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Sample records for medical knowledge lead

  1. Medical Knowledge Bases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Randolph A.; Giuse, Nunzia B.

    1991-01-01

    Few commonly available, successful computer-based tools exist in medical informatics. Faculty expertise can be included in computer-based medical information systems. Computers allow dynamic recombination of knowledge to answer questions unanswerable with print textbooks. Such systems can also create stronger ties between academic and clinical…

  2. Recognizing new medical knowledge computationally.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, S. J.; Cole, W. G.; Tuttle, M. S.; Olson, N. E.; Sherertz, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    Can new medical knowledge be recognized computationally? We know knowledge is changing, and our knowledge-based systems will need to accommodate that change in knowledge on a regular basis if they are to stay successful. Computational recognition of these changes seems desirable. It is unlikely that low level objects in the computational universe, bits and characters, will change much over time, higher level objects of language, where meaning begins to emerge, may show change. An analysis of ten arbitrarily selected paragraphs from the Medical Knowledge Self-Assessment Program of the American College of Physicians was used as a test bed for nominal phrase recognition. While there were words not known to Meta-1.2, only 8 of the 32 concepts new to the primary author were pointed to by new words. Use of a barrier word method was successful in identifying 23 of the 32 new concepts. Use of co-occurrence (in sentences) of putative nominal phrases may reduce the amount of human effort involved in recognizing the emergence of new relationships. PMID:8130505

  3. Architecture and Workflow of Medical Knowledge Repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyunsook; Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Insook

    Recently, clinical field builds various forms of computerized medical knowledge and tries to use it efficiently. In general, to build and reuse knowledge easily, it is needed to build a knowledge repository. Especially, the credibility of knowledge is important in clinical domain. This paper proposes methods for supporting it. To perform it systematically, we propose the method of the knowledge management processes. The methods for knowledge management can serve equal quality, usability and credibility of knowledge. Knowledge management methods consist of 2 methods. They are the knowledge management processes and the specification of the management targets. And this paper proposes the requirement of a knowledge repository and the architecture of the knowledge repository.

  4. Knowledge of medical ethics among Nigerian medical doctors

    PubMed Central

    Fadare, Joseph O.; Desalu, Olufemi O.; Jemilohun, Abiodun C.; Babatunde, Oluwole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The knowledge of medical ethics is essential for health care practitioners worldwide. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of medical doctors in a tertiary care hospital in Nigeria in the area of medical ethics. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study involving 250 medical doctors of different levels was carried out. The questionnaire, apart from the bio-data, also sought information on undergraduate and postgraduate training in medical ethics, knowledge about the principles of biomedical ethics and the ethical dilemmas encountered in daily medical practice. Results: One hundred and ninety (190) respondents returned the filled questionnaire representing a response rate of 76%. One hundred and fifty-two respondents (80%) have had some sort of medical ethics education during their undergraduate level in the medical education. The median duration of formal training or exposure to medical ethics education was 3.00 hours (range: 0-15). One hundred and twenty-nine respondents have read at least once the code of medical ethics of the Medical and Dental Council of Nigeria while 127 (66.8%) have some general knowledge of the principles of biomedical ethics. The breakdown of the identified ethical dilemmas shows that discharge against medical advice was the most identified by the respondents (69.3%) followed by religious/cultural issues (56.6%) while confidentiality was recognized by 53.4%. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical ethics by Nigerian medical doctors is grossly inadequate. There is an urgent need for enhancement of the teaching of the discipline at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels in Nigeria. PMID:23661883

  5. Recognizing tacit knowledge in medical epistemology.

    PubMed

    Henry, Stephen G

    2006-01-01

    The evidence-based medicine movement advocates basing all medical decisions on certain types of quantitative research data and has stimulated protracted controversy and debate since its inception. Evidence-based medicine presupposes an inaccurate and deficient view of medical knowledge. Michael Polanyi's theory of tacit knowledge both explains this deficiency and suggests remedies for it. Polanyi shows how all explicit human knowledge depends on a wealth of tacit knowledge which accrues from experience and is essential for problem solving. Edmund Pellegrino's classic treatment of clinical judgment is examined, and a Polanyian critique of this position demonstrates that tacit knowledge is necessary for understanding how clinical judgment and medical decisions involve persons. An adequate medical epistemology requires much more qualitative research relevant to the clinical encounter and medical decision making than is currently being done. This research is necessary for preventing an uncritical application of evidence-based medicine by health care managers that erodes good clinical practice. Polanyi's epistemology shows the need for this work and provides the structural core for building an adequate and robust medical epistemology that moves beyond evidence-based medicine. PMID:16838198

  6. Knowledge-acquisition tools for medical knowledge-based systems.

    PubMed

    Lanzola, G; Quaglini, S; Stefanelli, M

    1995-03-01

    Knowledge-based systems (KBS) have been proposed to solve a large variety of medical problems. A strategic issue for KBS development and maintenance are the efforts required for both knowledge engineers and domain experts. The proposed solution is building efficient knowledge acquisition (KA) tools. This paper presents a set of KA tools we are developing within a European Project called GAMES II. They have been designed after the formulation of an epistemological model of medical reasoning. The main goal is that of developing a computational framework which allows knowledge engineers and domain experts to interact cooperatively in developing a medical KBS. To this aim, a set of reusable software components is highly recommended. Their design was facilitated by the development of a methodology for KBS construction. It views this process as comprising two activities: the tailoring of the epistemological model to the specific medical task to be executed and the subsequent translation of this model into a computational architecture so that the connections between computational structures and their knowledge level counterparts are maintained. The KA tools we developed are illustrated taking examples from the behavior of a KBS we are building for the management of children with acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:9082135

  7. Knowledge Management within the Medical University.

    PubMed

    Rauzina, Svetlana Ye; Tikhonova, Tatiana A; Karpenko, Dmitriy S; Bogopolskiy, Gennady A; Zarubina, Tatiana V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the work is studying the possibilities of ontological engineering in managing of medical knowledge. And also practical implementation of knowledge management system (KMS) in medical university. The educational process model is established that allows analyzing learning results within time scale. Glossary sub-system has been developed; ontologies of educational disciplines are constructed; environment for setup and solution of situational cases is established; ontological approach to assess competencies is developed. The possibilities of the system for solving situation tasks have been described. The approach to the evaluation of competence has been developed. PMID:26152966

  8. Knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Latif, Mohamed M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medication errors are the most common types of medical errors in hospitals and leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients. Aims: The aim of the present study was to assess the knowledge of healthcare professionals about medication errors in hospitals. Settings and Design: A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to randomly selected healthcare professionals in eight hospitals in Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Subjects and Methods: An 18-item survey was designed and comprised questions on demographic data, knowledge of medication errors, availability of reporting systems in hospitals, attitudes toward error reporting, causes of medication errors. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software Version 17. Results: A total of 323 of healthcare professionals completed the questionnaire with 64.6% response rate of 138 (42.72%) physicians, 34 (10.53%) pharmacists, and 151 (46.75%) nurses. A majority of the participants had a good knowledge about medication errors concept and their dangers on patients. Only 68.7% of them were aware of reporting systems in hospitals. Healthcare professionals revealed that there was no clear mechanism available for reporting of errors in most hospitals. Prescribing (46.5%) and administration (29%) errors were the main causes of errors. The most frequently encountered medication errors were anti-hypertensives, antidiabetics, antibiotics, digoxin, and insulin. Conclusions: This study revealed differences in the awareness among healthcare professionals toward medication errors in hospitals. The poor knowledge about medication errors emphasized the urgent necessity to adopt appropriate measures to raise awareness about medication errors in Saudi hospitals. PMID:27330261

  9. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, R.T. II )

    1990-11-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

  10. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: a medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, R T

    1990-01-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources: food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models. PMID:2088759

  11. [Steri's graffiti of Palermo and medical knowledges].

    PubMed

    Malta, Renato; Salerno, Alfredo

    2007-01-01

    The graffiti left by prisoners in the Inquisition gaols of Palermo's represent a testimony of the historical period between 1600 to 1793. In that period, by order of the viceroy Caracciolo, all the testimonies were removed at the same time in which the Inquisition court was suppressed. In this work the historical subdivision between sacred and profane themes is analyzed with the purpose to study human body in an anthropological key as a language in condition of limited freedom and under torture. Many of the profane graffiti are devoted to medical knowledge suggesting that doctors were involved in the activities of this religious court likewise happened in civil courts. Giovanni Filippo Ingrassia, the well-known proto-medical physician of the kingdom, in his treatise, wrote in 1578 and entitled Methodus dandi relationes ... reports many examples of the role of medical doctors in attesting fitness to torture of inquired people or the necessity of graduating torture when they were hill or in a morbid conditions. PMID:18450037

  12. Things to come: postmodern digital knowledge management and medical informatics.

    PubMed Central

    Matheson, N W

    1995-01-01

    The overarching informatics grand challenge facing society is the creation of knowledge management systems that can acquire, conserve, organize, retrieve, display, and distribute what is known today in a manner that informs and educates, facilitates the discovery and creation of new knowledge, and contributes to the health and welfare of the planet. At one time the private, national, and university libraries of the world collectively constituted the memory of society's intellectual history. In the future, these new digital knowledge management systems will constitute human memory in its entirety. The current model of multiple local collections of duplicated resources will give way to specialized sole-source servers. In this new environment all scholarly scientific knowledge should be public domain knowledge: managed by scientists, organized for the advancement of knowledge, and readily available to all. Over the next decade, the challenge for the field of medical informatics and for the libraries that serve as the continuous memory for the biomedical sciences will be to come together to form a new organization that will lead to the development of postmodern digital knowledge management systems for medicine. These systems will form a portion of the evolving world brain of the 21st century. PMID:7743318

  13. Handling of medical knowledge in sport: Athletes' medical opinions, information seeking behaviours and knowledge sources.

