. Patients may not provide health care institutions with information about themselves under conditions of informed consent. The field of information science must design sophisticated systems of computer security that stratify access, create audit trails on data changes and system use, safeguard patient data from corruption, and protect the databases from outside invasion. Radiology professionals must both work with information science experts in their own hospitals to create institutional safeguards and include the adequacy of security measures as a criterion for evaluating PACS systems. New policies and procedures on maintaining computerized patient records must be developed that obligate all members of the health care staff, not just care givers. Patients must be informed about the existence of computerized medical records, the rules and practices that govern their dissemination and given the opportunity to give or withhold consent for their use. Departmental and hospital policies on confidentiality should be reviewed to determine if revisions are necessary to manage computer-based records. Well developed discussions of the ethical principles and administrative policies on confidentiality and informed consent and of the risks posed by computer-based patient records systems should be included in initial and continuing staff system training. Administration should develop ways to monitor staff compliance with confidentiality policies and should assess diligence in maintaining patient record confidentiality as part of staff annual performance evaluations. Ethical management of IMAC systems is the business of all members of the health care team. Computerized patient records management (including IMAC) should be scrutinized as any other clinical medial ethical issue. If hospitals include these processes in their planning for RIS, IMACS, and HIS systems, they should have time to develop institutional expertise on these questions before and as systems are installed rather than only as ethical dilemmas develop during their use.

  19. The ethics and science of medicating children.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Jacqueline A; Duncan, Barry L

    2004-01-01

    Prescriptions for psychiatric drugs to children and adolescents have skyrocketed in the past 10 years. This article presents evidence that the superior effectiveness of stimulants and antidepressants is largely a presumption based on an empirical house of cards, driven by an industry that has no conscience about the implications of its ever growing, and disturbingly younger, list of consumers. Recognizing that most mental health professionals do not have the time, and sometimes feel ill-equipped to explore the controversy regarding pharmacological treatment of children, this article discusses the four fatal flaws of drug studies to enable critical examination of research addressing the drugging of children. The four flaws are illustrated by the Emslie studies of Prozac and children, which offer not only a strident example of marketing masquerading as science, but also, given the recent FDA approval of Prozac for children, a brutal reminder of the danger inherent in not knowing how to distinguish science from science fiction. The authors argue that an ethical path requires the challenge of the automatic medical response to medicate children, with an accompanying demand for untainted science and balanced information to inform critical decisions by child caretakers. PMID:15706694

  20. A Required and Elective Curriculum in Ethics for Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Hugh A.

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to medical ethics has been incorporated into the core curriculum by the inclusion of four courses in social and behavioral sciences at the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine. The ethical dimensions of the subjects being considered are thoroughly explored in the group discussions. (MLW)

  1. A two-decade Review of Medical Ethics in Iran

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Zahedi; SH Emami Razavi; B Larijani

    The growing developments in science and technology have raised ethical challenges which should practically be addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Likewise, challenging issues of medical ethics have also drawn a great deal of academic attention in Iran. In other words, recent decades have been an occasion of considerable development for contemporary bioethics in Iran. At first, the

  2. A Data Base for Curriculum Design in Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiberius, Richard G.; Cleave-Hogg, Doreen

    1984-01-01

    A study to provide information about medical students' prior knowledge of and attitudes toward medical ethics is reported. A questionnaire was administered to 845 entering medical students at the University of Toronto. The results support the need for a course that requires thinking rather than rote memory. (Author/MLW)

  3. Practical principles of medical audit.

    PubMed

    Dixon, N

    1990-01-01

    The practical principles have been highlighted to help doctors avoid pitfalls in audit, especially when starting to carry out formal systematic audit. As these principles are mastered, audit activity can be expanded as desired with a firm and appropriate basis established for the activity. PMID:2247399

  4. 72 Scientific American, October 2010 Photograph by Darren Braun Nao, manufactured by Aldebaran Robotics, is the first robot to have been programmed with an ethical principle.

    E-print Network

    Robins, Gabriel

    with an ethi- cal principle that it uses to determine how often to remind a patient to take a medication. Our to keep reminding a patient to take medicine, and when to do so, or to accept the patient's decision not to take the medication. But to our knowledge, it is the first robot to rely on an ethical principle

  5. The ethics and safety of medical student global health electives

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Evelyn M.; Varpio, Lara; Petrosoniak, Andrew; Gajaria, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To explore and characterize the ethical and safety challenges of global health experiences as they affect medical students in order to better prepare trainees to face them. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 Canadian medical trainees who had participated in global health experiences during medical school. Convenience and snowball sampling were utilized. Using Moustakas’s transcendental phenomenological approach, participant descriptions of ethical dilemmas and patient/trainee safety problems were analyzed. This generated an aggregate that illustrates the essential meanings of global health experience ethical and safety issues faced. Results We interviewed 23 participants who had completed 38 electives (71%, n=27, during pre-clinical years) spend-ing a mean 6.9 weeks abroad, and having visited 23 countries. Sixty percent (n=23) had pre-departure training while 36% (n=14) had post-experience debriefing. Three macro-level themes were identified: resource disparities and provision of care; navigating clinical ethical dilemmas; and threats to trainee safety. Conclusions Medical schools have a responsibility to ensure ethical and safe global health experiences. However, our findings suggest that medical students are often poorly prepared for the ethical and safety dilemmas they encounter during these electives. Medical students require intensive pre-departure training that will prepare them emotionally to deal with these dilemmas. Such training should include discussions of how to comply with clinical limitations. PMID:25341214

  6. [Which ethics for medical ethics? Homage to Hans Jonas, 1903-1993].

    PubMed

    Munzarová, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Hans Jonas, one of the greatest philosophers of the 20th century, devoted several studies to the ethics in context with medicine and/or to the new biomedical research. His main thoughts in this field are presented (death and dying, mortality, reflections on experimenting with human subjects - nontherapeutic research, cloning, chimaeras). He was a man of wisdom and his humanity and moral sensibility are a matter of admiration. His ethics is in full consent with ethics and the dignity of medical profession. His ideas are compared (and contrasted) with those of the new bio"ethics". PMID:25370772

  7. The Effect of Teaching Medical Ethics on Medical Students' Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Donnie J; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A study of the effect of incorporating medical ethics into the medical curriculum and comparing two teaching methods (lecture and case studies) found higher moral reasoning after instruction, but neither method was significantly more effective. (Author/MSE)

  8. Risk Assessment and Management for Medically Complex Potential Living Kidney Donors: A Few Deontological Criteria and Ethical Values

    PubMed Central

    Petrini, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    A sound evaluation of every bioethical problem should be predicated on a careful analysis of at least two basic elements: (i) reliable scientific information and (ii) the ethical principles and values at stake. A thorough evaluation of both elements also calls for a careful examination of statements by authoritative institutions. Unfortunately, in the case of medically complex living donors neither element gives clear-cut answers to the ethical problems raised. Likewise, institutionary documents frequently offer only general criteria, which are not very helpful when making practical choices. This paper first introduces a brief overview of scientific information, ethical values, and institutionary documents; the notions of “acceptable risk” and “minimal risk” are then briefly examined, with reference to the problem of medically complex living donors. The so-called precautionary principle and the value of solidarity are then discussed as offering a possible approach to the ethical problem of medically complex living donors. PMID:22174982

  9. Is etiquette relevant to medical ethics? Ethics and aesthetics in the works of John Gregory (1724-1773).

    PubMed

    Maio, G

    1999-01-01

    The writings of the Scottish physician and philosopher John Gregory play an important role in the modern codification of medical ethics. It is therefore appropriate to use his work as a historical example in approaching the question how elements of aesthetics were incorporated in 18th century medical ethics. The concept of a "Gentleman" is pivotal to the entire medical ethics of John Gregory as it provides him with the ethical source of the duty to patients. Gregory makes the trustworthiness of the physician a central point of his medical ethics, and it is in this context that Gregory declares good manners as an essential moral quality of a physician. This paper delineates how good manners are ethically justified in Gregory's medical ethics and concludes with an exploration of the importance of Gregory's conception for present day reflection on the inherence of aesthetics in ethical determinations. PMID:11080984

  10. Medical photography: principles for orthopedics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Medical photography is used clinically for patient evaluation, treatment decisions, and scientific documentation. Although standards for medical photography exist in many branches of medicine, we have not encountered such criteria in publications in the area of orthopedics. Purpose This study aims to (1) assess the quality of medical images used in an orthopedic publication and (2) to propose standards for medical photography in this area. Methods Clinical photographs were reviewed from all issues of a journal published between the years 2008 and 2012. A quality of clinical images was developed based on the criteria published for the specialties of dermatology and cosmetic surgery. All images were reviewed on the appropriateness of background, patient preparation, and technique. Results In this study, only 44.9% of clinical images in an orthopedic publication adhered to the proposed conventions. Conclusions Standards have not been established for medical photography in orthopedics as in other specialty areas. Our results suggest that photographic clinical information in orthopedic publications may be limited by inadequate presentation. We propose that formal conventions for clinical images should be established. PMID:24708703

  11. New trends of short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism: professional and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Asgary, Ramin; Junck, Emily

    2013-10-01

    Short-term humanitarian medical volunteerism has grown significantly among both clinicians and trainees over the past several years. Increasingly, both volunteers and their respective institutions have faced important challenges in regard to medical ethics and professional codes that should not be overlooked. We explore these potential concerns and their risk factors in three categories: ethical responsibilities in patient care, professional responsibility to communities and populations, and institutional responsibilities towards trainees. We discuss factors increasing the risk of harm to patients and communities, including inadequate preparation, the use of advanced technology and the translation of Western medicine, issues with clinical epidemiology and test utility, difficulties with the principles of justice and clinical justice, the lack of population-based medicine, sociopolitical effects of foreign aid, volunteer stress management, and need for sufficient trainee supervision. We review existing resources and offer suggestions for future skill-based training, organisational responsibilities, and ethical preparation. PMID:23236086

  12. The ethics of medical involvement in torture.

    PubMed Central

    Downie, R S

    1993-01-01

    The difficulties of establishing a definition of torture are discussed, and a definition is suggested. It is then argued that, irrespective of general ethical questions, doctors in particular should never be involved because of their social role. PMID:8230143

  13. Institutional Responses to Medical Mistakes: Ethical and Legal Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E. Thurman

    2001-01-01

    Health care institutions must decide whether to inform the patient of a medical error. The barriers to disclosure are an aversion to admitting errors, a concern about implicating other practitioners, and a fear of lawsuits and liabil- ity. However, admission of medical errors is the ethical thing to do and may be required by law. When examined, the barriers to

  14. Simulation-Based Medical Education: An Ethical Imperative

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amitai Ziv; Paul Root Wolpe; Stephen D. Small; Shimon Glick

    2003-01-01

    Medical training must at some point use live patients to hone the skills of health professionals. But there is also an obligation to provide optimal treatment and to ensure patients' safety and well-being. Balancing these two needs represents a fundamental ethical tension in medical education. Simulation-based learning can help mitigate this tension by developing health professionals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes

  15. Awareness of medical ethics among undergraduates in a West Bengal medical college.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Biswajit; Sarkar, Jhuma

    2012-01-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the knowledge of and attitudes towards medical ethics among undergraduate medical students. It also looked at whether there was any improvement with additional years of medical education. 340 medical students of a medical college in West Bengal were given a semi-structured questionnaire that included questions regarding their awareness of ethics, their attitudes towards various issues in clinical ethics, and their knowledge of the code of medical ethics of the West Bengal Medical Council. The responses of 322 students were analysed by simple descriptive statistics. The students generally agreed that awareness of ethics was important. Lectures (54.7%) and books (47.8%) were their predominant sources of knowledge. Only 10.9 % were aware of the existence of an institutional ethics committee and 42.8% did not know its exact role. Their answers showed that the majority of students expressed mixed responses--both desirable and undesirable--in relation to questions exploring different aspects of basic ethical reasoning in their professional life. The most desirable response for each statement was decided by experts of forensic medicine and also from a literature study. Only half the respondents (50.9%) had a good score (61-70 out of a total possible 90) and 37.2% had a fair score (51-60). There was no increase in scores corresponding with additional years of medical education. PMID:22591867

  16. Survey of ethical issues reported by Indian medical students: basis for design of a new curriculum.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anuradha; George, Kuryan; T, Arul Dhas; Pulimood, Anna Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Education in ethics is now a formal part of the undergraduate medical curriculum. However, most courses are structured around principles and case studies more appropriate to western countries. The cultures and practices of countries like India differ from those of western countries. It is, therefore, essential that our teaching should address the issues which are the most relevant to our setting. An anonymised, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional survey of medical students was carried out to get a picture of the ethical problems faced by students in India. The data were categorised into issues related to professional behaviour and ethical dilemmas. Unprofessional behaviour was among the issues reported as a matter of concern by a majority of the medical students. The survey highlights the need to design the curriculum in a way that reflects the structure of medical education in India, where patients are not always considered socio-culturally equal by students or the medical staff. This perspective must underpin any further efforts to address education in ethics in India. PMID:24509105

  17. Int J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Ethics and observational studies in medical research: various rules in a

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Int J Epidemiol . Author manuscript Page /1 4 Ethics and observational studies in medical research: Fran ois Allaç Abstract Background Research ethics have become universal, because their protocols have not been submitted to an Institutional Review Board/Independent Ethics

  18. Teaching and assessing medical ethics: where are we now?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Mattick; J Bligh

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To characterise UK undergraduate medical ethics curricula and to identify opportunities and threats to teaching and learning.Design: Postal questionnaire survey of UK medical schools enquiring about teaching and assessment, including future perspectives.Participants: The lead for teaching and learning at each medical school was invited to complete a questionnaire.Results: Completed responses were received from 22\\/28 schools (79%). Seventeen respondents deemed

  19. [Medical confidentiality and HIV/AIDS. Ethical-legal perspective].

    PubMed

    Rueff, Maria do Céu

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the cross-fire between the crimes, respectively, of violation of the professional confidentiality and of transmission of infection disease, by omission, under the Portuguese legal framework, in the case of HIV/AIDS. The conflict of interests and duties for the practitioner, and the difficulty of solving it. Shall the practitioner speak, or shall he/she keep silence when the HIV/AIDS patient refuses to say the truth to his/her sexual partner, with the consequent risk of transmission of infection disease? The point of view of the Human rights. The position of the World Health Organisation (WHO) and of the European Union (EU) in the fight against the discrimination of people affected by HIV/AIDS. The statements of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) concerning the right to privacy and to non-discrimination (even for illness). Possibility of confrontation with the positions represented by: a) the opinion of the National Council of Ethics for the Sciences of Life (CNECV), of 23rd October 2000, required by the Order of the Practitioners; b) the opinion of the Portuguese legal experts; c) the Criminal Law and the Procedural Criminal Law; d) the cases of the English jurisprudence (High Courts). The ethics of responsibility, the crossing of the traditional principles of medicine, bioethics and law, as well as the reinforcing of the medical deontology and the implementing of a deontology of the patient as possible ways to be considered in order to find answers for the problems. PMID:16197857

  20. Stem cell politics, ethics and medical progress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George J. Annas; Arthur Caplan; Sherman Elias

    1999-01-01

    Tremendous controversy has surrounded efforts to undertake research on totipotent human stem cells. To date public policy in the United States has attempted to skirt the ethical and social questions raised by this research. Annas et al. argue that research using human embryos as a source of totipotent stem cells can secure broad public support if there is an open

  1. Ethics AbAndonEd: Medical Professionalism

    E-print Network

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    and human rights, freedom of expression, and access to public health and education. About IMAP and OSF #12 New York State Assembly vincent iacopino, Md, Phd Physicians for Human Rights Allen s. keller, Md New Declaration of Malta on Hunger Strikes 175 3. Ethics Statements and Opinions of Professional Associations

  2. Compassion as a basis for ethics in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Leget, Carlo; Olthuis, Gert

    2007-01-01

    The idea that ethics is a matter of personal feeling is a dogma widespread among medical students. Because emotivism is firmly rooted in contemporary culture, the authors think that focusing on personal feeling can be an important point of departure for moral education. In this contribution, they clarify how personal feelings can be a solid basis for moral education by focusing on the analysis of compassion by the French phenomenologist Emmanuel Housset. This leads to three important issues regarding ethics education: (1) the necessity of a continuous attention for and interpretation of the meaning of language, (2) the importance of examining what aspect of “the other” touches one and what it is that evokes the urge to act morally and (3) the need to relate oneself to the community, both to the medical community and to collectively formulated rules and laws. These issues can have a place in medical education by means of an ethical portfolio that supports students in their moral development. First, keeping a portfolio will improve their expression of the moral dimension of medical practice. Second, the effects of self?knowledge and language mastery will limit the pitfalls of emotivism and ethical subjectivism and will stimulate the inclination to really encounter the other. Third, it will show medical students from the start that their moral responsibility is more than following rules and that they are involved personally. PMID:17906063

  3. Sin and suffering in a Catholic understanding of medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J L A

    2006-08-01

    Drawing chiefly on recent sources, in Part One I sketch an untraditional way of articulating what I claim to be central elements of traditional Catholic morality, treating it as based in virtues, focused on the recipients ("patients") of our attention and concern, and centered in certain person-to-person role-relationships. I show the limited and derivative places of "natural law," and therefore of sin, within that framework. I also sketch out some possible implications for medical ethics of this approach to moral theory, and briefly contrast these with the influential alternative offered by the "principlism" of Beauchamp and Childress. In Part Two, I turn to a Catholic understanding of the nature and meaning of human suffering, drawing especially on writings and addresses of the late Pope John Paul II. He reminds us that physical and mental suffering can provide an opportunity to share in Christ's salvific sacrifice, better to see the nature of our earthly vocation, and to reflect on the dependence that inheres in human existence. At various places, and especially in my conclusion, I suggest a few ways in which this can inform bioethical reflection on morally appropriate responses to those afflicted by physical or mental pain, disability, mental impairment, disease, illness, and poor health prospects. My general point is that mercy must be informed by appreciation of the person's dignity and status. Throughout, my approach is philosophical rather than theological. PMID:16864134

  4. Medical ethics at Guantanamo Bay and Abu Ghraib: the problem of dual loyalty.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A

    2006-01-01

    Although knowledge of torture and physical and psychological abuse was widespread at both the Guantanamo Bay detention facility and Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq, and known to medical personnel, there was no official report before the January 2004 Army investigation of military health personnel reporting abuse, degradation or signs of torture. Military medical personnel are placed in a position of a "dual loyalty" conflict. They have to balance the medical needs of their patients, who happen to be detainees, with their military duty to their employer. The United States military medical system failed to protect detainee's human rights, violated the basic principles of medical ethics and ignored the basic tenets of medical professionalism. PMID:17144181

  5. Ethics Education in U.S. Medical Schools: A Study of Syllabi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, James M.; Burkemper, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Surveyed medical schools to determine the scope and content of required, formal ethics components in their curriculums. Found that ethics education is far from homogeneous among medical schools in both content and extensiveness. (EV)

  6. [Polish medical ethics in the period 1945-1980].

    PubMed

    Wichrowski, Marek

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is o present that main currents of Polish medical ethics in the years 1945-1980, which the author treats as the 'prehistory' of Poland's contemporary bioethics. The author begins by ascertaining the post-war disappearance of two Polish traditions--that of the Warsaw school of philosopher-physicians (known in the West as the Polish School of Philosophy of Medicine) and the Lwów-Warsaw School of Philosophy. The political system that come into being after 1945 was not conducive to the development of medical ethics, but several clear orientations may be discerned in the utterances of physicians, lawyers, moral technologlans and academic philosophers. The analysis begins with Catholic ethics in its archaic 1950s-vintage form. The author then presents the thinking of ethicians Independent of both the Church and Marxism (the milieu of the journal 'Etyka') as well as the deontological writings of physicians. PMID:17152874

  7. Ethical challenges in Emergency Medical Services: controversies and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Becker, Torben K; Gausche-Hill, Marianne; Aswegan, Andrew L; Baker, Eileen F; Bookman, Kelly J; Bradley, Richard N; De Lorenzo, Robert A; Schoenwetter, David J

    2013-10-01

    Emergency Medical Services (EMS) providers face many ethical issues while providing prehospital care to children and adults. Although provider judgment plays a large role in the resolution of conflicts at the scene, it is important to establish protocols and policies, when possible, to address these high-risk and complex situations. This article describes some of the common situations with ethical underpinnings encountered by EMS personnel and managers including denying or delaying transport of patients with non-emergency conditions, use of lights and sirens for patient transport, determination of medical futility in the field, termination of resuscitation, restriction of EMS provider duty hours to prevent fatigue, substance abuse by EMS providers, disaster triage and difficulty in switching from individual care to mass-casualty care, and the challenges of child maltreatment recognition and reporting. A series of ethical questions are proposed, followed by a review of the literature and, when possible, recommendations for management. PMID:23890578

  8. A Computer Conference Format for Teaching Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barclay, Mel L.; Elkins, Thomas E.

    1991-01-01

    The University of Michigan uses computer teleconferencing to extend classroom interaction beyond classroom hours and space. Using this computer conference to present, explore, and discuss medical ethics issues makes students active, thoughtful participants and makes discussion easier. Current case materials are presented before classroom…

  9. The Program for Professional Values and Ethics in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazarus, Cathy J.; Chauvin, Sheila W.; Rodenhauser, Paul; Whitlock, Robin

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Program for Professional Values and Ethics in Medical Education (PPVEME) at Tulane University School of Medicine. It brings together students, residents, and faculty into learning teams that teach the other teams about one of five themes: integrity, communication, teamwork, leadership, and service. It emphasizes learner-driven self…

  10. Making sense of assessment in medical ethics and law.

    PubMed

    Dowie, Al

    2014-10-01

    Are curricula in medical ethics and law effective in producing ethical doctors? Assessment is central to this question, both in setting the standards that students are expected to meet and in establishing the extent to which learning correlates with these. Medical ethics and law: a practical guide to the assessment of the core content of learning from the Education Steering Group of the Institute of Medical Ethics is an excellent guide for educators in approaching this curriculum task. If the teaching moment is temporally antecedent to assessment, it is not logically prior to assessment decisions as if these were simply retrospective, and we cannot speak meaningfully of assessment without also speaking of intended learning. The IME assessment guide places emphasis on the alignment of learning, teaching and assessment in curriculum design; on specifying in advance the learning opportunities available to students; on delivering these via appropriate forms of learning; and on matching suitable methods for testing this learning in both summative and formative modes. Variety in assessment is essential across the cognitive, the affective and the psychomotor domains of learning, and the IME assessment guide provides illustrative examples of, and templates for, types of assessment that are relevant to these. The practical advice offered is as applicable in schools of nursing and in dental schools as it is in medical education. PMID:24812334

  11. Undergraduate International Medical Electives: Some Ethical and Pedagogical Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Lori; Harms, Sheila; Plamondon, Katrina

    2011-01-01

    The authors argue that attempts to establish more placements to meet the growing demands of undergraduate medical students in North America for international experiences may be outweighing critical reflection on the ethical issues, curricular content, and pedagogical strategies necessary to support equitable engagements with countries of the…

  12. Codes of medical ethics: Traditional foundations and contemporary practice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sohl; H. A. Bassford

    1986-01-01

    The Hippocratic Coprus recognized the interaction of 'business' and patient-health moral considerations, and urged that the former be subordinated to the latter. During the 1800s with the growth of complexity in both scientific knowledge and the organization of health services, the medical ethical codes addressed themselves to elaborate rules of conduct to be followed by the members of the newly

  13. Autonomy in medical ethics after O’Neill

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G M Stirrat; R Gill

    2005-01-01

    Following the influential Gifford and Reith lectures by Onora O’Neill, this paper explores further the paradigm of individual autonomy which has been so dominant in bioethics until recently and concurs that it is an aberrant application and that conceptions of individual autonomy cannot provide a sufficient and convincing starting point for ethics within medical practice. We suggest that revision of

  14. The impact of medical tourism and the code of medical ethics on advertisement in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Makinde, Olusesan Ayodeji; Brown, Brandon; Olaleye, Olalekan

    2014-01-01

    Advances in management of clinical conditions are being made in several resource poor countries including Nigeria. Yet, the code of medical ethics which bars physician and health practices from advertising the kind of services they render deters these practices. This is worsened by the incursion of medical tourism facilitators (MTF) who continue to market healthcare services across countries over the internet and social media thereby raising ethical questions. A significant review of the advertisement ban in the code of ethics is long overdue. Limited knowledge about advances in medical practice among physicians and the populace, the growing medical tourism industry and its attendant effects, and the possibility of driving brain gain provide evidence to repeal the code. Ethical issues, resistance to change and elitist ideas are mitigating factors working in the opposite direction. The repeal of the code of medical ethics against advertising will undoubtedly favor health facilities in the country that currently cannot advertise the kind of services they render. A repeal or review of this code of medical ethics is necessary with properly laid down guidelines on how advertisements can be and cannot be done. PMID:25722776

  15. Drones--ethical considerations and medical implications.

    PubMed

    Pepper, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Drones enhance military capability and form a potent element of force protection, allowing humans to be removed from hazardous environments and tedious jobs. However, there are moral, legal, and political dangers associated with their use. Although a time may come when it is possible to develop a drone that is able to autonomously and ethically engage a legitimate target with greater reliability than a human, until then military drones demand a crawl-walk-run development methodology, consent by military personnel for weapon use, and continued debate about the complex issues surrounding their deployment. PMID:22558742

  16. Medical Ethics for Senior Medical Doctors (Episode III)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sukhit Phaosavasdi; Surasak Taneepanichskul; Yuen Tannirandorn; Manopchai Thamkhantho; Chumsak Pruksapong; Aurchart Kanjanapitak

    The value and dignity of the medical profession commence right from the entry of the medical students into the medical school. They have to go through a strict and highly selective system in the aspect of learning capability which consists of namely, merit of Phromviharn 4 still suspicious that the process of the medical student selective system, is it included

  17. Major issues relating to end-of-life care : Ethical, legal and medical from a historical perspective

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert F. Rizzo

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – Ethical, legal and medical progress has been made in end-of-life care, addressing crucial issues in the application of principles to clinical cases. However, despite the progress, there are still unresolved issues concerning the scope and effectiveness of personal decision making and the proper use of last resort measures in terminal care. An analysis of the progress discloses both

  18. [Bioethics in medical institutions--new custom or help? The example of clinical ethics consultation at a University Medical Center].

    PubMed

    Richter, G

    2014-08-01

    Although ethics committees are well established in the medical sciences for human clinical trials, animal research and scientific integrity, the development of clinical ethics in German hospitals started much later during the first decade of the twenty-first century. Clinical ethics consultation should be pragmatic and problem-centered and can be defined as an ethically qualified and informed conflict management within a given legal framework to deal with and resolve value-driven, normative problems in the care of patients. Clinical ethics consultations enable shared clinical decision-making of all parties (e.g. clinicians, patients, family and surrogates) involved in a particular patient's care. The clinical ethicist does not act as an ethics expert by making independent recommendations or decisions; therefore, the focus is different from other medical consultants. Ethics consultation was first established by healthcare ethics committees (HEC) or clinical ethics consultation (CEC) groups which were called in to respond to an ethically problematic situation. To avoid ethical dilemmas or crises and to act preventively with regard to ethical issues in individual patients, an ethics liaison service is an additional option to ethics case consultations which take place on a regular basis by scheduled ethics rounds during the normal ward rounds. The presence of the ethicist offers some unique advantages: it allows early recognition of even minor ethical problems and accommodates the dynamics of ethical and clinical goal-setting in the course of patient care. Most importantly, regular and non-authoritative participation of the ethicist in normal ward rounds allows continuous ethical education of the staff within the everyday clinical routine. By facilitating clinical ethical decision-making, the ethicist seeks to empower physicians and medical staff to deal appropriately with ethical problems by themselves. Because of this proactive approach, the ethics liaison service can make a significant contribution to preventative ethics in reducing the number of emerging ethical problems to the satisfaction of all parties involved. PMID:24902533

  19. Medical bribery and the ethics of trust: the Romanian case.

    PubMed

    Manea, Teodora

    2015-02-01

    Medical bribery seems to be a global problem from Eastern Europe and the Balkans to China, a diffuse phenomenon, starting with morally acceptable gratitude and ending with institutional bribery. I focus my attention on Romania and analyze similar cases in Eastern European and postcommunist countries. Medical bribery can be regarded as a particular form of human transaction, a kind of primitive contract that occurs when people do not trust institutions or other forms of social contract that are meant to guarantee their rights and protect their interests. Concluding with strategies to fight medical bribery, I will underline better public policies for financing health and social care, and an ethic of trust that may help to restore trustworthiness of institutions and to rebuild interpersonal trust. This should be complemented by an educational program dedicated to understanding the negative consequences and mechanisms of corruption and the importance of ethical behavior. PMID:25503609

  20. Fluoridation: a violation of medical ethics and human rights.

    PubMed

    Cross, Douglas W; Carton, Robert J

    2003-01-01

    Silicofluorides, widely used in water fluoridation, are unlicensed medicinal substances, administered to large populations without informed consent or supervision by a qualified medical practitioner. Fluoridation fails the test of reliability and specificity, and, lacking toxicity testing of silicofluorides, constitutes unlawful medical research. It is banned in most of Europe; European Union human rights legislation makes it illegal. Silicofluorides have never been submitted to the U.S. FDA for approval as medicines. The ethical validity of fluoridation policy does not stand up to scrutiny relative to the Nuremberg Code and other codes of medical ethics, including the Council of Europe's Biomedical Convention of 1999. The police power of the State has been used in the United States to override health concerns, with the support of the courts, which have given deference to health authorities. PMID:12749628

  1. Medical Ethics Education: A Survey of Opinion of Medical Students in a Nigerian University

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Temidayo O. Ogundiran; Clement A. Adebamowo

    2010-01-01

    In Nigeria, medical education remains focused on the traditional clinical and basic medical science components, leaving students\\u000a to develop moral attitudes passively through observation and intuition. In order to ascertain the adequacy of this method\\u000a of moral formations, we studied the opinions of medical students in a Nigerian university towards medical ethics training.\\u000a Self administered semi-structured questionnaires were completed by

  2. The Opinions of Preschool Teachers about Ethical Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozturk, Safak

    2010-01-01

    Can we fulfill our responsibilities and obligations while we are working? Today, professional ethics is a necessity for each occupation. As teachers are directly responsible for children's growth, professional ethics and ethical decision making are important for them. Although many countries, particularly the United States, have prepared ethics

  3. Ebola: what it tells us about medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Angus J

    2015-01-01

    Good medical ethics needs to look more to the resources of public health ethics and use more societal, population or community values and perspectives, rather than defaulting to the individualistic values that currently dominate discussion. In this paper I argue that we can use the recent response to Ebola as an example of a major failure of the global community in three ways. First, the focus has been on the treatment of individuals rather than seeing that the priority ought to be public health measures. Second, the advisory committee on experimental interventions set up by the WHO has focused on ethical issues related to individuals and their guidance has been unclear. Third, the Ebola issue can be seen as a symptom of a massive failure of the global community to take sufficient notice of global injustice. PMID:25516949

  4. Professional medical organizations and commercial conflicts of interest: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) has recently been criticized for accepting a large corporate donation from Coca-Cola to fund patient education on obesity prevention. Conflicts of interest, whether individual or organizational, occur when one enters into arrangements that reasonably tempt one to put aside one's primary obligations in favor of secondary interests, such as financial self-interest. Accepting funds from commercial sources that seek to influence physician organizational behavior in a direction that could run counter to the public health represents one of those circumstances and so constitutes a conflict of interest. Most of the defenses offered by AAFP are rationalizations rather than ethical counterarguments. Medical organizations, as the public face of medicine and as formulator of codes of ethics for their physician members, have special obligations to adhere to high ethical standards. PMID:20644191

  5. Ethics and access to teaching materials in the medical library: the case of the Pernkopf atlas*

    PubMed Central

    Atlas, Michel C.

    2001-01-01

    Conflicts can occur between the principle of freedom of information treasured by librarians and ethical standards of scientific research involving the propriety of using data derived from immoral or dishonorable experimentation. A prime example of this conflict was brought to the attention of the medical and library communities in 1995 when articles claiming that the subjects of the illustrations in the classic anatomy atlas, Eduard Pernkopf's Topographische Anatomie des Menschen, were victims of the Nazi holocaust. While few have disputed the accuracy, artistic, or educational value of the Pernkopf atlas, some have argued that the use of such subjects violates standards of medical ethics involving inhuman and degrading treatment of subjects or disrespect of a human corpse. Efforts were made to remove the book from medical libraries. In this article, the history of the Pernkopf atlas and the controversy surrounding it are reviewed. The results of a survey of academic medical libraries concerning their treatment of the Pernkopf atlas are reported, and the ethical implications of these issues as they affect the responsibilities of librarians is discussed. PMID:11209801

  6. Applied Ethics and eHealth: Principles, Identity, and RFID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehouse, Diane; Duquenoy, Penny

    The social and ethical implications of contemporary technologies are becoming an issue of steadily growing importance. This paper offers an overview in terms of identity and the field of ethics, and explores how these apply to eHealth in both theory and practice. The paper selects a specific circumstance in which these ethical issues can be explored. It focuses particularly on radio-frequency identifiers (RFID). It ends by discussing ethical issues more generally, and the practice of ethical consideration.

  7. Simulation-based medical education: an ethical imperative.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Amitai; Wolpe, Paul Root; Small, Stephen D; Glick, Shimon

    2006-01-01

    Medical training must at some point use live patients to hone the skills of health professionals. But there is also an obligation to provide optimal treatment and to ensure patients' safety and well-being. Balancing these 2 needs represents a fundamental ethical tension in medical education. Simulation-based learning can help mitigate this tension by developing health professionals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes while protecting patients from unnecessary risk. Simulation-based training has been institutionalized in other high-hazard professions, such as aviation, nuclear power, and the military, to maximize training safety and minimize risk. Health care has lagged behind in simulation applications for a number of reasons, including cost, lack of rigorous proof of effect, and resistance to change. Recently, the international patient safety movement and the U.S. federal policy agenda have created a receptive atmosphere for expanding the use of simulators in medical training, stressing the ethical imperative to "first do no harm" in the face of validated, large epidemiological studies describing unacceptable preventable injuries to patients as a result of medical management. Four themes provide a framework for an ethical analysis of simulation-based medical education: best standards of care and training, error management and patient safety, patient autonomy, and social justice and resource allocation. These themes are examined from the perspectives of patients, learners, educators, and society. The use of simulation wherever feasible conveys a critical educational and ethical message to all: patients are to be protected whenever possible and they are not commodities to be used as conveniences of training. PMID:19088599

  8. Simulation-based medical education: an ethical imperative.

    PubMed

    Ziv, Amitai; Wolpe, Paul Root; Small, Stephen D; Glick, Shimon

    2003-08-01

    Medical training must at some point use live patients to hone the skills of health professionals. But there is also an obligation to provide optimal treatment and to ensure patients' safety and well-being. Balancing these two needs represents a fundamental ethical tension in medical education. Simulation-based learning can help mitigate this tension by developing health professionals' knowledge, skills, and attitudes while protecting patients from unnecessary risk. Simulation-based training has been institutionalized in other high-hazard professions, such as aviation, nuclear power, and the military, to maximize training safety and minimize risk. Health care has lagged behind in simulation applications for a number of reasons, including cost, lack of rigorous proof of effect, and resistance to change. Recently, the international patient safety movement and the U.S. federal policy agenda have created a receptive atmosphere for expanding the use of simulators in medical training, stressing the ethical imperative to "first do no harm" in the face of validated, large epidemiological studies describing unacceptable preventable injuries to patients as a result of medical management. Four themes provide a framework for an ethical analysis of simulation-based medical education: best standards of care and training, error management and patient safety, patient autonomy, and social justice and resource allocation. These themes are examined from the perspectives of patients, learners, educators, and society. The use of simulation wherever feasible conveys a critical educational and ethical message to all: patients are to be protected whenever possible and they are not commodities to be used as conveniences of training. PMID:12915366

  9. Ethics, Deafness, and New Medical Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintermair, Manfred; Albertini, John A.