    PubMed

    Gerbing, Kim-Kristin; Thiel, Ansgar

    2016-01-01

    Medical care in sport comprises a variety of treatments, from scientifically proven biomedicine to complementary and alternative medicine. Information and knowledge about these diverse treatment options is spread by different sources. Thus, athletes encounter information of varying content, quality and background. This exploratory pilot study addresses athletes' medical opinions, their health-related information seeking behaviour and the knowledge sources they utilise. Questionnaires were used to examine n = 110 German athletes (n(male) = 69, n(female) = 41; mean(age) = 24.28 ± 4.97 years) at high performance levels (national team and/or European championship and/or World championship n = 22; first national league and/or German championship n = 51, second national league and/or State championship n = 37) from various Olympic sports. A cluster analysis regarding the athletes' attitudes towards sport medicine exhibited four different types of athletes: 'the autonomous athlete', 'the open-minded athlete', 'the functionalistic athlete' and 'the conservative athlete'. In general, our findings show that the most used and trusted information sources are physicians and physiotherapists. However, medical information is trusted the most if it is experience- and field-tested, and comes from the athletes' sport-specific network. Our findings also suggest that professional medical knowledge management in competitive sport is needed. PMID:25563758

  14. Medical Teachers Conceptualize a Distinctive Form of Clinical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, J.; Yates, L.; McColl, G.

    2015-01-01

    For over four decades, there have been efforts to specify the types of knowledge that medical students need, how that knowledge is acquired and how its constituent parts are related. It is one of the areas of continuing concern underlying medical education reform. Despite their importance to medical students' learning and development, the…

  15. SW Architecture for Access to Medical Information for Knowledge Execution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suntae; Shim, Bingu; Kim, Jeong Ah; Cho, Insook

    Recently, many approaches have been studied to author medical knowledge and verify doctor's diagnosis based on the specified knowledge. During the verification, intensive access to medical information is unavoidable. Also, the access approach should consider modifiability in order to cover diverse medical information from the variety of hospitals. This paper presents an approach to generating query language from medical knowledge, and shows software architecture for accessing medical information from hospitals by executing generated query languages. Implementation of this architecture has been deployed in a hospital of South Korea so that it shows the feasibility of the architecture.

  16. Internal Medicine Residents Do Not Accurately Assess Their Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Roger; Panda, Mukta; Desbiens, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Background: Medical knowledge is essential for appropriate patient care; however, the accuracy of internal medicine (IM) residents' assessment of their medical knowledge is unknown. Methods: IM residents predicted their overall percentile performance 1 week (on average) before and after taking the in-training exam (ITE), an objective and well…

  17. Medical teachers conceptualize a distinctive form of clinical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Barrett, J; Yates, L; McColl, G

    2015-05-01

    For over four decades, there have been efforts to specify the types of knowledge that medical students need, how that knowledge is acquired and how its constituent parts are related. It is one of the areas of continuing concern underlying medical education reform. Despite their importance to medical students' learning and development, the perspectives of medical teachers in hospitals are not always considered in such discourse. This study sought to generate an understanding of these teachers' values, perspectives and approaches by listening to them and seeing them in their everyday teaching work, finding and understanding the meanings they bring to the work of medical teaching in hospitals. In interviews, all of the teachers talked more about the optimal forms of knowledge that are important for students than they talked about the form of the teaching itself. Many revealed to students what knowledge they do and do not value. They had a particular way of thinking about clinical knowledge as existing in the people and the places in which the teaching and the clinical practice happen, and represented this as 'real' knowledge. By implication, there is other knowledge in medical education or in students' heads that is not real and needs to be transformed. Their values, practices and passions add texture and vitality to existing ways of thinking about the characteristics of clinical knowledge, how it is depicted in the discourse and the curriculum and how it is more dynamically related to other knowledge than is suggested in traditional conceptualizations of knowledge relationships. PMID:25052431

  18. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  19. Medical students and interns’ knowledge about and attitude towards homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Banwari, G; Mistry, K; Soni, A; Parikh, N; Gandhi, H

    2015-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Medical professionals’ attitude towards homosexuals affects health care offered to such patients with a different sexual orientation. There is absence of literature that explores the attitudes of Indian medical students or physicians towards homosexuality. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate Indian medical students and interns’ knowledge about homosexuality and attitude towards homosexuals. Materials and Methods: After IEC approval and written informed consent, a cross-sectional study was conducted on a purposive sample of undergraduate medical students and interns studying in one Indian medical college. The response rate was 80.5%. Only completely and validly filled responses (N = 244) were analyzed. The participants filled the Sex Education and Knowledge about Homosexuality Questionnaire (SEKHQ) and the Attitudes towards Homosexuals Questionnaire (AHQ). SEKHQ consisted of 32 statements with response chosen from ‘true’, ‘false’, or ‘don’t know’. AHQ consisted of 20 statements scorable on a 5-point Likert scale. Multiple linear regression was used to find the predictors of knowledge and attitude. Results: Medical students and interns had inadequate knowledge about homosexuality, although they endorsed a neutral stance insofar as their attitude towards homosexuals is concerned. Females had more positive attitudes towards homosexuals. Knowledge emerged as the most significant predictor of attitude; those having higher knowledge had more positive attitudes. Conclusion: Enhancing knowledge of medical students by incorporation of homosexuality related health issues in the curriculum could help reduce prejudice towards the sexual minority and thus impact their future clinical practice. PMID:25766341

  20. Polymer Coats Leads on Implantable Medical Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Langley Research Center s Soluble Imide (LaRC-SI) was discovered by accident. While researching resins and adhesives for advanced composites for high-speed aircraft, Robert Bryant, a Langley engineer, noticed that one of the polymers he was working with did not behave as predicted. After putting the compound through a two-stage controlled chemical reaction, expecting it to precipitate as a powder after the second stage, he was surprised to see that the compound remained soluble. This novel characteristic ended up making this polymer a very significant finding, eventually leading Bryant and his team to win several NASA technology awards, and an "R&D 100" award. The unique feature of this compound is the way that it lends itself to easy processing. Most polyimides (members of a group of remarkably strong and incredibly heat- and chemical-resistant polymers) require complex curing cycles before they are usable. LaRC-SI remains soluble in its final form, so no further chemical processing is required to produce final materials, like thin films and varnishes. Since producing LaRC-SI does not require complex manufacturing techniques, it has been processed into useful forms for a variety of applications, including mechanical parts, magnetic components, ceramics, adhesives, composites, flexible circuits, multilayer printed circuits, and coatings on fiber optics, wires, and metals. Bryant s team was, at the time, heavily involved with the aircraft polymer project and could not afford to further develop the polymer resin. Believing it was worth further exploration, though, he developed a plan for funding development and submitted it to Langley s chief scientist, who endorsed the experimentation. Bryant then left the high-speed civil transport project to develop LaRC-SI. The result is an extremely tough, lightweight thermoplastic that is not only solvent-resistant, but also has the ability to withstand temperature ranges from cryogenic levels to above 200 C. The thermoplastic

  1. Segmentation of medical images using explicit anatomical knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Laurie S.; Brown, Stephen; Brown, Matthew S.; Young, Jeanne; Li, Rongxin; Luo, Suhuai; Brandt, Lee

    1999-07-01

    Knowledge-based image segmentation is defined in terms of the separation of image analysis procedures and representation of knowledge. Such architecture is particularly suitable for medical image segmentation, because of the large amount of structured domain knowledge. A general methodology for the application of knowledge-based methods to medical image segmentation is described. This includes frames for knowledge representation, fuzzy logic for anatomical variations, and a strategy for determining the order of segmentation from the modal specification. This method has been applied to three separate problems, 3D thoracic CT, chest X-rays and CT angiography. The application of the same methodology to such a range of applications suggests a major role in medical imaging for segmentation methods incorporating representation of anatomical knowledge.

  2. Computer Assisted Multi-Center Creation of Medical Knowledge Bases

    PubMed Central

    Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Giuse, Dario A.; Miller, Randolph A.

    1988-01-01

    Computer programs which support different aspects of medical care have been developed in recent years. Their capabilities range from diagnosis to medical imaging, and include hospital management systems and therapy prescription. In spite of their diversity these systems have one commonality: their reliance on a large body of medical knowledge in computer-readable form. This knowledge enables such programs to draw inferences, validate hypotheses, and in general to perform their intended task. As has been clear to developers of such systems, however, the creation and maintenance of medical knowledge bases are very expensive. Practical and economical difficulties encountered during this long-term process have discouraged most attempts. This paper discusses knowledge base creation and maintenance, with special emphasis on medical applications. We first describe the methods currently used and their limitations. We then present our recent work on developing tools and methodologies which will assist in the process of creating a medical knowledge base. We focus, in particular, on the possibility of multi-center creation of the knowledge base.