    2005-01-01

    In the last 50 years, several new technologies have become enormously important within the Deaf community and have helped significantly to improve deaf people's lives in a hearing world. Current public attention and admiration, however, seems unduly focused on medical technologies that promise to solve "the problem" of being deaf. One reason for…

  10. Ethical Challenges in Teaching Genetics for Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Nagle, Erika; Kažoka, Dzintra

    2014-01-01

    Although inclusion of ethics as a study course in medical students’ curricula is a common practice, special approaches in teaching ethics in the context of genetics should be considered. In the realm of genomics, there are several ethically sensitive topics such as diagnosis of genetic diseases, in vitro fertilization, and identification of genetic susceptibility to common diseases. In addition, in communication with the general public, genetic terms should be used with caution. Demonstration of the phenotypes of affected individuals should be regarded as a particular aspect of teaching genetics. In a description of a patient’s phenotype, not only is it necessary to provide scientifically precise characteristics of a patient; voice timbre, facial expression, and body language should also be carefully controlled. Furthermore, in medicine, the theory–practice gap is a problematic aspect, and students often find it difficult to apply knowledge on ethical issues to real situations in clinics. For this purpose, clinical cases are presented during classes and their analysis requires a very respectful attitude on the part of both students and lecturers. For many genetic diseases, evaluation of minor anomalies such as a curved fifth finger, low situated ears, or missing of some teeth is required. Some minor anomalies are found in healthy individuals too, and interpretation of such features must therefore be considered carefully. This article describes our experiences in teaching genetics at Riga Stradinš University, ethical problems faced while teaching genetics, and their solutions. PMID:25574275

  11. Ethical Considerations in the Termination of Patient Care The ACOFP Ethics Committee is offering this column to provide a forum for discussion of medical ethical questions.

    E-print Network

    Solka, Jeff

    this column to provide a forum for discussion of medical ethical questions. By David A. Plundo, DO, FACOFPEthical Considerations in the Termination of Patient Care The ACOFP Ethics Committee is offering, great harm may come from failing to follow medical advice. The most obvious consequence of patient

  12. Current Principles and Practice of Ethics and Law in Perinatal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    BERCEANU, C.; ALBU, SIMONA ELENA; BO?, MIHAELA; GHELASE, M.?T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the most controversial discussion topics in modern bioethics, science or philosophy is represented by the beginning of the individual human life. It is ethically, medically and scientifically correct that the human conception product to be born, so to gain personality and individuality, to be treated as a patient since the intrauterine life. Intrauterine foetal interventions, performed in various therapeutic purposes are still in the experimental stage even in centres with rich experience in perinatal medicine. Progresses truly outstanding are present especially in the prenatal diagnostic methods. Non invasive prenatal testing represents without a doubt a great progress in prenatal diagnosis, but from this point of view, the role of practitioners in the field of perinatal medicine, on counselling and addressing the indication of this test becomes essential. Beyond cultural, national, social or related differences, in perinatal medicine practice is particularly important to respect and permanently reassess the ethical codes. Our paper is targeting to spotlight the essential principles and practice of ethics and law in perinatal medicine nowadays on one hand, and to bring an update review on a controversial topic on the other hand. PMID:25729600

  13. Ethical principles and standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Yvan; Portaluppi, Francesco; Smolensky, Michael H; Rensing, Ludger

    2004-01-01

    Most research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The Journal, its editors and the publication committee endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association relating to the conduct of ethical research on human beings and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council relating to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. Chronobiology International requires that submitted manuscripts reporting the findings of human and animal research conform to the respective policy and mandates of the Declaration of Helsinki and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The peer review of manuscripts will thus include judgment of whether or not the involved research methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article outlines the basic expectations for the methods of human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the fundamental criteria necessary for quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals. PMID:15129830

  14. Ethical principles of informed consent: exploring nurses' dual role of care provider and researcher.

    PubMed

    Judkins-Cohn, Tanya M; Kielwasser-Withrow, Kiersten; Owen, Melissa; Ward, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the ethical principles of autonomy, beneficence, and justice within the nurse researcher-participant relationship as these principles relate to the informed consent process for research. Within this process, the nurse is confronted with a dual role. This article describes how nurses, who are in the dual role of care provider and researcher, can apply these ethical principles to their practice in conjunction with the American Nurses Association's code of ethics for nurses. This article also describes, as an element of ethical practice, the importance of using participant-centered quality measures to aid informed decision making of participants in research. In addition, the article provides strategies for improving the informed consent process in nursing research. Finally, case scenarios are discussed, along with the application of ethical principles within the awareness of the dual role of the nurse as care provider and researcher. PMID:24369754

  15. The Moral Domain of the Medical Record: The Routine Ethics Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfred I. Tauber

    2006-01-01

    The structure, content, and orientation of the contemporary medical record inadequately reflect the appropriate influence of patients' rights and bioethics on health care. Most tellingly, the medical chart reveals a remarkable absence of attention to medical ethics, except in the case of crisis management. But medical ethics informs both crisis decision-making and virtually all clinical interventions. Indeed, clinical care embodies

  16. Medical Writing” and Ghostwriting as Ethical Challenges in Medical Communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Górski; S. Letkiewicz

    2010-01-01

    In the past years, it has become increasingly apparent that ghostwriting may erode the public trust in medical science and scientific publishing. It is estimated that approximately 10% of articles published in reputed journals are ghostwritten, and this rate may be even higher in some medical specialties. Although this practice is rather universally condemned, the propriety of participation of professional

  17. [Assisted suicide - medical, legal, and ethical aspects].

    PubMed

    Bosshard, G

    2012-02-01

    Unlike in most European countries, assisted suicide is not illegal in Switzerland. The number of assisted suicides procured by right-to-die organisations such as Exit or Dignitas has sharply increased in the last twenty years. Central part of the doctor's involvement is the prescription of a lethal dose of sodium pentobarbital. In doing so, the doctor has to apply to the rules of medical due care. A proper examination of the patient is required, who must be informed about his diagnosis, about the expected prognosis, and about different treatment options. Verification of the patient's decisional capacity is crucial. In general, a staff member of the organisation but not the doctor is present during suicide. Following death, the assisted suicide has to be reported to the police as an extraordinary death case. PMID:22294304

  18. Medical navigation in Israel: description, advantages and ethical considerations.

    PubMed

    Jotkowitz, Alan

    2013-02-01

    Throughout history religious figures have been intimately involved in caring for the sick. Not only have they prayed for the welfare of the sick and arranged for their care but in many instances provided medical care as well. With the advent of scientific medicine, the responsibility for medical care was transferred to trained physicians. A new phenomenon has recently emerged in Israel that has threatened this 'division of labor' between physicians and rabbis, namely, the establishment of medical navigation organizations. Medical navigation can improve access to highly specialized care and help build trust between doctors and patients. However, this system is accompanied by numerous ethical and professional difficulties. For example, it is not clear how referrals are made and to what extent the system should be regulated. The phenomenon needs to be further studied to determine its prevalence in Israeli society as well as its impact on the practice of medicine from the perspective of both physicians and patients. PMID:23516765

  19. What is it to do good medical ethics? On the concepts of 'good' and 'goodness' in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Solbakk, Jan Helge

    2015-01-01

    In his book The Varieties of Goodness Georg Henrik von Wright advocates that a useful preliminary to the study of the word 'good' is to compile a list of familiar uses and try to group them under some main headings. The present paper aims at exploring the question, 'What is it to do good medical ethics?', and notably from the vantage point of everyday expressions of the word 'good' and von Wright's grouping of them into six different types of goodness. PMID:25516925

  20. A Five Year Follow-Up National Study of Ethics Committees in Medical Organizations in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akira Akabayashi; Brian Taylor Slingsby; Noriko Nagao; Ichiro Kai; Hajime Sato

    2008-01-01

    Compared to institutional and area-based ethics committees, little is known about the structure and activities performed by\\u000a ethics committees at national medical organizations and societies. This five year follow-up study aimed to determine (1) the\\u000a creation and function of ethics committees at medical organizations in Japan, and (2) their general strategies to deal with\\u000a ethical problems. The study sample included

  1. How “moral” are the principles of biomedical ethics? – a cross-domain evaluation of the common morality hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The principles of biomedical ethics – autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice – are of paradigmatic importance for framing ethical problems in medicine and for teaching ethics to medical students and professionals. In order to underline this significance, Tom L. Beauchamp and James F. Childress base the principles in the common morality, i.e. they claim that the principles represent basic moral values shared by all persons committed to morality and are thus grounded in human moral psychology. We empirically investigated the relationship of the principles to other moral and non-moral values that provide orientations in medicine. By way of comparison, we performed a similar analysis for the business & finance domain. Methods We evaluated the perceived degree of “morality” of 14 values relevant to medicine (n1?=?317, students and professionals) and 14 values relevant to business & finance (n2?=?247, students and professionals). Ratings were made along four dimensions intended to characterize different aspects of morality. Results We found that compared to other values, the principles-related values received lower ratings across several dimensions that characterize morality. By interpreting our finding using a clustering and a network analysis approach, we suggest that the principles can be understood as “bridge values” that are connected both to moral and non-moral aspects of ethical dilemmas in medicine. We also found that the social domain (medicine vs. business & finance) influences the degree of perceived morality of values. Conclusions Our results are in conflict with the common morality hypothesis of Beauchamp and Childress, which would imply domain-independent high morality ratings of the principles. Our findings support the suggestions by other scholars that the principles of biomedical ethics serve primarily as instruments in deliberated justifications, but lack grounding in a universal “common morality”. We propose that the specific manner in which the principles are taught and discussed in medicine – namely by referring to conflicts requiring a balancing of principles – may partly explain why the degree of perceived “morality” of the principles is lower compared to other moral values. PMID:24938295

  2. A Repository of Codes of Ethics and Technical Standards in Health Informatics A Repository of Codes of Ethics and Technical Standards in Health

    E-print Network

    Zaiane, Osmar R.

    ? #12;A Repository of Codes of Ethics and Technical Standards in Health Informatics 2 Medical ethics a document covering the principles of medical ethics, but this has no provision for electronic health records (5). Also, the American Medical Association's (AMA) Code of Medical Ethics identifies physician

  3. Publication ethics and the ghost management of medical publication.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio; Doucet, Mathieu

    2010-07-01

    It is by now no secret that some scientific articles are ghost authored - that is, written by someone other than the person whose name appears at the top of the article. Ghost authorship, however, is only one sort of ghosting. In this article, we present evidence that pharmaceutical companies engage in the ghost management of the scientific literature, by controlling or shaping several crucial steps in the research, writing, and publication of scientific articles. Ghost management allows the pharmaceutical industry to shape the literature in ways that serve its interests. This article aims to reinforce and expand publication ethics as an important area of concern for bioethics. Since ghost-managed research is primarily undertaken in the interests of marketing, large quantities of medical research violate not just publication norms but also research ethics. Much of this research involves human subjects, and yet is performed not primarily to increase knowledge for broad human benefit, but to disseminate results in the service of profits. Those who sponsor, manage, conduct, and publish such research therefore behave unethically, since they put patients at risk without justification. This leads us to a strong conclusion: if medical journals want to ensure that the research they publish is ethically sound, they should not publish articles that are commercially sponsored. PMID:19222451

  4. Unwanted pregnancy--medical and ethical dimensions.

    PubMed

    Ravindran, J

    2003-03-01

    Globally, abortion mortality accounts for approximately 13% of all maternal mortality. Unsafe abortion procedures, untrained abortion providers, restrictive abortion laws and high maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion tend to occur together. Unplanned and unwanted pregnancies constitute a serious public health responsibility. While fertility has declined by half in developing countries, the motivation to control and space births has risen faster than the rate of contraceptive use. Preventing maternal mortality and morbidity from abortion in countries where these remain high is a matter of good public health policy and medical practice, and constitutes an important part of safe motherhood initiatives. A range of positive steps has been taken to reduce deaths and morbidity from abortion in a growing number of countries over the past 15 years. Making abortion legal is an essential prerequisite in making it safe. In this respect, changing the law does matter and assertions to the contrary are ill conceived and unsupported in practice. Although, in many countries, trends towards safer abortion have often occurred prior to or in the absence of changes in the law, legal changes need to take place if safety is to be sustained for all women. Religious laws may also require attention when legal change is being contemplated. There are three main ways of approaching this problem: liberalizing the existing law within the penal or criminal code; partially or fully legalizing abortion through a positive law or a court ruling; and decriminalising abortion by taking it out of the law. Women's health groups and other advocates, parliamentarians and health professionals, can work together to support the right of women not to die from unsafe abortions and to ensure they receive treatment for complications. Committed doctors can make a difference by providing treatment for abortion complications, interpreting the law in a liberal way and providing safe services where these are legal as well as training providers in the safest techniques to reduce mortality and morbidity. Although law, policy and women's rights are central to this issue, making abortions safe is above all a public health responsibility of governments. Moreover, reducing maternal mortality by making abortions safe is also an important part of the international commitment made in Cairo in 1994 at the ICPD and reaffirmed at the Cairo meeting in 1999. PMID:14556348

  5. a principle for ethics and economics in the global information society1

    E-print Network

    Kuhlen, Rainer

    Trust a principle for ethics and economics in the global information society1 Rainer Kuhlen or a system, is considered of growing ethical and economic importance for all processes in electronic markets and value-added information services on the Internet. Trust in electronic systems or services such as search

  6. Ethical aspects of using medical social media in healthcare applications.

    PubMed

    Denecke, Kerstin

    2014-01-01

    The advances in internet and mobile technologies and their increased use in healthcare led to the development of a new research field: health web science. Many research questions are addressed in that field, starting from analysing social-media data, to recruiting participants for clinical studies and monitoring the public health status. The information provided through this channel is unique in a sense that there is no other written source of experiences from patients and health carers. The increased usage and analysis of health web data poses questions on privacy, and ethics. Through a literature review, the current awareness on ethical issues in the context of public health monitoring and research using medical social media data is determined. Further, considerations on the topic were collected from members of the IMIA Social Media Working group. PMID:24825685

  7. Genetically engineered livestock: ethical use for food and medical models.

    PubMed

    Garas, Lydia C; Murray, James D; Maga, Elizabeth A

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in the production of genetically engineered (GE) livestock have resulted in a variety of new transgenic animals with desirable production and composition changes. GE animals have been generated to improve growth efficiency, food composition, and disease resistance in domesticated livestock species. GE animals are also used to produce pharmaceuticals and as medical models for human diseases. The potential use of these food animals for human consumption has prompted an intense debate about food safety and animal welfare concerns with the GE approach. Additionally, public perception and ethical concerns about their use have caused delays in establishing a clear and efficient regulatory approval process. Ethically, there are far-reaching implications of not using genetically engineered livestock, at a detriment to both producers and consumers, as use of this technology can improve both human and animal health and welfare. PMID:25387117

  8. Teaching Medical Ethics in its Contexts: Penn State College of Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, David; Clouser, K. Danner

    1989-01-01

    The medical school's ethics program evolved through cooperation with the humanities department. Key aspects of the program include the teaching of medical ethics in the context of other issues of value and meaning in medicine, and involvement of humanities faculty in the medical center. (Author/MSE)

  9. Ethical, Scientific, and Educational Concerns With Unproven Medications

    PubMed Central

    Pray, W. Steven

    2006-01-01

    Quackery (promotion of products that do not work or have not been proven to work) was once a commonly used term within the pharmacy and medical communities. However, an increasingly anti-scientific national climate culminated in passage of the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act, which granted unprecedented legitimacy to “dietary supplements” that had not been scientifically proven to be effective and/or safe. In part, this was facilitated when professional pharmacy magazines and journals published advertisements and articles promoting these unproven medications. Gradually, pharmacy codes of ethics eliminated references to quackery, and some pharmacy organizations seemed to accept the unproven medications they once exhorted the pharmacist not to sell. The profession's shift in attitude toward unproven medications occurred as the medical community at large began to realize the value of evidence-based medicine. Academicians must resist pressure to present unproven therapies as realistic alternatives for medications with scientific proof of safety and efficacy. They must stress the value of evidence-based medicine and urge students and pharmacists to recommend only those medications with evidence-based proof of safety and efficacy. PMID:17332867

  10. From an Exercise in Professional Etiquette to Society's Wish List? Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs, American Medical Association. Code of Medical Ethics: Current Opinions with Annotations. Chicago: American Medical Association, 2002. 228 pp. $50.00, softcover only

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tom Meulenbergs

    2004-01-01

    The Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs of the American Medical Association (AMA) recently published the 2002–2003 edition of The Code of Medical Ethics. This annotated version is published on a biennial basis and compiles the ethical position of the AMA on more than 175 speciªc issues, ranging from social-policy issues such as capital punishment, HIV testing, and multiplex genetic

  11. Ethics of medical care for body packers (drug smugglers): untangling a web of fears and conflicts of interest.

    PubMed

    Baljevic, M; Rodríguez del Pozo, P

    2011-07-01

    Body packing by drug smugglers--the transport of illicit drugs in packets swallowed or inserted into body cavities--is a global phenomenon and is becoming more prevalent. The medical care of these patients raises difficult medical and ethical problems. While the medical aspects of treating body packers have been systematically analysed, the ethical issues have received little attention in the literature. The patient may be under police custody or being sought by their criminal patron which may result in imposed interrogations and risky medical procedures. Obtaining informed valid consent for procedures from the patient-detainee may thus be compromised. In addition, physicians may be intimidated by the patient's criminal contacts. This article analyses the conflicts of interest that doctors may face when treating body packers, and proposes some principles to promote institutional guidelines for the treatment of these patients. PMID:21972488

  12. A Comparison of General Medical and Clinical Ethics Consultations: What Can We Learn From Each Other?

    PubMed Central

    Geppert, Cynthia M.A.; Shelton, Wayne N.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the emergence of clinical ethics consultation as a clinical service in recent years, little is known about how clinical ethics consultation differs from, or is the same as, other medical consultations. A critical assessment of the similarities and differences between these 2 types of consultations is important to help the medical community appreciate ethics consultation as a vital service in today's health care setting. Therefore, this Special Article presents a comparison of medical and clinical ethics consultations in terms of fundamental goals of consultation, roles of consultants, and methodologic approaches to consultation, concluding with reflections on important lessons about the physician-patient relationship and medical education that may benefit practicing internists. Our aim is to examine ethics consultation as a clinical service integral to the medical care of patients. Studies for this analysis were obtained through the PubMed database using the keywords ethics consultation, medical consultation, ethics consults, medical consults, ethics consultants, and medical consultants. All English-language articles published from 1970 through August 2011 that pertained to the structure and process of medical and ethics consultation were reviewed. PMID:22469350

  13. Knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation among medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To determine the knowledge and ethical perception regarding organ donation amongst medical students in Karachi- Pakistan. Methods Data of this cross sectional study was collected by self administered questionnaire from MBBS students of Ziauddin University from 2010 to 2011. Sample size of 158 (83 First years and 75 Fourth years) were selected by convenient sampling and those students who were present and gave consent were included in the study. The data was analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A total of 158 participants from Ziauddin Medical University filled out the questionnaire out of which 83(52.5%) were first years and 75(47.5%) were fourth year medical students. Mean age of sample was 20 ± 1.7. Majority of students were aware about organ donation with print and electronic media as the main source of information. 81.6% agreed that it was ethically correct to donate an organ. In the students’ opinion, most commonly donated organs and tissues were kidney, cornea, blood and platelet. Ideal candidates for donating organ were parents (81%). Regarding list of options for preference to receive an organ, most of the students agreed on young age group patients and persons with family. Willingness to donate was significantly associated with knowledge of allowance of organ donation in religion (P=0.000). Conclusion Both 1st year and 4th year students are aware of Organ Donation, but there is a significant lack of knowledge regarding the topic. PMID:24070261

  14. [Terminal medical interventions: psychosocial, medical, ethical and legal aspects].

    PubMed

    Englert, M; Ronson, A; Lossignol, D; Body, J J

    2001-04-01

    We give an overview of the available medical solutions to help a patient with refractory symptoms at the end of his life. Patient "competence" must first be evaluated and, even if their diagnosis is difficult, organic mental disorders and depression must be diagnosed and adequately treated to allow a real, personal and honest dialog. Administration of high doses of morphine is frequently used at the end of life not only to fully relieve pain but also to accelerate death, even if this is not clearly stated. This technique is not devoid of hypocrisy and high doses of morphine can have quite unpleasant side effects. Treatment withdrawal or withholding is generally not sufficient to allow a correct end of life. The arrest of ventilation, dialysis, artificial nutrition and even more hydration must often be coupled with techniques inducing unconsciousness, which makes imprecise the limits between such a "passive" ending of life and "active" euthanasia. The technique of terminal sedation, frequently based on the use of midazolam, has been more recently introduced in some palliative care units. Such a "controlled sedation" is supposed to allow a "natural" death by inducing a profound sleep. In opposition with active euthanasia, which allows a quiet and rapid death at a moment chosen by the patient himself, this technique of "sedation" has an undetermined duration, has legal implications which could be viewed as quite similar as the ones of euthanasia, and, moreover, this prolonged agony can be extremely stressful and distressing for the family. Medical-assisted suicide is allowed in The Netherlands under the same conditions as euthanasia. Death is generally obtained after a few hours but the technique is not always successful and the process of death can sometimes be prolonged and uncomfortable. This technique can nevertheless be preferred by some physicians and patients. As compared to active euthanasia, the proportion of medically-assisted suicides (1/6) is low in The Netherlands. Euthanasia is the only technique able to induce a peaceful and rapid death. The proportion of various techniques to actively induce death is probably quite similar in our country than in The Netherlands but, most of the time, these interventions occur at the very end of life when the patient is no longer able to participate in the decision process and thus occur without his explicit request. We think that, as for all medical decisions, the use of one or the other of these various techniques should be selected after a quiet and free discussion between the patient and his physician, preferably in advance and not in a situation of emergency and panic. PMID:11388029

  15. [Medical and medical ethical basis of precautionary options].

    PubMed

    May, A T; Brokmann, J C

    2010-02-01

    The main activities of anesthesiologists in addition to the operation theatre are intensive and emergency treatment as well as pain and palliative care. Discussions and decisions about strategies and enforcement of therapy are indispensable in all areas. Acknowledgment of the patients' wishes and protection of patient autonomy are very important in the context of medical fiduciary duty. Determination of the aim of therapy and the patient's prognosis are of special importance. Against the background of the current amendments of patient advance directives different possibilities, such as advance directive and emergency forms in different areas of anesthesiology will be discussed. PMID:20151100

  16. Medical marijuana for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy: legal and ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Larriviere, Daniel G

    2014-10-01

    The number of states legalizing medical marijuana is increasing. Medical marijuana is possibly effective therapy for HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Despite legalization at the state level, however, the current and contradictory federal drug enforcement policy creates the risk that physicians who recommend medical marijuana to their patients will lose their ability to prescribe medications. The federal-state tension has legal and ethical implications for neurologists who receive a request for medical marijuana from their patients since neurologists must strive to both relieve suffering and obey relevant laws. Recommendation of medical marijuana by neurologists to their patients is ethically permissible but is not ethically mandatory. PMID:25299291

  17. Measuring the ethical sensitivity of medical students: a study at the University of Toronto

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P C Hébert; E. M. Meslin; E. V. Dunn

    1992-01-01

    An instrument to assess 'ethical sensitivity' has been developed. The instrument presents four clinical vignettes and the respondent is asked to list the ethical issues related to each vignette. The responses are classified, post hoc, into the domains of autonomy, beneficence and justice. This instrument was used in 1990 to assess the ethical sensitivity of students in all four medical

  18. Lifelong Learning in Ethical Practice: A Challenge for Continuing Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Nuala; Sargeant, Joan; Allen, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Questionnaires and small-group discussions with a physician-ethicist revealed that physicians had very little formal ethics training in medical school. They did not feel they needed a very high level of confidence regarding ethical issues in practice, but lacked a systematic approach to identification and analysis of ethical issues. (Contains 24…

  19. 2011-2012BROWNBAGCOLLOQUIUMSERIES Ethical Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources During Public Health

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    2011-2012BROWNBAGCOLLOQUIUMSERIES Ethical Allocation of Scarce Medical Resources During Public between law, policy, ethics, health, and science. For More Information about the Humanities Center, callCenter" on Facebook Scarcity of resources and services is likely during public health emergencies. Numerous ethical

  20. Ethical Principles and Information Professionals: Theory, Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacovino, Livio

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on ethical concepts and thinking processes and their application to professional issues, particularly to information professionals. Topics include conflicts between professional and organizational ethics; regulatory mechanisms and the professions; the practice skills model and the professional-client model for information professionals;…

  1. How an ethics workshop for preceptors affects medical students.

    PubMed Central

    Hennen, B. K.; Morrissy, J.; Grindrod, A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a workshop on medical ethics attended by family medicine preceptors would affect their students' learning of ethics, and what educational and experiential factors affected the students' learning about ethics. DESIGN: A 3-hour workshop planned by a group of family physicians and ethicists and taught by a faculty member and an ethicist was offered to family physician preceptors. Students entering the clerkship were invited by letter to complete written answers to two clinical papers. Their answers were compared with "ideal" answers based on a weighted composite of the responses of 12 family physicians with a particular interest in ethics. The scores of students assigned to preceptors who had been offered the workshop were compared with those of students assigned to a control group of preceptors. Clerks were also asked about influences on their answers. PARTICIPANTS: The 86 preceptors participating in the family medicine programs at the University of Western Ontario, divided by random selection within geographic clustering into an experimental group of 50 and a control group of 36. Preceptors offered the workshop were considered to be in the experimental group whether or not they attended. The student questionnaire was sent to all students entering the family medicine clerkship program in the academic year 1989-1990 and some in the following year, until sufficient responses were received. Responses were analyzed from 32 clerks in the experimental group and 36 in the control group. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Performance of students whose preceptors were invited to the workshop against performance of students whose preceptors were not invited to the workshop. RESULTS: No significant differences were noted between the performance of students whose preceptors were offered the workshop and those whose preceptors were not. CONCLUSION: The single outcome measure and the volunteer bias make conclusions difficult to draw. Further studies varying interventions and outcome measures are warranted. PMID:8086844

  2. The ethics of conducting graduate medical education research on residents.

    PubMed

    Keune, Jason D; Brunsvold, Melissa E; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Korndorffer, James R; Weinstein, Debra F; Smink, Douglas S

    2013-04-01

    The field of graduate medical education (GME) research is attracting increased attention and broader participation. The authors review the special ethical and methodological considerations pertaining to medical education research. Because residents are at once a convenient and captive study population, a risk of coercion exists, making the provision of consent important. The role of the institutional review board (IRB) is often difficult to discern because GME activities can have multiple simultaneous purposes, educational activities may go forward with or without a research component, and the subjects of educational research studies are not patients. The authors provide a road map for researchers with regard to research oversight by the IRB and also address issues related to research quality. The matters of whether educational research studies should have educational value for the study subject and whether to use individual information obtained when residents participate as research subjects are explored. PMID:23425981

  3. Medical ethics and the interrogation of Guantanamo 063.

    PubMed

    Miles, Steven H

    2007-04-01

    The controversy over abusive interrogations of prisoners during the war against terrorism spotlights the need for clear ethics norms requiring physicians and other clinicians to prevent the mistreatment of prisoners. Although policies and general descriptions pertaining to clinical oversight of interrogations in United States' war on terror prisons have come to light, there are few public records detailing the clinical oversight of an interrogation. A complaint by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) led to an Army investigation of an interrogation at the United States prison at Guantanamo Bay. The declassified Army investigation and the corresponding interrogation log show clinical supervision, monitoring and treatment during an interrogation that employed dogs, prolonged sleep deprivation, humiliation, restraint, hypothermia and compulsory intravenous infusions. The interrogation and the involvement of a psychologist, physician and medics violate international and medical norms for the treatment of prisoners. PMID:17454984

  4. Pediatric palliative care and pediatric medical ethics: opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Feudtner, Chris; Nathanson, Pamela G

    2014-02-01

    The fields of pediatric palliative care (PPC) and pediatric medical ethics (PME) overlap substantially, owing to a variety of historical, cultural, and social factors. This entwined relationship provides opportunities for leveraging the strong communication skills of both sets of providers, as well as the potential for resource sharing and research collaboration. At the same time, the personal and professional relationships between PPC and PME present challenges, including potential conflict with colleagues, perceived or actual bias toward a palliative care perspective in resolving ethical problems, potential delay or underuse of PME services, and a potential undervaluing of the medical expertise required for PPC consultation. We recommend that these challenges be managed by: (1) clearly defining and communicating clinical roles of PPC and PME staff, (2) developing questions that may prompt PPC and PME teams to request consultation from the other service, (3) developing explicit recusal criteria for PPC providers who also provide PME consultation, (4) ensuring that PPC and PME services remain organizationally distinct, and (5) developing well-defined and broad scopes of practice. Overall, the rich relationship between PPC and PME offers substantial opportunities to better serve patients and families facing difficult decisions. PMID:24488535

  5. A Justification, after the Postmodern Turn, of Universal Ethical Principles and Educational Ideals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The implementation of education programmes in different cultures invites the question whether we are justified in doing so in cultures that may reject the programmes' underlying principles. Are there indeed ethical principles and educational ideals that can be justified as applicable to all cultures? After a consideration of Zygmunt Bauman's…

  6. Violation of ethical principles in clinical research. Influences and possible solutions for Latin America

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though we are now well into the 21st century and notwithstanding all the abuse to individuals involved in clinical studies that has been documented throughout History, fundamental ethical principles continue to be violated in one way or another. Discussion Here are some of the main factors that contribute to the abuse of subjects participating in clinical trials: paternalism, improper use of informed consent, lack of strict ethical supervision, pressure exerted by health institutions to increase the production of scientific material, and the absence of legislation regarding ethics in terms of health care and research. Are researchers ready to respect fundamental ethical principles in light of the ample window of information provided by individual genomes, while defending the rights of the subjects participating in clinical studies as a major priority? Summary As one of the possible solutions to this problem, education regarding fundamental ethical principles is suggested for participants in research studies as an initial method of cognitive training in ethics, together with the promotion of ethical behavior in order to encourage the adoption of reasonable policies in the field of values, attitudes and behavior. PMID:23241478

  7. Ethical dilemmas in medical humanitarian practice: cases for reflection from Médecins Sans Frontières.

    PubMed

    Sheather, Julian; Shah, Tejshri

    2011-03-01

    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is an independent medical humanitarian organisation working in over 70 countries. It has provided medical assistance for over 35 years to populations vulnerable through conflict, disease and inadequate health systems. Medical ethics define the starting point of the relationship between medical staff and patients. The ethics of humanitarian interventions and of research in conflict settings are much debated. However, less is known about the ethical dilemmas faced by medical humanitarian staff in their daily work. Ethical dilemmas can be intensified in humanitarian contexts by insecure environments, lack of optimum care, language barriers, potentially heightened power discrepancies between care providers and patients, differing cultural values and perceptions of patients, communities and medical staff. Time constraints, stressful conditions and lack of familiarity with ethical frameworks can prevent reflection on these dilemmas, as can frustration that such reflection does not necessarily provide instant solutions. Lack of reflection, however, can be distressing for medical practitioners and can reduce the quality of care. Ethical reflection has a central role in MSF, and the organisation uses ethical frameworks to help with clinical and programmatic decisions as well as in deliberations over operational research. We illustrate and discuss some real ethical dilemmas facing MSF teams. Only by sharing and seeking guidance can MSF and similar actors make more thoughtful and appropriate decisions. Our aim in sharing these cases is to invite discussion and dialogue in the wider medical community working in crisis, conflict or with severe resource limitations. PMID:21084354

  8. Jewish and secular medical ethics share themes but diverge on issues such as heroic measures

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, L

    1997-01-01

    An american expert on Jewish medical ethics explained the nuances of these rules during a recent address in Ottawa. Although Jewish and secular rules concerning medical ethics often coincide, they diverge in several important areas, including the subject of patient autonomy. PMID:9371074

  9. Medical Ethics Teaching Programs at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonsen, Albert R.

    1989-01-01

    The development of medical ethics education at the University of California, San Francisco, is chronicled and its contributions to bioethics literature are noted. Emphasis is placed on the importance of using medical cases in such instruction. The University of Washington's ethics program and its potential for innovation are then described.…

  10. Ethics education for medical house officers: long-term improvements in knowledge and confidence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D P Sulmasy; E S Marx

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of an innovative curriculum on medical house officers' (HOs') knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics. DESIGN: Long term cohort study. The two-year curriculum, implemented by a single physician ethicist with assistance from other faculty, was fully integrated into the programme. It consisted of monthly sessions: ethics morning report alternating with didactic conferences. The

  11. Informed consent: corner stone in ethical medical and dental practice.

    PubMed

    Kakar, Heena; Gambhir, Ramandeep Singh; Singh, Simarpreet; Kaur, Amarinder; Nanda, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Progress in health care technologies has enabled patients to be better informed about all aspects of health care. Patients' informed consent is a legal regulation and a moral principle which represents patients' rights to take part in the clinical decisions concerning their treatment. With increasing awareness among the patients, the concept of informed consent is also evolving in developing countries like India. It is important for the medical and dental practitioners to have a written and signed informed consent from their patients before performing any invasive or irreversible procedures. Informed consent is also needed when providing medical care to children, foreign patients, and incorporating images of the patients while conducting medical and dental research. The present review addresses some of the vital issues regarding informed consent when providing medical and dental care with current review of the literature. PMID:24791241

  12. Bariatric Endocrinology: Principles of Medical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Campoy, J. Michael; Richardson, Bruce; Gonzalez-Cameron, David; Ebrahim, Ayesha; Strobel, Pamela; Martinez, Tiphani; Blaha, Beth; Ransom, Maria; Quinonez-Weislow, Jessica; Pierson, Andrea; Gonzalez Ahumada, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, is a chronic, biological, preventable, and treatable disease. The accumulation of fat mass causes physical changes (adiposity), metabolic and hormonal changes due to adipose tissue dysfunction (adiposopathy), and psychological changes. Bariatric endocrinology was conceived from the need to address the neuro-endocrinological derangements that are associated with adiposopathy, and from the need to broaden the scope of the management of its complications. In addition to the well-established metabolic complications of overweight and obesity, adiposopathy leads to hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, hypoadiponectinemia, dysregulation of gut peptides including GLP-1 and ghrelin, the development of an inflammatory milieu, and the strong risk of vascular disease. Therapy for adiposopathy hinges on effectively lowering the ratio of orexigenic to anorexigenic signals reaching the the hypothalamus and other relevant brain regions, favoring a lower caloric intake. Adiposopathy, overweight and obesity should be treated indefinitely with the specific aims to reduce fat mass for the adiposity complications, and to normalize adipose tissue function for the adiposopathic complications. This paper defines the principles of medical practice in bariatric endocrinology—the treatment of overweight and obesity as means to treat adiposopathy and its accompanying metabolic and hormonal derangements. PMID:24899894

  13. Medicine ethics as a public problem.

    PubMed

    Ridanovic, Z; Masic, I; Budalica, A; Pandza, H

    2001-01-01

    Ethics, especially medical ethics, is of a great importance in medical informatics field ethical principles have great importance in confidentiality, security, and access to patient records. This is not as simple problem as it looks in the first sight, and--in that context--it is significant that many jurisdictions have drafted laws in this regard. As medical informatics has been developed, this ethical problem is becoming very important for medical informatics. Many efforts to make fundamental principles "according to which data protection and access to official information could be reconciled" are made. The principles described in this paper are independent of any process, as they are based on ethical principles. It avoids any kind of conflict or misunderstandings. They can be a base for making of an ethical code for informatics in health care delivery. These principles are independent of any particular "laws", and they can serve as to establish uniformity of standards in medical informatics. PMID:11300076

  14. Genetic screening; Medical promise amid legal and ethical questions

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, R.M. (C and EN, San Francisco, CA (US))

    1989-08-01

    As efforts gear up to map and sequence the human genome, increasing attention is being focused on the ethical, social and legal issues raised by the acquisition and use of genetic information. Several types of genetic screening carried out in a variety of settings hold enormous potential for improving health care. But such screening also poses an array of questions that are only now being addressed. Other applications of humanity's newfound and rapidly growing ability to peer into the genetic makeup of an individual also have serious implications. Use of so-called DNA fingerprinting, for instance, troubles some observers who question the reliability of such analyses carried out on a large scale and who worry about the effects on civil liberties of widespread genetic testing for identification purposes. The author discusses how genetic screening for medical purposes, though, seems to raise a broader array of difficult questions than do other uses of genetic information.