  3. Knowledge and practice of blood donation: a comparison between medical and non-medical Nepalese students.

    PubMed

    Mamatya, A; Prajapati, R; Yadav, R

    2012-12-01

    College students form a large and important group of population eligible for blood donation. Studies report that students do not donate much, and medical students' blood donation rate is less as compared to non-medical students. To assess and compare the knowledge, attitude, and practice of blood donation among medical and non-medical Nepalese students. A cross-sectional descriptive study using structured self-administered questionnaire was conducted in students of medical (MBBS) and non-medical programs of different colleges of Nepal. Total 456 students, 177 non-medical and 279 medical, participated; 28.5% students were donors. More medical students donated blood, more often, and were more knowledgeable in all aspects of blood and blood donation related knowledge (p values 0.01 or less). In both groups, proportionately more boys donated than girls. Common reasons for not donating included no request, medically unfit, no information about blood collection services, fear of weakness, and fear related to venepuncture. Moral satisfaction was the commonest reason to donate. Among Nepalese students, medical students donate more and are more knowledgeable than non-medical students. Lack of information and lack of direct requests are important causes of fewer donors in the non-medical group and girls. PMID:24579535

  4. Data and knowledge in medical distributed applications.

    PubMed

    Serban, Alexandru; Crişan-Vida, Mihaela; Stoicu-Tivadar, Lăcrămioara

    2014-01-01

    Building a clinical decision support system (CDSS) capable to collect process and diagnose data from the patients automatically, based on information, symptoms and investigations is one of the current challenges for researchers and medical science. The purpose of the current study is to design a cloud-based CDSS to improve patient safety, quality of care and organizational efficiency. It presents the design of a cloud-based application system using a medical based approach, which covers different diseases to diagnosis, differentiated on most important pathologies. Using online questionnaires, traditional and new data will be collected from patients. After data input, the application will formulate a presumptive diagnosis and will direct patients to the correspondent department. A questionnaire will dynamically ask questions about the interface, and functionality improvements. Based on the answers, the functionality of the system and the user interface will be improved considering the real needs expressed by the end-users. The cloud-based CDSS, as a useful tool for patients, physicians and healthcare providers involves the computer support in the diagnosis of different pathologies and an accurate automatic differential diagnostic system. PMID:24743075

  5. Medical Students' Knowledge about Alcohol and Drug Problems: Results of the Medical Council of Canada Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, Meldon; Midmer, Deana; Wilson, Lynn; Borsoi, Diane

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine knowledge of a national sample of medical students about substance withdrawal, screening and early intervention, medical and psychiatric complications of addiction, and treatment options. Methods: Based on learning objectives developed by medical faculty, twenty-two questions on addictions were included in the 1998 Canadian…

  6. A specialized framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems.

    PubMed Central

    Lanzola, G.; Stefanelli, M.

    1991-01-01

    To have a knowledge based system (KBS) exhibiting an intelligent behavior, it must be endowed even with knowledge able to represent the expert's strategies, other than with domain knowledge. The elicitation task is inherently difficult for strategic knowledge, because strategy is often tacit, and, even when it has been made explicit, it is not an easy task to describe it in a form that may be directly translated and implemented into a program. This paper describes a Specialized Framework for Medical Diagnostic Knowledge Based Systems able to help an expert in the process of building KBSs in a medical domain. The framework is based on an epistemological model of diagnostic reasoning which has proved to be helpful in describing the diagnostic process in terms of the tasks by which it is composed of. PMID:1807566

  7. Case-Based Tutoring from a Medical Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Homer L.

    1988-01-01

    The past decade has seen the emergence of programs that make use of large knowledge bases to assist physicians in diagnosis within the general field of internal medicine. One such program, Internist-I, contains knowledge about over 600 diseases, covering a significant proportion of internal medicine. This paper describes the process of converting a subset of this knowledge base--in the area of cardiovascular diseases--into a probabilistic format, and the use of this resulting knowledge base to teach medical diagnostic knowledge. The system (called KBSimulator--for Knowledge-Based patient Simulator) generates simulated patient cases and uses these cases as a focal point from which to teach medical knowledge. It interacts with the student in a mixed-initiative fashion, presenting patients for the student to diagnose, and allowing the student to obtain further information on his/her own initiative in the context of that patient case. The system scores the student, and uses these scores to form a rudimentary model of the student. This resulting model of the student is then used to direct the generation of subsequent patient cases. This project demonstrates the feasibility of building an intelligent, flexible instructional system that uses a knowledge base constructed primarily for medical diagnosis.

  8. Medical graduates' knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Nicole; Vujovic, Olga; Dendle, Claire; McMenamin, Christine

    2014-02-01

    A survey of medical graduates commencing employment as junior doctors was performed to investigate knowledge of bloodborne viruses and occupational exposure management, coupled with their experience of occupational exposures. There was a mismatch between general knowledge (excellent) and knowledge of postexposure management (poor), and graduates had commonly experienced an occupational exposure and not reported it. The knowledge deficit regarding postexposure management and history of poor practice (ie, nonreporting) following an exposure implies that the transition period from student to junior doctor may be associated with increased occupational health and safety risk. PMID:24360355

  9. Medical Expert Systems—Knowledge Tools for Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, Edward H.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence have led to the emergence of expert systems, computational tools designed to capture and make available the knowledge of experts in a field. Although much of the underlying technology available today is derived from basic research on biomedical advice systems during the 1970s, medical application packages are thus far generally unavailable from the young artificial intelligence industry. Medical expert systems will begin to appear, however, as researchers in medical artificial intelligence continue to make progress in key areas such as knowledge acquisition, model-based reasoning and system integration for clinical environments. It is accordingly important for physicians to understand the current state of such research and the theoretic and logistic barriers that remain before useful systems can be made available. One experimental system, ONCOCIN, provides a glimpse of the kinds of knowledge-based tools that will someday be available to physicians. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:3811349

  10. Hematopoietic toxicity from lead-containing Ayurvedic medications

    PubMed Central

    Kales, Stefanos N.; Christophi, Costas A.; Saper, Robert B.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Background Millions worldwide use Ayurvedic (traditional Indian) medicines. These medications are increasingly associated with lead poisoning, often accompanied by anemia. We compared the relative hematopoietic toxicity of Ayurvedic lead poisoning with a common form of occupational lead poisoning. Material/Methods We retrospectively studied 66 adult lead intoxications: 43 published Ayurvedic cases identified in published reports by searching MEDLINE (1966 to November 2005); 4 Ayurvedic patients seen at a referral center; and 19 lead paint intoxications from the same center. We considered patients’ age, gender and blood lead at presentation, and then compared the groups with respect to hematopoietic parameters. Results Ayurvedic lead poisoning was associated with higher blood lead (p<0.001), more basophilic stippling (p<0.001), lower hemoglobin (p<0.001) and higher protoporphyrin (p<0.001). Multiple regression adjusted for blood lead and gender found Ayurvedic lead poisoning associated with a 36.2 g/L (95% CI -48.8, -23.6 g/L) greater decrement in hemoglobin (p<0.001) as compared to paint-removal poisoning. Conclusions Ayurvedic poisoning produces greater hematopoietic toxicity than paint-removal poisoning. Ayurvedic ingestion should be considered in patients with anemia. Ayurveda users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal-containing remedies. PMID:17599022

  11. Integrating medical information and knowledge in the HL7 RIM.

    PubMed Central

    Schadow, G.; Russler, D. C.; Mead, C. N.; McDonald, C. J.

    2000-01-01

    Guidelines have a proven ability to improve quality of health care and reduce cost, yet, guidelines are not very well deployed at the point of care. This is largely due to the impedance mismatch between decision support modules and the Electronic Medical Record (EMR.) The Unified Service Action Model (USAM) as part of the HL7's Reference Information Model provides a conceptual integration between patient data and medical knowledge. The USAM defines one action-oriented information structure for patient data, concept definitions, action plans, conditionals, and goals. This suggests a new approach to the problem of sharing data and knowledge, effectively working around the problem of missing domain terminology. PMID:11079987

  12. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  13. KNOWLEDGE OF MEDICAL FACULTY STUDENTS CONCERNING EBOLA IN MALATYA, TURKEY.

    PubMed

    Ozer, Ali; Gokce, Ayse; Seyitoglu, Duygu Celik

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of Inonu University medical faculty students regarding Ebola. This descriptive, cross sectional study was conducted between November and December, 2014 at Inonu University Medical Faculty. After the researchers performed the literature review, a questionnaire comprising 39 questions was prepared, and the students were asked to fill them out. Nine hundred and eighty-four of 1,298 students (75.8%) participated in the study. Seventy-three point seven percent knew that the Ebola virus disease had high fatality rate, 51.9% of them knew that the primary method of infection was contact with the secretions of dead animals and humans, and 55.2% knew that it was transmitted via the blood of infected animals. The rate of knowing that there was no specific vaccination was 62.1%, while the knowledge that there was no specific treatment was 45.3%; 80.4% knew that all the people entering the patient's room had to wear gloves and liquid-resistant aprons, and 77.3% knew that the number of the staff caring for the patient must be reduced to the minimum level. Three knowledge points were calculated in the study: 'Knowledge Points on Ebola Virus Disease Factor Properties and the Methods of Infection,' 'Ebola Virus Disease Symptom Knowledge Points,' and 'Ebola Virus Disease Protection Knowledge Points.' In terms of these knowledge points, the knowledge levels of the students between the classes were significantly different. PMID:27405125

  14. Effective domain-dependent reuse in medical knowledge bases.

    PubMed

    Dojat, M; Pachet, F

    1995-12-01

    Knowledge reuse is now a critical issue for most developers of medical knowledge-based systems. As a rule, reuse is addressed from an ambitious, knowledge-engineering perspective that focuses on reusable general purpose knowledge modules, concepts, and methods. However, such a general goal fails to take into account the specific aspects of medical practice. From the point of view of the knowledge engineer, whose goal is to capture the specific features and intricacies of a given domain, this approach addresses the wrong level of generality. In this paper, we adopt a more pragmatic viewpoint, introducing the less ambitious goal of "domain-dependent limited reuse" and suggesting effective means of achieving it in practice. In a knowledge representation framework combining objects and production rules, we propose three mechanisms emerging from the combination of object-oriented programming and rule-based programming. We show these mechanisms contribute to achieve limited reuse and to introduce useful limited variations in medical expertise. PMID:8770532