  15. Environmental Ethics Beyond Principle? The Case for a Pragmatic Contextualism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben A. Minteer; Elizabeth A. Corley; Robert E. Manning

    2004-01-01

    Many nonanthropocentric environmental ethicists subscribe to a ``principle-ist'' approach to moral argument, whereby specific natural resource and environmental policy judgments are deduced from the prior articulation of a general moral principle. More often than not, this principle is one requiring the promotion of the intrinsic value of nonhuman nature. Yet there are several problems with this method of moral reasoning,

  16. Journalism Ethics in Secondary Education: Principles and Guidelines for Decision Making within a Systematic Framework of Moral Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herlong, Ann

    In response to rising public criticism of the media and demand for accountability, leaders among professional journalists are calling for a renewed emphasis on codes of ethics and deliberate attention to moral action. In examining the importance and relevance of ethics to high school journalism, three principles for the teaching of ethics emerge:…

  17. Ethics and the GMC core curriculum: a survey of resources in UK medical schools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K W Fulford; A Yates; T Hope

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the resources available and resources needed for ethics teaching to medical students in UK medical schools as required by the new GMC core curriculum. DESIGN: A structured questionnaire was piloted and then circulated to deans of medical schools. SETTING: All UK medical schools. RESULTS: Eighteen out of 28 schools completed the questionnaire, the remainder either indicating that

  18. Ethical Principles in Practice: Evidence from Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Liz

    2008-01-01

    A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…

  19. Ethics.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, E D

    1989-05-19

    This article is from the 1989 CONTEMPO issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, the purpose of which is to keep physicians informed of recent developments in different areas of medicine through brief overviews by specialists in each field. In his article on ethics, Pellegrino focuses on the issues of euthanasia and fetal research. The practice of active, voluntary euthanasia raises questions about the difference between killing a terminally ill patient and withholding or withdrawing life-prolonging treatment, the limits of patient autonomy, the compatibility of active euthanasia with professional ethics, and the social consequences of legalizing euthanasia. The debate over the use of fetal tissue for research and treatment centers on the issue of induced abortion. PMID:2709576

  20. Perceptions and practices of medical practitioners towards ethics in medical practice - a study from coastal South India.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, B; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kulkarni, Vaman; Kumar, Nithin; Papanna, Mohan Kumar; Rekha, T; Mithra, Prasanna

    2014-02-01

    Ethics is the application of values and moral rules to human activities. Medical practitioners are expected to not only have the skills and knowledge relevant to their field but also with the ethical and legal expectations that arise out of the standard practices. The present research was conducted with an aim to study the perceptions and practices of medical practitioners towards healthcare ethics in Indian scenario and to strengthen the evidence in the field of ethics training. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three associate hospitals of a Medical College in Southern India. Medical practitioners included in the study were administered a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Data was collected based on their responses on a 5 point Likert scale and analyzed using SPSS version 11.5. The majority of the participants mentioned that their perceptions of ethics in medical practice were based on information obtained during their undergraduate training, followed by experience at work. The medical practitioners had a positive perception on issues relating to consent in medical practice. However, the same degree of perception was not observed for issues related to confidentiality and their dealing with patients during emergency conditions. The majority of the medical practitioners agreed that ethical conduct is important to avoid legal and disciplinary actions. Among the medical practitioners, the responses of specialists and non-specialists were mostly similar with major differences of opinion for a few issues. A highest level of knowledge, awareness and understanding of ethics are expected in medical practice as it is the foundation of sound healthcare delivery system. PMID:24485422

  1. What is it to do good medical ethics? Minding the gap(s).

    PubMed

    Bowman, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the character of medical ethics and suggests that there are significant gaps that warrant greater attention. It describes ways in which the content and form of medical ethics may exclude or marginalise perspectives and contributions, thereby reducing its influence and its potential impact on, and value to, patients, students, carers and society. To consider what it is 'to do good medical ethics' suggests an active approach that seeks out, and learns from, contributions beyond the traditional boundaries of scholarship. PMID:25516937

  2. [Fundamental principles of social work--(also) a contribution to public health ethics].

    PubMed

    Lob-Hüdepohl, A

    2009-05-01

    Social work and public health are different but mutually connected. Both are professions with their own ethical foundations. Despite all differences, they have the same goal: to protect and to enhance the well-being of people. This is, in part, why the fundamental ethical principles of social work are salient for developing public health ethics. As a human rights profession, social work respects the personal autonomy of clients, supports solidarity-based relationships in families, groups or communities, and attempts to uphold social justice in society. Social workers need to adopt special professional attitudes: sensibility for the vulnerabilities of clients, care and attentiveness for their resources and strengths, assistance instead of paternalistic care and advocacy in decision making for clients' well-being when clients are not able to decide for themselves. These fundamental ethical principles are the basis for discussion of special topics of social work ethics as public health ethics, for example, in justifying intervention in individual lifestyles by public services without the participation or consent of the affected persons. PMID:19360384

  3. The challenge of promoting professionalism through medical ethics and humanities education.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen; Lehmann, Lisa S; Nixon, Lois LaCivita; Carrese, Joseph A; Shapiro, Johanna F; Green, Michael J; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Given recent emphasis on professionalism training in medical schools by accrediting organizations, medical ethics and humanities educators need to develop a comprehensive understanding of this emphasis. To achieve this, the Project to Rebalance and Integrate Medical Education (PRIME) II Workshop (May 2011) enlisted representatives of the three major accreditation organizations to join with a national expert panel of medical educators in ethics, history, literature, and the visual arts. PRIME II faculty engaged in a dialogue on the future of professionalism in medical education. The authors present three overarching themes that resulted from the PRIME II discussions: transformation, question everything, and unity of vision and purpose.The first theme highlights that education toward professionalism requires transformational change, whereby medical ethics and humanities educators would make explicit the centrality of professionalism to the formation of physicians. The second theme emphasizes that the flourishing of professionalism must be based on first addressing the dysfunctional aspects of the current system of health care delivery and financing that undermine the goals of medical education. The third theme focuses on how ethics and humanities educators must have unity of vision and purpose in order to collaborate and identify how their disciplines advance professionalism. These themes should help shape discussions of the future of medical ethics and humanities teaching.The authors argue that improvement of the ethics and humanities-based knowledge, skills, and conduct that fosters professionalism should enhance patient care and be evaluated for its distinctive contributions to educational processes aimed at producing this outcome. PMID:24072126

  4. The Development of a Medical Ethics Curriculum in a General Internal Medicine Residency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wartman, Steven A.; Brock, Dan W.

    1989-01-01

    A three-year curriculum in medical ethics operates at Rhode Island Hospital and Brown University as part of the general internal medicine residency program. The six major topics covered are co-taught as seminars by one or more members of the multidisciplinary ethics faculty (philosopher, internist, and communications specialist) and experienced…

  5. 77 FR 2556 - Ethical and Regulatory Challenges in the Development of Pediatric Medical Countermeasures; Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ...scientific, ethical, and regulatory issues confronting...other stakeholders in the area of medical...Rockville Hilton Hotel, 1750 Rockville...at least 7 days in advance. SUPPLEMENTARY...on the ethical and regulatory challenges in the...countermeasures; and (4) risk communication...

  6. The ethics of forensic psychiatry: moving beyond principles to a relational ethics approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Austin; Erika Goble; Julija Kelecevic

    2009-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry has been described as a ‘moral minefield’. The competing obligations at the interface of the justice and healthcare systems raise questions about the very viability of an ethical framework for guiding practice. The explicit need for security and detention, and the implicit ‘untrustworthiness’ of forensic patients shape practitioners' everyday reality. Suspicion colors client–practitioner relationship and fundamental care concepts,

  7. Pediatric liver transplantation - ethical dilemmas in a disabled patient.

    PubMed

    Toker, A; Salzer, L

    2012-09-01

    Allocation of medical resources, especially resources with absolute scarcity such as organs for transplant, is a difficult task. Medical, surgical, and ethical considerations should be evaluated. In solid organ transplantation, ethics committees are the gate keepers that deal with moral philosophy when moral values are in conflict. Often, no good solution to a dilemma in these medical ethics exists. Our case presents split living liver donation for retransplantation in a mentally disabled girl, with few medical ethics principles at stake. PMID:22081968

  8. Institute of Medical Ethics: working party report. HIV infection: the ethics of anonymised testing and of testing pregnant women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K M Boyd

    1990-01-01

    An Institute of Medical Ethics working party supports the view that explicit permission should normally be sought in the case of testing for HIV antibody. It discusses this in relation to anonymised HIV testing for epidemiological purposes, concluding that this is to be welcomed, given certain safeguards. It next argues that pregnant women may have a greater and more immediate

  9. MEDICAL STUDENT PLEDGE OF ETHICS Similar to the Hippocratic and other oaths taken by those graduating from a medical school, the

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    MEDICAL STUDENT PLEDGE OF ETHICS Similar to the Hippocratic and other oaths taken by those graduating from a medical school, the Medical Student Pledge of Ethics prepares students for the four years in my community, to increase access to care for the underserved and to advance medical knowledge. · As I

  10. Narrowing the Gap Between the Rhetoric and the Reality of Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, David R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper argues that in the debate over medical ethics and its role in medical education, the divergence of law and reality reflects the law's flawed medical model, which poorly matches the dynamic of the physician-patient relationship and attempts ineffectually to reshape it, and also medicine's autonomous professional culture, which…

  11. Using Faculty Consensus to Develop and Implement a Medical Ethics Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ales, Kathy L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This report describes the development and implementation of a required course in medical ethics for second-year medical students at Cornell University Medical College (New York). The planning model stressed achieving faculty consensus. Evaluation indicated that faculty felt the planning sessions added greatly to their teaching and students were…

  12. Bioethics Principles, Informed Consent, and Ethical Care for Special Populations: Curricular Needs Expressed by Men and Women Physicians-in-Training

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; M.A., Cynthia; Geppert; Warner, Teddy D.; Green Hammond, Katherine A.; Lamberton, Leandrea Prosen

    2006-01-01

    Objective Physicians-in-training today are learning in an ethical environment that is unprecedented in its complexity. There is a call for new approaches in preparing medical students and residents for the ethical and professional issues they will encounter. The perspectives of physicians-in-training at different levels regarding the level of curricular attention needed for emerging bioethics concepts, practical informed consent considerations, and the care of special populations are unknown. Method The authors performed a hypothesis-driven, confidential survey study to assess perceived needs and preferences among medical students and residents related to medical ethics education at the University of New Mexico School of Medicine. Results A total of 336 physicians-in-training volunteered (62% response rate). Overall, strong interest was expressed for increased curricular attention to the domains of bioethics principles, informed consent, and care of special populations. Women students expressed greater interest generally. For certain domains, clinical students expressed relatively less curricular need and psychiatry and primary care residents expressed relatively greater curricular need. Two of the four hypotheses were supported, a third received partial support, and a fourth was not supported by the findings. Discussion To be valuable and effective, new ethics curricular approaches must be responsive to the current complex ethical environment and attentive to the preferences of medical students and residents of both genders, at different stages of training, with different patient care responsibilities. This hypothesis-driven study provides guidance for the inclusion of novel and important ethics domains in training curricula across medical school and diverse residency programs. PMID:16145189

  13. Ethics and professionalism in medical physics: A survey of AAPM members

    PubMed Central

    Ozturk, Naim; Armato, Samuel G.; Giger, Maryellen L.; Serago, Christopher F.; Ross, Lainie F.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To assess current education, practices, attitudes, and perceptions pertaining to ethics and professionalism in medical physics. Methods: A link to a web-based survey was distributed to the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) e-mail membership list, with a follow-up e-mail sent two weeks later. The survey included questions about ethics/professionalism education, direct personal knowledge of ethically questionable practices in clinical care, research, education (teaching and mentoring), and professionalism, respondents’ assessment of their ability to address ethical/professional dilemmas, and demographics. For analysis, reports of unethical or ethically questionable practices or behaviors by approximately 40% or more of respondents were classified as “frequent.” Results: Partial or complete responses were received from 18% (1394/7708) of AAPM members. Overall, 60% (827/1377) of the respondents stated that they had not received ethics/professionalism education during their medical physics training. Respondents currently in training were more likely to state that they received instruction in ethics/professionalism (80%, 127/159) versus respondents who were post-training (35%, 401/1159). Respondents’ preferred method of instruction in ethics/professionalism was structured periodic discussions involving both faculty and students/trainees. More than 90% (1271/1384) supported continuing education in ethics/professionalism and 75% (1043/1386) stated they would attend ethics/professionalism sessions at professional/scientific meetings. In the research setting, reports about ethically questionable authorship assignment were frequent (approximately 40%) whereas incidents of ethically questionable practices about human subjects protections were quite infrequent (5%). In the clinical setting, there was frequent recollection of incidents regarding lack of training, resources and skills, and error/incident reporting. In the educational setting, incidents of unethical or ethically questionable practices were only frequently recollected with respect to mentorship/guidance. With respect to professional conduct, favoritism, hostile work/learning environment, and maltreatment of subordinates and colleagues were frequently reported. A significantly larger proportion of women reported experiences with hostile work/learning environments, favoritism, poor mentorship, unfairness in educational settings, and concerns about student privacy and confidentiality. Conclusions: The survey found broad interest in ethics/professionalism topics and revealed that these topics were being integrated into the curriculum at many institutions. The incorporation of ethics and professionalism instruction into both graduate education and postgraduate training of medical physicists, and into their subsequent lifelong continuing education is important given the nontrivial number of medical physicists who had direct personal knowledge of unethical or ethically questionable incidents in clinical practice, research, education, and professionalism. PMID:23556930

  14. Development of a medical humanities and ethics certificate program in Texas.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Cheryl J

    2014-12-01

    Education in the medical humanities and ethics is an integral part of the formation of future physicians. This article reports on an innovative approach to incorporating the medical humanities and ethics into the four-year curriculum in a Certificate Program spanning all four years of the medical school experience. The faculty of the McGovern Center for Humanities and Ethics at the University of Texas Medical School at Houston conceived and implemented this program to teach medical students a range of scholarly topics in the medical humanities and to engage the full human experience into the process of becoming a physician. This study follows six years of experience, and we report student experiences and learning in their own words. PMID:25283183

  15. Initiatives by the government and physician groups to improve awareness of medical ethics: Challenges in Japan

    PubMed Central

    MORIOKA, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Physicians have been required to possess high ethical standards, as medical practice is directly involved with patients' lives. Although ethics arise out of an individual's consciousness, ethical regulations imposed by the nation/government together with self-regulation by physician groups are important in the practice of ethics, for which reason countries around the world undertake various initiatives. This paper investigates physician licensure, organizations governing physician status, the role of physician groups, and the actual conditions of lifelong learning and ethics education in developed countries worldwide, in contrast with which it throws problems in the situation in Japan into relief. Organizations governing physician status, the form of medical associations, and the improvement of lifelong learning are pointed out as critical issues especially in Japan. PMID:22498978

  16. The Positive Role of Professionalism and Ethics Training in Medical Education: A Comparison of Medical Student and Resident Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Hammond, Katherine A. Green; Geppert, Cynthia M. A.; Warner, Teddy D.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the perspectives and preferences of medical students and residents regarding professionalism and ethics education. Methods: A new written survey with 124 items (scale: "strongly disagree" = 1, "strongly agree" = 9) was sent to all medical students (n = 308) and PGY 1-3 residents (n = 233) at one academic center. Results: Of…

  17. Aligning ethics with medical decision-making: the quest for informed patient choice.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Benjamin; King, Jaime S

    2010-01-01

    Clinical evidence suggests that many patients undergo surgery that they would decline if fully informed. Failure to communicate the relevant risks, benefits, and alternatives of a procedure violates medical ethics and wastes medical resources. Integrating shared decision-making, a method of communication between provider and patient, into medical decisions can satisfy physicians' ethical obligations and reduce unwanted procedures. This article proposes a three-step process for implementing a nationwide practice of shared decision-making: (1) create model integration programs; (2) provide legal incentives to ease the transition; and (3) incorporate shared decision-making into medical necessity determinations. PMID:20446987

  18. Ethical Principles for Psychiatric Administrators: The Challenge of Formularies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Steven Moffic

    2006-01-01

    Rising costs continue to plague healthcare and mental healthcare. The latest variation of managed care techniques has been to try to reduce medication costs by instituting formulary restrictions. To date, the results have been spotty at best, with a suggestion of a ballooning of more general mental healthcare costs, as well as possibly worsening of quality of care. New challenges

  19. A methodology for teaching ethics in the clinical setting: A clinical handbook for medical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence B. McCullough; Carol M. Ashton

    1994-01-01

    The pluralism of methodologies and severe time constraints pose important challenges to pedagogy in clinical ethics. We designed a step-by-step student handbook to operate within such constraints and to respect the methodological pluralism of bioethics and clinical ethics. The handbook comprises six steps: Step 1: What are the facts of the case?; Step 2: What are your obligations to your

  20. Nutrition research in rural communities: application of ethical principles.

    PubMed

    Faber, Mieke; Kruger, H Salomé

    2013-10-01

    This narrative review focuses on ethics related to nutrition-specific community-based research, within the framework of science for society, and focusing on the rights and well-being of fieldworkers and research participants. In addition to generally accepted conditions of scientific validity, such as adequate sample size, unbiased measurement outcome and suitable study population, research needs to be appropriate and feasible within the local context. Communities' suspicions about research can be overcome through community participation and clear dialogue. Recruitment of fieldworkers and research participants should be transparent and guided by project-specific selection criteria. Fieldworkers need to be adequately trained, their daily schedules and remuneration must be realistic, and their inputs to the study must be recognized. Fieldworkers may be negatively affected emotionally, financially and physically. Benefits to research participants may include physical and psychological benefits, minimal economic benefit, and health education; while risks may be of a physical, psychological, social, or economic nature. Targeting individuals in high-risk groups may result in social stigmatization. The time burden to the research participant can be minimized by careful attention to study procedures and questionnaire design. Potential benefits to the community, fieldworkers and research participants and anticipated knowledge to be gained should outweigh and justify the potential risks. Researchers should have an exit strategy for study participants. For effective dissemination of results to individual research participants, the host community and nutrition community, the language, format and level of presentation need to be appropriate for the target audience. PMID:22591024

  1. Towards a community effort to identify ethical principles for research in hydrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montanari, Alberto

    2010-05-01

    The hydrological community in Europe is growing rapidly in both size and, more importantly, scientific relevance and integrity. The Hydrological Sciences (HS) Division of EGU actively is promoting the above development by identifying research targets, stimulating the involvement of young scientists and managing a scientific open access journal based on a public peer review process. The management of the Division itself and the organisation of the General Assembly are carried out transparently, with the aim to seek an improved involvement of top and young scientists, with a bottom up approach. I believe the HS community is animated by a strong enthusiasm which, however, is not adequately supported by economical funding. In my opinion this is a major problem which HS should consider and discuss. The relevance of the societal and environmental problems dealt with by hydrologists, in a professional way and with exceptional scientific skills, is without doubt and therefore the limited amount of funding is not justified in practice. In my opinion, in order to refine the structure of the HS community, and promote its visibility, we should formally identify HS ethical principles for research in environmental science. The principles should highlight the role of hydrology as well as the ethical and scientific solidity of the HS community. Establishing ethical principles is even more important in view of the transparent approach HS is adopting for reviewing and publishing contributions and in view of the increasing need to transparently prove how public funding for research is administered. Establishing ethical principles for hydrology is not a trivial task. Hydrology is characterised by a relevant uncertainty in data, models and parameters. Hydrology is also relying on a large variety of approaches, ranging from statistical to physically based. The purpose of this poster is to present a collection of ethical principles for scientific research presented by the literature and/or adopted by institutions. The aim is to stimulate a discussion within the HS community in order to finally propose a collection of principles and rules of conduct that can apply to hydrology. I believe that the visibility and the solidity of the HS community will benefit by placing emphasis on the role of ethics.

  2. Informing the gestalt: an ethical framework for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources to states during disasters.

    PubMed

    Knebel, Ann R; Sharpe, Virginia A; Danis, Marion; Toomey, Lauren M; Knickerbocker, Deborah K

    2014-02-01

    During catastrophic disasters, government leaders must decide how to efficiently and effectively allocate scarce public health and medical resources. The literature about triage decision making at the individual patient level is substantial, and the National Response Framework provides guidance about the distribution of responsibilities between federal and state governments. However, little has been written about the decision-making process of federal leaders in disaster situations when resources are not sufficient to meet the needs of several states simultaneously. We offer an ethical framework and logic model for decision making in such circumstances. We adapted medical triage and the federalism principle to the decision-making process for allocating scarce federal public health and medical resources. We believe that the logic model provides a values-based framework that can inform the gestalt during the iterative decision process used by federal leaders as they allocate scarce resources to states during catastrophic disasters. PMID:24612854

  3. eGrants Additional Information 1 Last updated: 11/07/2014 Applying for an Investigator Award in Medical Humanities or Society and Ethics

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    in Medical Humanities or Society and Ethics Introduction Applicants applying for Investigator Awards', select the relevant Funding Area (Medical Humanities or Society and Ethics), Scheme Name (Investigator Science, please see the Wellcome Trust website: Investigator Awards in Medical Humanities Investigator

  4. Reform in medical ethics curriculum: a step by step approach based on available resources

    PubMed Central

    Asghari, Fariba; Mirzazadeh, Azim; Samadi, Aniseh; Safa, Aliakbar Nejati; Jafarian, Ali; Farahani, Ali Vasheghani; Razavi, Seyed Hasan Emami

    2011-01-01

    In this project, we aimed to revise the medical ethics curriculum at the School of Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, in order to promote the level of students’ ethical awareness and enable them to make ethical decisions. Ideal and long term educational objectives were set to determine directions for future reforms and to provide a baseline for future evaluation of the project. However, based on limited available recourses, the first stage of the reform was planned and implemented with a 3 years scope. In revising the curriculum, which was done according to the Harden’s ten questions, we focused on moral attitude and ethical reasoning skill in addition to academic knowledge base by using methods such as case discussions, portfolio, and clinical ethics rounds. The revised curriculum was implemented during the first semester of the 2006–2007 academic year for the first time. The student feedback indicated that the new curriculum was successful in increasing the students’ awareness of ethical issues and enabled them to understand and accept their professional obligations. Revising the curriculum and its evaluation should be considered as an ongoing process. The present project was a successful experience that motivated faculty members to pursue the next steps of improving the curriculum on medical ethics and proved to be convincing for the authorities and policy makers to support it. PMID:23908750

  5. Ethical use of long-acting medications in the treatment of severe and persistent mental illnesses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura Weiss Roberts; Cynthia M. A Geppert

    2004-01-01

    Mental illnesses are prevalent, cause great suffering, and are burdensome to society. Traditional “depot” antipsychotic agents are used to treat the most severely and persistently mentally ill individuals. They will soon be joined by new atypical antipsychotic medications in long-acting formulations. These long-acting medications pose special ethical issues, but may greatly benefit some people who suffer from severe and persistent

  6. Ethical issues in surgical decision making concerning children with medically intractable epilepsy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George M. Ibrahim; Aria Fallah; O. Carter Snead; Irene Elliott; James M. Drake; Mark Bernstein; James T. Rutka

    2011-01-01

    The widespread inclusion of surgical strategies in the treatment of medically intractable epilepsy is largely justified by the medical and psychosocial burden of the illness. Performing these procedures in pediatric populations is associated with distinct challenges ranging from unique seizure etiologies to issues surrounding brain development and functional plasticity. As the trend toward more aggressive surgical intervention continues, the ethical

  7. Development and Validation of a Test Instrument for Assessing Value Preferences in Medical Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolman, Cynthia J.; Doran, Rodney L.

    1982-01-01

    A test instrument for assessing the preferences medical students show for six value categories (aesthetic, economic, political, religious, social, and theoretical) was developed using a case-study approach. Validation was by comparison of medical ethics and general values in nonmedical students. Further research on the social values category is…

  8. Investigation of the Awareness of the Students of Shiraz Dental School Concerning the Patients’ Rights and the Principles of Ethics in Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Tabei, SZ; Azar, MR; Mahmoodian, F; Mohammadi, N; Farhadpour, H; Ghahramani, Y; Al-e-Yasin, Z

    2013-01-01

    Statement of Problem: Deliberating the patients’ rights is one of the major human ethical and legal principles which can be investigated through the agenda of professional and medical ethics.accordingly , the students of dentistry have to be educated about this issue and achieve the necessary skills in deliberating and concerning the patients’ rights. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate Shiraz dental students’ awareness and attitude regarding the patients’ rights as well as the principles of dental ethics in order to design methods for organizing and improving the ethics in dentistry. Materials and Method: The present descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 111 students of different departments of Shiraz Dental School. The study data were collected through a questionnaire designed based on the patients’ rights charter in Iran, ADA ethical codes which are internationally acceptable in the field of dentistry, and the guidelines of the ministry of health, treatment, and medical education (No. 140588). Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software and analyzed. Results: Of all participants, 21.6% were men and 78.4% were women. According to the results, 71% of the students were acquainted with the patients’ rights. In addition, the patients’ characteristics, including gender and nationality, were not important for 58.6% of the students. Conclusion: The study findings showed that 71% of the participants were acquainted with the patients’ rights Establishment of a comprehensive, integrated charter in Iran is needed. With rapid development of medical sciences, new issues appear which necessitate taking into account the mutual rights of the physicians, people, and patients. PMID:24724112

  9. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly: Ethical Principles for (Re)Presenting Students and Student Writing in Teachers' Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Lynn Z.

    2003-01-01

    Addresses interrelated sets of ethical considerations: the ethical principles for representing students and student writing in the teacher's own publications of two types--in textbooks designed for student use, and in research publications and conference presentations designed for the author's peers. Lists 10 points to make clear to students whose…

  10. Comparing the Principle-Based SBH Maieutic Method to Traditional Case Study Methods of Teaching Media Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study at a Northwest university compared two methods of teaching media ethics, a class taught with the principle-based SBH Maieutic Method (n = 25) and a class taught with a traditional case study method (n = 27), with a control group (n = 21) that received no ethics training. Following a 16-week intervention, a one-way…

  11. Ethical considerations of complementary and alternative medical therapies in conventional medical settings.

    PubMed

    Adams, Karen E; Cohen, Michael H; Eisenberg, David; Jonsen, Albert R

    2002-10-15

    Increasing use of complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies by patients, health care providers, and institutions has made it imperative that physicians consider their ethical obligations when recommending, tolerating, or proscribing these therapies. The authors present a risk-benefit framework that can be applied to determine the appropriateness of using CAM therapies in various clinical scenarios. The major relevant issues are the severity and acuteness of illness; the curability of the illness by conventional forms of treatment; the degree of invasiveness, associated toxicities, and side effects of the conventional treatment; the availability and quality of evidence of utility and safety of the desired CAM treatment; the level of understanding of risks and benefits of the CAM treatment combined with the patient's knowing and voluntary acceptance of those risks; and the patient's persistence of intention to use CAM therapies. Even in the absence of scientific evidence for CAM therapies, by considering these relevant issues, providers can formulate a plan that is clinically sound, ethically appropriate, and targeted to the unique circumstances of individual patients. Physicians are encouraged to remain engaged in problem-solving with their patients and to attempt to elucidate and clarify the patient's core values and beliefs when counseling about CAM therapies. PMID:12379066

  12. [Universal ethical principles and their application in clinical drug trials].

    PubMed

    Gonorazky, Sergio Eduardo

    2015-03-01

    Since 1931, and especially since the Nuremberg Code of 1947, an increasing number of declarations, regulations, norms, guidelines, laws, resolutions, and rules intended to create conditions for better protection of subjects participating in research studies have been published, although some have meant setbacks in the human rights of vulnerable populations. As such, violations of the dignity of experimental subjects in clinical trials continue. What researchers investigate and how the research is done, the quality and transparency of the data, and the analysis and the publication of results (of both raw and processed data) respond to the financial interests of the pharmaceutical companies, coming into permanent tension with bioethical principles and the needs of society. The active participation of civil society is necessary to make it so that pharmaceutical research, results and applications subordinate economic benefits to the protection of human rights. PMID:25853830

  13. Comparing Healthcare Systems: Outcomes, Ethical Principles, and Social Values

    PubMed Central

    Kluge, Eike-Henner W.

    2007-01-01

    The question of how healthcare should be structured has been at the forefront of public debate for quite some time. In particular, debate has raged over the acceptability of socialized and rights-oriented approaches to healthcare as opposed to privatized and commodity-oriented approaches. The present discussion looks at the underlying logic of the debate and at the use of outcome measures as a primary determinant. It suggests that outcome measures are of limited use in deciding the issue because they ignore important variables and further suggests that outcome measures are inappropriate tools when comparing distinct healthcare systems because they ignore valuational components that are integral to deciding whether a healthcare system is consistent with a society's principles and values. PMID:18311379

  14. THE WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, INC. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI

    E-print Network

    Pfeifer, Holger

    1 THE WORLD MEDICAL ASSOCIATION, INC. DECLARATION OF HELSINKI Ethical Principles for Medical. The World Medical Association (WMA) has developed the Declaration of Helsinki as a statement of ethical consideration," and the International Code of Medical Ethics declares that, "A physician shall act

  15. Ethics Matter: The Morality and Justice Principles of Elected City Officials and their Impact of Urban Issues

    E-print Network

    Schumaker, Paul; Kelly, Marisa J.

    2012-08-01

    This article pursues the thesis that ethics matter in urban policymaking. Interviews with 95 elected officials in 12 cities revealed the officials' support for—and opposition to—many principles of political morality and ...

  16. Dismembering the ethical physician

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, S J

    2006-01-01

    Physicians may experience ethical distress when they are caught in difficult clinical situations that demand ethical decision making, particularly when their preferred action may contravene the expectations of patients and established authorities. When principled and competent doctors succumb to patient wishes or establishment guidelines and participate in actions they perceive to be ethically inappropriate, or agree to refrain from interventions they believe to be in the best interests of patients, individual professional integrity may be diminished, and ethical reliability is potentially compromised. In a climate of ever?proliferating ethical quandaries, it is essential for the medical community, health institutions, and governing bodies to pursue a judicious tension between the indispensable regulation of physicians necessary to maintain professional standards and preserve public safety, and the support for “freedom of conscience” that principled physicians require to practise medicine in keeping with their personal ethical orientation. PMID:16597808

  17. Developing ethical awareness in global health: four cases for medical educators.

    PubMed

    White, Mary; Evert, Jessica

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, the growth of interest in global health among medical students and residents has led to an abundance of short-term training opportunities in low-resource environments. Given the disparities in resources, needs and expectations between visitors and their hosts, these experiences can raise complex ethical concerns. Recent calls for best practices and ethical guidelines indicate a need for the development of ethical awareness among medical trainees, their sponsoring and host institutions, and supervising faculty. As a teaching tool to promote this awareness, we developed a scenario that captures many common ethical issues from four different perspectives. Each perspective is presented in case format followed by questions. Taken together, the four cases may be used to identify many of the elements of a well-designed global health training experience. PMID:23025791

  18. Anticholinesterases: Medical applications of neurochemical principles

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, C.B.; Broomfield, C.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cholinesterases form a family of serine esterases that arise in animals from at least two distinct genes. Multiple forms of these enzymes can be precisely localized and regulated by alternative mRNA splicing and by co- or posttranslational modifications. The high catalytic efficiency of the cholinesterases is quelled by certain very selective reversible and irreversible inhibitors. Owing largely to the important role of acetylcholine hydrolysis in neurotransmission, cholinesterase and its inhibitors have been studied extensively in vivo. In parallel, there has emerged an equally impressive enzyme chemistry literature. Cholinesterase inhibitors are used widely as pesticides; in this regard the compounds are beneficial with concomitant health risks. Poisoning by such compounds can result in an acute but usually manageable medical crisis and may damage the ONS and the PNS, as well as cardiac and skeletal muscle tissue. Some inhibitors have been useful for the treatment of glaucoma and myasthenia gravis, and others are in clinical trials as therapy for Alzheimer`s dementia. Concurrently, the most potent inhibitors have been developed as highly toxic chemical warfare agents. We review treatments and sequelae of exposure to selected anticholinesterases, especially organophosphorus compounds and carbamates, as they relate to recent progress in enzyme chemistry.