  15. Pharmacotherapeutics knowledge of some nonemergency and emergency conditions among medical undergraduates in an Indian medical college

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sarfaraz Alam; Siddiqui, Nazeem Ishrat

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess pharmacotherapeutics (PT) knowledge of second professional medical undergraduates. Materials and Methods: It is a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was designed to objectively assess the current level of knowledge of PT acquired by the second MBBS students in a medical college in India. Thirty Type-A multiple choice questions (MCQs) related with the PT of common and important medical conditions and some emergency conditions were administered to 125 participants. Grading of knowledge was also done as poor, average, and good both subjectively and objectively. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze responses. Association of PT knowledge with respect to mode of admission in a medical college was analyzed with Chi-square test. Results: MCQs related with PT of nonemergency conditions were responded correctly by 9.8–77.7% of participants. MCQs related with PT of some emergency conditions were responded correctly by 17–66.1% of participants. No statistically significant association was observed in PT knowledge with respect to mode of admission. Conclusion: Gross deficiency in the PT knowledge can potentially and adversely affect future rational prescribing skills. PT knowledge about common medical conditions should be emphasized during undergraduate training program. PMID:27298493

  16. Interdisciplinary workshop in the philosophy of medicine: medical knowledge, medical duties

    PubMed Central

    Kingma, Elselijn

    2014-01-01

    Abstract On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1‐day workshop on ‘Medical knowledge, Medical Duties’. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high‐quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed. PMID:25470528

  17. Interdisciplinary workshop in the philosophy of medicine: medical knowledge, medical duties.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Emma; Kingma, Elselijn

    2014-12-01

    On 27 September 2013, the Centre for the Humanities and Health (CHH) at King's College London hosted a 1-day workshop on 'Medical knowledge, Medical Duties'. This workshop was the fifth in a series of five workshops whose aim is to provide a new model for high-quality, open interdisciplinary engagement between medical professionals and philosophers. This report identifies the key points of discussion raised throughout the day and the methodology employed. PMID:25470528

  18. Medical data mining: knowledge discovery in a clinical data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Prather, J C; Lobach, D F; Goodwin, L K; Hales, J W; Hage, M L; Hammond, W E

    1997-01-01

    Clinical databases have accumulated large quantities of information about patients and their medical conditions. Relationships and patterns within this data could provide new medical knowledge. Unfortunately, few methodologies have been developed and applied to discover this hidden knowledge. In this study, the techniques of data mining (also known as Knowledge Discovery in Databases) were used to search for relationships in a large clinical database. Specifically, data accumulated on 3,902 obstetrical patients were evaluated for factors potentially contributing to preterm birth using exploratory factor analysis. Three factors were identified by the investigators for further exploration. This paper describes the processes involved in mining a clinical database including data warehousing, data query and cleaning, and data analysis. PMID:9357597

  19. Poor communication on patients’ medication across health care levels leads to potentially harmful medication errors

    PubMed Central

    Frydenberg, Karin; Brekke, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective General practitioners have a key role in updating their patients’ medication. Poor communication regarding patients’ drug use may easily occur when patients cross health care levels. We wanted to explore whether such inadequate communication leads to errors in patients’ medication on admission, during hospital stay, and after discharge, and whether these errors were potentially harmful. Design Exploratory case study of 30 patients. Setting General practices in central Norway and medical ward of Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik, Norway. Subjects 30 patients urgently admitted to the medical ward, and using three or more drugs on admission. Main outcome measures Discrepancies between the patients’ actual drugs taken and what was recorded on admission to hospital, during hospitalization, at discharge, and five weeks after hospital stay. The discrepancies were grouped according to the NCC Merp Index for Categorizing Medication Errors to assess their potential harm. Results The 30 patients used a total of 250 drugs, and 50 medication errors were found, affecting 18 of the patients; 27 errors were potentially harmful, according to NCC Merp Index: 23 in category E, four in category F. Half of the errors originated from an incomplete medication list in the referral letter. Conclusion The majority of the medication errors were made when the patients were admitted to hospital, and a substantial proportion were potentially harmful. The medication list should be reviewed together with the patient on admission, and each patient should carry an updated medication list provided by his or her general practitioner. PMID:23050954

  20. Patient Safety in Medical Education: Students’ Perceptions, Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Nabilou, Bahram; Feizi, Aram; Seyedin, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Patient safety is a new and challenging discipline in the Iranian health care industry. Among the challenges for patient safety improvement, education of medical and paramedical students is intimidating. The present study was designed to assess students’ perceptions of patient safety, and their knowledge and attitudes to patient safety education. This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in 2012 at Urmia University of Medical Sciences, West Azerbaijan province, Iran. 134 students studying medicine, nursing, and midwifery were recruited through census for the study. A questionnaire was used for collecting data, which were then analyzed through SPSS statistical software (version 16.0), using Chi-square test, Spearman correlation coefficient, F and LSD tests. A total of 121 questionnaires were completed, and 50% of the students demonstrated good knowledge about patient safety. The relationships between students’ attitudes to patient safety and years of study, sex and course were significant (0.003, 0.001 and 0.017, respectively). F and LSD tests indicated that regarding the difference between the mean scores of perceptions of patient safety and attitudes to patient safety education, there was a significant difference among medical and nursing/midwifery students. Little knowledge of students regarding patient safety indicates the inefficiency of informal education to fill the gap; therefore, it is recommended to consider patient safety in the curriculums of all medical and paramedical sciences and formulate better policies for patient safety. PMID:26322897

  1. An ontological knowledge framework for adaptive medical workflow.

    PubMed

    Dang, Jiangbo; Hedayati, Amir; Hampel, Ken; Toklu, Candemir

    2008-10-01

    As emerging technologies, semantic Web and SOA (Service-Oriented Architecture) allow BPMS (Business Process Management System) to automate business processes that can be described as services, which in turn can be used to wrap existing enterprise applications. BPMS provides tools and methodologies to compose Web services that can be executed as business processes and monitored by BPM (Business Process Management) consoles. Ontologies are a formal declarative knowledge representation model. It provides a foundation upon which machine understandable knowledge can be obtained, and as a result, it makes machine intelligence possible. Healthcare systems can adopt these technologies to make them ubiquitous, adaptive, and intelligent, and then serve patients better. This paper presents an ontological knowledge framework that covers healthcare domains that a hospital encompasses-from the medical or administrative tasks, to hospital assets, medical insurances, patient records, drugs, and regulations. Therefore, our ontology makes our vision of personalized healthcare possible by capturing all necessary knowledge for a complex personalized healthcare scenario involving patient care, insurance policies, and drug prescriptions, and compliances. For example, our ontology facilitates a workflow management system to allow users, from physicians to administrative assistants, to manage, even create context-aware new medical workflows and execute them on-the-fly. PMID:18602872

  2. Knowledge and awareness of medical doctors, medical students and nurses about dentistry in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyetola, Elijah Olufemi; Oyewole, Taiwo; Adedigba, Micheal; Aregbesola, Stephen Tunde; Umezudike, Kehinde; Adewale, Adedotun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various studies have reported poor awareness and knowledge of dentistry in the Nigerian population. There is, however, paucity of information assessing the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. The present study is aimed at determining the knowledge and awareness of medical doctors/students and nurses about dentistry. Methods Self-administered questionnaires were randomly distributed among medical doctors/students, and nurses of Obafemi Awolowo Teaching Hospitals’ Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information collected using the questionnaire included participants’ biodata, questions evaluating dental awareness, knowledge of systemic and oral health connections as well as referral practices. The data analysis was done with STATA version 11 software. Results A total of 300 questionnaires were randomly distributed among doctors/students and nurses, 206 were returned (response rate of 69%). Of the returned questionnaires, 129(63%) were males and 77(37%) were females. There were 42 medical doctors, 49 nurses and 115 medical students. The mean age of the participants was 26.7 years (SD 5.2). Majority (99.5%) was aware of dental profession, but 92% had never referred patients for dental consultation. One third (31%) of medical doctors believed that Ludwig angina was a cardiac disease. A large proportion of the respondents (61%) see no need for routine dental visit while 27% would want to visit the dentist only when they had a dental complaint. Conclusion Although a large percentage of the participants claimed to be aware of dentistry, our findings revealed low level of knowledge and attitude to Dentistry. Efforts should be made towards closing this knowledge gap to achieve efficient oral health. PMID:27303588

  3. Leading among leaders: the dean in today's medical school.

    PubMed

    Daugherty, R M

    1998-06-01

    The magnitude and pace of change in the health care environment demand that medical schools change. Leading in a time of great change is difficult, and it is ironic that just when stability in leadership is most needed, the average tenure of deans is dropping. Indeed, the path to leadership in academic medicine is strewn with inherent ironies, paradoxes, and idiosyncrasies. For example, few people who become leaders in academic medicine aspire to, plan for, or seek training for leadership, yet leadership skills are essential to meet today's complex institutional demands. Also, most medical school deans were once medical students, and were selected and trained to be assertive, independent physicians, not to collaborate. For faculty, the medical school environment traditionally values individual autonomy and rewards individual achievement, not behavior that supports a larger community interest. Yet today's deans must be skilled at collaborative behavior, since they must have a vision for their schools and find ways to offer direction to the faculty and others to realize that vision. The author offers ideas about leadership and its development, and stresses that good leaders must above all curtail their egos in order to do what is best for their institutions. What a dean does as an individual is not nearly as important as what a dean enables others to do. The author also provides a checklist of dean's characteristics and responsibilities to help deans-to-be understand the job and current deans to think about how to succeed and thrive. He concluded by reiterating that the culture of individual faculty success based on individual entrepreneurism is passé. To operate in the new collaborative culture, today's successful dean must meld persuasion with educational statesmanship, always informed by a vision of how the school can prosper and serve. PMID:9653402

  4. Evaluation of the dentists' knowledge on medical urgency and emergency.

    PubMed

    Stafuzza, Tássia Carina; Carrara, Cleide Felício Carvalho; Oliveira, Fernanda Veronese; Santos, Carlos Ferreira; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating how well dentists understand medical emergency/urgency procedures and issues during dental treatment at a hospital specialized in cleft lip and palate. It comprised a hundred dentists from the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies, University of São Paulo (HRAC/USP), Brazil, from different dental specialties. A questionnaire was applied to evaluate their knowledge of medical emergencies/urgencies from June through September 2011. The questionnaire was anonymous, confidential and constructed with closed questions and either yes-no or multiple-choice responses. Results showed that most professionals (87%) were trained in basic life support (BLS), but only 43% considered themselves capable of providing first aid and performing the necessary maneuvers. Most participants (94%) claimed that they knew the difference between medical urgencies and emergencies, and 69% had BLS training in their undergraduate courses, as opposed to 37%, during their specialization. Some participants (23%) mentioned that they had received knowledge of the subject during extracurricular courses and/or graduate courses (12%). Only 9% had not been educated on the subject; however, all participants showed interest in attending a course in BLS. In regard to assessing training that dentists who attended BLS courses received, 49% were satisfied and 42% were dissatisfied. Results of the present study emphasize that dentists from HRAC/USP have little knowledge about BLS procedures to perform them. Dentists must gain adequate education and training to minimize possible technical, ethical and legal problems associated with dental practice. It is necessary to improve both knowledge and practice in order to become well-qualified practitioners. PMID:25141014

  5. [P.A.I.S., a personal medical information system. A comprehensive medical knowledge base].

    PubMed

    Münch, E

    1994-06-01

    The electronic medical knowledge data base DOPIS is a compliation of knowledge from various special fields of medicine. Using uniform nomenclature, the data are presented on demand as they would be in a book chapter. Concise updates can be performed at low cost. The primary structure of the concept is the division of medical knowledge into data banks on diagnosis, literature, medication and pharmacology, as well as so-called electronic textbooks. All data banks and electronic textbooks are connected associatively. Visual information is obtained via the image data bank connected to the diagnosis data bank and the electronic books. Moreover, DOPIS has an integrated patient findings system, as well as an image processing and archiving system with research values enabling research functions. The diagnosis and literature data banks can be modified by the user or author, or fed with their own data (a so-called Expert System Shell). For authors from special fields working on the project, an extra Medical Electronic Publishing System has been developed and made available for the electronic textbooks. The model for the knowledge data base has been developed in the field of ENT, the programme implemented and initially ENT data have been stored. PMID:8071098

  6. Knowledge of triage in the senior medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOODIAN, HOSSEIN; EGHTESADI, RAZIE; GHAREGHANI, ATEFE; NABEIEI, PARISA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Triage is a response to the problem of overcrowding in Emergency Departments (EDs) and accuracy of decisions made by the triage unit affects the ultimate outcome of EDs. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of triage among last year medical students in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a cross-sectional analytical study whose subjects were all the senior students of medicine (62) in the last year of medicine from January to June 2013 who attended emergency medicine course in the screen room of 2 University Hospitals. This questionnaire was designed in 3 sections including personal data, 15 questions on knowledge of triage and 10 case scenarios for triage decision making and completed by the students. Statistical analysis was performed in SPSS statistical software (version 14) using independent sample t-test, one way ANOVA, and Pearson correlation coefficient (p≤0.001). Results The total mean score of the participants was 10.6±1.5, ranging from 7 to 13. 58(93.5%) students had poor triage knowledge. In the scenario’s section, the percentage of correct triage by students was 49.2% and those of over and under triage were 28.1% and 22.7%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the triage accuracy and level of triage (ESI 4) (p≤0.001). Conclusion The level of knowledge of triage in the last year medical students was poor, although most of them had passed a course in the screen room. It is recommended that medical students’ educational courses should include sections on the knowledge of triage in emergency rooms. PMID:27382582

  7. 'Medical Knowledge' and 'Tradition' of Colonial Korea: Focused on Kudo's "Gynecology"-based Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yang Hee

    2013-08-01

    This article attempts to illuminate the ways in which Kudo's medical knowledge based on 'gynecological science' constructed the cultural 'traditions' of colonial Korea. Kudo appears to have been quite an influential figure in colonial Korea in that his writings on the relationship between women's crime, gynecological science and the Chosŏn society granted a significant amount of intellectual authority. Here, I examine Kudo's position within colonial Korea as a producer and propagator of medical knowledge, and then see how women's bodies were understood according to his gynecological knowledge. It also traces the ways in which Kudo's gynecological knowledge represents Chosŏn society and in turn invents the 'traditions' of Chosŏn. Kudo's knowledge of "gynecology" which had been formed while it traveled the states such as Japan, Germany and France served as an important reference for his representation of colonial Korean society. Kudo was a proponent of biological evolution, particularly the rules of 'atavism' put forth by the criminal anthropologist Cesare Lombroso, and argued that an unique social environment caused 'alteration of sexual urges' and primitive cruelty in Chosŏn women. According to Kudo, The social environment was none other than the practice of 'early marriage,' which went against the physiology of women. To Kudo, 'early marriage' was an old 'tradition' of Chosŏn and the cause of heinous crimes, as well as an unmistakable indicator of both the primitiveness and savageness of Chosŏn. While Lombroso considered personal factors such as stress as the cause of women's crimes, Kudo saw Chosŏn women's crimes as a national characteristic. Moreover, he compared the occurrence rate of husband murders by provinces, based on which he categorized the northern population of Chosŏn as barbaric Manchurian and the southern population as the superior Japanese, a combination of racism and scientific knowledge. Kudo's writings provide an insight into the

  8. Evidence-based medicine and the reconfiguration of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Stefan; Kolker, Emily S

    2004-01-01

    Over the past decade, different parties in the health care field have developed and disseminated clinical practice guidelines as part of evidence-based medicine. These formal tools based on a scientific evaluation of the research literature purport to tell health care professionals how to practice medicine. Because clinical practice guidelines shift the knowledge base in the health care field through standardization, they remain controversial within and outside medicine. In this paper, we evaluate the predictive accuracy of four medical professionalization theories--functionalism, Freidson's theory of professional dominance, deprofessionalization theory, and the theory of countervailing powers--to account for (1) the shift from pathophysiology to epidemiology with guidelines, (2) the creation of practice guidelines, and (3) the effects of clinical practice guidelines on the autonomy of health professionals. In light of the mixed predictive record of professionalization theories, we conclude with a need for "evidence-based sociology" and a recalibration of basic premises underlying professionalization theories. PMID:15779473

  9. Medical Temporal-Knowledge Discovery via Temporal Abstraction

    PubMed Central

    Moskovitch, Robert; Shahar, Yuval

    2009-01-01

    Medical knowledge includes frequently occurring temporal patterns in longitudinal patient records. These patterns are not easily detectable by human clinicians. Current knowledge could be extended by automated temporal data mining. However, multivariate time-oriented data are often present at various levels of abstraction and at multiple temporal granularities, requiring a transformation into a more abstract, yet uniform dimension suitable for mining. Temporal abstraction (of both the time and value dimensions) can transform multiple types of point-based data into a meaningful, time-interval-based data representation, in which significant, interval-based temporal patterns can be discovered. We introduce a modular, fast time-interval mining method, KarmaLego, which exploits the transitivity inherent in temporal relations. We demonstrate the usefulness of KarmaLego in finding meaningful temporal patterns within a set of records of diabetic patients; several patterns seem to have a different frequency depending on gender. We also suggest additional uses of the discovered patterns for temporal clustering of the mined population and for classifying multivariate time series. PMID:20351898

  10. Cross-Hierarchy Representation of Medical Knowledge as Applied in Antibiotic Medication Counseling and Side Effect Information

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Michio; Shimizu, Kihachiro; Tsuchiya, Fumito; Tsuchiya, Itsuko; Koyama, Teruo; Kaihara, Shigekoto; Yashiro, Naobumi; Iio, Masahiro

    1987-01-01

    Two kinds of knowledge, i.e. declarative knowledge and procedural knowledge, should be represented and used in applied Al system in medicine. The authors constructed a knowledge representation form which is suitable for the description of declarative knowledge. Basic classifications can be represented in a form of hierarchy. The authors introduced description of relations between hierarchies(cross-hierarchy representation) instead of former 2-dimensional tabular descriptions. The authors applied this form of knowledge representation to an antibiotics medication counseling system called ANTICIPATOR. In this paper, this knowledge representation form is described with examples of application to antibiotic medication selection recommendation and side effect information retrieval, followed by discussions of how adopting this representation form is important and convenient in describing medical knowledge.