  19. Ethical issues in genetic counseling: A comparison of M.S. counselor and medical geneticist perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Deborah F. Pencarinha; Nora K. Bell; Janice G. Edwards; Robert G. Best

    1992-01-01

    New technologies available in the field of medical genetics have increased the importance of responsible ethical decision-making among genetic counselors. A 1985 national survey of M.D. and Ph.D. genetic counselors assessed ethical attitudes using case scenarios designed to simulate dilemmas faced in genetic counseling (Wertz and Fletcher, 1988b). The current study focuses on attitudes of M.S. genetic counselors using similar

  20. The Performance of the Ethics Committees in Teaching Hospitals Affiliated With Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Meraji, Marziyhe; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Ramezan Ghorbani, Nahid; Nezami, Azar

    2014-01-01

    Background: During the last three decades, ethics committees have been formed with a growing trend. These committees have a satisfactory and effective impact on the pattern of patient care and its performance. The medical ethics committee is considered one of the most active committees in hospitals, having the aim of providing necessary approaches for the optimal use of the findings in empirical science and diagnostic treatment and observance of Islamic noble values in performing medical affairs. Objectives: The aim of this study is to assess the performance of the ethics committees, in the teaching hospitals affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, in Mashhad. Patients and Methods: Subjects of this study include teaching hospitals in Mashhad, affiliated with Mashhad University of Medical Sciences and the tool used in gathering the data was a questionnaire, completed based on the information provided by the proceedings of the meetings held by the ethics committees. Also, for the purpose of gathering the suggestions, specifically on the improvement of the performance, a meeting was held with the representatives from hospitals' ethics committees. During the meeting, work reports were presented and recommendations made, based on those presentations. . Results: Findings of the present study suggest that all hospitals under study, have an ethics committee, of which 85.7% operate in combination with other committees. The composition of the members of the committees, in 57.1% of the hospitals, was based on the guidelines for hospital evaluation. Conclusions: For the performance of the medical ethics committees to improve, it is recommended that the hospital administration and evaluation section, hold regular meetings and oblige members to participate more actively. PMID:24910787

  1. University of Pennsylvania: Department of Medical Ethics & Health Policy

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This website presents the University of Pennsylvania's Center for Bioethics, "a leader in bioethics research and its deployment in the ethical, efficient, and compassionate practice of the life sciences and medicine." The website offers information about the Center's programs as well as information regarding faculty and staff contact information, research interests, and selected publications. The Faculty & Staff section also links to a number of downloadable faculty publications including "Are We Ready for Mass Genetic Testing: Ethical and Social Hurdles" by Arthur Caplan, "Bioethics and History" by Bob Baker, and "Toward a New Vocabulary of Human Genetic Variation" by Mildred Cho and Pamela Sankar. The current Center Programs include The Ethics of Gene Patenting, Toward as Understanding of Benefit Sharing, and the Penn High School Bioethics Project.

  2. The interface: ethical decision making, medical toxicology, and emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Kreismann, Erica; Gang, Maureen; Goldfrank, Lewis R

    2006-08-01

    The overwhelming social and economic costs of alcohol, tobacco, and other substances of abuse are discussed, as are some of the important public health interventions appropriate for emergency physicians. This article addresses the complexity of ethical decision making when toxicologic emergencies occur in emergency medicine. The management strategies for patients with apparent intoxication are addressed with regard to decision-making capacity. The balance between confidentiality and support for an individual patient and responsibility of the physician to society is discussed. The relative importance of HIPAA is compared with an individual physician's code of ethics. PMID:16877142

  3. What future for ethical medical practice in the new National Health Service?

    PubMed Central

    Persaud, R D

    1991-01-01

    The British Government is implementing some major alterations to the way health services in Great Britain are organised. As well as the introduction of competition between health care providers, their financial interests are to be linked to their output, in efforts to use market forces to increase efficiency and cut costs. This paper looks at the possible impact of these changes of health care organisation on ethical medical practice. This is investigated with particular reference to the country whose health service has embraced most closely these elements of the market--the United States of America. The question to be answered is whether high standards of ethical care are ensured by factors somehow intrinsic to the medical profession, and are therefore immune to changes in the economics of health care. This assumption is shown to be questionable in light of what is known about the determinants of ethical medical practice. PMID:2033624

  4. Changing ethics in medical practice: a Thai perspective.

    PubMed

    Saniotis, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    The pace of social change in Thailand has seen the rise of various medical services and a global clientele. Currently, medical tourism and cosmetic surgery have an important role in medical practice here. A growing medical market offers a range of services at competitive rates and high levels of efficiency. This essay provides an overview of medical practices in Thailand and their effect on ordinary people. PMID:18630216

  5. The importance of listening to medical students' experiences when teaching them medical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L W Osborne; C M Martin

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the change of emphasis that occurred in the teaching of ethics to small groups of clinical students. Although the original focus of the course was on the analysis of ethical dilemmas associated with individual patients known to the students, it soon became evident that there were, for the students themselves, more fundamental ethical dilemmas in their new

  6. Medical Ethics and the Interrogation of Guantanamo 063

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven H. Miles

    2007-01-01

    The controversy over abusive interrogations of prisoners during the war against terrorism spotlights the need for clear ethics norms requiring physicians and other clinicians to prevent the mistreatment of prisoners. Although policies and general descriptions pertaining to clinical oversight of interrogations in United States' war on terror prisons have come to light, there are few public records detailing the clinical

  7. Helping doctors become better doctors: Mary Lobjoit—an unsung heroine of medical ethics in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, Margaret R; Gillon, Raanan

    2012-01-01

    Medical Ethics has many unsung heros and heroines. Here we celebrate one of these and on telling part of her story hope to place modern medical ethics and bioethics in the UK more centrally within its historical and human contex. PMID:22518049

  8. Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust response to the Review of the NHS research ethics committee system in England

    E-print Network

    Rambaut, Andrew

    1 Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust response to the Review of the NHS research ethics committee system in England The Medical Research Council (MRC) and Wellcome Trust ("the Trust") welcome the Department of Health's review of the NHS research ethics committee (REC) system in England, and are pleased

  9. [Reciprocal altruism--the resurrection of an old ethical principle in the Israeli organ transplant law].

    PubMed

    Lavee, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The new Israeli Organ Transplant Law grants priority in organ allocation to candidates for transplantation who have registered as organ donors at least 3 years prior to being listed or have been Live organ donors or have a first degree relative who has been a deceased donor. This unique law resurrects the old ethical principle of reciprocal altruism in which each partner in society helps the other while he helps himself. The altruist benefits because in time he, in turn, is helped. The law aims to eliminate the "free riding" phenomenon of candidates for organ transplantation who do not accept brain death and therefore object to organ donation after death yet do not abstain from waiting for such donation. The morality of such behavior is discussed along with the ethical appraisal of its solution in the law, suggesting it to be just and fair. PMID:24791557

  10. Reuse Of Pacemakers In Ghana And Nigeria: Medical, Legal, Cultural And Ethical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ochasi, Aloysius; Clark, Peter

    2014-04-11

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally. Over 80% of CVD deaths take place in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is estimated that 1 million to 2 million people worldwide die each year due to lack of access to an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) or a pacemaker. Despite the medical, legal, cultural and ethical controversies surrounding the pacemaker reutilization, studies done so far on the reuse of postmortem pacemakers show it to be safe and effective with an infection rate of 1.97% and device malfunction rate of 0.68%. Pacemaker reutilization can be effectively and safely done and does not pose significant additional risk to the recipient. Heart patients with reused pacemakers have an improved quality of life compared to those without pacemakers. The thesis of this paper is that pacemaker reutilization is a life-saving initiative in LMICs of Nigeria and Ghana. It is cost effective; consistent with the principles of beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice with a commitment to stewardship of resources and the Common Good. Used pacemakers with adequate battery life can be properly sterilized for use by patients in LMICs who cannot afford the cost of a new pacemaker. PMID:24720369

  11. Why would medical publishers not incorporate core bioethical values into their Ethics Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Watine, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    It is quite universally acknowledged by bioethicists, at least in the western world, that respect for the patients’ autonomy, non-malevolence, beneficence, and justice (also called equity) are four core ethical values in medicine. The Ethics Guidelines of key journals in laboratory medicine are not explicit about the first three of these values, and even implicitly, they seem to miss values of justice. Health equity being one of the main objectives of public health policy across the world, we suggest that values of equity explicitly become part of the Ethics Guidelines of laboratory medicine journals. Biochemia Medica could show the way to other medical publishers by incorporating into its Ethics Guidelines these very important core bioethical values. PMID:24627709

  12. The ethics of cultural competence.

    PubMed

    Paasche-Orlow, Michael

    2004-04-01

    Cultural competence curricula have proliferated throughout medical education. Awareness of the moral underpinnings of this movement can clarify the purpose of such curricula for educators and trainees and serve as a way to evaluate the relationship between the ethics of cultural competence and normative Western medical ethics. Though rarely stated explicitly, the essential principles of cultural competence are (1) acknowledgement of the importance of culture in people's lives, (2) respect for cultural differences, and (3) minimization of any negative consequences of cultural differences. Culturally competent clinicians promote these principles by learning about culture, embracing pluralism, and proactive accommodation. Generally, culturally competent care will advance patient autonomy and justice. In this sense, cultural competence and Western medical ethics are mutually supportive movements. However, Western bioethics and the personal ethical commitments of many medical trainees will place limits on the extent to which they will endorse pluralism and accommodation. Specifically, if the values of cultural competence are thought to embrace ethical relativity, inexorable conflicts will be created. The author presents his view of the ethics of cultural competence and places the concepts of cultural competence in the context of Western moral theory. Clarity about the ethics of cultural competence can help educators promote and evaluate trainees' integration of their own moral intuitions, Western medical ethics, and the ethics of cultural competence. PMID:15044168

  13. Ethical and methodological standards for laboratory and medical biological rhythm research.

    PubMed

    Portaluppi, Francesco; Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H

    2008-11-01

    The main objectives of this article are to update the ethical standards for the conduct of human and animal biological rhythm research and recommend essential elements for quality chronobiological research information, which should be especially useful for new investigators of the rhythms of life. A secondary objective is to provide for those with an interest in the results of chronobiology investigations, but who might be unfamiliar with the field, an introduction to the basic methods and standards of biological rhythm research and time series data analysis. The journal and its editors endorse compliance of all investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have adhered to the ethical standards dictated by local, national, and international laws and regulations in the conduct of investigations and to be unbiased and accurate in reporting never-before-published research findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose all potential conflicts of interest, particularly when the research is funded in part or in full by the medical and pharmaceutical industry, when the authors are stock-holders of the company that manufactures or markets the products under study, or when the authors are a recent or current paid consultant to the involved company. It is the responsibility of the authors of submitted manuscripts to clearly present sufficient detail about the synchronizer schedule of the studied subjects (i.e., the sleep-wake schedule, ambient light-dark cycle, intensity and spectrum of ambient light exposure, seasons when the research was conducted, shift schedule in studies involving shift work, and menstrual cycle stage in studies involving young women). Rhythm analysis of time series data should be performed with the perspective that rhythms of different periods might be superimposed upon the observed temporal pattern of interest. A variety of different and complementary statistical procedures can be used for rhythm detection. Fitting a mathematical model to the time series data provides a better and more objective analysis of time series data than simple data inspection and narrative description, and if rhythmicity is documented by objective methods, its characterization is required by relevant parameters such as the rhythm's period (tau), MESOR (time series average), amplitude (range of temporal variation), acrophase (time of peak value), and bathyphase (time of trough value). However, the assumptions underlying the time series modeling must be satisfied and applicable in each case, especially the assumption of sinusoidality in the case of cosinor analysis, before it can be accepted as appropriate. An important aspect of the peer review of manuscripts submitted to Chronobiology International entails judgment of the conformity of research protocols and methods to the standards described in this article. PMID:19005901

  14. Hunger strikers: ethical and legal dimensions of medical complicity in torture at Guantanamo Bay.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Sarah M; Leaning, Jennifer; Greenough, P Gregg; Burkle, Frederick M

    2013-12-01

    Physicians and other licensed health professionals are involved in force-feeding prisoners on hunger strike at the US Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay (GTMO), Cuba, the detention center established to hold individuals captured and suspected of being terrorists in the wake of September 11, 2001. The force-feeding of competent hunger strikers violates medical ethics and constitutes medical complicity in torture. Given the failure of civilian and military law to end the practice, the medical profession must exert policy and regulatory pressure to bring the policy and operations of the US Department of Defense into compliance with established ethical standards. Physicians, other health professionals, and organized medicine must appeal to civilian state oversight bodies and federal regulators of medical science to revoke the licenses of health professionals who have committed prisoner abuses at GTMO. PMID:24073786

  15. Impact of managed care on the development of new medical technology: ethical concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Pamela; Saha, Subrata

    1995-10-01

    During the last three decades, development of new medical technology has been largely responsible for the spectacular advances in the diagnosis and treatment of many human diseases. This has contributed to improved medical care of our population. However, concerns have been raised that in today's managed care environment of health care, introduction of new medical technology will be difficult. Cost-sensitive health care providers should consider various ethical issues involved before demanding that only those technologies that save money and show highly positive cost benefit ratio will be reimbursed. The impact of such considerations on the innovations of new medical devices and their developments is discussed.

  16. [Medicine, physicians and medical ethics in Jewish tradition through the ages].

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-08-01

    Medicine has always had a place of honor in the Jewish heritage. Since Biblical times, the sources of Judaism have valued the physician's activities and seen them as a partnership with God's deeds. Later, in the times of the Mishna and the Talmud, a model of scholars evolved who were not only learned sages but also had extensive medical and scientific knowledge. Their dealings with various issues in medical ethics were the basis for deliberation on questions that appeared throughout history on the advancement of medical science. The various sources from this period show the sages' sensitivity regarding the subject of human life, saving lives and the importance of the availability of medicine for all segments of the population. During the years following the completion of the Talmud, the medical profession was common among the Jews and they excelled in this field. Jewish doctors left behind a Legacy of values in medicine. Hebrew was considered a significant Language in the medical field and was cited in various medical texts such as in the book written by Vesalius, the "father" of modern anatomy. The rapid progress of medicine poses new challenges in bioethics. There is a need for physicians with extensive medical knowledge along with an understanding of ethical issues in order to offer solutions to new situations. Knowledge of the Jewish literature throughout the ages on a variety of subjects and the essential values which are their foundation can contribute to the modern discussion on biomedical questions. This is even more important in Israeli society where many of the laws are formed based on Jewish values. Engagement with Jewish medical ethics can help in educating physicians to have the ability to contribute to public debate and legislation in a way that would balance between the values and needs which an ethical issue raises. PMID:25286644

  17. Psychotropic Medication Consultation in Schools: An Ethical and Legal Dilemma for School Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, John S.; Thaler, Cara L.; Hirsch, Amanda J.

    2006-01-01

    Assessing, consulting, and intervening with students being treated with psychotropic medications is an increasingly common activity for school psychologists. This article reviews some of the literature providing evidence for the greater need for training in school psychopharmacology. A legal and ethical case study is presented that highlights the…

  18. Knowledge, Confidence, and Attitudes Regarding Medical Ethics: How Do Faculty and Housestaff Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulmasy, Daniel P.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A study compared the knowledge, confidence, and attitudes regarding medical ethics of 55 house officers and 57 full-time faculty members of the Georgetown University (District of Columbia) Department of Medicine. Results indicated low knowledge levels in both groups, higher faculty confidence, and somewhat more faculty sentiment for mandatory…

  19. ETHICS, PUBLIC POLICY, AND MEDICAL ECONOMICS Clinical Characteristics and Longitudinal Changes of Informal

    E-print Network

    ETHICS, PUBLIC POLICY, AND MEDICAL ECONOMICS Clinical Characteristics and Longitudinal Changes's disease (AD) remain cross-sectional. Lon- gitudinal estimates of informal caregiving hours and costs with AD and the effects of pa- tient characteristics on the use and cost of informal caregiving

  20. Justice and care: The implications of the Kohlberg-Gilligan debate for medical ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Virginia A. Sharpe

    1992-01-01

    Carol Gilligan has identified two orientations to moral understanding; the dominant ‘justice orientation’ and the under-valued ‘care orientation’. Based on her discernment of a ‘voice of care’, Gilligan challenges the adequacy of a deontological liberal framework for moral development and moral theory. This paper examines how the orientations of justice and care are played out in medical ethical theory. Specifically,

  1. Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Rules 15.99.03.V1 Ethics in Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work

    E-print Network

    Texas A&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Rules 15.99.03.V1 Ethics in Research, Scholarship Medical Diagnostic Lab Rules 15.99.03.V1 Ethics in Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work Page 1 of 2&M Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Lab Rules 15.99.03.V1 Ethics in Research, Scholarship, and Creative Work Page

  2. Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

  3. Human guinea pigs and the ethics of experimentation: the BMJ's correspondent at the Nuremberg medical trial.

    PubMed Central

    Weindling, P.

    1996-01-01

    Though the Nuremberg medical trial was a United States military tribunal, British forensic pathologists supplied extensive evidence for the trial. The BMJ had a correspondent at the trial, and he endorsed a utilitarian legitimation of clinical experiments, justifying the medical research carried out under Nazism as of long term scientific benefit despite the human costs. The British supported an international medical commission to evaluate the ethics and scientific quality of German research. Medical opinions differed over whether German medical atrocities should be given publicity or treated in confidence. The BMJ's correspondent warned against medical researchers being taken over by a totalitarian state, and these arguments were used to oppose the NHS and any state control over medical research. Images Fig 1 PMID:8973237

  4. Counting on Beauty: The role of aesthetic, ethical, and physical universal principles for interstellar communication

    E-print Network

    Lemarchand, Guillermo A

    2008-01-01

    SETI researchers believe that the basic principles of our science and the science of extraterrestrial beings should be fundamentally the same, and we should be able to communicate with them by referring to those things we share, such as the principles of mathematics, physics, and chemistry (a similar cognitive map of nature). This view assumes that there is only one way to conceptualize the laws of nature. Consequently, mathematics and the language of nature should be universal. In this essay, we discuss the epistemological bases of the last assumptions. We describe all the hypotheses behind the universality of the laws of nature and the restrictions that any technology should have to establish contact with other galactic technological civilization. We introduce some discussions about the limitations of homocentric views. We discuss about the possible use of aesthetic cognitive universals as well as ethical ones in the design of interstellar messages. We discuss the role of symmetry as a universal cognitive m...

  5. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists’ and the Nazi doctors’ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ‘collective’ or ‘greater good.’ Thus in the 20th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  6. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Faria, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  7. Terrorism and the ethics of emergency medical care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicki Pesik; Mark E. Keim; Kenneth V. Iserson

    2001-01-01

    The threat of domestic and international terrorism involving weapons of mass destruction–terrorism (WMD-T) has become an increasing public health concern for US citizens. WMD-T events may have a major effect on many societal sectors but particularly on the health care delivery system. Anticipated medical problems might include the need for large quantities of medical equipment and supplies, as well as

  8. [What a surgeon needs to know of the work of a medical ethics committee/institutional review board].

    PubMed

    Beck, N

    2015-02-01

    Ethical committees or institutional review boards are interdisciplinary committees to assess the ethical, social, legal and medical aspects of research involving human subjects. The ethics commission is to protect both the patient as well as the investigators and other personnel involved in the implementation of scientific projects. According to the professional code (Berufsordnung) every physician is obliged to consult an ethics committee to get a an approval before carrying out a research project. Concerning the Declaration of Helsinki, the advice of physicians is an international standard before carrying out a research project. In addition to the advisory function the ethics committee has an authorisation function within the pharmaceutical and medical device law. In the present publication the advisory and authorisation functions of an German ethics committee are briefly explained. PMID:24643787

  9. Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dansby-Giles, Gloria

    2002-01-01

    Making ethical decision rarely involves a simple yes or no answer. Matters of confidentiality are no different. This article examines how school counselors must draw the line between protecting a student's privacy and providing information to parents and administrators. (GCP)

  10. Counting on Beauty: The role of aesthetic, ethical, and physical universal principles for interstellar communication

    E-print Network

    Guillermo A. Lemarchand

    2008-07-28

    SETI researchers believe that the basic principles of our science and the science of extraterrestrial beings should be fundamentally the same, and we should be able to communicate with them by referring to those things we share, such as the principles of mathematics, physics, and chemistry (a similar cognitive map of nature). This view assumes that there is only one way to conceptualize the laws of nature. Consequently, mathematics and the language of nature should be universal. In this essay, we discuss the epistemological bases of the last assumptions. We describe all the hypotheses behind the universality of the laws of nature and the restrictions that any technology should have to establish contact with other galactic technological civilization. We introduce some discussions about the limitations of homocentric views. We discuss about the possible use of aesthetic cognitive universals as well as ethical ones in the design of interstellar messages. We discuss the role of symmetry as a universal cognitive map. We give a specific example on how to use the Golden Section principles to design a hypothetical interstellar message based in physical and aesthetical cognitive universals. We build a space of configuration matrix, representing all the variables to be taken into account for designing an electromagnetic interstellar message (e.g. frequency, polarization, bandwidth, transmitting power, modulation, rate of information, galactic coordinates, etc.) against the limitations imposed by physical, technological, aesthetical and ethical constraints. We show how to use it, in order to make hypotheses about the characteristics and properties of hypothetical extraterrestrial artificial signals and their detection by existing SETI projects.

  11. Primary hyperoxaluria in infants: Medical, ethical, and economic issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Cochat; Paulo C. Koch Nogueira; M. Ayman Mahmoud; Neville V. Jamieson; Jon I. Scheinman; Marie-Odile Rolland

    1999-01-01

    Objectives: Survey on the current medical approach to and the economic issues affecting infants with primary hyperoxaluria type 1. Methods: Questionnaire to specialized centers worldwide. Results: Seventy-eight infants were identified: 44% were of Muslim origin and 56% were not. The consanguinity rate was 76% and 0%, respectively. Thirty-three percent were treated in developing countries (group 1) and 67% in developed

  12. Pre-modern Islamic medical ethics and Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryology.

    PubMed

    Ghaly, Mohammed

    2014-02-01

    This article examines the, hitherto comparatively unexplored, reception of Greek embryology by medieval Muslim jurists. The article elaborates on the views attributed to Hippocrates (d. ca. 375 BC), which received attention from both Muslim physicians, such as Avicenna (d. 1037), and their Jewish peers living in the Muslim world including Ibn Jumay' (d. ca. 1198) and Moses Maimonides (d. 1204). The religio-ethical implications of these Graeco-Islamic-Jewish embryological views were fathomed out by the two medieval Muslim jurists Shih?b al-D?n al-Qar?f? (d. 1285) and Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 1350). By putting these medieval religio-ethical discussions into the limelight, the article aims to argue for a two-pronged thesis. Firstly, pre-modern medical ethics did exist in the Islamic tradition and available evidence shows that this field had a multidisciplinary character where the Islamic scriptures and the Graeco-Islamic-Jewish medical legacy were highly intertwined. This information problematizes the postulate claiming that medieval Muslim jurists were hostile to the so-called 'ancient sciences'. Secondly, these medieval religio-ethical discussions remain playing a significant role in shaping the nascent field of contemporary Islamic bioethics. However, examining the exact character and scope of this role still requires further academic ventures. PMID:23844565

  13. Medical Biotechnologies: Are There Effective Ethical Arguments for Policy Making?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiping Fan; Erika Yu

    \\u000a The intensity of moral controversy over the development of groundbreaking medical biotechnologies can hardly be overstated.1 Studies conducted by scientists in genetics, cloning, and stem-cell research have often become the news headlines that are\\u000a not only exciting but also disquieting. On the one hand, by gaining new knowledge and technologies in areas such as genetic\\u000a engineering or stem-cell therapy, biomedical

  14. 77 FR 40355 - Workshop on Pet Medications Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ...appropriate course of treatment for any medical condition, including whether...veterinarian. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) advises veterinarians...See Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics of the AVMA,...

  15. In search of the soul in science: medical ethics' appropriation of philosophy of science in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Aronova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the deployment of science studies within the field of medical ethics. For a short time, the discourse of medical ethics became a fertile ground for a dialogue between philosophically minded bioethicists and the philosophers of science who responded to Thomas Kuhn's challenge. In their discussion of the validity of Kuhn's work, these bioethicists suggested a distinct interpretation of Kuhn, emphasizing the elements in his account that had been independently developed by Michael Polanyi, and propelling a view of science that retreated from idealizations of scientific method without sacrificing philosophical realism. Appropriating Polanyi, they extended his account of science to biology and medicine. The contribution of Karl Popper to the debate on the applicability of philosophy of science to the issues of medical ethics provides the opportunity to discuss the ways in which political agendas of different epistemologies of science intertwined with questions of concern to medical ethics. PMID:19835265

  16. You Must Participate: Violating Research Ethical Principles through Role-Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The author discusses the use of role-play to teach research ethics in three semesters of a research methods class. Small groups of students were assigned one of nine ethical norms discussed in the course textbook and the American Sociological Association Code of Ethics. Each group role-played the violation of their assigned ethic to the class. The…

  17. Professional Conduct Manual, Containing Principles for Professional Ethics and Guidelines for the Provision of School Psychological Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Psychologists, Bethesda, MD.

    Consistent with its mission, the National Association of School Psychologists (NASP) has adopted an integrated set of comprehensive standards for the preparation, credentialing, and professional practice in school psychology. Standards for training and credentialing, ethical principles, and guidelines for practice have undergone review and…

  18. On the ethics of withholding and withdrawing medical treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A general rationale is presented for withholding and withdrawing medical treatment in end-of-life situations, and an argument is offered for the moral irrelevance of the distinction, both in the context of pharmaceutical treatments, such as chemotherapy in cancer, and in the context of life-sustaining treatments, such as the artificial ventilator in lateral amyotrophic sclerosis. It is argued that this practice is not equivalent to sanctioning voluntary active euthanasia and that it is not likely to favour it. PMID:25057360

  19. Professional Ethics in Astronomy: The AAS Ethics Statement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvel, Kevin B.

    2013-01-01

    It is fundamental to the advancement of science that practicing scientists adhere to a consistent set of professional ethical principles. Recent violations of these principles have led a decreased trust in the process of science and scientific results. Although astronomy is less in the spotlight on these issues than medical science or climate change research, it is still incumbent on the field to follow sound scientific process guided by basic ethical guidelines. The American Astronomical Society, developed a set of such guidelines in 2010. This contribution summarizes the motivation and process by which the AAS Ethics Statement was produced.

  20. Principles of ethical decision making regarding embryonic stem cell research in Germany.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Thomas; Honnefelder, Ludger

    2002-11-01

    The availability of embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from human blastocysts may open novel avenues for medical treatment of otherwise incurable diseases. Yet the generation of human ES cells requires the destruction of early human embryos. This confronts us with the moral problem of whether it is justifiable to sacrifice human life in order to treat other human life. This article outlines the development of the German debate about research with ES cells and explicates the arguments that are central to that debate with respect to the aims and means of research with ES cells. With regard to the means, the isolation of ES cells from human embryos raises the question of the moral status of the human embryo. A restrictive position acknowledges the human dignity of the embryo in its very early stage of development and claims that the embryo's life must be protected accordingly. In contrast, a gradualist position acknowledges human dignity, and therefore the full level of protection, only when the embryo has reached a certain stage of development. In addition, the intentions behind the generation of human embryos, i.e. exclusively for research purposes, and the mode of generating them, i.e. by nuclear transfer technology, have strong ethical relevance in the German debate. Based on these results, the ethical reasoning underlying the draft of a Stem Cell Act recently passed by the German Parliament is outlined. PMID:12472113

  1. The ethics of everyday practice in primary medical care: responding to social health inequities

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Social and structural inequities shape health and illness; they are an everyday presence within the doctor-patient encounter yet, there is limited ethical guidance on what individual physicians should do. This paper draws on a study that explored how doctors and their professional associations ought to respond to the issue of social health inequities. Results Some see doctors as bound by a notion of care that is blind to a patient's social position, while others respond to this issue through invoking notions of justice and human rights where access to care is a prime focus. Both care and justice orientations however conceal important tensions linked to the presence of bioethical principles underpinning these. Other normative ethical theories like deontology, virtue ethics and utilitarianism do not provide adequate guidance on the problem of social health inequities either. Conclusion This paper explores if Bauman's notion of "forms of togetherness" provides the basis of a relational ethical theory that can help to develop a response to social health inequities of relevance to individual physicians. This theory goes beyond silence on the influence of social position of health and avoids amoral regulatory approaches to monitoring equity of care provision. PMID:20438627

  2. The hyperreality of clinical ethics: A unitary theory and hermeneutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1994-01-01

    Medical ethics nowadays is dominated by a conception of ethics as the application of moral theories and principles. This conception is criticized for its depreciation of the internal morality of medical practice and its narrow view of external morality. This view reflects both a lack of interest in the empirical realities of medicine and a neglect of the socio-cultural value-contexts

  3. Practical Divinity and Medical Ethics: Lawful versus Unlawful Medicine in the Writings of William Perkins (1558–1602)

    PubMed Central

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-01-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between “lawful” and “unlawful” medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  4. Practical divinity and medical ethics: lawful versus unlawful medicine in the writings of William Perkins (1558-1602).

    PubMed

    Gevitz, Norman

    2013-04-01

    This article examines for the first time the theologically based medical ethics of the late sixteenth-century English Calvinist minister William Perkins. Although Perkins did not write a single focused book on the subject of medical ethics, he addressed a variety of moral issues in medicine in his numerous treatises on how laypeople should conduct themselves in their vocations and in all aspects of their daily lives. Perkins wrote on familiar issues such as the qualities of a good physician, the conduct of sick persons, the role of the minister in healing, and obligations in time of pestilence. His most significant contribution was his distinction between "lawful" and "unlawful" medicine, the latter category including both medical astrology and magic. Perkins's works reached a far greater audience in England and especially New England than did the treatises of contemporary secular medical ethics authors and his writings were influential in guiding the moral thinking of many pious medical practitioners and laypersons. PMID:22235029

  5. Humanitarian responses and their ethical implications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ilhak

    2012-09-01

    As the frequency and seriousness of natural disasters increase, humanitarian response gains interests. Disaster, as a threat to a society, exposes the weaknesses of that society and aids from agents other than that society are needed in the disaster situation. This nature of humanitarian response makes ethical consideration necessary, but as the context is different, ethical concerns and principles are also different from those of conventional medical ethics. Ethical justification is essential to humanitarian responses, and ethical standards and ideals should be considered during the humanitarian responses. PMID:23034401

  6. Emergency department triage: an ethical analysis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Emergency departments across the globe follow a triage system in order to cope with overcrowding. The intention behind triage is to improve the emergency care and to prioritize cases in terms of clinical urgency. Discussion In emergency department triage, medical care might lead to adverse consequences like delay in providing care, compromise in privacy and confidentiality, poor physician-patient communication, failing to provide the necessary care altogether, or even having to decide whose life to save when not everyone can be saved. These consequences challenge the ethical quality of emergency care. This article provides an ethical analysis of "routine" emergency department triage. The four principles of biomedical ethics - viz. respect for autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence and justice provide the starting point and help us to identify the ethical challenges of emergency department triage. However, they do not offer a comprehensive ethical view. To address the ethical issues of emergency department triage from a more comprehensive ethical view, the care ethics perspective offers additional insights. Summary We integrate the results from the analysis using four principles of biomedical ethics into care ethics perspective on triage and propose an integrated clinically and ethically based framework of emergency department triage planning, as seen from a comprehensive ethics perspective that incorporates both the principles-based and care-oriented approach. PMID:21982119

  7. Theodore E. Woodward Award. HIV/AIDS, ethics, and medical professionalism: where went the debate?

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Charles S.

    2003-01-01

    The recent surge of dialogue about medical professionalism has largely ignored HIV/AIDS, perhaps because the ethical issues that abounded during the 1980s and early 1990s have become largely passé. Prior to the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, the care ethic for patients with HIV/AIDS depended heavily on compassion since effective treatment was unavailable. Moreover, physicians and other health care workers often assumed physical risks on behalf of patients. HAART transformed the care ethic for HIV/AIDS to one dependent mainly on medical competence. Reflecting on the epidemic, I propose a distinction between "basic" and "higher" professionalism. Basic professionalism requires discipline-specific competence, facilitated by adherence to the four cardinal virtues (prudence, temperance, justice, and courage). Higher professionalism brings into play the transcendent virtues: faith, hope, and--especially--love (compassion). Specific examples of "compassion" in the strict sense of "suffering with" include caring without adequate reimbursement, caring when one would rather be doing something else, and assuming emotional or physical risks on behalf of patients. The physicians and other health care workers who displayed such compassion in abundance between 1981 and 1996 deserve our remembrance as exemplars of a higher professionalism. PMID:12813930

  8. Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Autumn Fiester; Marcus Düwell

    Ethical discussions about the development and use of chimeras and hybrids (hereafter: “chimbrids”) are faced with a series\\u000a of weighty problems. 1) First, not enough is known about either the research aims or the technical, political and social implications\\u000a of this kind of research to evaluate the benefits, risks and moral implications of the research in the short- or long-term.

  9. Medical management of patients after bariatric surgery: Principles and guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ? 30 kg/m2) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ? 40 kg/m2 and those with BMI > 35 kg/m2 with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review. PMID:25429323

  10. Medical management of patients after bariatric surgery: Principles and guidelines.

    PubMed

    Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E

    2014-11-27

    Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ? 40 kg/m(2) and those with BMI > 35 kg/m(2) with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review. PMID:25429323

  11. One Chairperson's Experience of Ethical Review: Balancing Principle, Convention, Relationship and Risk in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, John

    2010-01-01

    The author's experience of ethical review over six years as an academic member and chairperson of a university human ethics committee has been largely positive and educative. The account brings together archival records and personal experience to create a "transactive" account of the practical experience of doing ethical review in one university…

  12. Reforming medical education in ethics and humanities by finding common ground with Abraham Flexner.

    PubMed

    Doukas, David J; McCullough, Laurence B; Wear, Stephen

    2010-02-01

    Abraham Flexner was commissioned by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching to conduct the 1910 survey of all U.S. and Canadian medical schools because medical education was perceived to lack rigor and strong learning environments. Existing proprietary schools were shown to have inadequate student scholarship and substandard faculty and teaching venues. Flexner's efforts and those of the American Medical Association resulted in scores of inadequate medical schools being closed and the curricula of the survivors being radically changed. Flexner presumed that medical students would already be schooled in the humanities in college. He viewed the humanities as essential to physician development but did not explicitly incorporate this position into his 1910 report, although he emphasized this point in later writings. Medical ethics and humanities education since 1970 has sought integration with the sciences in medical school. Most programs, however, are not well integrated with the scientific/clinical curriculum, comprehensive across four years of training, or cohesive with nationally formulated goals and objectives. The authors propose a reformation of medical humanities teaching in medical schools inspired by Flexner's writings on premedical education in the context of contemporary educational requirements. College and university education in the humanities is committed to a broad education, consistent with long-standing tenets of liberal arts education. As a consequence, premedical students do not study clinically oriented science or humanities. The medical school curriculum already provides teaching of clinically relevant sciences. The proposed four-year curriculum should likewise provide clinically relevant humanities teaching to train medical students and residents comprehensively in humane, professional patient care. PMID:20107362

  13. The ethical imperative to think about thinking - diagnostics, metacognition, and medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Stark, Meredith; Fins, Joseph J

    2014-10-01

    While the medical ethics literature has well explored the harm to patients, families, and the integrity of the profession in failing to disclose medical errors once they occur, less often addressed are the moral and professional obligations to take all available steps to prevent errors and harm in the first instance. As an expanding body of scholarship further elucidates the causes of medical error, including the considerable extent to which medical errors, particularly in diagnostics, may be attributable to cognitive sources, insufficient progress in systematically evaluating and implementing suggested strategies for improving critical thinking skills and medical judgment is of mounting concern. Continued failure to address pervasive thinking errors in medical decisionmaking imperils patient safety and professionalism, as well as beneficence and nonmaleficence, fairness and justice. We maintain that self-reflective and metacognitive refinement of critical thinking should not be construed as optional but rather should be considered an integral part of medical education, a codified tenet of professionalism, and by extension, a moral and professional duty. PMID:25033249

  14. Teaching Medical Ethics to First-Year Students by Using Film Discussion to Develop Their Moral Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Donnie J.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A Texas A & M University study found that using a series of short films and weekly discussions of medical ethics issues was an effective way of improving medical students' moral reasoning skills and that students with longer exposure to the course (n=37) developed better skills than those with shorter exposure (n=48). (Author/MSE)

  15. Approach of Polish medical students to ethical problems related to transplantation and the application of stem cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EWA BAUM

    Objectives: Success of transplantation depends not only on technological progress, but also on the availability of organs, which depends in turn on acceptance of transplantation by society. Medical education of society seems to be an important approach to solving this problem. We studied the opinions of Polish medical students about ethical aspects related to transplantation and the use of stem

  16. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia Forlini; Eric Racine

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. METHODS: To gain insight into key ethical and social issues

  17. An Invitation for Medical Educators To Focus on Ethical and Policy Issues in Research and Scholarly Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Laura Weiss; Geppert, Cynthia; Connor, Renee; Nguyen, Khanh; Warner, Teddy D.