  11. Self-monitoring and its relationship to medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Meghan M; Regehr, Glenn; Wood, Timothy J; Eva, Kevin W

    2012-08-01

    In the domain of self-assessment, researchers have begun to draw distinctions between summative self-assessment activities (i.e., making an overall judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring processes (i.e., an "in the moment" awareness of whether one has the necessary knowledge or skills to address a specific problem with which one is faced). Indeed, previous research has shown that, when responding to both short answer and multiple choice questions, individuals are able to assess the likelihood of answering questions correctly on a moment-by-moment basis, even though they are not able to generate an accurate self-assessment of overall performance on the test. These studies, however, were conducted in the context of low-stakes tests of general "trivia". The purpose of the present study was to further this line of research by investigating the relationship between self-monitoring and performance in the context of a high stakes test assessing medical knowledge. Using a recent administration of the Medical Council of Canada Qualifying Examination Part I, we examined three measures intended to capture self-monitoring: (1) the time taken to respond to each question, (2) the number of questions a candidate flagged as needing to be considered further, and (3) the likelihood of changing one's initial answer. Differences in these measures as a function of the accuracy of the candidate's response were treated as indices of each candidate's ability to judge his or her likelihood of responding correctly. The three self-monitoring indices were compared for candidates at three different levels of overall performance on the exam. Relative to correct responses, when examinees initially responded incorrectly, they spent more time answering the question, were more likely to flag the question for future consideration, and were more likely to change their answer before committing to a final answer. These measures of self-monitoring were modulated by

  12. Knowledge and awareness about breast cancer and its early symptoms among medical and non-medical students of Southern Punjab, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Noreen, Mamoona; Murad, Sheeba; Furqan, Muhammad; Sultan, Aneesa; Bloodsworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally but has an even more significant impact in developing countries. Pakistan has the highest prevalence among Asian countries. A general lack of public awareness regarding the disease often results in late diagnosis and poor treatment outcomes. The literacy rate of the Southern Punjab (Pakistan) is low compared to its Northern part. It is therefore vital that university students and especially medical students develop a sound knowledge about the disease so that they can spread awareness to others who may be less educated. This study therefore considers current knowledge and understanding about the early signs of breast cancer amongst a study group of medical and non-medical university students of the Southern Punjab, Pakistan. A cross-sectional descriptive analysis of the university students was carried out using a self-administered questionnaire to assess their awareness of breast cancer from March to May 2014. A total of 566 students participated in this study, out of which 326 were non-medical and 240 were from a medical discipline. Statistical analysis was carried out using Graph Pad Prism Version 5 with a significance level set at p<0.05. The mean age of the non medical and medical participants was 23 (SD 2.1) and 22 (SD 1.3) years, respectively. Less than 35% students were aware of the early warning signs of the breast cancer development. Knowledge of medical students about risk factors was significantly better than the non medical ones, but on the whole was insufficient. Our study indicated that knowledge regarding breast cancer was generally insufficient amongst the majority of the university students (75% non-medical and 55% medical) of Southern Punjab, Pakistan. This study highlights the need to formulate an awareness campaign and to organize conferences to promote breast cancer awareness among students in this region. PMID:25735392

  13. New Medical Technology: To What Does It Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enerstvedt, Regi Theodor

    1999-01-01

    Addresses issues of advances in medical technology as related to deafness, including different meanings of the term "medical technology" and the relationship between ethics and the scientific method, production and use of the cochlear implant, and sign language versus aural/aural-communication methods with prelingually deafened children who have a…

  14. [Medical doctors driving technological innovation: questions about and innovation management approaches to incentive structures for lead users].

    PubMed

    Bohnet-Joschko, Sabine; Kientzler, Fionn

    2010-01-01

    Management science defines user-generated innovations as open innovation and lead user innovation. The medical technology industry finds user-generated innovations profitable and even indispensable. Innovative medical doctors as lead users need medical technology innovations in order to improve patient care. Their motivation to innovate is mostly intrinsic. But innovations may also involve extrinsic motivators such as gain in reputation or monetary incentives. Medical doctors' innovative activities often take place in hospitals and are thus embedded into the hospital's organisational setting. Hospitals find it difficult to gain short-term profits from in-house generated innovations and sometimes hesitate to support them. Strategic investment in medical doctors' innovative activities may be profitable for hospitals in the long run if innovations provide first-mover competitive advantages. Industry co-operations with innovative medical doctors offer chances but also bear potential risks. Innovative ideas generated by expert users may result in even higher complexity of medical devices; this could cause mistakes when applied by less specialised users and thus affect patient safety. Innovations that yield benefits for patients, medical doctors, hospitals and the medical technology industry can be advanced by offering adequate support for knowledge transfer and co-operation models. PMID:21147434

  15. A clinical trial of a knowledge-based medical record.

    PubMed

    Safran, C; Rind, D M; Davis, R B; Sands, D Z; Caraballo, E; Rippel, K; Wang, Q; Rury, C; Makadon, H J; Cotton, D J

    1995-01-01

    To meet the needs of primary care physicians caring for patients with HIV infection, we developed a knowledge-based medical record to allow the on-line patient record to play an active role in the care process. These programs integrate the on-line patient record, rule-based decision support, and full-text information retrieval into a clinical workstation for the practicing clinician. To determine whether use of a knowledge-based medical record was associated with more rapid and complete adherence to practice guidelines and improved quality of care, we performed a controlled clinical trial among physicians and nurse practitioners caring for 349 patients infected with the human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV); 191 patients were treated by 65 physicians and nurse practitioners assigned to the intervention group, and 158 patients were treated by 61 physicians and nurse practitioners assigned to the control group. During the 18-month study period, the computer generated 303 alerts in the intervention group and 388 in the control group. The median response time of clinicians to these alerts was 11 days in the intervention group and 52 days in the control group (PJJ0.0001, log-rank test). During the study, the computer generated 432 primary care reminders for the intervention group and 360 reminders for the control group. The median response time of clinicians to these alerts was 114 days in the intervention group and more than 500 days in the control group (PJJ0.0001, log-rank test). Of the 191 patients in the intervention group, 67 (35%) had one or more hospitalizations, compared with 70 (44%) of the 158 patients in the control group (PJ=J0.04, Wilcoxon test stratified for initial CD4 count). There was no difference in survival between the intervention and control groups (P = 0.18, log-rank test). We conclude that our clinical workstation significantly changed physicians' behavior in terms of their response to alerts regarding primary care interventions and that these

  16. Persistent threat of lead: medical and sociological issues

    SciTech Connect

    Needleman, H.L.

    1988-12-01

    Lead exposure is an ancient malady. Its history serves as a useful paradigm through which to understand many other pollutants that our technological society has inserted into the human environment and may guide preventive steps for other agents. Lead poisoning was first recognized in workers exposed to high doses. The discovery of childhood toxicity occurred a century ago in Australia, when children with striking symptoms of paralysis, ophthalmoplegia, or meningitis were found to be highly lead exposed. Encephalopathy generally occurs at blood lead levels of 80 micrograms/dL or more, but unequivocal brain damage has been demonstrated at doses well below this level. At lower doses, the neurocognitive effects of lead are expressed as diminished psychometric intelligence, attention deficits, conduct problems, alterations in the electroencephalogram, school failure, and increased referral rates for special needs. Careful epidemiologic studies, which have controlled for the important confounders, have set the effect level at 10-15 micrograms/dL. Elegant animal studies in which confounding is not an issue have confirmed these findings. Although blood lead levels in the population have dropped over time for a number of reasons, there are some 3-4 million American children with blood lead levels of more than 15 micrograms/dL. Biochemical and functional changes have been demonstrated in the heme biosynthetic pathway and in the renal, cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, and nervous systems. The threshold for effect depends on the sensitivity of the methods used. A no-effect level has not been found. Further, this is not a disease of the poor alone. But the poor are exposed to much more lead than are the more economically favored. Deficiencies in body calcium, zinc, iron, and protein stores are associated with increased uptake. Optimizing nutrition enhances the resistance to lead. 110 references.

  17. The paradox prescription: leading the medical group of the future.

    PubMed

    Blair, J D; Payne, G T

    2000-01-01

    Leaders of health care organizations must constantly deal with paradox in and around their organizations. The paradox profile is a modeling technique for examining how organizations prioritize their dealings with the eight competing issues from which the four paradoxes are derived. This article demonstrates the leadership challenges that exist when a paradox is present and how these tensions differ when the integrative status of the medical group--as either part of an integrated system or not--is considered. PMID:10710728

  18. An integrated system to represent and manage medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fiore, M; Sicurello, F; Indorato, G

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an integrated system in Prolog that permits the creation of a personal Knowledge Base to express and formalize specialist knowledge in medicine. Formalisms used are production rules and frames. The integrated system is able to manage data and knowledge stored in a database built in M Technology (MUMPS). PMID:8591590

  19. Using a Quasi-Experimental Research Design to Assess Knowledge in Continuing Medical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markert, Ronald J.; O'Neill, Sally C.; Bhatia, Subhash C.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of continuing medical education (CME) programs include knowledge acquisition, skill development, clinical reasoning and decision making, and health care outcomes. We conducted a yearlong medical education research study in which knowledge acquisition in our CME programs was assessed. Method: A randomized…

  20. Medicalization in psychiatry: the medical model, descriptive diagnosis, and lost knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sedler, Mark J

    2016-06-01

    Medicalization was the theme of the 29th European Conference on Philosophy of Medicine and Health Care that included a panel session on the DSM and mental health. Philosophical critiques of the medical model in psychiatry suffer from endemic assumptions that fail to acknowledge the real world challenges of psychiatric nosology. The descriptive model of classification of the DSM 3-5 serves a valid purpose in the absence of known etiologies for the majority of psychiatric conditions. However, a consequence of the "atheoretical" approach of the DSM is rampant epistemological confusion, a shortcoming that can be ameliorated by importing perspectives from the work of Jaspers and McHugh. Finally, contemporary psychiatry's over-reliance on neuroscience and pharmacotherapy has led to a reductionist agenda that is antagonistic to the inherently pluralistic nature of psychiatry.  As a result,  the field has suffered a loss of knowledge that may be difficult to recover. PMID:26602907

  1. Knowledge-Based, Central Nervous System (CNS) Lead Selection and Lead Optimization for CNS Drug Discovery.

    PubMed

    Ghose, Arup K; Herbertz, Torsten; Hudkins, Robert L; Dorsey, Bruce D; Mallamo, John P

    2012-01-18

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the major area that is affected by aging. Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), brain cancer, and stroke are the CNS diseases that will cost trillions of dollars for their treatment. Achievement of appropriate blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration is often considered a significant hurdle in the CNS drug discovery process. On the other hand, BBB penetration may be a liability for many of the non-CNS drug targets, and a clear understanding of the physicochemical and structural differences between CNS and non-CNS drugs may assist both research areas. Because of the numerous and challenging issues in CNS drug discovery and the low success rates, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to deprioritize their drug discovery efforts in the CNS arena. Prompted by these challenges and to aid in the design of high-quality, efficacious CNS compounds, we analyzed the physicochemical property and the chemical structural profiles of 317 CNS and 626 non-CNS oral drugs. The conclusions derived provide an ideal property profile for lead selection and the property modification strategy during the lead optimization process. A list of substructural units that may be useful for CNS drug design was also provided here. A classification tree was also developed to differentiate between CNS drugs and non-CNS oral drugs. The combined analysis provided the following guidelines for designing high-quality CNS drugs: (i) topological molecular polar surface area of <76 Å(2) (25-60 Å(2)), (ii) at least one (one or two, including one aliphatic amine) nitrogen, (iii) fewer than seven (two to four) linear chains outside of rings, (iv) fewer than three (zero or one) polar hydrogen atoms, (v) volume of 740-970 Å(3), (vi) solvent accessible surface area of 460-580 Å(2), and (vii) positive QikProp parameter CNS. The ranges within parentheses may be used during lead optimization. One violation to this proposed profile may be acceptable. The

  2. Knowledge-Based, Central Nervous System (CNS) Lead Selection and Lead Optimization for CNS Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the major area that is affected by aging. Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), brain cancer, and stroke are the CNS diseases that will cost trillions of dollars for their treatment. Achievement of appropriate blood–brain barrier (BBB) penetration is often considered a significant hurdle in the CNS drug discovery process. On the other hand, BBB penetration may be a liability for many of the non-CNS drug targets, and a clear understanding of the physicochemical and structural differences between CNS and non-CNS drugs may assist both research areas. Because of the numerous and challenging issues in CNS drug discovery and the low success rates, pharmaceutical companies are beginning to deprioritize their drug discovery efforts in the CNS arena. Prompted by these challenges and to aid in the design of high-quality, efficacious CNS compounds, we analyzed the physicochemical property and the chemical structural profiles of 317 CNS and 626 non-CNS oral drugs. The conclusions derived provide an ideal property profile for lead selection and the property modification strategy during the lead optimization process. A list of substructural units that may be useful for CNS drug design was also provided here. A classification tree was also developed to differentiate between CNS drugs and non-CNS oral drugs. The combined analysis provided the following guidelines for designing high-quality CNS drugs: (i) topological molecular polar surface area of <76 Å2 (25–60 Å2), (ii) at least one (one or two, including one aliphatic amine) nitrogen, (iii) fewer than seven (two to four) linear chains outside of rings, (iv) fewer than three (zero or one) polar hydrogen atoms, (v) volume of 740–970 Å3, (vi) solvent accessible surface area of 460–580 Å2, and (vii) positive QikProp parameter CNS. The ranges within parentheses may be used during lead optimization. One violation to this proposed profile may be acceptable. The

  3. Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

    2013-01-01

    The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard. PMID:23852849

  4. Leading to Learn: Knowledge Management Enables Administrators to Excel as Instructional Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weischadle, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The article discusses knowledge management as a means of changing the way administrators carry out their role as instructional leaders. Knowledge management utilizes many concepts from learning organizations, encourages the formation of communities of practice, and employs best practices as a means of leading others to improve learning. Instead of…

  5. Medical knowledge and the improvement of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy: a case study from Transylvania (1770-1830).

    PubMed

    Sechel, Teodora Daniela

    2012-09-01

    In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by efforts to improve the vernaculars. The Transylvanian case study shows how both codified medical language and ordinary language were constructed and enriched by a large number of medical books and brochures. The publication of medical literature in Central European vernacular languages in order to popularise new medical knowledge was a comprehensive programme, designed on the one hand by intellectual, political and religious elites who urged the improvement of the fatherland and the promotion of the common good by perfecting the arts and sciences. On the other hand, the imperial administration's initiatives affected local forms of medical knowledge and the construction of vernacular languages. In the eighteenth century, the construction of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy took on a significant political character. However, in the process of building of the scientific and medical vocabulary, the main preoccupation was precision, clarity and accessibility of the neologisms being invented to encompass the medical phenomena being described. In spite of political conflicts among the 'nations' living in Transylvania, physicians borrowed words from German, Hungarian and Romanian. Thus they elevated several words used in everyday language to the upper social stratum of language use, leading to the invention of new terms to describe particular medical practices or phenomena. PMID:22595134

  6. Medical knowledge and the improvement of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy: A case study from Transylvania (1770–1830)

    PubMed Central

    Sechel, Teodora Daniela

    2012-01-01

    In all European countries, the eighteenth century was characterised by efforts to improve the vernaculars. The Transylvanian case study shows how both codified medical language and ordinary language were constructed and enriched by a large number of medical books and brochures. The publication of medical literature in Central European vernacular languages in order to popularise new medical knowledge was a comprehensive programme, designed on the one hand by intellectual, political and religious elites who urged the improvement of the fatherland and the promotion of the common good by perfecting the arts and sciences. On the other hand, the imperial administration’s initiatives affected local forms of medical knowledge and the construction of vernacular languages. In the eighteenth century, the construction of vernacular languages in the Habsburg Monarchy took on a significant political character. However, in the process of building of the scientific and medical vocabulary, the main preoccupation was precision, clarity and accessibility of the neologisms being invented to encompass the medical phenomena being described. In spite of political conflicts among the ‘nations’ living in Transylvania, physicians borrowed words from German, Hungarian and Romanian. Thus they elevated several words used in everyday language to the upper social stratum of language use, leading to the invention of new terms to describe particular medical practices or phenomena. PMID:22595134

  7. Knowledge Levels and Training Needs of Disaster Medicine among Health Professionals, Medical Students, and Local Residents in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jianhua; Tan, Xiaojie; Chang, Wenjun; Ding, Yibo; Han, Yifang; Cao, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    Background Disaster is a serious public health issue. Health professionals and community residents are main players in disaster responses but their knowledge levels of disaster medicine are not readily available. This study aimed to evaluate knowledge levels and training needs of disaster medicine among potential disaster responders and presented a necessity to popularize disaster medicine education. Methods A self-reporting questionnaire survey on knowledge level and training needs of disaster medicine was conducted in Shanghai, China, in 2012. A total of randomly selected 547 health professionals, 456 medical students, and 1,526 local residents provided intact information. The total response rate was 93.7%. Results Overall, 1.3% of these participants have received systematic disaster medicine training. News media (87.1%) was the most common channel to acquire disaster medicine knowledge. Although health professionals were more knowledgeable than community residents, their knowledge structure of disaster medicine was not intact. Medical teachers were more knowledgeable than medical practitioners and health administrators (p = 0.002). Clinicians performed better than public health physicians (p<0.001), whereas public health students performed better than clinical medical students (p<0.001). In community residents, education background significantly affected the knowledge level on disaster medicine (p<0.001). Training needs of disaster medicine were generally high among the surveyed. ‘Lecture’ and ‘practical training’ were preferred teaching methods. The selected key and interested contents on disaster medicine training were similar between health professionals and medical students, while the priorities chosen by local residents were quite different from health professionals and medical students (p<0.001). Conclusions Traditional clinical-oriented medical education might lead to a huge gap between the knowledge level on disaster medicine and the current

  8. Histological Knowledge as a Predictor of Medical Students' Performance in Diagnostic Pathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nivala, Markus; Lehtinen, Erno; Helle, Laura; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Paranko, Jorma; Säljö, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, the role and extent of the basic sciences in medical curricula have been challenged by research on clinical expertise, clinical teachers, and medical students, as well as by the development and diversification of the medical curricula themselves. The aim of this study was to examine how prior knowledge of basic histology and…

  9. Medical School Students' Knowledge of and Familiarity with Visual Impairments: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Amy R.; Henzi, David L.

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of research has been conducted on the knowledge of and familiarity with individuals with disabilities of medical students. There have been studies on these individuals' satisfaction with medical services and the accessibility of medical services to them, the role of health care providers in working with these individuals, and the…

  10. Medical surveillance and biological monitoring of lead exposed employees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, E. B.

    1993-01-01

    Employee health protection is an employer responsibility. The multi-faceted aspects of employee protection from the potentially harmful effects of inorganic lead sometimes stress the relationships of several employer units. These include supervision and management, safety, operations and maintenance, engineering, environmental health, environmental management, and occupational medicine. The administrative aspects of program development are discussed. The purpose is to emphasize the opportunity for cooperation by all of the employee health components in developing an optimum surveillance and protection program.

  11. How to achieve synergy between medical education and cognitive neuroscience? An exercise on prior knowledge in understanding.