    2001-01-01

    Reviewed medical education research reports published in 1988 and 1989 and in 1998 and 1999 in two major medical education journals for documentation of six ethically important safeguards and features (e.g., informed consent). Rates of reporting were low and did not increase substantially after 10 years, raising implications for faculty, training…

  18. The literature of medical ethics: A review of the writings of Hans Jonas

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, F B K

    1976-01-01

    Hans Jonas, who was trained in Germany in the 1920s as a philosopher, had written studies of gnosticism while still living in Germany and some of his work in that field was published after he had left the country. After the Second World War Jonas settled in the United States of America where he is now the Alvin Johnson Professor of Philosophy at the New School for Social Research in New York City. For some years Hans Jonas has directed his research to philosophical studies of medical ethics, in particular to the problems created by recent advances in medical technology. His first book on this theme, `The Phenomenon of Life: Towards a Philosophical Biology', provides the philosophical background to his latest studies and was published in 1966. The essays included in that volume date from 1950 onwards. His second, `Philosophical Essays: From Ancient Creed to Technological Man', continues his analysis and argument from 1964 to the present day but is more particularly concerned with the practical problems of medical ethics encountered by clinicians and research workers, for example, experiments on comatose patients. Dr Cooper in this review outlines in some detail the theses of these volumes. PMID:784996

  19. ‘God’s Ethicist’: Albert Moll and His Medical Ethics in Theory and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2012-01-01

    In 1902, Albert Moll, who at that time ran a private practice for nervous diseases in Berlin, published his comprehensive book on medical ethics, Ärztliche Ethik. Based on the concept of a contractual relationship between doctor and client, it gave more room to the self-determination of patients than the contemporary, usually rather paternalistic, works of this genre. In the first part of the present paper this is illustrated by examining Moll’s views and advice on matters such as truthfulness towards patients, euthanasia, and abortion. The second part of this article discusses how Moll engaged with the then publicly debated issues of experimentation on hospital patients and the ‘trade’ of foreign private patients between agents and medical consultants. In both matters Moll collected evidence of unethical practices and tried to use it to bring about change without damaging his or the profession’s reputation. However, with his tactical manoeuvres, Moll made no friends for himself among his colleagues or the authorities; his book on ethics also met with a generally cool response from the medical profession and seems to have been more appreciated by lawyers than by other doctors. PMID:23002294

  20. 'God's ethicist': Albert Moll and his medical ethics in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Maehle, Andreas-Holger

    2012-04-01

    In 1902, Albert Moll, who at that time ran a private practice for nervous diseases in Berlin, published his comprehensive book on medical ethics, Ärztliche Ethik. Based on the concept of a contractual relationship between doctor and client, it gave more room to the self-determination of patients than the contemporary, usually rather paternalistic, works of this genre. In the first part of the present paper this is illustrated by examining Moll's views and advice on matters such as truthfulness towards patients, euthanasia, and abortion. The second part of this article discusses how Moll engaged with the then publicly debated issues of experimentation on hospital patients and the 'trade' of foreign private patients between agents and medical consultants. In both matters Moll collected evidence of unethical practices and tried to use it to bring about change without damaging his or the profession's reputation. However, with his tactical manoeuvres, Moll made no friends for himself among his colleagues or the authorities; his book on ethics also met with a generally cool response from the medical profession and seems to have been more appreciated by lawyers than by other doctors. PMID:23002294

  1. 77 FR 58840 - Request for Comments and Announcement of Workshop on Pet Medications Issues

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ...appropriate course of treatment for any medical condition, including whether...veterinarian. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) advises veterinarians...See Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics of the AVMA,...

  2. Ethical Dilemmas in Disaster Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ozge Karadag, C; Kerim Hakan, A

    2012-01-01

    Background Disasters may lead to ethical challenges that are different from usual medical practices. In addition, disaster situations are related with public health ethics more than medical ethics, and accordingly may require stronger effort to achieve a balance between individual and collective rights. This paper aims to review some ethical dilemmas that arise in disasters and mainly focuses on health services. Disasters vary considerably with respect to their time, place and extent; therefore, ethical questions may not always have `one-size-fits-all` answers. On the other hand, embedding ethical values and principles in every aspect of health-care is of vital importance. Reviewing legal and organizational regulations, developing health-care related guidelines, and disaster recovery plans, establishing on-call ethics committees as well as adequate in-service training of health-care workers for ethical competence are among the most critical steps. It is only by making efforts before disasters, that ethical challenges can be minimized in disaster responses. PMID:23285411

  3. Medical students' recognition and application of geriatrics principles in a new curriculum.

    PubMed

    Nanda, Aman; Farrell, Timothy W; Shield, Renée R; Tomas, Maria; Campbell, Susan E; Wetle, Terrie

    2013-03-01

    Given the aging U.S. population, it is imperative that medical students recognize and apply geriatrics principles. To address this need, in 2006, the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University integrated geriatrics content into a new medical school curriculum. Preclinical and clinical medical students submitted written reflective journals in response to prompts regarding the geriatrics content of the new medical school curriculum, including their didactic and clinical experiences. An interdisciplinary team used a structured qualitative approach to identify themes, including the recognition and application of geriatrics principles. Thirty medical student journalers submitted 405 journal entries. Themes regarding students' emerging understanding of geriatrics principles included a growing understanding of geriatrics principles, recognition of the importance of psychosocial factors and patient preferences in caring for older adults, recognition of the complexities of treating older adults and application of geriatric principles to clinical situations, and understanding of physicians' roles in managing the care of older adults. Medical student reflective journaling allows medical educators to obtain timely feedback on curricular innovations and helps illuminate the process by which medical students learn to recognize and apply core geriatrics principles. PMID:23379444

  4. A Framework for Understanding and Applying Ethical Principles in Network and Security

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    to be an active area of study [11, 6]. Expectedly, as the research on impacts of ICT and the enabling technologies and communications technology poses a variety of ethical challenges for researchers. In this paper, we present. By providing this prototype ethical impact assessment, we seek to en- courage community feedback on the working

  5. [Medicine, physicians and medical ethics in Jewish tradition through the ages].

    PubMed

    Gesundheit, Benjamin; Zlotnick, Eitan; Wygoda, Michael; Rosenzweig, Joshua P; Steinberg, Avraham

    2014-10-01

    Defining truth and truth-telling to patients are central topics in philosophy, law, and psychology, with many implications in medicine. In the last hundred years, with the transition from paternalistic medicine to a system in which the patient's autonomy is emphasized, the decision on the quantity and quality of medical information to be disclosed to the patient has become more complicated and requires careful consideration and special sensitivity on the part of the doctor. The Israeli Patients' Rights Act (1996] established guidelines for medical staff about telltting the truth to patients with occasional special authority delegated to the doctor to decide for the benefit of the patient at his discretion and with the approval of the institutional ethics committee, but in practice there are difficulties in implementing the Law. This article reviews a selection of sources from Jewish tradition throughout the ages that deal with truthtelling or concealing the truth in medical contexts and other contexts. Sources are drawn from the Bible, Mishna-Talmud, and halachic Literature, from which.conclusions can be drawn regarding this issue. In our opinion, these sources yield messages and values that are also relevant to the modern medical world. This is especially true in a multi-cultural environment such as Israel that requires the physician to consider the patient's background and to communicate information in accordance with his/her will, in an efficient and sensitive manner. PMID:25518082

  6. THE MEDICAL COLLEGE OF WISCONSIN MEDICAL SCHOOL ACADEMIC BULLETIN 20112012 3 The Medical College of Wisconsin is dedicated to the education and

    E-print Network

    , highly specialized care. Significant research opportunities abound for our medical students. MedicalTHE MEDICAL COLLEGE OF WISCONSIN MEDICAL SCHOOL ACADEMIC BULLETIN 2011­2012 3 Welcome T The Medical of medicine and the highest professional and ethical principles. The Medical College of Wisconsin integrates

  7. Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gisela Badura-Lotter; Marcus Düwell

    The term 'chimera' is not unambiguously defined. It is part of a field of definitions concerning different types of chimeras\\u000a and chimerism, be it on the level of eukaryotic organisms, viruses or even proteins. Natural chimerism occurs in man and many\\u000a other mammalian species,172 but this is only of minor importance, here (e.g. in assessing medical aspects of micro- and

  8. Human rights from the Nuremberg Doctors Trial to the Geneva Declaration. Persons and institutions in medical ethics and history.

    PubMed

    Frewer, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    The "Universal Declaration of Human Rights" and the "Geneva Declaration" by the World Medical Association, both in 1948, were preceded by the foundation of the United Nations in New York (1945), the World Medical Association in London (1946) and the World Health Organization in Geneva (1948). After the end of World War II the community of nations strove to achieve and sustain their primary goals of peace and security, as well as their basic premise, namely the health of human beings. All these associations were well aware of the crimes by medicine, in particular by the accused Nazi physicians at the Nuremberg Doctors Trial (1946/47, sentence: August 1947). During the first conference of the World Medical Association (September 1947) issues of medical ethics played a major role: and a new document was drafted concerning the values of the medical profession. After the catastrophe of the War and the criminal activities of scientists, the late 1940s saw increased scrutiny paid to fundamental questions of human rights and medical ethics, which are still highly relevant for today's medicine and morality. The article focuses on the development of medical ethics and human rights reflected in the statement of important persons, codes and institutions in the field. PMID:20437118

  9. The legal status of clinical and ethics policies, codes, and guidelines in medical practice and research.

    PubMed

    Campbell, A; Glass, K C

    2001-02-01

    This article examines the legal status of "soft law" in the fields of medicine and medical research. Many areas of clinical practice and research involve complex and rapidly changing issues for which the law provides no guidance. Instead, guidance for physicians and researchers comes from what has often been called "soft law"--non-legislative, non-regulatory sources, such as ethics policy statements, codes, and guidelines from professional or quasi-governmental bodies. This article traces the evolution of these "soft law" instruments: how they are created, how they are adopted within the professional community, and how they become accepted by the courts. It studies the relationship between soft law instruments and the courts. It includes an examination of the approaches to judicial analysis used by the courts in theory and in practice. The authors then examine the jurisprudence to see how courts will adopt professional norms as the legal standard of care in some circumstances and not others. They consider the legal concerns and ethical issues surrounding the weight attached to professional practices and norms in law. The authors demonstrate how practices and policies that guide professional conduct may ultimately bear weight as norms recognizable and enforceable within the legal sphere. PMID:16523580

  10. The medical ethics of Dr J Marion Sims: a fresh look at the historical record

    PubMed Central

    Wall, L L

    2006-01-01

    Vesicovaginal fistula was a catastrophic complication of childbirth among 19th century American women. The first consistently successful operation for this condition was developed by Dr J Marion Sims, an Alabama surgeon who carried out a series of experimental operations on black slave women between 1845 and 1849. Numerous modern authors have attacked Sims's medical ethics, arguing that he manipulated the institution of slavery to perform ethically unacceptable human experiments on powerless, unconsenting women. This article reviews these allegations using primary historical source material and concludes that the charges that have been made against Sims are largely without merit. Sims's modern critics have discounted the enormous suffering experienced by fistula victims, have ignored the controversies that surrounded the introduction of anaesthesia into surgical practice in the middle of the 19th century, and have consistently misrepresented the historical record in their attacks on Sims. Although enslaved African American women certainly represented a “vulnerable population” in the 19th century American South, the evidence suggests that Sims's original patients were willing participants in his surgical attempts to cure their affliction—a condition for which no other viable therapy existed at that time. PMID:16731734

  11. The Physician's Role in Ethical Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevalier, Robert B.

    1977-01-01

    Many medical issues today require ethical as well as strictly medical decisions. Described is the need for the inclusion of medical ethics in the schools, beginning with science ethics in the secondary level and continuing through medical school. (MA)

  12. A Data-Generated Basis for Medical Ethics Education: Categorizing Issues Experienced by Students during Clinical Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissonette, Raymond; And Others

    1995-01-01

    A survey of 249 students at the State University of New York at Buffalo identified medical ethics issues arising during clinical training in professional norms, limits of intervention, defensive shielding of professional colleagues, respect toward patients, communication, and student boundaries. Concerns differed by student year, supporting…

  13. Ethical and Human Rights Imperatives to Ensure Medication-Assisted Treatment for Opioid Dependence in Prisons and Pre-trial Detention

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, R. Douglas; Schleifer, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    Opioid dependence is a complex medical condition affecting neurocognitive and physical functioning. Forced or abrupt opioid withdrawal may cause profound physical and psychological suffering, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, extreme agitation and/or anxiety. Opioid dependent individuals are especially vulnerable at the time of arrest or initial detention, when they may, as a result of their chemical dependency, be coerced into providing incriminating testimony, or be driven to engage in risky behavior (such as sharing needles in detention) in order to avoid painful withdrawal symptoms Upon incarceration, many opioid dependent prisoners are forced to undergo abrupt opioid withdrawal (both from legally prescribed agonist therapy such as methadone as well as illicit opioids). Physical and psychological symptoms attendant to withdrawal may impair capacity to make informed legal decisions, and cause prisoners to risk HIV and other bloodborne diseases by sharing injection equipment. Although prisons must provide at least the standard of care to prisoners that is available in the general population, medication-assisted treatment, endorsed by international health and drug agencies as an integral part of HIV prevention and care strategies for opioid dependent drug users, is unavailable to most prisoners. Medication-assisted treatment is a well-studied and validated pharmacological therapy for the medical condition known as opioid dependence. The failure to ensure prisoner access to this medical therapy threatens fundamental human rights protections against cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and rights to health and to life. It also poses serious ethical problems for health care providers, violating basic principles of beneficence and non-maleficence (i.e., do good/do no harm). Governments must take immediate action to ensure access to opioid substitution to prisoners to ensure fulfillment of ethical and human rights obligations. PMID:18226517

  14. Financial conflicts of interest and the ethical obligations of medical school faculty and the profession.

    PubMed

    Austad, Kirsten; Brendel, David H; Brendel, Rebecca W

    2010-01-01

    Despite their potential benefits, relationships linking medical school faculty and the pharmaceutical and device industries may also challenge the professional value of primacy of patient welfare, a point highlighted in a recent Institute of Medicine report. Academic medical centers and professors have the added professional obligation to ensure the unbiased, evidence-based education of future doctors. This essay argues that faculty financial conflicts of interest may threaten this obligation by propagating the bias introduced by these relationships to students. This could occur directly through the process of curriculum determination and delivery, and also indirectly through the "hidden curriculum," which deserves particular attention, as its lessons may conflict with those professed in the formal curriculum. The essay concludes with guiding principles to consider when developing a conflict of interest policy at academic medical centers. PMID:21037407

  15. Bio-ethical dilemmas related to medical treatment in pre-modern Jewish society, as a portal for raising current ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Mack, Tamar Salmon; Shaham, Dorith; Marcus, Esther-Lee

    2013-09-01

    Real-life ethical issues that concern those engaged in medical practice existed and were discussed in earlier ages. It seems that many of the same dilemmas that we face today occupied our ancestors as well. An investigation of historical sources may be useful in showing earlier methods of coping with the dilemmas relating to health and illness. In this article we will present several such topics taken from the sources of Jewish society in pre-modern Europe. These sources served as the basis for a course given to medical students as part of the Medical Humanities track. The "raw materials" are historical, written Hebrew and Yiddish sources from Jewish society. Genres include Minute books, the huge corpus of Responsa, historical elegies written about epidemics, memoirs, and instruction books written by Jewish physicians. Profound bio-ethical issues can be found in historical sources. Main issues discussed are: physician's fees, obligations, and rights; personal characteristics expected of physicians; physician's obligations when his/her own life is endangered; medicalization of certain human conditions; and ideological questions regarding the relationship between traditional folk medicine and modern, academic medicine. The historical distance facilitates a freer discussion about distant people, while getting in touch with our own attitudes. PMID:24340482

  16. Ethical and Legal Implications of Elective Ventilation and Organ Transplantation: “Medicalization” of Dying versus Medical Mission

    PubMed Central

    Frati, Paola; Montanari Vergallo, Gianluca; Di Luca, Natale Mario; Turillazzi, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    A critical controversy surrounds the type of allowable interventions to be carried out in patients who are potential organ donors, in an attempt to improve organ perfusion and successful transplantation. The main goal is to transplant an organ in conditions as close as possible to its physiological live state. “Elective ventilation” (EV), that is, the use of ventilation for the sole purpose of retrieving the organs of patients close to death, is an option which offsets the shortage of organ donation. We have analyzed the legal context of the dying process of the organ donor and the feasibility of EV in the Italian context. There is no legal framework regulating the practice of EV, neither is any real information given to the general public. A public debate has yet to be initiated. In the Italian cultural and legislative scenario, we believe that, under some circumstances (i.e., the expressed wishes of the patient, even in the form of advance directives), the use of EV does not violate the principle of beneficence. We believe that the crux of the matter lies in the need to explore the real determination and will of the patient and his/her orientation towards the specific aim of organ donation. PMID:25126582

  17. Knowledge and practice of clinical ethics among healthcare providers in a government hospital, Chennai.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Thilakavathi; Mathai, A K; Kumar, Nandini

    2013-01-01

    The growing public concern about the ethical conduct of healthcare professionals highlights the need to incorporate clinical ethics in medical education. This study examined the knowledge and practice of clinical ethics among healthcare providers in a government hospital in Chennai. A sample of 51 treating physicians and 58 other non-physician service providers from the hospital answered a self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire on their knowledge of and adherence to ethical principles, and the problems they faced related to healthcare ethics. More than 30% did not give a definition of healthcare ethics, and 40% did not name a single ethical principle. 51% stated that they witnessed ethical problems in their settings and named patient dissatisfaction, gender bias by provider, and not maintaining confidentiality. The responses of healthcare providers to various ethical scenarios are reported. PMID:23697487

  18. Students' evaluation of a team-based course on research and publication ethics: attitude change in medical school graduate students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young

    2008-01-01

    In response to a growing need for students to appreciate ethical issues in medical research and publication, a brief team-based learning (TBL) course was presented to graduate students in the medical school of Hallym University in October and November 2007. To gather information as a basis for improving the course, questionnaires were distributed to 19 students and the feedback was evaluated. The questionnaire consisted of four categories: general course content (7 items), changes in attitudes toward research and publication ethics (6 items), the TBL format (6 items), and an open-ended question about the class (1 item). The most positive response had to do with the importance of the material. Students reported that their knowledge about ethical issues increased, and they expressed satisfaction regarding the communication with their tutors within the TBL format. Most students showed positive responses to the subject as well as to TBL. Since this was the first trial offering of this material in the graduate program at this medical school, it may have been novel to the students. The attitude change and the knowledge acquisition reported by students reflect a very positive outcome of this class. After adjustments to improve weaknesses, such as the short time allocation and students' lack of prior background, the outcomes of this TBL course on research and publication ethics provide a good basis for its continuation. PMID:19224000

  19. Students' Evaluation of a Team-based Course on Research and Publication Ethics: Attitude Change in Medical School Graduate Students

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    In response to a growing need for students to appreciate ethical issues in medical research and publication, a brief team-based learning (TBL) course was presented to graduate students in the medical school of Hallym University in October and November 2007. To gather information as a basis for improving the course, questionnaires were distributed to 19 students and the feedback was evaluated. The questionnaire consisted of four categories: general course content (7 items), changes in attitudes toward research and publication ethics (6 items), the TBL format (6 items), and an open-ended question about the class (1 item). The most positive response had to do with the importance of the material. Students reported that their knowledge about ethical issues increased, and they expressed satisfaction regarding the communication with their tutors within the TBL format. Most students showed positive responses to the subject as well as to TBL. Since this was the first trial offering of this material in the graduate program at this medical school, it may have been novel to the students. The attitude change and the knowledge acquisition reported by students reflect a very positive outcome of this class. After adjustments to improve weaknesses, such as the short time allocation and students' lack of prior background, the outcomes of this TBL course on research and publication ethics provide a good basis for its continuation. PMID:19224000

  20. [Ethical reflection on multidisciplinarity and confidentiality of information in medical imaging through new information and communication technologies].

    PubMed

    Béranger, J; Le Coz, P

    2012-05-01

    Technological advances in medical imaging has resulted in the exponential increase of the number of images per examination, caused the irreversible decline of the silver film and imposed digital imaging. This digitization is a concept whose levels of development are multiple, reflecting the complexity of this process of technological change. Under these conditions, the use of medical information via new information and communication technologies is at the crossroads of several scientific approaches and several disciplines (medicine, ethics, law, economics, psychology, etc.) surrounding the information systems in health, doctor-patient relationship and concepts that are associated. Each day, these new information and communication technologies open up new horizons and the space of possibilities, spectacularly developing access to information and knowledge. In this perspective of digital technology emergence impacting the multidisciplinary use of health information systems, the ethical questions are numerous, especially on the preservation of privacy, confidentiality and security of medical data, and their accessibility and integrity. PMID:22521872

  1. Privacy of Medical Records: from Law Principles to Practice Batrice FINANCE 1,2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Privacy of Medical Records: from Law Principles to Practice Béatrice FINANCE 1,2 , Saïda MEDJDOUB1 laws are dedicated to the protection of medical records, like the well recognized Health Insurance, {firstname.lastname}@inria.fr Abstract Regulating access to electronic health records has become a major

  2. Medical and Genetic Differences in the Adverse Impact of Sleep Loss on Performance: Ethical Considerations for the Medical Profession

    PubMed Central

    Czeisler, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine recently concluded that-on average-medical residents make more serious medical errors and have more motor vehicle crashes when they are deprived of sleep. In the interest of public safety, society has required limitations on work hours in many other safety sensitive occupations, including transportation and nuclear power generation. Those who argue in favor of traditional extended duration resident work hours often suggest that there are inter- individual differences in response to acute sleep loss or chronic sleep deprivation, implying that physicians may be more resistant than the average person to the detrimental effects of sleep deprivation on performance, although there is no evidence that physicians are particularly resistant to such effects. Indeed, recent investigations have identified genetic polymorphisms that may convey a relative resistance to the effects of prolonged wakefulness on a subset of the healthy population, although there is no evidence that physicians are over-represented in this cohort. Conversely, there are also genetic polymorphisms, sleep disorders and other inter-individual differences that appear to convey an increased vulnerability to the performance-impairing effects of 24 hours of wakefulness. Given the magnitude of inter-individual differences in the effect of sleep loss on cognitive performance, and the sizeable proportion of the population affected by sleep disorders, hospitals face a number of ethical dilemmas. How should the work hours of physicians be limited to protect patient safety optimally? For example, some have argued that, in contrast to other professions, work schedules that repeatedly induce acute and chronic sleep loss are uniquely essential to the training of physicians. If evidence were to prove this premise to be correct, how should such training be ethically accomplished in the quartile of physicians and surgeons who are most vulnerable to the effects of sleep loss on performance without unacceptably compromising patient safety? Moreover, once it is possible to identify reliably those most vulnerable to the adverse effects of sleep loss on performance, will academic medical centers have an obligation to evaluate the proficiency of both residents and staff physicians under conditions of acute and chronic sleep deprivation? Should work-hour policy limits be modified to ensure that they are not hazardous for the patients of the most vulnerable quartile of physicians, or should the limits be personalized to enable the most resistant quartile to work longer hours? Given that the prevalence of sleep disorders has increased in our society overall, and increases markedly with age, how should fitness for extended duration work hours be monitored over a physician's career? In the spirit of the dictum to do no harm, advances in understanding the medical and genetic basis of inter-individual differences in the performance vulnerability to sleep loss should be incorporated into the development of work-hour policy limits for both physicians and surgeons. PMID:19768182

  3. [Withdrawal of artificial nutrition and hydration in severe stroke: Medical, legal and ethical considerations].

    PubMed

    Tannier, C; Crozier, S; Zuber, M; Constantinides, Y; Delezie, E; Gisquet, E; Grignoli, N; Lamy, C; Louvet, F; Pinel, J-F

    2015-02-01

    In the majority of cases, severe stroke is accompanied by difficulty in swallowing and an altered state of consciousness requiring artificial nutrition and hydration. Because of their artificial nature, nutrition and hydration are considered by law as treatment rather basic care. Withdrawal of these treatments is dictated by the refusal of unreasonable obstinacy enshrined in law and is justified by the risk of severe disability and very poor quality of life. It is usually the last among other withholding and withdrawal decisions which have already been made during the long course of the disease. Reaching a collegial consensus on a controversial decision such as artificial nutrition and hydration withdrawal is a difficult and complex process. The reluctance for such decisions is mainly due to the symbolic value of food and hydration, to the fear of "dying badly" while suffering from hunger and thirst, and to the difficult distinction between this medical act and euthanasia. The only way to overcome such reluctance is to ensure flawless accompaniment, associating sedation and appropriate comfort care with a clear explanation (with relatives but also caregivers) of the rationale and implications of this type of decision. All teams dealing with this type of situation must have thoroughly thought through the medical, legal and ethical considerations involved in making this difficult decision. PMID:25575609

  4. Guidelines for Medical and Health Information Sites on the Internet: Principles Governing AMA Web Sites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Andrews, Karen.

    2000-01-01

    Although developed for American Medical Association Websites and their users, these recently released guidelines and principles may prove useful to other providers and users of online medical information. Available from the Journal of the American Medical Association in HTML or .pdf format, the guidelines address issues such as the development and posting of Website content, acquisition and posting of online advertising and sponsorship, visitors's and patients's rights to privacy and confidentiality, and effective and secure means of e-commerce.

  5. Access to Medical Records.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Nancy

    Although confidentiality with regard to medical records is supposedly protected by the American Medical Associaton's principles of Ethics and the physician-patient privilege, there are a number of laws that require a physician to release patient information to public authorities without the patient's consent. These exceptions include birth and…

  6. Psychiatric ethics in war and peace

    PubMed Central

    Raju, M. S. V. K.

    2013-01-01

    Practice of psychiatry is a complex activity because the psychiatrist generally practises his art in an emotionally charged environment with patients who may not be in a in a state of mind to exercise autonomy as a result of cognitive impairment and preoccupation with symptoms. No one principle of ethics will be suitable to guide right conduct in widely variable situations. Making ethical judgements in the military context can be difficult and may have potential for abuse as for an uniformed psychiatrist mission takes priority over man. However mission centered and medical text book centred ethics need not be compartamentalised. The present paper seeks to offer a brief overview of ethical principles and specific situations in which one may have to make ethical judgements. PMID:24459379

  7. Medical oncology: Basic principles and clinical management of cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Calabresi, P.; Schein, P.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    This book consists of three section, each containing several papers. The sections are: Basic Principles, Specific Neoplasmas, and Supportive Care. Some of the paper titles are: Pharmacology of Antineoplastic Agents, Hodgkin's Disease, Myeloma, Melanoma, Neoplasms of the Lung, Sarcomas, Pediatric Neoplasms, Infectious Consideration in Cancer, Nursing Considerations in Cancer, and Rehabilitation of the Patient with Cancer.

  8. Action Research in Education: Addressing Gaps in Ethical Principles and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Amanda L.; Putten, Jim Vander

    2007-01-01

    Action research in education has gained increasing attention in the past 20 years. It is viewed as a practical yet systematic research method that enables teachers to investigate their own teaching and their students' learning. However, the ethical issues unique to this form of insider research have received less attention. Drawing on several…

  9. Integrating Values and Ethics into Post Secondary Teaching for Leadership Development: Principles, Concepts, and Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begley, Paul T.; Stefkovich, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the nature of moral literacy as it applies to leadership development and the processes for promoting moral literacy through teaching in colleges and universities. Design/methodology/approach: The ethics of authenticity and moral agency in education settings are proposed as a means for promoting and…

  10. Teaching Ethical Decision Making Using Dual Relationship Principles as a Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland-Prom, Kim; Anderson, Sandra C.

    2005-01-01

    When the National Association of Social Workers (1999) ratified the Code of Ethics in 2000, it was an acknowledgement that dual relationships can be part of sound social work practice. The educational materials that are available to educators do not move sufficiently beyond a risk-reduction approach to dual relationships to an assessment of how a…

  11. "Is This Ethical?" A Survey of Opinion on Principles and Practices of Document Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragga, Sam

    1996-01-01

    Reprints a corrected version of an article originally published in the volume 43, number 1 issue of this journal. Presents results of a national survey of technical communicators and technical communication teachers assessing the ethics of seven document design cases involving manipulation of typography, illustrations, and photographs. Offers…

  12. Improving American Police Ethics Training: Focusing on Social Contract Theory and Constitutional Principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monica M. Moll

    Americans have good reason to fear the awesome power granted to police officers and to demand that these government officials adhere to the strictest of ethical standards in carrying out their duties. No other government official has such direct power and immediate access to regularly deprive the average citizen of their liberties. Other scholars (Cohen and Feldberg, 1991; Fitzpatrick, 2006)

  13. The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; S. Lauque; L. Frolich; B. Vellas; W. J. M. Dekkers

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical committees and how the issues of informed consent and capacity to consent were dealt with. The study

  14. Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  15. 015. Ethical dilemmas, medical protocols and deontology in diagnosis of lung cancer during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Manos, Emmanouil; Gkika, Dimitra; Euthimiou, Christoforos; Lola, Vassiliki; Potonos, Stefanos; Kokkori, Ioanna; Tsiouda, Theodora; Pililitsis, Leonidas; Angel, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Background Lung cancer is second in frequency in both sexes, with very poor prognosis and high mortality rates. Smoking is the main cause. Malignant neoplasms of the lung on pregnancy are not very frequent. They constitute a direct threat for the woman’s life and simultaneously the outcome of pregnancy is doubtful. Objective We present this case because of the rarity of coexistence of lung neoplasm and pregnancy, in absence of treatment guidelines. The question of overcoming, by the attending physician, the ethical dilemmas and the medical protocols is apposed, in the progress and outcome of pregnancy, when lung malignant neoplasm coexists. Methods A 33-year-old woman, smoker, with occasional alcohol consumption and medical history of Leiden thrombophilia, is at 18-19 weeks of gestation. She presents to the emergency department of the general hospital with reported episodes of dyspnea and cough. She refers cough with difficulty in the elimination of sputum, dyspnea, orthopnea, facial and neck edema with venous distension, common symptoms of superior vena cava syndrome. The CT scan revealed a lung mass in the right upper lobe with the right hilum involved. The rest of the staging was negative. Results The first bronchoscopy revealed edema in the main carina and right upper lobe stenosis while the biopsy samples did not demonstrate a histological identification. Mediastinoscopy was followed and revealed a poorly differentiated carcinoma (primary pulmonary neuroendocrine tumor). Both patient and relatives consented to start chemotherapy treatment. After four cycles of chemotherapy with carboplatin + etoposide, the patient in the 7th month of gestation, gave birth to a healthy baby boy weighted 1,130 gr. The patient died after four months because she suffered from an extremely aggressive tumor with brain and diffused spinal metastatic infiltrations and also from the appearance of paraneoplastic disorders like Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome. Conclusions The successful outcome of pregnancy with coexisting malignant lung neoplasm is an achievable target, even though seems rather impossible. It is required a conscious overcoming, not only of the lack of existing treatment guidelines but also by the involving of the ethical dilemmas that may arise.

  16. Toxic tort litigation: medical and scientific principles in causation.

    PubMed

    Henderson, T W

    1990-07-01

    A definition and an explanation of the legal standard for imposition of legal liability in a toxic tort case are set forth. The focus is on how expert witnesses utilize the applicable medical and scientific data in order to provide opinion evidence of the causal relation between exposure to a toxic substance and disease in an individual case. The author concludes that policy considerations are present in both the legal standard and the basis for establishing a cause and effect relation. PMID:2356839

  17. The pitfalls of deducing ethics from behavioral economics: why the Association of American Medical Colleges is wrong about pharmaceutical detailing.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2010-01-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is urging academic medical centers to ban pharmaceutical detailing. This policy followed from a consideration of behavioral and neuroeconomics research. I argue that this research did not warrant the conclusions drawn from it. Pharmaceutical detailing carries risks of cognitive error for physicians, as do other forms of information exchange. Physicians may overcome such risks; those determined to do so may ethically engage in pharmaceutical detailing. Whether or not they should do so is a prudential judgment about which reasonable people may disagree. The AAMC's ethical condemnation of detailing is unwarranted and will subvert efforts to maintain a realm of physician discretion in clinical work that is increasingly threatened in our present practice environment. PMID:20077321

  18. The ethics of limiting informed debate: censorship of select medical publications in the interest of organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Potts, Michael; Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; Evans, David W

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several articles in the scholarly literature on medical ethics proclaim the need for "responsible scholarship" in the debate over the proper criteria for death, in which "responsible scholarship" is defined in terms of support for current neurological criteria for death. In a recent article, James M. DuBois is concerned that academic critiques of current death criteria create unnecessary doubt about the moral acceptability of organ donation, which may affect the public's willingness to donate. Thus he calls for a closing of the debate on current death criteria and for journal editors to publish only critiques that "substantially engage and advance the debate." We argue that such positions as DuBois' are a threat to responsible scholarship in medical ethics, especially scholarship that opposes popular stances, because it erodes academic freedom and the necessity of debate on an issue that is literally a matter of life and death, no matter what side a person defends. PMID:24225389

  19. Teaching evidence-based medicine to undergraduate medical students: a course integrating ethics, audit, management and clinical epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Martin; Ashcroft, Richard; Atun, Rifat A; Freeman, George K; Jamrozik, Konrad

    2006-06-01

    A six-week full time course for third-year undergraduate medical students at Imperial College uniquely links evidence-based medicine (EBM) with ethics and the management of change in health services. It is mounted jointly by the Medical and Business Schools and features an experiential approach. Small teams of students use a problem-based strategy to address practical issues identified from a range of clinical placements in primary and secondary care settings. The majority of these junior clinical students achieve important objectives for learning about teamwork, critical appraisal, applied ethics and health care organisations. Their work often influences the care received by patients in the host clinical units. We discuss the strengths of the course in relation to other accounts of programmes in EBM. We give examples of recurring experiences from successive cohorts and discuss assessment issues and how our multi-phasic evaluation informs evolution of the course and the potential for future developments. PMID:16807168

  20. Foundational Security Principles for Medical Application Platforms* (Extended Abstract)

    PubMed Central

    Vasserman, Eugene Y.; Hatcliff, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe a preliminary set of security requirements for safe and secure next-generation medical systems, consisting of dynamically composable units, tied together through a real-time safety-critical middleware. We note that this requirement set is not the same for individual (stand-alone) devices or for electronic health record systems, and we must take care to define system-level requirements rather than security goals for components. The requirements themselves build on each other such that it is difficult or impossible to eliminate any one of the requirements and still achieve high-level security goals. PMID:25599096

  1. Who Should Receive Life Support During a Public Health Emergency? Using Ethical Principles to Improve Allocation Decisions

    PubMed Central

    White, Douglas B.; Katz, Mitchell H.; Luce, John M.; Lo, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A public health emergency such as an influenza pandemic will lead to shortages of mechanical ventilators, critical care beds, and other potentially life saving treatments. This will raise difficult decisions about who will and will not receive these scarce resources. Existing recommendations reflect a narrow utilitarian perspective in which allocation decisions are based primarily on patients' chances of survival to hospital discharge. Certain patient groups, such as the elderly and those with functional impairment, are denied access to potentially life saving treatments based on selective application of additional allocation criteria. We analyze the ethical principles that could guide allocation and propose an allocation strategy that incorporates and balances multiple morally relevant considerations, including saving the most lives, maximizing the number of “life-years” saved, and prioritizing those who have had the least chance to live through life's stages. We also argue that these principles are relevant to all patients and that justice requires that these principles be applied evenly, rather than selectively to the aged, functionally impaired, and those with certain chronic conditions. We discuss strategies to genuinely engage the public in setting the priorities that will guide allocation of scarce life sustaining treatments during a public health emergency. PMID:19153413

  2. Psychiatric Residents' Needs for Education about Informed Consent, Principles of Ethics and Professionalism, and Caring for Vulnerable Populations: Results of a Multisite Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Shaili; Lapid, Maria I.; Dunn, Laura B.; Roberts, Laura Weiss

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors examined psychiatric residents' perceived needs for education in informed consent, principles of ethics and professionalism, and treating vulnerable populations. Method: A written survey was distributed to psychiatric residents (N = 249) at seven U.S. residency programs in 2005. The survey contained 149 questions in 10…

  3. Is the non-respect of ethical principles by doctors during Down's syndrome screening by first-trimester ultrasound damaging to

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Is the non-respect of ethical principles by doctors during Down's syndrome screening by first Biomédicale (IIREB). Key words: Prenatal diagnosis, Down syndrome, nuchal translucency, informed consent population know about Down's syndrome screening by nuchal translucency?, what is the personal position

  4. The ethics of characterizing difference: guiding principles on using racial categories in human genetics

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sandra Soo-Jin; Mountain, Joanna; Koenig, Barbara; Altman, Russ; Brown, Melissa; Camarillo, Albert; Cavalli-Sforza, Luca; Cho, Mildred; Eberhardt, Jennifer; Feldman, Marcus; Ford, Richard; Greely, Henry; King, Roy; Markus, Hazel; Satz, Debra; Snipp, Matthew; Steele, Claude; Underhill, Peter

    2008-01-01

    We are a multidisciplinary group of Stanford faculty who propose ten principles to guide the use of racial and ethnic categories when characterizing group differences in research into human genetic variation. PMID:18638359

  5. Disagreements with implications: diverging discourses on the ethics of non-medical use of methylphenidate for performance enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Forlini, Cynthia; Racine, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Background There is substantial evidence that methylphenidate (MPH; Ritalin), is being used by healthy university students for non-medical motives such as the improvement of concentration, alertness, and academic performance. The scope and potential consequences of the non-medical use of MPH upon healthcare and society bring about many points of view. Methods To gain insight into key ethical and social issues on the non-medical use of MPH, we examined discourses in the print media, bioethics literature, and public health literature. Results Our study identified three diverging paradigms with varying perspectives on the nature of performance enhancement. The beneficial effects of MPH on normal cognition were generally portrayed enthusiastically in the print media and bioethics discourses but supported by scant information on associated risks. Overall, we found a variety of perspectives regarding ethical, legal and social issues related to the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement and its impact upon social practices and institutions. The exception to this was public health discourse which took a strong stance against the non-medical use of MPH typically viewed as a form of prescription abuse or misuse. Wide-ranging recommendations for prevention of further non-medical use of MPH included legislation and increased public education. Conclusion Some positive portrayals of the non-medical use of MPH for performance enhancement in the print media and bioethics discourses could entice further uses. Medicine and society need to prepare for more prevalent non-medical uses of neuropharmaceuticals by fostering better informed public debates. PMID:19580661

  6. Problems in deceptive medical procedures: an ethical and legal analysis of the administration of placebos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Beth Simmons

    1978-01-01

    The use of placebos in therapy or research poses ethical questions. What are the benefits and the costs in ethical terms of condoning deception of the patient or subject? What does the deception mean for the patient's or subject's right to give informed consent to his treatment?Doctors are rightly expected to disclose to their patient facts which would in their

  7. Germ-Line Gene Modification and Disease Prevention: Some Medical and Ethical Perspectives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nelson A. Wivel; Leroy Walters

    1993-01-01

    There has been considerable debate about the ethics of human germ-line gene modification. As a result of recent advances in the micromanipulation of embryos and the laboratory development of transgenic mice, a lively discussion has begun concerning both the technical feasibility and the ethical acceptability of human germ-line modification for the prevention of serious disease. This article summarizes some of

  8. Ethics in clinical research: the Indian perspective.

    PubMed

    Sanmukhani, J; Tripathi, C B

    2011-03-01

    Ethics in clinical research focuses largely on identifying and implementing the acceptable conditions for exposure of some individuals to risks and burdens for the benefit of society at large. Ethical guidelines for clinical research were formulated only after discovery of inhumane behaviour with participants during research experiments. The Nuremberg Code was the first international code laying ethical principles for clinical research. With increasing research all over, World Health Organization formulated guidelines in the form of Declaration of Helsinki in 1964. The US laid down its guidelines for ethical principles in the Belmont Report after discovery of the Tuskegee's Syphilis study. The Indian Council of Medical Research has laid down the 'Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research on Human Subjects' in the year 2000 which were revised in 2006. It gives twelve general principles to be followed by all biomedical researchers working in the country. The Ethics Committee stands as the bridge between the researcher and the ethical guidelines of the country. The basic responsibility of the Ethics Committee is to ensure an independent, competent and timely review of all ethical aspects of the project proposals received in order to safeguard the dignity, rights, safety and well-being of all actual or potential research participants. A well-documented informed consent process is the hallmark of any ethical research work. Informed consent respects individual's autonomy, to participate or not to participate in research. Concepts of vulnerable populations, therapeutic misconception and post trial access hold special importance in ethical conduct of research, especially in developing countries like India, where most of the research participants are uneducated and economically backward. PMID:22303053

  9. Applying a research ethics committee approach to a medical practice controversy: the case of the selective COX-2 inhibitor rofecoxib.

    PubMed

    James, M J; Cleland, L G

    2004-04-01

    The new class of anti-inflammatory drugs, the COX-2 inhibitors, have been commercially successful to the point of market dominance within a short time of their launch. They attract a price premium on the basis that they are associated with fewer adverse gastric events than traditional anti-inflammatory drugs. This marketing continues even though a pivotal safety study with one of the COX-2 inhibitors, rofecoxib, showed a significant increase in myocardial infarction with rofecoxib use compared with a traditional anti-inflammatory drug. This finding has led to a series of publications containing pooled analyses of existing data that both support and refute the possibility of increased cardiovascular risk with COX-2 inhibitors. These medical journal publications have served to obfuscate rather than provide guidance for medical practitioners. Consideration of a research ethics committee approach to this issue suggests that it would deal with the controversy in a straightforward manner-namely, it would simply inform research participants of the trial results with rofecoxib. The certainty of this research ethics committee approach raises the issue of whether it should be applied in normal medical practice outside of the research environment. A consideration of the legal tests for disclosure of information suggests that therapeutic medical practice should mirror that within the research environment, in this case. PMID:15082814

  10. Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable Dissemination of Medical Technologies

    E-print Network

    Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable Dissemination of Medical Technologies-related inventions of academic researchers by developing and disseminating these technologies for the public good. We risk takers to invest in our early stage technology in the hope of possible downstream commercial

  11. The ethics of transplantation and legal issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ben M. Stutchfield; Stephen J. Wigmore

    2011-01-01

    Organ donation and transplantation present many challenges to the medical community and society as a whole that require legal and ethical frameworks. This article sets out the key principles of modern bioethics and shows how these can be used to understand a number of areas of controversy in organ donation and transplantation practice. In many cases there is no single

  12. Spring 2014 Ethics Certificate Program Approved Courses

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Pei

    /AMI 410) CULANTH 424T Medical Anthropology ETHICS 262S Global Migration ETHICS 290S.2 Refugee PolicySpring 2014 Ethics Certificate Program Approved Courses Note: Crosslisted courses are listed. ************************************************************************************ Required Courses ETHICS 101D Challenges of Living an Ethical Life (POLSCI 120D) ETHICS 102S-1; ETHICS 102S

  13. Applying the principles of informed consent to patient care. Legal and ethical considerations for physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Purtilo, R B

    1984-06-01

    This paper presents legal and ethical considerations regarding informed consent for the evaluation and treatment of patients in physical therapy practice. Therapists traditionally think of informed consent in relation to clinical research, but as the trend toward independent practice and private practice increases in physical therapy, the physical therapist must understand the process of informed consent in relation to patient care. Legal concepts of battery, self-determination, and the fiduciary relationship create a legal foundation for informed consent. The patient's moral right to self-determination and the corresponding duty of health professionals to "do no harm" create a strong moral basis for gaining a patient's informed consent. Practical suggestions are offered to physical therapists to help them assess their need for obtaining informed consent. PMID:6728915

  14. This document was printed on: 29/05/2008 1 GUIDING ETHICAL PRINCIPLES

    E-print Network

    to the principles stated in declarations and charters such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the University is a safe and healthy one · provide mechanisms for safeguarding human rights · provide fair, if it wishes to function properly and with due regard to human rights and dignity, ought to have an interest

  15. [The ethical dilemma of water fluoridation].

    PubMed

    Mendoza V, Carolina

    2007-11-01

    Dental caries remains a worldwide public health problem because of its magnitude and impact on affected people's quality of life. Among preventive strategies, water fluoridation is one of the most important, but its value still remains uncertain after more than a half century of its use. The aim of this study is to analyse some of the ethical arguments for and against water fluoridation and to determine if empirical data allow to decide if there are correct policies from a bioethical perspective. Autonomy, compulsory medication (mass medication), precautionary principle, justice in health care and ethics of protection are discussed. It is concluded that fluoridation is beneficial and that there is no ethical reason to oppose it, based on a specific kind of ethics developed to analyse and clarify complex public health issues. PMID:18259663

  16. Ethics-in-oncology forums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paulette Mehta; Micah Hester; A. Mazin Safar; Reed Thompson

    2007-01-01

    Background. We developed an ethics curriculum for hematology\\/oncology fellows who had already learned medical ethics from medical school\\u000a and residency programs. The goal of the ethics program was to train fellows in ethics issues specific to hematology\\/oncology;\\u000a to raise awareness of ethical issues; and to teach fellows to write, edit, and publish reviews in specific ethical issues.Methods. Fellows learned to

  17. Principles of Ethical Decision Making Regarding Embrionic Stem Cell Research in Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Heinemann; Ludger Honnefelder

    2002-01-01

    The availability of embryonic stem (ES) cells isolated from human blastocysts may open novel avenues for medical treatment of otherwise incurable diseases. Yet the generation of human ES cells requires the destruction of early human embryos. This confronts us with the moral problem of whether it is justifiable to sacrifice human life in order to treat other human life. This

  18. Ethical aspects of obstetric care: expectations and experiences of patients in South East Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Iyoke, Chukwuemeka A; Ezugwu, Frank O; Ugwu, George O; Lawani, Osaheni L; Onyebuchi, Azubuike K

    2013-01-01

    Background Medical ethics is not given due priority in obstetric care in many developing countries, and the extent to which patients value compliance with ethical precepts is largely unexplored. Objective To describe the expectations and experiences of obstetric patients in South East Nigeria with respect to how medical ethics principles were adhered to during their care. Methods This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study involving parturient women followed in three tertiary hospitals in South East Nigeria. Results A total of 1,112 women were studied. The mean age of respondents was 29.7 ± 4.1 years. Approximately 98% had at least secondary education. Ninety-six percent considered ethical aspects of care as important. On the average, over 75% of patients expected their doctors to comply with the different principles of medical ethics and specifically, more than 76% of respondents expected their doctors to comply with ethical principles related to information and consent during their antenatal and delivery care. There was a statistically significant difference between the proportions of women who expected compliance of doctors with ethical principles and those who did not (P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that increasing levels of skilled occupation (odds ratio [OR] 9.35, P < 0.001), and residence in urban areas (OR 2.41, P < 0.001) increased the likelihood of patients expecting to be informed about their medical conditions and their opinions being sought. Although the self-reported experiences of patients concerning adherence to ethical principles by doctors were encouraging, experiences fell short of expectations, as the level of expectation of patients was significantly higher than the level of observed compliance for all the principles of medical ethics. Conclusion The level of practice of medical ethics principles by doctors during obstetric care in South East Nigeria was encouraging but still fell short of the expectations of patients. It is recommended that curriculum-based training of doctors and medical students should be implemented, and hospital policy makers should do more to promote ethical aspects of care, by providing official written guidelines for adherence to medical ethical principles during obstetric care. PMID:24043956

  19. Aequilibrium prudentis: on the necessity for ethics and policy studies in the scientific and technological education of medical professionals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of strong science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education continues to grow as society, medicine, and the economy become increasingly focused and dependent upon bioscientific and technological innovation. New advances in frontier sciences (e.g., genetics, neuroscience, bio-engineering, nanoscience, cyberscience) generate ethical issues and questions regarding the use of novel technologies in medicine and public life. Discussion In light of current emphasis upon science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education (at the pre-collegiate, undergraduate, graduate, and professional levels), the pace and extent of advancements in science and biotechnology, the increasingly technological orientation and capabilities of medicine, and the ways that medicine – as profession and practice – can engage such scientific and technological power upon the multi-cultural world-stage to affect the human predicament, human condition, and perhaps nature of the human being, we argue that it is critical that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education go beyond technical understanding and directly address ethical, legal, social, and public policy implications of new innovations. Toward this end, we propose a paradigm of integrative science, technology, ethics, and policy studies that meets these needs through early and continued educational exposure that expands extant curricula of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics programs from the high school through collegiate, graduate, medical, and post-graduate medical education. We posit a synthetic approach that elucidates the historical, current, and potential interaction of scientific and biotechnological development in addition to the ethico-legal and social issues that are important to educate and sustain the next generation of medical and biomedical professionals who can appreciate, articulate, and address the realities of scientific and biotechnological progress given the shifting architectonics of the global social milieu. Summary We assert that current trends in science, technology, medicine, and global politics dictate that these skills will be necessary to responsibly guide ethically sound employment of science, technology, and engineering advancements in medicine so as to enable more competent and humanitarian practice within an increasingly pluralistic world culture. PMID:23617840

  20. Teaching corner: raising the bar: ethical considerations of medical student preparation for short-term immersion experiences.

    PubMed

    Kittle, Nathan; McCarthy, Virginia

    2015-03-01

    Short-term international medical outreach experiences are becoming more popular among medical students. As the popularity of these trips grows, participants, scholars, and institutions have become more aware of the potential pitfalls of such experiences. Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine (SSOM) has an approximately 20-year international service immersion (ISI) program that has sent more than 1,400 participants to more than 30 countries. Recently, ISI programming has been adjusted to provide students more formal sessions exploring the ethics of the ISI trips. Students are required to attend both pre- and post-trip educational sessions covering a wide range of relevant global health topics as well as participating in in-country reflections and post-trip debriefings. This recent adjustment has evolved further to become the foundation for the SSOM's four-year Global Health Honors program that not only encourages an ethical foundation for the student's ISI experience but also hopes to provide a foundation for students as they look toward a future career in global health. PMID:25648121

  1. The Human Rights Context for Ethical Requirements for Involving People with Intellectual Disability in Medical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iacono, T.; Carling-Jenkins, R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The history of ethical guidelines addresses protection of human rights in the face of violations. Examples of such violations in research involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) abound. We explore this history in an effort to understand the apparently stringent criteria for the inclusion of people with ID in research, and…

  2. The philosophical moment of the medical decision: revisiting emotions felt, to improve ethics of future decisions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierr Le Coz; Sebastien Tassy

    2007-01-01

    The present investigation looks for a solution to the problem of the influence of feelings and emotions on our ethical decisions. This problem can be formulated in the following way. On the one hand, emotions (fear, pity and so on) can alter our sense of discrimination and lead us to make our wrong decisions. On the other hand, it is

  3. Solutions to Infertility: Even the Simplest Medical Answer Raises Troubling Ethical Questions for Catholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Considers the ethical issues surrounding the "simplest" case of in vitro fertilization from the author's interpretation of a Catholic perspective. Discusses serious moral objections to in vitro fertilization voiced by the Vatican, and presents theological reasons why Catholics should question in vitro fertilization. (Author/NB)

  4. The impact of an interprofessional problem-based learning curriculum of clinical ethics on medical and nursing students' attitudes and ability of interprofessional collaboration: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Chan, Te-Fu; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Chin, Chi-Chun; Chou, Fan-Hao; Lin, Hui-Ju

    2013-09-01

    Clinical ethic situations in modern multiprofessional healthcare systems may involve different healthcare professions who work together for patient care. The undergraduate interprofessional education of clinical ethics would help to incubate healthcare students' ability of interprofessional collaboration in solving ethical problems. However, the impact from an interprofessional educational model on student's attitudes and confidence of interprofessional collaboration should be carefully evaluated during the process of curricular development. This study aimed to conduct a pilot interprofessional PBL curriculum of clinical ethics and evaluate the curricular impact on interprofessional students' attitude and confidence of collaborative teamwork. Thirty-six medical and nursing students volunteered to participate in this study and were divided into three groups (medical group, nursing group, and mixed group). Tutors were recruited from the Medical School and the College of Nursing. The pilot curriculum included one lecture of clinical ethics, one PBL case study with two tutorial sessions, and one session of group discussion and feedback. A narrative story with multiple story lines and a multiperspective problem analysis tool were used in the PBL tutorials. The students' self-evaluation of learning questionnaire was used to evaluate students' learning of clinical ethics and interprofessional collaborative skills and attitude. The internal consistency of the questionnaire was measured by Cronbach ?, and the criterion-related validity of the questionnaire was evaluated through associations between the dimension scores with the student group by one-way analysis of variance test (ANOVA) test and Tukey-Kramer honestly significant difference (HSD) comparison. There was significant difference among different groups in students' ability and attitudes about "interprofessional communication and collaboration" (p = 0.0184). The scores in the mixed group (37.58 ± 3.26) were higher than the medical group (32.10 ± 4.98). In conclusion, our model for the interprofessional PBL curriculum of clinical ethics is practicable and will produce positive impacts on students' attitudes and confidence of interprofessional collaboration. PMID:24018155

  5. [Principles of the burden of proof in medical liability proceedings (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minnigerode, B

    1975-07-01

    The application of different ways of thinking - that is to say the juridical, human scientific evaluating and the medical, natural scientific establishing - next to each other can direct to difficultics and divergencies in the reply of expert questions in medical liability proceedings, although each way of thinking attains to correct and practicable results. Relative to the medical expert this presums on the one hand a distinct degree of juridical mentality and necessitates on the other hand a medical mind and scrutiny of the factual situation coordinated to the juridical train of thoughts and terms. A particular importance is due herein to the knowledge of the principles and directions of the burden of proof within the rules of criminal and civil procedure. Starting from the legal handling the forms observing are explained in detail and illustrated by means of competent laws and court findings. Therewith an estimation of the medical state of affairs should be rendered possible for the medical expert adequate coordinated to the juridical terms. PMID:129619

  6. Ethics for Fundraisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Albert

    Intended for professionals and others in the field of philanthropy, this book applies ethics and ethical decision-making to fund raising. Its primary aim is to enhance the level of ethical fund raising throughout the nonprofit sector by equipping those involved with frameworks for understanding and taking principled actions and preventing…

  7. Health sciences librarians' awareness and assessment of the Medical Library Association Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship: the results of a membership survey

    PubMed Central

    Byrd, Gary D.; Devine, Patricia J.; Corcoran, Kate E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The Medical Library Association (MLA) Board of Directors and president charged an Ethical Awareness Task Force and recommended a survey to determine MLA members' awareness of and opinions about the current Code of Ethics for Health Sciences Librarianship. Methods: The task force and MLA staff crafted a survey to determine: (1) awareness of the MLA code and its provisions, (2) use of the MLA code to resolve professional ethical issues, (3) consultation of other ethical codes or guides, (4) views regarding the relative importance of the eleven MLA code statements, (5) challenges experienced in following any MLA code provisions, and (6) ethical problems not clearly addressed by the code. Results: Over 500 members responded (similar to previous MLA surveys), and while most were aware of the code, over 30% could not remember when they had last read or thought about it, and nearly half had also referred to other codes or guidelines. The large majority thought that: (1) all code statements were equally important, (2) none were particularly difficult or challenging to follow, and (3) the code covered every ethical challenge encountered in their professional work. Implications: Comments provided by respondents who disagreed with the majority views suggest that the MLA code could usefully include a supplementary guide with practical advice on how to reason through a number of ethically challenging situations that are typically encountered by health sciences librarians. PMID:25349544

  8. Ethics education and physician morality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Gross

    1999-01-01

    Medical ethics education remains an important venue of moral education. In spite of the intensity of these efforts, the desired outcomes of medical ethics education remain obscure, undefined and largely untested. In the first part of this study, the goals of medical ethics are operationalized along cognitive, behavioral and attitudinal dimensions. This includes a written moral judgment test, a survey

  9. American Medical Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... language to describe healthcare services. AMA Code of Medical Ethics Since 1847, the AMA has provided guidance on ... programs to advance your career in medicine. Continuing Medical Education ... AMA Journal of Ethics Explore ethical issues and challenges that arise in ...

  10. A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems

    PubMed Central

    Edworthy, Judy; Hellier, Elizabeth; Seger, Diane L; Schedlbauer, Angela; Avery, Anthony J; Bates, David W

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of human factors principles in current clinical information systems using alerts to provide medication decision support. Last, we suggest actionable recommendations for delivering effective clinical decision support using alerts. A review of studies from the medical informatics literature suggests that many basic human factors principles are not followed, possibly contributing to the lack of acceptance of alerts in clinical information systems. We evaluate the limitations of current alerting philosophies and provide recommendations for improving acceptance of alerts by incorporating human factors principles in their design. PMID:20819851

  11. Retrieving organs from non-heart-beating organ donors: a review of medical and ethical issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher James Doig; Graeme Rocker

    2003-01-01

    Purpose  The increasing gap between numbers of individuals awaiting organ replacement surgery and the supply of organs available for\\u000a transplant underpins attempts to increase the number of organs available. One practice, used in other countries, is the recovery\\u000a of organs from non-heart-beating organ donors (NHBD). The purpose of this review is to discuss ethical issues surrounding\\u000a the use of organs from

  12. Establishment of a successful donor embryo program: medical, ethical, and policy issues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley J Van Voorhis; Dan M Grinstead; Amy E. T Sparks; Janice L Gerard; Robert F Weir

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To determine how couples prefer to dispose of their extra embryos and to establish a donor embryo program for the treatment of infertile couples.Design: Cohort study.Setting: University-based IVF program.Patient(s): Patients (n = 365) with cryopreserved embryos in storage for >2 years and eight patients who desired donated embryos for transfer.Intervention(s): An IVF ethics committee was formed to discuss the

  13. Ethics, patient rights and staff attitudes in Shanghai's psychiatric hospitals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adherence to ethical principles in clinical research and practice is becoming topical issue in China, where the prevalence of mental illness is rising, but treatment facilities remain underdeveloped. This paper reports on a study aiming to understand the ethical knowledge and attitudes of Chinese mental health professionals in relation to the process of diagnosis and treatment, informed consent, and privacy protection in clinical trials. Methods A self-administered survey was completed by 1110 medical staff recruited from Shanghai’s 22 psychiatric hospitals. Simple random selection methods were used to identify target individuals from the computerized registry of staff. Results The final sample for analysis consisted 1094 medical staff (including 523 doctors, 542 nurses, 8 pharmacologists and 21 other staff). The majority reported that their medical institutions had not established an Ethics Committee (87.8%) and agreed that Ethics Committees should be set up in their institutions (72.9%). Approximately half (52%) had not received systematic education in ethics, and almost all (89.1%) of the staff thought it was necessary. Nearly all participants (90.0%) knew the Shanghai Mental Health Regulations which was the first local regulations relating to mental health in China, but only 11% and 16.6% respectively knew of the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki. About half (51.8%) thought that the guardian should make the decision as to whether the patient participated in clinical trials or not. Conclusions The study indicates that most psychiatric hospitals in Shanghai have no Medical Ethics Committee. More than half the medical staff had not received systematic education and training in medical ethics and they have insufficient knowledge of the ethical issues related to clinical practice and trials. Training in ethics is recommended for medical staff during their training and as ongoing professional development. PMID:22595041

  14. A review of human factors principles for the design and implementation of medication safety alerts in clinical information systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shobha Phansalkar; Judy Edworthy; Elizabeth Hellier; Diane L. Seger; Angela Schedlbauer; Anthony J. Avery; David W. Bates

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this review is to describe the implementation of human factors principles for the design of alerts in clinical information systems. First, we conduct a review of alarm systems to identify human factors principles that are employed in the design and implementation of alerts. Second, we review the medical informatics literature to provide examples of the implementation of

  15. Teaching the Ethics of Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johansen, Carol K.; Harris, David E.

    2000-01-01

    Points out the challenges of educating students about bioethics and the limited training of many biologists on ethics. Discusses the basic principles of ethics and ethical decision making as applied to biology. Explains the models of ethical decision making that are often difficult for students to determine where to begin analyzing. (Contains 28…

  16. Teaching medical humanities through film discussions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donnie J. Self; DeWitt C. Baldwin

    1990-01-01

    Following a brief consideration of two contrasting purposes for teaching the medical humanities, a description is given of a film discussion elective course. In contrast to the usual teaching of medical ethics which is primarily a cognitive activity emphasizing the development of a code of principles such as justice, autonomy, and beneficence, the film discussion elective was primarily an affective

  17. Law and ethics in conflict over confidentiality?

    PubMed

    Dickens, B M; Cook, R J

    2000-09-01

    Ethical principles that require the preservation of patients' confidential information are reinforced by principles found in several areas of law, such as law on contracts, negligence, defamation and fiduciary duty. However, laws sometimes compel disclosures of medical confidences, and more often may justify or excuse disclosures. Legally contentious issues concern patients' confidences regarding possible unlawful conduct, such as pregnancy termination, and the risk of spread of HIV and other infections. This article reviews the various legal bases of the duty of confidentiality, and legal challenges to the ethical obligation of non-disclosure. It addresses the justifications and limits of exchange of patients' health information among healthcare professionals and trainees, and considers legally recognized limits of confidential duties, and the scope of legitimate disclosure. An underlying theme is how to determine whether physicians are ethically justified in employing the discretion the law sometimes affords them to breach patients' expectations of confidentiality. PMID:10967176

  18. The politics and strategy of industry self-regulation: the pharmaceutical industry's principles for ethical direct-to-consumer advertising as a deceptive blocking strategy.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Denis G; Oakley, James L

    2013-06-01

    As the pharmaceutical industry lobbies European regulators to permit direct-to-consumer advertising (DTCA) of prescription drugs in the European Union, we found that five leading companies violated industry-developed and -promulgated standards for ethical advertising in the United States. Utilizing multiple data sources and methods, we demonstrate a consistent failure by companies that market erectile dysfunction drugs to comply with the industry's guiding principles for ethical DTCA over a four-year period despite pledges of compliance by company leaders. Noncompliance resulted in children being exposed to sexually themed promotional messages more than 100 billion times. We argue that the guidelines are a coordinated effort by the industry to prevent unwanted federal regulation, and we introduce the concept of a blocking strategy to explain company behavior and to advance theoretical understanding of firms' public affairs strategies. We recommend policy responses to prevent deceptive practices, protect children from adult content, and promote genuine health care education. PMID:23418365

  19. Ethical Tensions in the Pain Management of an End-Stage Cancer Patient with Evidence of Opioid Medication Diversion.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Kim, David

    2014-11-01

    At the end of life, pain management is commonly a fundamental part of the treatment plan for patients where curative measures are no longer possible. However, the increased recognition of opioid diversion for secondary gain coupled with efforts to treat patients in the home environment towards the end of life creates the potential for ethical dilemmas in the palliative care management of terminal patients in need of continuous pain management. We present the case of an end-stage patient with rectal cancer who required a continuous residential narcotic infusion of fentanyl for pain control due to metastatic disease. His functional status was such that he had poor oral intake and ability to perform other activities of daily living, but was able to live at home with health agency nursing care. The patient presented to this institution with a highly suspect history of having lost his fentanyl infusion in a residential accident and asking for a refill to continue home therapy. The treating physicians had concerns of diversion of the infusion medication by caregivers and were reluctant to continue the therapeutic relationship with the patient. This case exemplifies the tension that can exist between wanting to continue with palliative care management of an end-stage patient and the fear of providers when confronted by evidence of potential diversion of opioid analgesic medications. We elucidate how an ethical framework based on a combination of virtue and narrative/relationship theories with reference to proportionality can guide physicians to a pragmatic resolution of these difficult situations. PMID:25381648

  20. Principles for new optical techniques in medical diagnostics for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balsam, Joshua Michael

    Medical diagnostics is a critical element of effective medical treatment. However, many modern and emerging diagnostic technologies are not affordable or compatible with the needs and conditions found in low-income and middle-income countries and regions. Resource-poor areas require low-cost, robust, easy-to-use, and portable diagnostics devices compatible with telemedicine (i.e. mHealth) that can be adapted to meet diverse medical needs. Many suitable devices will need to be based on optical technologies, which are used for many types of biological analyses. This dissertation describes the fabrication and detection principles for several low-cost optical technologies for mHealth applications including: (1) a webcam based multi-wavelength fluorescence plate reader, (2) a lens-free optical detector used for the detection of Botulinum A neurotoxin activity, (3) a low cost micro-array reader that allows the performance of typical fluorescence based assays demonstrated for the detection of the toxin staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEB), and (4) a wide-field flow cytometer for high throughput detection of fluorescently labeled rare cells. This dissertation discusses how these technologies can be harnessed using readily available consumer electronics components such as webcams, cell phones, CCD cameras, LEDs, and laser diodes. There are challenges in developing devices with sufficient sensitivity and specificity, and approaches are presented to overcoming these challenges to create optical detectors that can serve as low cost medical diagnostics in resource-poor settings for mHealth.

  1. [Jean-Jacques Rosseau the vitalist. The moralization of medical hygiene between diet and ethical food].

    PubMed

    Menin, Marco

    2012-01-01

    The historiographical prejudice that sees in Jean-Jacques Rousseau an implacable opponent of scientific knowledge has long prevented an objective evaluation of the important influence that medical thought exerted over his philosophy. The aim of this paper is to show not only Rousseau's familiarity with the most important expressions of eighteenth-century medical literature, but also his willingness to incorporate some medical suggestions in his philosophical and literary production. In the first part of this article, I try to show how Rousseau's sensibility theory presupposes precise medical ideals, related to Montpellier School of vitalism. In the second part, I stress how Rousseau's philosophy of alimentation (which has clear anthropological and political implications) can be regarded as a genuine application of an ambition typical of vitalism: to use medical hygiene, also and above all, for moral purpose. PMID:23035396

  2. The problem of authenticity in ethical and environmental behaviour. A discourse analysis of reconciling principles and practice. 

    E-print Network

    Pelton, Daisy K

    2009-06-03

    In this paper, I analyse talk about ethical and environmental food consumption recorded from four interviews and four focus groups, the majority in Edinburgh. This empirical study was conducted in the light of the increased emphasis by government...

  3. Identifying and addressing potential conflict of interest: a professional medical organization's code of ethics.

    PubMed

    Heim, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP's adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP's commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would--or will in the future--occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed. PMID:20644192

  4. Identifying and Addressing Potential Conflict of Interest: A Professional Medical Organization’s Code of Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Lori

    2010-01-01

    The new Consumer Alliance agreement between the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) and The Coca-Cola Company provides a valuable opportunity to illustrate AAFP’s adherence to its ethical foundation, demonstrate the AAFP’s commitment to serving physicians and the public, and maintain the trust Americans put in their family physicians and the organization that represents them. Throughout the development of this program, as well as in all business interactions, the AAFP consistently addresses possible conflict of interest openly and directly, sharing with our members and the public exactly what measures we take to ensure that, in fact, no unethical conduct or breach of trust would—or will in the future—occur. In this case, the AAFP saw a public health and education need that was both unmet and undermined by the barrage of marketing messages and confusing information, and acted to fill that need. In so doing, the AAFP hewed to its high ethical standards, its core values, and its mission in the decisions made and the actions that followed. PMID:20644192

  5. Transplantation ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dominic Bell

    2009-01-01

    Organ donation and transplantation, in all forms and phases, engage clinically with anaesthesia and critical care. Although undoubtedly a major medical achievement, and of significant benefit to the recipient and some consolation to bereaved families, cadaveric donation poses a series of ethical challenges that warrant addressing by the profession if public confidence is to be maintained. The original bedrock of

  6. 21A.215 Medical Anthropology: Culture, Society, and Ethics in Disease and Health, Fall 2008

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Jean

    This course looks at medicine from a cross-cultural perspective, focusing on the human, as opposed to biological, side of things. Students learn how to analyze various kinds of medical practice as cultural systems. Particular ...

  7. Ethics & evidence in medical debates: the case of recombinant activated factor VII.

    PubMed

    Ghinea, Narcyz; Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian; Little, Miles; Day, Richard O

    2014-01-01

    We cannot just point to the facts to solve a medical debate. The use of evidence is itself a matter of values. What the evidence tells us to do tends to depend on what we see as important. PMID:24532448

  8. Ethical Study on the Reform and Development of Medical and Health Services in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tong-Wei; Li, En-Chang

    2014-11-14

    At an early stage of its foundation, new China became clear about the nature of public welfare and quickly developed medical and health services, which was well received by the World Health Organization. The marketization and the reduction of input into medical and health services from the 1980s created severe adverse consequences. After the SARS' outbreak in 2003, China started to give serious consideration to its medical and health system, and to work at developing medical and health services. The new healthcare reform launched in 2009 re-emphasizes fairness and public welfare, and China's achievements have been remarkable. Of course, there are still many problems to be solved in the reform, which also paves the way for increasing the reform in future. PMID:25395061

  9. Towards a Confucian Virtue Bioethics: Reframing Chinese Medical Ethics in a Market Economy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruiping Fan

    2006-01-01

    This essay addresses a moral and cultural challenge facing health care in the People’s Republic of China: the need to create\\u000a an understanding of medical professionalism that recognizes the new economic realities of China and that can maintain the\\u000a integrity of the medical profession. It examines the rich Confucian resources for bioethics and health care policy by focusing\\u000a on the

  10. Professional Ethics, Day by Day.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roworth, Wendy Wassyng

    2002-01-01

    The chair of the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) Committee on Professional Ethics explores faculty obligations to students, institutions, and colleagues. Discusses AAUP's guiding ethical principles and new areas of concern. (EV)

  11. An innovative outcomes-based medical education program built on adult learning principles.

    PubMed

    McNeil, H Patrick; Hughes, Chris S; Toohey, Susan M; Dowton, S Bruce

    2006-09-01

    An innovative medical curriculum at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) has been developed through a highly collaborative process aimed at building faculty ownership and ongoing sustainability. The result is a novel capability-based program that features early clinical experience and small-group teaching, which offers students considerable flexibility and achieves a high degree of alignment between graduate outcomes, learning activities and assessments. Graduate capabilities that focus student learning on generic outcomes are described (critical evaluation, reflection, communication and teamwork) along with traditional outcomes in biomedical science, social aspects, clinical performance and ethics. Each two-year phase promotes a distinctive learning process to support and develop autonomous learning across six years. The approaches emphasize important adult education themes: student autonomy; learning from experience; collaborative learning; and adult teacher-learner relationships. Teaching in each phase draws on stages of the human life cycle to provide an explicit organization for the vertical integration of knowledge and skills. A learning environment that values the social nature of learning is fostered through the program's design and assessment system, which supports interdisciplinary integration and rewards students who exhibit self-direction. Assessment incorporates criterion referencing, interdisciplinary examinations, a balance between continuous and barrier assessments, peer feedback and performance assessments of clinical competence. A portfolio examination in each phase, in which students submit evidence of reflection and achievement for each capability, ensures overall alignment. PMID:17074700

  12. End-of-Life Decisions about Withholding or Withdrawing Therapy: Medical, Ethical, and Religio-Cultural Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Manalo, Maria Fidelis C

    2013-01-01

    Towards the end of life, physicians face dilemmas of discontinuing life-sustaining treatments or interventions. In some circumstances, these treatments are no longer of benefit, while in others the patient or family no longer want them. The physician plays an essential role in clarifying the goals of medical treatment, defining the care plan, initiating discussions about life-sustaining therapy, educating patients and families, helping them deliberate, making recommendations, and implementing the treatment plan. Communication is key. It should be clarified that when inevitable death is imminent, it is legitimate to refuse or limit forms of treatment that would only secure a precarious and burdensome prolongation of life, for as long as basic humane, compassionate care is not interrupted. Agreement to DNR status does not preclude supportive measures that keep patients free from pain and suffering as possible. Acceptable clinical practice on withdrawing or withholding treatment is based on an understanding of the medical, ethical, cultural, and religious issues. There is a need to individualize care option discussions to illness status, and patient and family preferences, beliefs, values, and cultures. The process of shared decision making between the patient, the family, and the clinicians should continue as goals evolve and change over time. PMID:25278756

  13. Medical error disclosure: from the therapeutic alliance to risk management: the vision of the new Italian code of medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Italian code of medical deontology recently approved stipulates that physicians have the duty to inform the patient of each unwanted event and its causes, and to identify, report and evaluate adverse events and errors. Thus the obligation to supply information continues to widen, in some way extending beyond the doctor-patient relationship to become an essential tool for improving the quality of professional services. Discussion The new deontological precepts intersect two areas in which the figure of the physician is paramount. On the one hand is the need for maximum integrity towards the patient, in the name of the doctor’s own, and the other’s (the patient’s) dignity and liberty; on the other is the physician’s developing role in the strategies of the health system to achieve efficacy, quality, reliability and efficiency, to reduce errors and adverse events and to manage clinical risk. Summary In Italy, due to guidelines issued by the Ministry of Health and to the new code of medical deontology, the role of physicians becomes a part of a complex strategy of risk management based on a system focused approach in which increasing transparency regarding adverse outcomes and full disclosure of health- related negative events represent a key factor. PMID:25023339

  14. Medical negligence: Coverage of the profession, duties, ethics, case law, and enlightened defense - A legal perspective.

    PubMed

    Pandit, M S; Pandit, Shobha

    2009-07-01

    A patient approaching a doctor expects medical treatment with all the knowledge and skill that the doctor possesses to bring relief to his medical problem. The relationship takes the shape of a contract retaining the essential elements of tort. A doctor owes certain duties to his patient and a breach of any of these duties gives a cause of action for negligence against the doctor. The doctor has a duty to obtain prior informed consent from the patient before carrying out diagnostic tests and therapeutic management. The services of the doctors are covered under the provisions of the Consumer Protection Act, 1986 and a patient can seek redressal of grievances from the Consumer Courts. Case laws are an important source of law in adjudicating various issues of negligence arising out of medical treatment. PMID:19881134

  15. Physicians’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges for patients in the vegetative state: comparing Canadian and German perspectives in a vignette survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physicians treating patients in the vegetative state (VS) must deal with uncertainty in diagnosis and prognosis, as well as ethical issues. We examined whether physicians’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges vary across two national medical practice settings. Methods A comparative survey was conducted among German and Canadian specialty physicians, based on a case vignette about the VS. Similarities and differences of participants’ attitudes toward medical and ethical challenges between the two samples were analyzed with non-parametric tests (Mann-Whitney-U-Test). Results The overall response rate was 13.4%. Eighty percent of all participants correctly applied the diagnostic category of VS with no significant differences between countries. Many of the participants who chose the correct diagnosis of VS attributed capabilities to the patient, particularly the ability to feel pain (70%), touch (51%) and to experience hunger and thirst (35%). A large majority of participants (94%) considered the limitation of life-sustaining treatment (LST) under certain circumstances, but more Canadian participants were in favor of always limiting LST (32% vs. 12%; Chi-square: p?medical practice settings with respect to physicians’ experiences and attitudes about treatment limitation about VS in spite of comparable diagnostic knowledge. PMID:24898329

  16. The Surgical Treatment of Morbid Obesity: Economic, Psychosocial, Ethical, Preventive, Medical Aspects of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Wrobel, Sylvia B.; Griffen, Ward O.; Anderson, James W.; Whitaker, E. Berton; Wiegert, H. Thomas; Searle, Maureen; Engelberg, Joseph

    1983-01-01

    Surgical treatment of morbid, familial, juvenile-onset obesity in a 37-year-old, 260-pound, mother of three children by jejunoileal bypass was subsequently converted to gastric bypass. The resulting weight loss of 110 pounds resulted in personality changes and changes in family dynamics and was followed by divorce. Medical, psychosocial, and economic aspects of the case are discussed. PMID:6140795

  17. Sickle Cell Screening: Medical, Legal, Ethical, Psychological and Social Problems; A Sickle Cell Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, James E.

    In recent years, sickle cell screening programs have been initiated by community groups, health centers, hospitals, medical schools, health departments, school systems, city and State governments, various branches of the Federal Government, fraternal and social clubs, and other organizations. Problems have resulted from mass sickle cell screening,…

  18. From the patient's point of view: medical ethics and the moral imagination.

    PubMed

    Elliott, C; Elliott, B

    1991-12-01

    This paper concerns the difficulties of imagining the subjective point of view of another human being, and the relevance of these difficulties to medical decisions. It explores especially the difficulties of imagining the experience of the mentally impaired, and examines several standards for decision-making: the 'prior expressed wishes standard', the 'substituted judgement standard', and the 'best interests standard'. PMID:1787514

  19. The Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Tube: Medical and Ethical Issues in Placement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floyd Angus; Robert Burakoff

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:Offering and recommending PEG tube placement to patients has been a topic of considerable interest in the medical literature. The role of individual health care professionals in the decision making process is poorly defined. PEG tubes are often placed inappropriately because of unrealistic and inaccurate expectations of what they can accomplish in patients unable to tolerate adequate oral intake. We

  20. The practice of obtaining approval from medical research ethics committees: a comparison within 12 European countries for a descriptive study on acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's dementia.

    PubMed

    Rikkert, M G M Olde; Lauque, S; Frölich, L; Vellas, B; Dekkers, W

    2005-03-01

    Across Europe the protection of research subjects with dementia has to meet a variety of national legislation and ethical codes. This research project compared how in different EU countries one single descriptive multinational study on dementia treatment strategies was evaluated by medical ethical committees and how the issues of informed consent and capacity to consent were dealt with. The study that was evaluated is the ICTUS study, which studies the impact of treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChE-I) on Europeans with mildly or moderately severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Participating centres in all 12 countries that take part in the study received a questionnaire with items on the process of approval by the ethical committee and the informed consent procedure. From the 29 centres we received 21 completed questionnaires (response rate of 72%). There were great differences in valuation of the study, varying from the judgement that the ICTUS study was 'no experimental study' to the judgement that it was a phase IV drug trial. All centres got approval, after 3-90 days. Informed consent was addressed very differently by the researchers. There was no formal informed consent procedure required by the ethical committees. The data from this survey suggest that there should be more consensus across the EU about which studies or interventions do and which do not require approval of an ethics committee. Procedures for the assessment of informed consent in dementia research should be harmonized by central national or European bodies. PMID:15693811

  1. Ethical Challenges of Medicine and Health on the Internet: A Review

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Knowledge and capabilities, particularly of a new technology or in a new area of study, frequently develop faster than the guidelines and principles needed for practitioners to practice ethically in the new arena; this is particularly true in medicine. The blending of medicine and healthcare with e-commerce and the Internet raises many questions involving what sort of ethical conduct should be expected by practitioners and developers of the medical Internet. Some of the early pioneers in medical and healthcare Web sites pushed the ethical boundaries with questionable, even unethical, practices. Many involved with the medical Internet are now working to reestablish patient and consumer trust by establishing guidelines to determine how the fundamentals of the medical code of ethical conduct can best be adapted for the medical/healthcare Internet. Ultimately, all those involved in the creation, maintenance, and marketing of medical and healthcare Web sites should be required to adhere to a strict code of ethical conduct, one that has been fairly determined by an impartial international organization with reasonable power to regulate the code. This code could also serve as a desirable, recognizable label-of-distinction for ethical Web sites within the medical and healthcare Internet community. One challenge for those involved with the medical and healthcare Internet will be to determine what constitutes "Medical Internet Ethics" or "Healthcare Internet Ethics," since the definition of medical ethics can vary from country to country. Therefore, the emerging field of Medical/ Healthcare Internet Ethics will require careful thought and insights from an international collection of ethicists in many contributing areas. This paper is a review of the current status of the evolving field of Medical/Healthcare Internet Ethics, including proposed definitions and identification of many diverse areas that may ultimately contribute to this multidisciplinary field. The current role that medicine and health play in the growing area of Internet communication and commerce and many of the ethical challenges raised by the Internet for the medical community are explored and some possible ways to address these ethical challenges are postulated. PMID:11720965

  2. Moral fiction or moral fact? The distinction between doing and allowing in medical ethics.

    PubMed

    Huddle, Thomas S

    2013-06-01

    Opponents of physician-assisted suicide (PAS) maintain that physician withdrawal-of-life-sustaining-treatment cannot be morally equated to voluntary active euthanasia. PAS opponents generally distinguish these two kinds of act by positing a possible moral distinction between killing and allowing-to-die, ceteris paribus. While that distinction continues to be widely accepted in the public discourse, it has been more controversial among philosophers. Some ethicist PAS advocates are so certain that the distinction is invalid that they describe PAS opponents who hold to the distinction as in the grip of 'moral fictions'. The author contends that such a diagnosis is too hasty. The possibility of a moral distinction between active euthanasia and allowing-to-die has not been closed off by the argumentative strategies employed by these PAS advocates, including the contrasting cases strategy and the assimilation of doing and allowing to a common sense notion of causation. The philosophical debate over the doing/allowing distinction remains inconclusive, but physicians and others who rely upon that distinction in thinking about the ethics of end-of-life care need not give up on it in response to these arguments. PMID:22296611

  3. Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jay

    .Ethics, Medical. 3.Ethical review - standards. 4.Ethics committees. 5.Patient selection. 6.Guidelines. IStandards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health-Related Research with Human expedited call separation ideas #12;Standards and Operational Guidance for Ethics Review of Health

  4. The ethics of policy writing: how should hospitals deal with moral disagreement about controversial medical practices?

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, E

    2005-01-01

    Every healthcare organisation (HCO) enacts a multitude of policies, but there has been no discussion as to what procedural and substantive requirements a policy writing process should meet in order to achieve good outcomes and to possess sufficient authority for those who are asked to follow it. Using, as an example, the controversy about patient's refusal of blood transfusions, I argue that a hospital wide policy is preferable to individual decision making, because it ensures autonomy, quality, fairness, and efficiency. Policy writing for morally controversial medical practices needs additional justification compared to policies on standard medical practices and secures legitimate authority for HCO members by meeting five requirements: all parties directed by the policy are represented; the deliberative process encompasses all of the HCO's obligations; the rationales for the policy are made available; there is a mechanism for criticising, and for evaluating the policy. PMID:16199594

  5. Ethical Issues in Outsourcing: The Case of Contract Medical Research and the Global Pharmaceutical Industry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henry Adobor

    2012-01-01

    The outsourcing of medical research has become a strategic imperative in the global pharmaceutical industry. Spurred by the\\u000a challenges of competition, the need for speed in drug development, and increasing domestic costs, pharmaceutical companies\\u000a across the globe continue to outsource critical parts of their value chain activities, namely contract clinical research and\\u000a drug testing, to sponsors across the globe, typically

  6. Implementation of the principle of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for medical and dental personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    This report is part of a series prepared under the auspices of Scientific Committee 46, Operational Radiation Safety. It provides guidance on the process of implementing the as low as reasonably achievable'' (ALARA) principle for the use of radiation by medical and dental personnel. The use of cost-benefit analysis is recommended as a basic method upon which to base ALARA decisions. Examples are provided to illustrate the ALARA principle as a process of optimization and to provide a starting point for the development of individualized ALARA programs. NCRP Report No. 91, Recommendations on Limits for Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, calls for the use of reference ranges for occupational exposures. This report recommends the use of 2 reference ranges, one based on individual dose equivalents, and the other based on collective dose equivalent. In accordance with the recommendations of NCRP Report No. 82, SI Units in Radiation Protection and Measurements, as of January 1990, only SI units are used in the text. Readers needing factors for conversion of SI to conventional units are encouraged to consult Report No. 82. 84 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Ethical and legal implications of the risks of medical tourism for patients: a qualitative study of Canadian health and safety representatives’ perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Crooks, Valorie A; Turner, Leigh; Cohen, I Glenn; Bristeir, Janet; Snyder, Jeremy; Casey, Victoria; Whitmore, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Medical tourism involves patients’ intentional travel to privately obtain medical care in another country. Empirical evidence regarding health and safety risks facing medical tourists is limited. Consideration of this issue is dominated by speculation and lacks meaningful input from people with specific expertise in patient health and safety. We consulted with patient health and safety experts in the Canadian province of British Columbia to explore their views concerning risks that medical tourists may be exposed to. Herein, we report on the findings, linking them to existing ethical and legal issues associated with medical tourism. Design We held a focus group in September 2011 in Vancouver, British Columbia with professionals representing different domains of patient health and safety expertise. The focus group was transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants Seven professionals representing the domains of tissue banking, blood safety, health records, organ transplantation, dental care, clinical ethics and infection control participated. Results Five dominant health and safety risks for outbound medical tourists were identified by participants: (1) complications; (2) specific concerns regarding organ transplantation; (3) transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms; (4) (dis)continuity of medical documentation and (5) (un)informed decision-making. Conclusions Concern was expressed that medical tourism might have unintended and undesired effects upon patients’ home healthcare systems. The individual choices of medical tourists could have significant public consequences if healthcare facilities in their home countries must expend resources treating postoperative complications. Participants also expressed concern that medical tourists returning home with infections, particularly antibiotic-resistant infections, could place others at risk of exposure to infections that are refractory to standard treatment regimens and thereby pose significant public health risks. PMID:23396563

  8. Nuclear weapons and medicine: some ethical dilemmas.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A; de B White, C; Gleisner, J

    1983-01-01

    The enormous destructive power of present stocks of nuclear weapons poses the greatest threat to public health in human history. Technical changes in weapons design are leading to an increased emphasis on the ability to fight a nuclear war, eroding the concept of deterrence based on mutually assured destruction and increasing the risk of nuclear war. Medical planning and civil defence preparations for nuclear war have recently been increased in several countries although there is little evidence that they will be of significant value in the aftermath of a nuclear conflict. These developments have raised new ethical dilemmas for those in health professions. If there is any risk of use of weapons of mass destruction, then support for deterrence with these weapons as a policy for national or global security appears to be incompatible with basic principles of medical ethics and international law. The primary medical responsibility under such circumstances is to participate in attempts to prevent nuclear war. PMID:6668585

  9. Principles and practice of hyperbaric medicine: a medical practitioner's primer, part II.

    PubMed

    Perdrizet, George A

    2014-08-01

    Advances in the treatment of chronic wounds* have steadily occurred over the past decade and include the specialized use of dynamic compression therapy, implementation of moist wound care techniques, chronic lymphedema therapy, negative pressure wound therapy, arterial compression therapy and application of off-loading devices. General medical practitioners should recognize when timely patient referral to a comprehensive wound care center is indicated. The clinical practice of HBOT and its scientific basis has also advanced significantly during this same time period. HBOT is a therapeutic tool with many qualities that are unique to medical care and enable difficult and otherwise untreatable conditions to be safely and effectively managed. Level 1 evidence exists for HBOT and the therapeutic indications are growing. It is the responsibility of all practitioners to become informed about the modern principles and practice of HBOT. Clinicians should take the advice of Mark Twain: "Supposing is good but finding out is better." It is the responsibility of educational institutions and medical societies to become informed and actively engaged in hyperbaric medical care, education and research. This will benefit our patients as well as our systems of medical care. There is now ample access to hyperbaric oxygen facilities and expertise with the state. There is a growing need for HBOT services due to the rising incidence of obesity and diabetes combined with an aging demographic. Appropriate networks and patterns of referral have lagged behind this demand due to a generalized lack of understanding of the true risks, benefits and indications for HBOT. This review will hopefully begin to address this problem. Hyperbaric medicine is in an early phase of development. The current and future demand for clinical services will drive development of research and educational programs. Only through continued efforts for perform high quality research and education will the full potential of HBOT be realized. Much remains to be done. As systems for the delivery of healthcare enter an era of population management, the regenerative potential of hyperbaric therapies should improve quality of and reduce costs and enable us to meet the challenge of providing care for the growing population of chronic wound patients. PMID:25195304

  10. Ethically Evaluating Research involving theEthically Evaluating Research involving theEthically Evaluating Research involving theEthically Evaluating Research involving the Engraftment of Human Neural Stem Cells inEngraftment of Human Neural Stem Cells in

    E-print Network

    Streiffer, Robert

    for Medical Ethics, History and Philosophy of MedicineInstitute for Medical Ethics, History and PhilosophyMax--PlanckPlanck--Institute for Molecular BiomedicineInstitute for Molecular Biomedicine Institute for Medical Ethics, History and Philosophy of MedicineInstitute for Medical Ethics, History and Philosophy of Medicine Münster Germany

  11. Medical ethics in times of war and insurrection: rights and duties.

    PubMed

    Benatar, S R

    1993-01-01

    In this paper I shall take the Geneva Conventions and Additional Protocols as my point of departure and link these with the International Declaration of Human Rights as a statement of faith and of aspirations.... The second part of my paper will focus on medical morality with brief reference to various languages of moral discourse and to differences in conceptual logic which underpin debates on duties and rights with particular reference to the circumstances of conflict. While acknowledging the value of talking of rights as primary I shall also suggest that the shift away from discourse on duties and obligations as primary undermines the likelihood of super-erogatory moral action. I shall conclude by emphasizing the centrality of acceptance by the State and the military of their duty to the injured and to medical personnel caring for them, if man's inhumanity to man, particularly evident during times of war, is to be kept out of our concern for each other as human beings even when nations are pitted against each other in the ongoing, but hopefully not eternal, struggle for material and ideological power. PMID:11651580

  12. Medical Assistant. [FasTrak Specialization Integrated Technical and Academic Competency (ITAC).] 2002 Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Career-Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum for a medical assistant program is designed for students interested in caring for the sick, injured, convalescent, or disabled under the direction of the family, physicians, and credentialed nurses. The curriculum is divided into 12 units: orientation to medical assisting; principles of medical ethics; risk management; infection…

  13. Boston University Medical Campus Office of the Associate Provost for Research

    E-print Network

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    is intended to support study and research related to medical ethics, medico-legal principles, patientBoston University Medical Campus Office of the Associate Provost for Research 1 Listed;Boston University Medical Campus Office of the Associate Provost for Research 2 AARS ­ The Roentgen Fund

  14. Principles of Pedagogy in Teaching in a Diverse Medical School: The University of Capetown South Africa Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Julia Johnson; Holland, Errol

    This paper describes a 2-month project developed by the Sage Colleges (New York) and the University of Capetown Medical School in South Africa to help the medical faculty at the Capetown Medical School teach its newly diverse student body. The program is intended to improve student retention and it emphasizes the need for faculty to assure…

  15. [Paracelsianism, astrology and medical ethics in the polemical writings of Tommaso Bovio (1521-1609)].

    PubMed

    Bondio, Mariacarla Gadebusch

    2004-01-01

    Tommaso Bovio was a representative of North Italian non-academic medicine in the early modern period. His "dialogues", published in the second half of the 16th century, were written in the Italian vernacular and enjoyed a certain popularity also in Germany. Although Bovio used to exaggerate for rhetorical effect, his portrayal of patients, illness and treatments provides interesting insights into everyday urban life in his time. Sympathising with Paracelsus, Bovio propagated an image of empirics as humanitarians and fought for the recognition of his own practical knowledge and skills. Bovio was a most original figure in the medicine of the period of counter reformation. His writings exemplify the lively debate between the learned medical tradition and unorthodox reform. PMID:15015853

  16. Observations on ethical problems and terminal care.

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    Progress in medical diagnosis and therapy has raised new problems with far-reaching ethical implications. Medicine must remain a profession and not become a business. Textbooks must address ethical problems in the context of health care decisions and not restrict themselves to pathophysiology and practical therapeutics alone. The relative roles of the principles of autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice must be balanced and appropriately applied to individual situations in biomedical ethics. When therapy becomes futile and the suffering of the patient does not justify any anticipated benefit, the patient (and/or patient surrogate) may request withholding or even withdrawing life-prolonging interventions. In the persistent vegetative state, even nutritional support by an unnatural (tube) route may ethically be denied at the patient's (or surrogate's) informed decision. New areas of ethical evaluation have been raised by the desire of some individuals to prolongation of their lives at high expense to the society such that other individuals are denied services because of limitation of available resources. There has been a long-standing conflict of interest between the acceptance by physicians and/or medical institutions of money or gifts from pharmaceutical companies whose drugs they prescribe, stock, or sell. This practice increases the cost of the drugs and is, in effect, a "sick tax," which is morally wrong. PMID:1519374

  17. Code of Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Division for Early Childhood, Council for Exceptional Children, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Code of Ethics of the Division for Early Childhood (DEC) of the Council for Exceptional Children is a public statement of principles and practice guidelines supported by the mission of DEC. The foundation of this Code is based on sound ethical reasoning related to professional practice with young children with disabilities and their families…

  18. Reflections on Ethics in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Helen R.

    2009-01-01

    Each profession has its own code of ethics. The Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2008) defines professional ethics as "the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group." The Code of Ethics of the American Library Association (ALA Council 2008) has served librarians for seventy years and reflects the ideals toward which all librarians…

  19. "Understanding Information Ethics: Replies to Comments" Luciano Floridi1, 2

    E-print Network

    Floridi, Luciano

    , from business ethics to environmental ethics, from medical ethics to the ethics of nanotechnologies"Understanding Information Ethics: Replies to Comments" Luciano Floridi1, 2 1 Research Chair Campus, Hatfield, Hertfordshire AL10 9AB, UK; l.floridi@herts.ac.uk Foreword Information Ethics (IE

  20. The Colorado School of Mines Financial Aid Office has adopted and will follow the Statement of Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct for Financial Aid Professionals created by the National Association of

    E-print Network

    The Colorado School of Mines Financial Aid Office has adopted and will follow the Statement of Ethical Principles and Code of Conduct for Financial Aid Professionals created by the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators. The CSM Financial Aid Office is dedicated to providing outstanding

  1. Ethics, Ethical Human Research and Human Research Ethics Committees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindorff, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Non-medical research involves the same issues of justice, beneficence, and respect for persons that apply to non-medical research. It also may involve risk of harm to participants, and conflicts of interest for researchers. It is therefore not possible to argue that such research should be exempt from ethical review. This paper argues that…

  2. Ethical Considerations of Community-based Participatory Research: Contextual Underpinnings for Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Jamshidi, Ensiyeh; Morasae, Esmaeil Khedmati; Shahandeh, Khandan; Majdzadeh, Reza; Seydali, Elham; Aramesh, Kiarash; Abknar, Nina Loori

    2014-01-01

    Background: The nature of community-based participatory research (CBPR) poses distinctive ethical challenges. In the absence of organized guidelines, a remarkable amount of researchers’ time and energy will be spent tackling these ethical challenges. The study aimed to explore ethical issues and principles potentially arising when conducting CBPR. Methods: This qualitative study conducted in CBPR Center of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Required data were gathered through systematic literature review and semi-structured interviews. Representatives of community, academia, and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) participated in our study. Ten interviews with representatives of partner organizations, four group interviews with academic staff, and four with representatives of community were conducted. Repeated thematic analysis was used to elicit ethics-related overarching themes from transcribed interviews. As recommendations, these themes were then organized into a set of CBPR-related ethical issues and principles. Results: Four CBPR ethical guidelines (including 173 articles) were selected from a systematic review. Overarching themes relating to ethical principles which emerged from interviews were as follows: Trust, transparency and accountability, equity and inclusion, power imbalance, tolerance and conflict management, and attention to cultural sensitivity. Practical principles that emerged included: Consensus rather than informed consent, ownership of data and research achievements, and sustainability and maintenance of relationships. According to findings and in comparison to international guidelines, the present study put more emphasis on cultural sensitivity and sustainability as CBPR ethical tangles. Conclusions: Community-based participatory research ethical challenges are of the same kind in most parts of the world. However, some discrepancies exist that calls for local scrutiny. Future use and critic of current explored ethical issues and principles are highly encouraged. PMID:25400893

  3. Ethical issues in human experimentation

    E-print Network

    Behrmann, Marlene

    German doctors were charged with crimes against humanity for . . . performing medical experiments upon ­ Abortion ­ Euthanasia ­ Reproductive technologies Neuroethics · Ethical issues in enhancement

  4. Teaching medical education principles and methods to faculty using an active learning approach: the University of Michigan Medical Education Scholars Program.

    PubMed

    Frohna, Alice Z; Hamstra, Stanley J; Mullan, Patricia B; Gruppen, Larry D

    2006-11-01

    The Medical Education Scholars Program (MESP) at the University of Michigan Medical School was established in 1998 to develop educational leadership, improve teaching skills, and promote educational scholarship among medical school faculty. The Department of Medical Education designed and implemented the program. Eighty-one scholars have completed the MESP, with 15 more currently enrolled. While most scholars have been clinical faculty, some have been basic science faculty or from other allied health fields. The selection process emphasizes potential for contributing to the educational mission of the medical school. Each cohort is limited to two participants per department. The curriculum of the MESP is designed to provide an overview of a wide range of topics in education. It is divided into five broad domains: principles and theories of education, teaching methods, educational research methods, assessment and evaluation, and educational leadership. During the sessions, active learning of content is expected and encouraged. For instance, scholars share responsibility with the session presenters for planning and evaluating individual program sessions. To graduate, scholars are expected to attend the sessions regularly, and to make a final presentation of their project, which demonstrates near-completion or substantial progress toward that goal. Over its eight years, the MESP has evolved in response to environmental changes and ongoing evaluation of the program. Overall, the Medical Education Scholars Program has proven effective in developing faculty skills and educational leadership locally at the University of Michigan Medical School and nationally. PMID:17065859

  5. Coordinating the norms and values of medical research, medical practice and patient worlds—the ethics of evidence based medicine in orphaned fields of medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vos, R; Willems, D; Houtepen, R

    2004-01-01

    It appears that the primary ethical problem in this context is the lack of attention to the orphaned fields. Although we agree that this issue deserves more attention as a matter of potential injustice, we want to argue that, in order to do justice to the interplay of heterogeneous factors that is so typical of the orphaned fields, other ethical models than justice are required. We propose the coordination model as a window through which to view the important ethical issues which relate to the communication and interaction of scientists, health care workers, and patients. PMID:15082811

  6. Towards a Definition of Health Informatics Ethics Hamman W. Samuel

    E-print Network

    Zaiane, Osmar R.

    in medicine leads to new ethical issues that are not covered by medical or computing ethics. We define that information technology and medicine together lead to new issues in ethics. Medical devices and healthcare. Copyright 2010 ACM 978-1-4503-0030-8/10/11 ...$10.00. ethics comes into play. The Therac-25 medical

  7. Competency Knowledge Sub Domain Principles of Scientific Discovery

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    and evolves 2. Critically appraises and incorporates new information in the practice of evidence-based to promote evidence based medical practice (1,2) · Describes the ethical principles of clinical information into clinical practice (1,2) · Critically appraises a peer reviewed article and adequately

  8. Transplant in a patient with comorbid psychiatric illness: an ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Boyum, Eric N; Brown, Douglas; Zihni, Ahmed M; Keune, Jason D; Hong, Barry A; Kodner, Ira J; Ray, Shuddhadeb

    2014-11-01

    This article addresses a difficult ethical dilemma that transplant surgeons may potentially encounter: whether a patient with a psychiatric illness is a good candidate for a liver transplant. This case study illustrates the challenges involved when considering the ethical principles of patient self-determination, distributive justice of scarce medical resources, "social worth," and protection of vulnerable patient populations. Are patients with psychiatric illness able to provide consent for transplantation? Is it possible to avoid misallocating valuable donor organs and, at the same time, fairly allocate these resources? This article seeks to answer these questions and provide insight into this ethical dilemma. PMID:25509229

  9. An Ethics Primer: Ethical Questions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-01-01

    This resource is a PDF that provides a short introduction to ethical questions and strategies having to do with Ethics instruction. The PDF describes an overview of ethical questions and develops student understanding of ethical questions through three different worksheets.

  10. The refusal of treatment in anorexia nervosa, an ethical conflict with three characters: "the girl, the family and the medical profession". Discussion in a French legislative context.

    PubMed

    Vialettes, B; Samuelian-Massat, C; Valéro, R; Béliard, S

    2006-09-01

    Anorexic patients are prone to refuse treatment despite life-threatening complications. The therapist's ethical code can be torn between duty to protect life, and law that demands respect of the patient's autonomy. The age of these girls introduces a third participant in this ethical conflict with three characters: "the girl, her family and the physician". Even if her decision to refuse treatment can appear unreasonable, the patient suffering from anorexia nervosa remains "competent" to receive information concerning her state of health and to make up her own mind about what to do next. French law only recognises for the therapist a real duty to make efforts to convince the patient of the absolute necessity of treatment. However it appears important to confront these legal obligations with different situations created by the disease in order to help pave the way to finding medical solutions capable of conciliating the objective of the best treatment, the own ethical code of the physician and the respect of current legislation. PMID:16977257

  11. Public Health Ethics: Establishing “Durable Solutions” Within the Global Polio Eradication Initiative in Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tiffany T. Mason

    2009-01-01

    Discussions on public health ethics often appeal to the same codes of conduct established in the field of bioethics. Principles of bioethics contribute to the morality of the study of public health—proposing an optimal code of conduct in the medical care and human research aspects of the field. For example, public health researchers are aware of their obligations to consider

  12. Forum Response: Ethics in Business and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James A.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the teaching of business ethics. Draws conclusions about teaching business ethics noting that such instruction must start with the principles of capitalism and the functions of a market economy. (SG)

  13. Design of a Course on the Medical Consequences of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassel, Christine; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A course is described in which students were to: learn about nuclear weapons and their medical, social, and ecological consequences; identify principles of social ethics defining health professionals' roles; and define professional activities consistent with these principles. Student attitudes toward the course and its content were measured. (MSE)

  14. Teaching ethics in neonatal and perinatal medicine: What is happening in Canada?

    PubMed Central

    Daboval, Thierry; Moore, Gregory P; Rohde, Kristina; Moreau, Katherine; Ferretti, Emanuela

    2014-01-01

    Ethically challenging clinical situations are frequently encountered in neonatal and perinatal medicine (NPM), resulting in a complex environment for trainees and a need for ethics training during NPM residency. In the present study, the authors conducted a brief environmental scan to investigate the ethics teaching strategies in Canadian NPM programs. Ten of 13 (77%) accredited Canadian NPM residency programs participated in a survey investigating teaching strategies, content and assessment mechanisms. Although informal ethics teaching was more frequently reported, there was significant variability among programs in terms of content and logistics, with the most common topics being ‘The medical decision making process: Ethical considerations’ and ‘Review of bioethics principles’ (88.9% each); lectures by staff or visiting staff was the most commonly reported formal strategy (100%); and evaluation was primarily considered to be part of their overall trainee rotation (89%). This variability indicates the need for agreement and standardization among program directors regarding these aspects, and warrants further investigation. PMID:24627657

  15. Making inpatient medication reconciliation patient centered, clinically relevant and implementable: a consensus statement on key principles and necessary first steps.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Jeffrey L; Halasyamani, Lakshmi; Greene, Jan; LaCivita, Cynthia; Stucky, Erin; Benjamin, Bona; Reid, William; Griffin, Frances A; Vaida, Allen J; Williams, Mark V

    2010-10-01

    Medication errors and adverse events caused by them are common during and after a hospitalization. The impact of these events on patient welfare and the financial burden, both to the patient and the healthcare system, are significant. In 2005, The Joint Commission put forth medication reconciliation as National Patient Safety Goal (NPSG) No. 8 in an effort to minimize adverse events caused during these types of care transitions. However, the meaningful and systematic implementation of medication reconciliation, as expressed through NPSG No. 8, proved to be extraordinarily difficult for healthcare institutions around the country. Given the importance of accurate and complete medication reconciliation for patient safety occurring across the continuum of care, the Society of Hospital Medicine convened a stakeholder conference in 2009 to begin to identify and address: (1) barriers to implementation; (2) opportunities to identify best practices surrounding medication reconciliation; (3) the role of partnerships among traditional healthcare sites and nonclinical and other community-based organizations; and (4) metrics for measuring the processes involved in medication reconciliation and their impact on preventing harm to patients. The focus of the conference was oriented toward medication reconciliation for a hospitalized patient population; however, many of the themes and concepts derived would also apply to other care settings. This paper highlights the key domains needing to be addressed and suggests first steps toward doing so. An overarching principle derived at the conference is that medication reconciliation should not be viewed as an accreditation function. It must, first and foremost, be recognized as an important element of patient safety. From this principle, the participants identified ten key areas requiring further attention in order to move medication reconciliation toward this focus. 1 There is need for a uniformly acceptable and accepted definition of what constitutes a medication and what processes are encompassed by reconciliation. Clarifying these terms is critical to ensuring more uniform impact of medication reconciliation. 2 The varying roles of the multidisciplinary participants in the reconciliation process must be clearly defined. These role definitions should include those of the patient and family/caregiver and must occur locally, taking into account the need for flexibility in design given the varying structures and resources at healthcare sites. 3 Measures of the reconciliation processes must be clinically meaningful (i.e., of defined benefit to the patient) and derived through consultation with stakeholder groups. Those measures to be reported for national benchmarking and accreditation should be limited in number and clinically meaningful. 4 While a comprehensive reconciliation system is needed across the continuum of care, a phased approach to implementation, allowing it to start slowly and be tailored to local organizational structures and work flows, will increase the chances of successful organizational uptake. 5 Developing mechanisms for prospectively and proactively identifying patients at risk for medication-related adverse events and failed reconciliation is needed. Such an alert system would help maintain vigilance toward these patient safety issues and help focus additional resources on high risk patients. 6 Given the diversity in medication reconciliation practices, research aimed at identifying effective processes is important and should be funded with national resources. Funding should include varying sites of care (e.g., urban and rural, academic and nonacademic, etc.). 7 Strategies for medication reconciliation-both successes and key lessons learned from unsuccessful efforts-should be widely disseminated. 8 A personal health record that is integrated and easily transferable between sites of care is needed to facilitate successful medication reconciliation. 9 Partnerships between healthcare organizations and community-based organizations create opportunities to reinforce medication

  16. Portrayal of negative qualities in a doctor as a potential teaching tool in medical ethics and humanism: Journey to the End of Night by Louis-Ferdinand Celine.

    PubMed

    Wolf, G

    2006-02-01

    Fictional stories about physicians and patients are increasingly used as a powerful teaching resource for medical students. Very often, but not exclusively, stories of physicians as positive role models are selected to teach students virtues and ethical values. Negative role models are rarely used and if so, physicians are rather described as medical quacks in such fiction then exhibiting primarily a corrupted character. I suggest that a fictional story that presents exclusively a negative role model of a physician could also be a valuable, admittedly difficult, teaching resource to demonstrate the consequences of absolute loss of ethical standards and virtues in physicians. A not widely known example of this genre is Louis-Ferdinand Céline's (1894-1961) novel Voyage au bout de la nuit (Journey to the End of the Night), published in 1932. Having a strong autobiographical background, the novel described the adventures of the medicine student, Ferdinand Bardamu, during the first world war, in the African colonies as a trader, in the United States of America as factory worker, and later after finishing his education, as a doctor for the poor. Unfortunately, Dr Bardamu develops an unprofessional, even criminal behaviour, and may serve as a negative role model for the virtues of physicians. This article will familiarise the reader with the novel and its physician author. PMID:16461481

  17. [The medical deontological code and ethical questions regarding the end of life. A contribution to clarity from anesthesiologists and intensive care personnel].

    PubMed

    Orsi, L; Mazzon, D

    2000-01-01

    The Medical Deontological Code (MDC) discusses ethical questions regarding the end of life, which often require anesthetists and intensive care operators to take decisions regarding patients with terminal diseases in Article 14: Intensity of diagnostic-therapeutic procedures under heading IV (Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures) and Article 37: Caring for the terminally ill under heading V (Caring for the terminally ill). The original formulation of Article 37 prompted immediate dissent among numerous anesthetists-IC operators and bioethics experts who signed a petition addressed to the Permanent Commission for the Revision of the Deontological Code in which they asked of Article 37 and proposed a reformulation. In this paper the authors outline the arguments used to back up this requests and its broad acceptance by the Commission, as shown by the amendments made to Articles 37 and 38 of the MDC and the clarifications given un the Commentary to the MDC approved on 1/9/99. These amendments correct a deontological regulation whose original formulation appeared to be contradictory and inapplicable to the terminally ill patients. This matter clearly shows the importance of bioethical questions facing. Anesthetists and Intensive Care operators and underlines the need for reflection on these themes within the profession and a more active participation in the general debate on ethical and deontological aspects of the medical profession. PMID:10736986

  18. Medical Education and the Pharmaceutical Industry: A Review of Ethical Guidelines and Their Implications for Psychiatric Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geppert, Cynthia M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews and summarizes eight ethical guidelines of major professional organizations regarding the pharmaceutical industry's role in the psychiatric education of trainees. Method: The author conducted a literature review of research and guidelines pertaining to the pharmaceutical industry's relationship to trainees, with…

  19. Towards a Sexual Ethics for Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Which moral principles should guide us in evaluating sexual contacts of adolescents? This paper tries to answer this question by taking two steps. First, the implications of a liberal sexual ethics for adolescence are spelled out, assessed and refuted. The core principle of the liberal ethical view, the principle of valid consent, takes competence…

  20. Advice offered by practitioners of complementary/ alternative medicine: an important ethical issue.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2009-12-01

    The current popularity of complementary/alternative medicine (CAM) generates many challenges to medical ethics. The one discussed here is the advice offered by CAM practitioners. Using selected examples, the author tries to demonstrate that some of the advice issued through the popular media or provided by acupuncturists, chiropractors, herbalists, homeopaths, pharmacists, and doctors is misleading or dangerous. This, the author argues, can impinge on the main principle of medical ethics: beneficence, nonmaleficence, and autonomy. We should work toward correcting this deplorable situation. PMID:19926607

  1. Department Research Ethics Resources at Stanford University Type CS CS181 Computers, ethics, and public policy, Margaret Johnson Class

    E-print Network

    Computers, Ethics, and Social Responsibility Class SCBE MED250A & B: Medical Ethics I & 2, David MagnusDepartment Research Ethics Resources at Stanford University Type CS CS181 Computers, ethics, and public policy, Margaret Johnson Class Law LAW288: Governance and Ethics: Anti-corruption law, compliance

  2. Principles and Paradigms Used in Human Medical Ethics Can Be Used as Models for the Assessment of Animal Research

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gerald L. Van Hoosier

    The preparation of the Obrink Memorial Lecture for presen- tation to the Scandinavian Association of Laboratory Animal Science (1) provided me with an impetus for further reading and thinking about IACUC review of research protocols using animals. One of the primary responsibilities of laboratory ani- mal specialists and comparative medicine scientists is to bridge the worlds of the investigator, the

  3. Ethical Issues in End-of-Life Care.

    PubMed

    Walker

    1999-03-01

    BACKGROUND: Physicians who treat patients approaching the end of life often face moral, ethical, and legal issues involving shared decision making, futility, the right to refuse medical treatment, euthanasia, and physician-assisted suicide. METHODS: The author examines cases that involve these issues and also reviews the ethical principles that guide current medical practice. Issues such as end-of-life ethical questions, the right to life-sustaining therapy, medical futility, the distinction between killing and allowing to die, and physician-assisted suicide are discussed. RESULTS: The principal problem involves the appropriate use of technology at the end of life. While developments in technology have enhanced our ability to prolong life, issues have also arisen regarding the resulting quality of life, the sometimes marginal benefits to our patients, and the burdens that this technology imposes on patients, families, and society. CONCLUSIONS: Legal and ethical issues continue to confront patients, courts, and physicians. A better understanding of these issues and an awareness of the availability of effective palliative care will help physicians, patients, and families adequately address the end-of-life issues that are an intrinsic part of medical care. PMID:10758544

  4. Perspectives on key principles of generalist medical practice in public service in sub-saharan africa: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The principles and practice of Family Medicine that arose in developed Western countries have been imported and adopted in African countries without adequate consideration of their relevance and appropriateness to the African context. In this study we attempted to elicit a priori principles of generalist medical practice from the experience of long-serving medical officers in a variety of African counties, through which we explored emergent principles of Family Medicine in our own context. Methods A descriptive study design was utilized, using qualitative methods. 16 respondents who were clinically active medical practitioners, working as generalists in the public services or non-profit sector for at least 5 years, and who had had no previous formal training or involvement in academic Family Medicine, were purposively selected in 8 different countries in southern, western and east Africa, and interviewed. Results The respondents highlighted a number of key issues with respect to the external environment within which they work, their collective roles, activities and behaviours, as well as the personal values and beliefs that motivate their behaviour. The context is characterized by resource constraints, high workload, traditional health beliefs, and the difficulty of referring patients to the next level of care. Generalist clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa need to be competent across a wide range of clinical disciplines and procedural skills at the level of the district hospital and clinic, in both chronic and emergency care. They need to understand the patient's perspective and context, empowering the patient and building an effective doctor-patient relationship. They are also managers, focused on coordinating and improving the quality of clinical care through teamwork, training and mentoring other health workers in the generalist setting, while being life-long learners themselves. However, their role in the community, was found to be more aspirational than real. Conclusions The study derived a set of principles for the practice of generalist doctors in sub-Saharan Africa based on the reported activities and approaches of the respondents. Patient-centred care using a biopsychosocial approach remains as a common core principle despite wide variations in context. Procedural and hospital care demands a higher level of skills particularly in rural areas, and a community orientation is desirable, but not widely practiced. The results have implications for the postgraduate training of family physicians in sub-Saharan Africa, and highlight questions regarding the realization of community-orientated primary care. PMID:21726454

  5. General medicine and surgery for dental practitioners: part 2. Medical emergencies in dental practice: the drug box, equipment and basic principles of management.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, M; Meechan, J G

    2014-06-13

    Dental practitioners need knowledge of the diagnosis and management of medical emergencies. This paper deals with the general aspects of emergency treatment including basic management principles which are applicable to all emergencies. The next paper in this series, part 3, deals with more specific aspects of medical emergency management. PMID:24923938

  6. Incorporating the principles of the patient-centered medical home into a student-run free clinic

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Megan C; Lin, Jiahui; Steinman, Jonathan B; Salvi, Joshua D; Reynolds, Margaret M; Kastor, Anne S; Harris, Christina; Boutin-Foster, Carla

    2014-01-01

    As the health care delivery landscape changes, medical schools must develop creative strategies for preparing future physicians to provide quality care in this new environment. Despite the growing prominence of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) as an effective model for health care delivery, few medical schools have integrated formal education on the PCMH into their curricula. Incorporating the PCMH model into medical school curricula is important to ensure that students have a comprehensive understanding of the different models of health care delivery and can operate effectively as physicians. The authors provide a detailed description of the process by which the Weill Cornell Community Clinic (WCCC), a student-run free clinic, has integrated PCMH principles into a service-learning initiative. The authors assessed patient demographics, diagnoses, and satisfaction along with student satisfaction. During the year after a PCMH model was adopted, 112 students and 19 licensed physicians volunteered their time. A review of the 174 patients seen from July 2011 to June 2012 found that the most common medical reasons for visits included management of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, gastrointestinal conditions, arthritis, anxiety, and depression. During the year after the adoption of the PCMH model, 87% were very or extremely satisfied with their care, and 96% of the patients would recommend the WCCC to others. Students who participate in the WCCC gain hands-on experience in coordinating care, providing continuity of care, addressing issues of accessibility, and developing quality and safety metrics. The WCCC experience provides an integrative model that links service-learning with education on health care delivery in a primary care setting. The authors propose that adoption of this approach by other student-run clinics provides a substantial opportunity to improve medical education nationwide and better prepare future physicians to practice within this new model of health care delivery. PMID:25246814

  7. Ethics Education: Using Inductive Reasoning to Develop Individual, Group, Organizational, and Global Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Susan H.; White, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Ethics education that prepares students to address ethical challenges at work is a multifaceted and long-term endeavor. In this article, the authors propose an inductive ethics pedagogy that begins the process of ethics education by grounding students in their own individual ethical principles. The approach centers on developing students' ethical

  8. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States: key principles and experiences.

    PubMed

    Betancourt, Joseph R; Cervantes, Marina C

    2009-09-01

    The field of cross-cultural care focuses on the ability to communicate effectively and provide quality health care to patients from diverse sociocultural backgrounds. In recent years, medical schools in the United States have increasingly recognized the growing importance of incorporating cross-cultural curricula into medical education. Cross-cultural medical education in the United States has emerged for four reasons: (1) the need for providers to have the skills to care for a diverse patient population; (2) the link between effective communication and health outcomes; (3) the presence of racial/ethnic disparities that are, in part, due to poor communication across cultures; and (4) medical school accreditation requirements. There are three major approaches to cross-cultural education: (1) the cultural sensitivity/awareness approach that focuses on attitudes; (2) the multicultural/categorical approach that focuses on knowledge; and (3) the cross-cultural approach that focuses on skills. The patient-based approach to cross-cultural care combines these three concepts into a framework that can be used to care for any patient, anytime, anywhere. Ultimately, if cross-cultural medical education is to evolve, students must believe it is important and understand that the categorical approach can lead to stereotyping; it should be taught using patient cases and highlighting clinical applications; it should be embedded in a longitudinal, developmentally appropriate fashion; and it should be integrated into the larger curriculum whenever possible. At the Harvard Medical School, we have tried to apply all of these lessons to our work, and we have started to develop a strategic integration process where we try to raise awareness, impart knowledge, and teach cross-cultural skills over the 4 years of schooling. PMID:19717365

  9. Ethics in practice: managed care and the changing health care environment: medicine as a profession managed care ethics working group statement.

    PubMed

    Povar, Gail J; Blumen, Helen; Daniel, John; Daub, Suzanne; Evans, Lois; Holm, Richard P; Levkovich, Natalie; McCarter, Alice O; Sabin, James; Snyder, Lois; Sulmasy, Daniel; Vaughan, Peter; Wellikson, Laurence D; Campbell, Amy

    2004-07-20

    Cost pressures and changes in the health care environment pose ethical challenges and hard choices for patients, physicians, policymakers, and society. In 2000 and 2001, the American College of Physicians, with the Harvard Pilgrim Health Care Ethics Program, convened a working group of stakeholders--patients, physicians, and managed care representatives, along with medical ethicists--to develop a statement of ethics for managed care. The group explored the impact of a changing health care environment on patient-physician relationships and how to best apply the principles of professionalism in this environment. The statement that emerged offers guidance on preserving the patient-clinician relationship, patient rights and responsibilities, confidentiality and privacy, resource allocation and stewardship, the obligation of health plans to foster an ethical environment for the delivery of care, and the clinician's responsibility to individual patients, the community, and the public health, among other issues. PMID:15262669

  10. Bioethics for clinicians: 10. Research ethics

    PubMed Central

    Weijer, C; Dickens, B; Meslin, E M

    1997-01-01

    Medical research involving human subjects raises complex ethical, legal and social issues. Investigators sometimes find that their obligations with respect to a research project come into conflict with their obligations to individual patients. The ethical conduct of research rests on 3 guiding principles: respect for persons, beneficience, and justice. Respect for persons underlies the duty to obtain informed consent from study participants. Beneficence demands a favourable balance between the potential benefits and harms of participation. Justice requires that vulnerable people not be exploited and that eligible candidates who may benefit from participation not be excluded without good cause. Studies must be designed in a way that ensures the validity of findings and must address questions of sufficient importance to justify the risks of participation. In any clinical trial there must be genuine uncertainty as to which treatment arm offers the most benefit, and placebo controls should not be used if effective standard therapies exist. Researchers have a responsibility to inform themselves about the ethical, legal and policy standards that govern their activities. When difficulties arise, they should consult the existing literature and seek the advice of experts in research ethics. PMID:9141987

  11. An innovative outcomes-based medical education program built on adult learning principles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Patrick McNeil; Chris S. Hughes; Susan M. Toohey; S. Bruce Dowton

    2006-01-01

    An innovative medical curriculum at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) has been developed through a highly collaborative process aimed at building faculty ownership and ongoing sustainability. The result is a novel capability-based program that features early clinical experience and small-group teaching, which offers students considerable flexibility and achieves a high degree of alignment between graduate outcomes, learning activities

  12. The Pitfalls of Deducing Ethics From Behavioral Economics: Why the Association of American Medical Colleges Is Wrong About Pharmaceutical Detailing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas S. Huddle

    2010-01-01

    The Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) is urging academic medical centers to ban pharmaceutical detailing. This policy followed from a consideration of behavioral and neuroeconomics research. I argue that this research did not warrant the conclusions drawn from it. Pharmaceutical detailing carries risks of cognitive error for physicians, as do other forms of information exchange. Physicians may overcome such

  13. An Environmental Ethic for Parks and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAvoy, Leo

    1990-01-01

    Suggests an environmental ethic for parks and recreation professionals who are often on the wrong side of the environmental controversy because they lack a professional ethic. This article provides a guide for implementing an environmental ethic, noting that philosophy of service must be grounded in ecological principles, not merchant values. (SM)

  14. Normative Sentimentalism and Animal Ethics

    E-print Network

    Gerrek, Monica

    2008-01-09

    The purpose of this dissertation is to present what I think is a particularly compelling normative version of sentimentalism. The moral principle which is the foundation of this ethic is: An act, or a failure to act, is ...

  15. Ethical Virtues in Scientific Research

    PubMed Central

    Resnik, David B.

    2012-01-01

    Most approaches to promoting integrity in research are principle-based in that they portray ethical conduct as consisting of adherence to ethical rules, duties, or responsibilities. Bruce MacFarlane has recently criticized the principle-based approach to promoting integrity in research and offered a virtue-based alternative. MacFarlane argues that principle-based approaches do not provide adequate guidance for ethical decision-making and are not very useful in moral education. In this article, I examine and critique MacFarlane’s defense of the virtue-based approach. I argue that virtue-based and principle-based approaches to ethics are complementary and that they both can help promote research integrity. PMID:23074991

  16. A Study in Engineering and Military Ethics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Butkus, Michael

    Human nature and social awareness can often cause individuals to act or make decisions that are not considered moral or proper by the majority. Merriam-Webster defines ethics as a set of moral principles or a system of moral values.1 Most occupations that require the trust of the general public are held to high ethical standards. These professions include law, medical, engineering, and military, all of which have adopted systems that guide subscribed individuals through moral decision making processes. Most learned professions that uphold such standards prescribe a system of non-mandatory codes of conduct.2 Perhaps the most recognized professional code of ethics was reported by the National Society of Professional Engineers, which defines fundamental canons and includes explicit guidance on professional conduct. Because ethical behavior is essential to the profession of engineering, ABET Inc., has addressed this topic in Criterion 3, outcome (f): graduates will have an understanding of professional and ethical responsibility. The environmental engineering program criteria (ABET Criterion 9) also requires an understanding of professional practice issues.3 There are numerous examples in the literature on how professional practice issues might be included in engineering curricula, but limited data on methods for assessment. The United States Military Academy (USMA) Environmental Engineering Program has a robust military ethical education and training program that spans the entire four year West Point experience. It is thought that the moral character development programs at USMA strongly support the professional practice requirements of EC2000.3 The USMA environmental engineering program has been assessing attainment of ethics and other professional practice requirements since ca. 1999. Because all graduates of the USMA environmental engineering program (unless granted a waiver by the program director) are required to take the Fundamentals of Engineering Exam (FEE), it has been used as a metric for this purpose since FEE subject data has been available. Longitudinal data on ethics questions, from the FEE, is presented in Figure 1. The USMA Environmental Engineering cadets have been tracking with the national average (for environmental engineers) on ethics since 2002.

  17. Ethical, legal, and social aspects of farm animal cloning in the 6th Framework Programme for Research.

    PubMed

    Claxton, John; Sachez, Elena; Matthiessen-Guyader, Line

    2004-01-01

    Cloned livestock have potential importance in the provision of improved medicine as well as in the development of livestock production. The public is, however, increasingly concerned about the social and ethical consequences of these advances in knowledge and techniques. There is unevenness throughout Europe in different Member States' attitudes to research into livestock cloning. Although there is EU legislation controlling the use of animals for research purposes, there is no legislation specifically governing cloning in livestock production. The main EU reference is the 9th Opinion of the European Group on Ethics, which states "Cloning of farm animals may prove to be of medical and agricultural as well as economic benefit. It is acceptable only when the aims and methods are ethically justified and when carried out under ethical conditions." The ethical justification includes the avoidance of suffering, the use of the 3Rs principle and a lack of better alternatives. The Commission addresses these issues in the 6th Framework Programme by promoting the integration of ethical, legal and social aspects in all proposals where they are relevant, by fostering ethical awareness and foresight in the proposals, by encouraging public dialogue, and by supporting specific actions to promote the debate. Research must respect fundamental ethical principles, including animal welfare requirements. PMID:15268793

  18. The Terri Schiavo saga: ethical and legal aspects and implications for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Paul S

    2009-09-01

    On March 31, 2005, Terri Schiavo (born December 3, 1963) died -- the final complication of a cardiac arrest on February 25, 1990. Her death was preceded by the withdrawal of artificially administered hydration and nutrition through a feeding tube. Prior to her death, Terri's saga was the focus of intense medical, ethical, and legal debates in the United States (US) and elsewhere. These debates were characterized by confusion about the facts, ethical principles, and laws relevant to the case. Much of the confusion revolved around a number of ethical and legal questions including: Is it ethically and legally permissible to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatments from patients who do not want the treatments? Is withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatments the same as physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia? Is artificially administered hydration and nutrition a medical treatment or mandatory care akin to bathing? What were Terri's values, preferences, and goals regarding life-sustaining treatments? In this article, the medical, ethical, and legal data related to the case and the aforementioned ethical and legal questions raised by it are reviewed. Finally, the clinical implications of the saga, such as the need for clinicians to be more proactive in educating patients about their rights related to making health care decisions, end-of-life care options, and advance care planning (e.g., completing an advance directive) are discussed. Notably, given that the Schiavo saga occurred in the US, this article is written from a US perspective. PMID:19776703

  19. Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review

    PubMed Central

    Valones, Marcela Agne Alves; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; de Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho, Alessandra; Crovela, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Recent developments in molecular methods have revolutionized the detection and characterization of microorganisms in a broad range of medical diagnostic fields, including virology, mycology, parasitology, microbiology and dentistry. Among these methods, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) has generated great benefits and allowed scientific advancements. PCR is an excellent technique for the rapid detection of pathogens, including those difficult to culture. Along with conventional PCR techniques, Real-Time PCR has emerged as a technological innovation and is playing an ever-increasing role in clinical diagnostics and research laboratories. Due to its capacity to generate both qualitative and quantitative results, Real-Time PCR is considered a fast and accurate platform. The aim of the present literature review is to explore the clinical usefulness and potential of both conventional PCR and Real-Time PCR assays in diverse medical fields, addressing its main uses and advances. PMID:24031310

  20. Relational ethics and psychosomatic assessment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, António

    2012-01-01

    The main ethical perspective in the clinical relationship takes into consideration the vulnerability of the clinical condition before threats and risks that can undermine the integrity and dignity of the person. Psychosomatic medicine faces complex cases whose ethical problems cannot only be solved by applying top-down deontological or utilitarian approaches, principlism, which is limited mainly to easing ethical tensions, or a bottom-up approach, the casuistic model, case-based reasoning. In introducing vulnerability as the core of ethical questioning as a principle ontological priority over other principles, relational ethics refers to the appreciation of the responsibility of health professionals through which a health care professional and the patient 'together' can construct more reasonable and prudential courses of action with, for, and by the patient. The model of relational ethics is based on three main aspects, clinically integrated approach, science/philosophy partnership, and deliberative process, that when taken together, form an intermediate model that ensures prudent and reasonable decision-making. The three structural elements and characteristics of relational ethics create and maintain a responsible relationship between the professional and the patient being aware that the mutual vulnerability of health professional and the patient has a moral value and recognizing that their relationship will allow for personal development of each. I conceptualized the model of relational ethics as one that embraces the meta-ethical principles of vulnerability, dignity, responsibility, and respect for autonomy as they are considered by many international declarations or conventions. This model integrates three key polarities: ensure conditions of authenticity, facilitate a process of cooperative mutuality, and promote opportunities for growth and development. Relational ethics can be used to solve major ethical problems in psychosomatic medicine, capacity , informed consent, and confidentiality. PMID:22056907

  1. The ethics of drug development and promotion: the need for a wider view.

    PubMed

    Brody, Howard

    2012-11-01

    Ethical issues at the interface between the medical profession and the pharmaceutical industry have generally been approached from the vantage point of medical professionalism, with a focus on conflict of interest as the key ethical concern. Although conflicts of interest remain important, other ethical issues may be obscured unless a wider perspective is adopted. Besides medical professionalism, the ethics of the clinical therapeutic relationship, ethics of public health, and business ethics all provide additional insights. PMID:23047778

  2. Call for Papers Ethics, Practical Ethics, Animal Ethics

    E-print Network

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    increased awareness of factory farming a shift in public concern with environmental ethicsCall for Papers Ethics, Practical Ethics, Animal Ethics Clemson University Undergraduate this conference is particularly concerned. Notably, the ethical treatment of nonhuman animals has gained

  3. Ethical dilemmas in clinical genetics.

    PubMed Central

    Young, I D

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a survey of medical and paramedical opinion relating to various difficult ethical issues in clinical genetics. These include the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship, prenatal diagnosis and termination, and Huntington's chorea. It is suggested that this method provides a useful means of assessing what is ethically acceptable in contemporary society. PMID:6234396

  4. Transformational leadership in medical practice: capturing and influencing principles-driven work.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The importance of leadership in medicine is well recognized. Transformational leadership is a well-defined model that provides an empirically supported approach to foster organizational and personal change. It has been applied in health care settings with favorable outcomes. Transformational leadership is intended to help subordinates and followers transcend usual expectations of their own capabilities to reach higher levels of performance and personal meaning. The application of transformational leadership is appropriate to physicians in many roles, including to those who are supervisors in medical education or practice as team members in outpatient settings. Illustrations exemplify these points. PMID:22955090

  5. The Ethical Practice of Podiatric Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Daniel J.

    1978-01-01

    A close examination of the Hippocratic Oath and the Code of Ethics of the American Podiatry Association is proposed as a outline for the parameters of ethical professional conduct. Ethical challenges facing the medical community, such as euthanasia, are discussed. (LBH)

  6. A History of Ethics and Law in the Intensive Care Unit

    PubMed Central

    Luce, John M.; White, Douglas B.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Because they provide potential benefit at great personal and public cost, the intensive care unit (ICU) and the interventions rendered therein have become symbols of both the promise and the limitations of medical technology. At the same time, the ICU has served as an arena in which many of the ethical and legal dilemmas created by that technology have been defined and debated. In this essay, we outline major events in the history of ethics and law in the ICU. We cover 10 areas: 1) the evolution of ICUs, 2) ethical principles, 3) informed consent and the law, 4) medical decision-making, 5) cardiopulmonary resuscitation, 6) withholding and withdrawing life-sustaining therapy, 7) legal cases involving life support, 8) advance directives, 9) prognostication, and 10) futility and the allocation of medical resources. We emphasize that advancement of the ethical principle of respect for patient autonomy in ICUs increasingly is conflicting with physicians’ concern about their own prerogatives and with the just distribution of medical resources. PMID:19268804

  7. Ethical issues and Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Kromberg, Jennifer G R; Wessels, Tina-Marié

    2013-12-01

    The practice of genetic counselling gives rise to many ethical dilemmas, and counsellors need to be familiar with the principles of biomedical ethics. The primary principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice. A case of identical twins at 50% risk for Huntington's disease, in which only one twin sought predictive testing for this dominantly inherited disease, created several ethical dilemmas. Another case where predictive testing was carried out on two young children, at high risk, by a laboratory at the request of an adoption agency and a doctor, with a view to giving information to the foster parents, also posed many ethical conundrums for the counsellor. The ethical issues that arose in these cases are discussed in this paper.  PMID:24300652

  8. Health protection of health care workers from the prospective of ethics, science and good medical practice. Opinions from stakeholders in health care settings.

    PubMed

    Porru, S; Cannatelli, P; Cerioli, Beloyanna; Flor, L; Gramegna, Maria; Polato, R; Rodriguez, D

    2012-01-01

    Fitness for work (FFW) in health care workers poses multidisciplinary challenges because of management problems scientific and ethical implications and the implementation of preventive interventions in health care settings. All the relevant stakeholders, including the General Manager, Medical Director, worker's representative, the person responsible for prevention and protection, forensic medicine expert, the person responsible for prevention and health safety at public administration level, commented on: danger to third parties; FFW formulation; human resource management; stress; professional independence; role of the person responsible for prevention and protection and of the person responsible for prevention at public administration level; professional responsibilities. Opinions are reported regarding the main problems related to the role of the Occupational Physician in FFW formulation, such as the difficult balance between autonomy and independence, limited turnover and aging of workforce, need of confidentiality and respect for professional status of the HCW prevalence of susceptibility conditions, rights and duties of stakeholders. The most significant result was the request by the Lombardy Region for more quality in risk assessment and health surveillance; to maintain uniform conduct over all the local health authorities, to allow the board in charge of examining appeals against FFW to fully cooperate with the occupational physician; due attention to the person/worker; the opportunity to convene referral boards for complex FFW management; the challenge of stress management and the need for an observatory for psychological discomforts; the importance of the ICOH Code of Ethics and avoidance of conflicts of interests; the need for individual risk assessment and risk management; the concept of sharing responsibilities and of a real multidisciplinary approach. PMID:22838299

  9. The importance of ethic in the field of human tissue banking.

    PubMed

    Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Herson, Marisa Roma

    2012-03-01

    A tissue bank is accountable before the community in fulfilling the expectations of tissue donors, their families and recipients. The expected output from the altruistic donation is that safe and high quality human tissue grafts will be provided for the medical treatment of patients. Thus, undertakings of tissue banks have to be not only authorised and audited by national competent health care authorities, but also comply with a strong ethical code, a code of practices and ethical principles. Ethical practice in the field of tissue banking requires the setting of principles, the identification of possible deviations and the establishment of mechanisms that will detect and hinder abuses that may occur during the procurement, processing and distribution of human tissues for transplantation. The opinions and suggestions manifested by the authors in this paper may not be necessarily a reflection of those within the institutions or community they are linked to. PMID:21161412

  10. MedEthEx Online: A Computer-based Learning Program in Medical Ethics and Communication Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleetwood, Janet; Vaught, Wayne; Feldman, Debra; Gracely, Edward; Kassutto, Zach; Novack, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    Assessed MedEthEx Online, a computer-based learning program, in improving communication skills as part of a required bioethics course for medical students. Exam scores of users were comparable with non-users, although computerized-learning students scored higher in specific exam areas, felt somewhat more clinically prepared, and rated the course…

  11. Lessons in Machine Ethics from the Perspective of Two Computational Models of Ethical Reasoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce M. McLaren

    In this paper, two computational models of ethical reasoning, one that compares pairs of truth-telling cases and one that retrieves relevant past cases and principles when presented with an ethical dilemma, are described and discussed. Lessons learned from developing and experimenting with the two systems, as well as challenges of building programs that reason about ethics, are discussed. Finally, plans

  12. A Measure of Cultural Competence as an Ethical Responsibility: Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirin, Selcuk R.; Rogers-Sirin, Lauren; Collins, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the psychometric qualifications of a new video-based measure of school professionals' ethical sensitivity toward issues of racial intolerance in schools. The new scale, titled the Quick-Racial and Ethical Sensitivity Test (Quick-REST) is based on the ethical principles commonly shared by school-based professional…

  13. Euthanasia, ethics and economics.

    PubMed

    Häyry, Heta; Häyry, Matti

    1990-04-01

    The financial aspects of legalizing active euthanasia rarely have been discussed. Häyry and Häyry argue that there are no good grounds for ignoring the connection between euthanasia and the need to conserve medical resources. Their paper is intended to offer a rough sketch of how ethics and economics may legitimately work side by side in the debate over euthanasia. PMID:11653888

  14. EthicsConRep

    Cancer.gov

    The authors also gratefully acknowledge the copy editing assistance of Leslie Alter, MPH and Steve Brown. The Ethical Force Program’s initiative on patient-centered communication is funded in part by the American Medical Association Foundation, The California Endowment, the Commonwealth Fund and the Connecticut Health Foundation.

  15. Ethical Issues in Pharmacogenetics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Carol Isaacson Barash (Genetics, Ethics & Policy Consulting, Inc.; )

    2001-02-01

    The issue-focused, peer-reviewed article illustrates how pharmacogenetics promises drugs specific to an individual's condition. However, it poses some ethical concerns: invasion of medical privacy, unequal distribution of benefits, discrimination because it involves genetic tests, and research/business conflict-of-interest.

  16. Nursing Ethics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sara Fry

    Nursing ethics in the 21st century will continue to be concerned with describing and communicating the characteristics of the “good” nurse, and describing nurses’ ethical practices. However, there is a growing concern that what constitutes nurses’ ethical practices is changing as patients are experiencing, by virtue of reduced reimbursements for health care services, limited time to be in a nurse-patient

  17. A Multipurpose Interactive Videodisc with Ethical, Legal, Medical, Educational and Research Implications: The Informed Patient Decision-Making Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Harold C.; Henderson, Joseph V.; Beck, J. Robert; Mulley, Albert G.; Barry, Michael J.; Fowler, Floyd J.; Wennberg, Coralea N.; Wennberg, John E.

    1989-01-01

    An interactive videodisc (using a single screen Macintosh II, HyperCard driven, Level III, CAV interactive videodisc) has been designed, produced, and pretested to permit patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), facing a choice of surgery or watchful waiting, to take an active role in decision-making. The Informed Patient Decision-Making Procedure (IPDP) educates the patient about the benefits and harms of two treatment choices: prostatectomy and watchful waiting for BPH, by presenting patient-specific data derived from an analysis of medical outcomes. and video testimonials from patients with good and unfortunate outcomes of the therapeutic options. The IPDP standardizes the information provided to the patients, provides informed consent, gathers follow-up outcomes research data, and permits automated assessment of patient preferences and utilities. In this demonstration, the development of the IPDP is discussed, the videodisc program is presented, and lessons learned in creating medical videodiscs are shared.

  18. The Social and Ethical Implications of Changing Medical Technologies: The Views of People Living with Genetic Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth Chapman

    2002-01-01

    This article presents empirical data on subjective levels of health and quality of life for individuals with early- or late-onset genetic conditions. Twelve adults with an early-onset condition (cystic fibrosis) and 12 adults with a late-onset condition in the family (Huntington’s disease) participated in semi-structured interviews. Questions investigated perceptions of the body, quality of life and views on medical technology

  19. Ethics, standards, and procedures of animal and human chronobiology research.

    PubMed

    Touitou, Yvan; Smolensky, Michael H; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    The majority of research papers published in Chronobiology International report the findings of investigations conducted on laboratory animals and human beings. The editors and the readers of the journal expect the authors of submitted manuscripts to have made an important contribution to biological rhythm and related research through the ethical conduct of investigations and unbiased and accurate reporting of findings. Authors of scientific papers are required to disclose any potential conflict of interest. The journal accepts only papers that are original work, no part of which has been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as brief abstracts. The journal and its editors endorse the compliance of investigators to the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on human beings, and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Institute for Laboratory Animal Research of the National Research Council, which relate to the conduct of ethical research on laboratory and other animals. The peer review of manuscripts by Chronobiology International thus includes judgment as to whether or not the investigative methods conform to the standards of good research practice. This article updates the ethical policies, standards, and procedures for manuscripts submitted to Chronobiology International that involve human and animal biological rhythm research, both from the perspective of the criteria of quality chronobiology investigation and from the perspective of humane and ethical research on human beings and animals. PMID:17190696

  20. Developing an Ethical Basis for Student-Teacher Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wehrwein, Teresa

    1996-01-01

    Nursing faculty must not only teach ethics to prospective nurses but also demonstrate it in relationships with students. Principles for ethical educational practice include mutual respect, open communication, boundary setting, consistent behaviors, and personal values. (SK)