    PubMed

    Ruiter, Dirk J; van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-05-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of prior knowledge in understanding plays a strategic role in both medical education and cognitive neuroscience it is used as a central element in our discussion. A critical condition for the acquisition of new knowledge is the existence of prior knowledge, which can be built in a mental model or schema. Formation of schemas is a central event in student-centered active learning, by which mental models are constructed and reconstructed. These theoretical considerations from cognitive psychology foster scientific discussions that may lead to salient issues and questions for research with cognitive neuroscience. Cognitive neuroscience attempts to understand how knowledge, insight and experience are established in the brain and to clarify their neural correlates. Recently, evidence has been obtained that new information processed by the hippocampus can be consolidated into a stable, neocortical network more rapidly if this new information fits readily into a schema. Opportunities for medical education and medical education research can be created in a fruitful dialogue within an educational multidisciplinary platform. In this synergetic setting many questions can be raised by educational scholars interested in evidence-based education that may be highly relevant for integrative research and the further development of medical education. PMID:20809351

  12. Validation of a Crowdsourcing Methodology for Developing a Knowledge Base of Related Problem-Medication Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Wright, A.; Krousel-Wood, M.; Thomas, E. J.; McCoy, J. A.; Sittig, D. F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Clinical knowledge bases of problem-medication pairs are necessary for many informatics solutions that improve patient safety, such as clinical summarization. However, developing these knowledge bases can be challenging. Objective We sought to validate a previously developed crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large, non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record. Methods We first retrieved medications and problems entered in the electronic health record by clinicians during routine care during a six month study period. Following the previously published approach, we calculated the link frequency and link ratio for each pair then identified a threshold cutoff for estimated problem-medication pair appropriateness through clinician review; problem-medication pairs meeting the threshold were included in the resulting knowledge base. We selected 50 medications and their gold standard indications to compare the resulting knowledge base to the pilot knowledge base developed previously and determine its recall and precision. Results The resulting knowledge base contained 26,912 pairs, had a recall of 62.3% and a precision of 87.5%, and outperformed the pilot knowledge base containing 11,167 pairs from the previous study, which had a recall of 46.9% and a precision of 83.3%. Conclusions We validated the crowdsourcing approach for generating a knowledge base of problem-medication pairs in a large non-university health care system with a widely used, commercially available electronic health record, indicating that the approach may be generalizable across healthcare settings and clinical systems. Further research is necessary to better evaluate the knowledge, to compare crowdsourcing with other approaches, and to evaluate if incorporating the knowledge into electronic health records improves patient outcomes. PMID:26171079

  13. Knowledge of disease condition and medications among hypertension patients in Lesotho.

    PubMed

    Mugomeri, Eltony; Ramathebane, Maseabata V; Maja, Lineo; Chatanga, Peter; Moletsane, Lipalesa

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the levels of knowledge of hypertension and the associated medications among hypertension patients in Lesotho and assessed the significance of these indicators on hypertension treatment outcomes. About 81% (n = 212) of the patients had hypertension monocondition while the remaining had multiple chronic conditions. Seventy-six percent of the patients had uncontrolled hypertension. Nearly 36% had inadequate knowledge about hypertension while 44% had inadequate knowledge about their medicines. In total, 52.4% of the patients defaulted appointment dates while 64.6% failed to take their medications as prescribed at least once. Inadequate knowledge of antihypertensive medicines was significantly associated (P = .028) with having uncontrolled hypertension. Inadequate knowledge of antihypertensive medicines is an important determinant of uncontrolled hypertension. Improving the knowledge of hypertension and the associated medications is an important intervention required in this population. PMID:26775548

  14. [Medical publishing--dissemination of knowledge or personal promotion?].

    PubMed

    Nylenna, M

    1996-12-10

    Over time an evolution has taken place in the nature of medical publishing. From being more-or-less exclusively channels for professional information to clinicians, medical journals have become tools in the process of qualifying researchers. Bringing credits to authors has become one of the main tasks of scientific publishing. This evolution can be described as a shift from a main focus on the reader as the recipient of information (reader-orientation) to greater emphasis on the author, who gets merits for publishing scientific papers (author-orientation). The scientific community does not live up to the international guidelines, which require substantial contributions in order to obtain authorship credits. The result has been author inflation and honorary authorship. The concept of authorship has changed, which may imperil the integrity of the scientific article. Increasing consciousness and changing attitudes are needed among researchers, medical schools and granting agencies. A stricter and more traditional definition of authorship should be established. PMID:9019886

  15. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Self-Medication Among Basic Science Undergraduate Medical Students in a Medical School in Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, P Ravi; Poudel, Phanindra Prasad; Saha, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies have shown self-medication to be common among medical students. These studies are however, few in Nepal. The present study assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-medication among second and fourth semesters’ undergraduate medical students and studied differences in knowledge and attitude (if any) among different subgroups of the respondents. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a questionnaire among basic science medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Nepal. Semester of study, gender, age, nationality, and the profession of their parents were noted. Students’ knowledge and attitude about self-medication was studied by noting their degree of agreement with a set of 40 statements using a Likert-type scale. The average scores and frequency of occurrence of particular behaviors among different categories of respondents were compared using appropriate statistical tests. Results Two hundred and seventy-six of the 295 (93.6%) students participated. The mean (SD) knowledge, attitude, and total scores were 74.54 (6.92), 67.18 (5.68), and 141.73 (10.76) with maximum possible scores 100, 100 and 200, respectively. There was no significant difference in scores according to respondents’ gender, age, and the profession of their parents. However, the mean knowledge, attitude and total scores were significantly different among students of different nationalities. Mean scores of fourth semester students were significantly higher compared to second semester students. There were differences in knowledge and total scores among students of different nationalities. Eighty two percent of respondents had self-medicated during the one year period preceding the study; 149 respondents (54%) shared that previous experience with the medicine was one of the information sources for self-medication. Prevalence of self-medication among respondents according to semester of study, gender, age, and profession of

  16. Disability Support Workers' Knowledge and Education Needs about Psychotropic Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donley, Mandy; Chan, Jeffrey; Webber, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    Disability support workers are the predominant workforce employed to support people with an intellectual disability in Australia. Many support workers are required to assist people they support to take psychotropic medications in the form of chemical restraint. Support workers in Australia receive limited education and training in this area and as…

  17. Preservice School Personnel's Knowledge of Stimulant Medication and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pindiprolu, Sekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed disorders among children today. Stimulants are commonly prescribed to children with ADHD to improve attention span and decrease distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity. Given the increased use of stimulant medication, school personnel need to be aware of…

  18. Medical Operations Support for ISS Operations - The Role of the BME Operations Team Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janney, Rob; Sabatier, Veronica

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the role of the biomedical flight controllers (BMEs), and BME Operations Team Leads (OTLs) in providing medical support for personnel on the International Space Station. This presentation will concentrate on role of the BME OTLs, who provide the integration function across the integration function across all Crew Health Care System (CHeCS) disciplines for operational products and medical procedures.

  19. A comparison of medical and pharmacy students' knowledge and skills of pharmacology and pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Custers, Eugene J F M; ten Cate, Olle Th J; Hazen, Ankie C M; Jansen, Paul A F

    2014-01-01

    Aim Pharmacotherapy might be improved if future pharmacists and physicians receive a joint educational programme in pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics. This study investigated whether there are differences in the pharmacology and pharmacotherapy knowledge and skills of pharmacy and medical students after their undergraduate training. Differences could serve as a starting point from which to develop joint interdisciplinary educational programmes for better prescribing. Methods In a cross-sectional design, the knowledge and skills of advanced pharmacy and medical students were assessed, using a standardized test with three domains (basic pharmacology knowledge, clinical or applied pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills) and eight subdomains (pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, interactions and side-effects, Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification groups, prescribing, prescribing for special groups, drug information, regulations and laws, prescription writing). Results Four hundred and fifty-one medical and 151 pharmacy students were included between August 2010 and July 2012. The response rate was 81%. Pharmacy students had better knowledge of basic pharmacology than medical students (77.0% vs. 68.2% correct answers; P < 0.001, δ = 0.88), whereas medical students had better skills than pharmacy students in writing prescriptions (68.6% vs. 50.7%; P < 0.001, δ = 0.57). The two groups of students had similar knowledge of applied pharmacology (73.8% vs. 72.2%, P = 0.124, δ = 0.15). Conclusions Pharmacy students have better knowledge of basic pharmacology, but not of the application of pharmacology knowledge, than medical students, whereas medical students are better at writing prescriptions. Professional differences in knowledge and skills therefore might well stem from their undergraduate education. Knowledge of these differences could be harnessed to develop a joint interdisciplinary education for both students and professionals. PMID:24698099

  20. Qualitative differences in knowledge structure are associated with diagnostic performance in medical students.

    PubMed

    Coderre, Sylvain; Jenkins, Deirdre; McLaughlin, Kevin

    2009-12-01

    Diagnosing is a knowledge-based skill: to diagnose one must retrieve knowledge from long-term memory and then apply this to a new clinical problem. Prior research on expertise found differences in knowledge structure between experts and novices, and it is assumed that the superior diagnostic performance of experts is somehow related to their superior knowledge structure. Here our objective was to study knowledge structure in final year medical students and to examine the association between knowledge structure and diagnostic performance. Ninety-one students participated. We used concept sorting to assess knowledge structures for four clinical problems. We performed qualitative analysis of knowledge structures, categorizing these as either problem-specific, where knowledge was predominantly structured around concepts specific to that clinical problem, or generic, where knowledge was structured around general concepts that could apply to all clinical problems. We evaluated diagnostic performance using problem-solving questions. Knowledge structure varied between different problems, but for each problem most students had problem-specific knowledge structure. These students had better diagnostic performance than those with generic structure (68.5 vs. 55.3%, d = 0.45, P = 0.004). This difference persisted after adjusting for overall medical knowledge (performance on the Medical Council of Canada Part 1 examination) and clinical problem. We found that most students organize their knowledge around problem-specific concepts, and that this type of knowledge was associated with better diagnostic performance. This may be due to easier knowledge retrieval if there is congruence between how knowledge is stored and how it is applied when diagnosing. PMID:19107567

  1. Self-Monitoring and Its Relationship to Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Meghan M.; Regehr, Glenn; Wood, Timothy J.; Eva, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    In the domain of self-assessment, researchers have begun to draw distinctions between summative self-assessment activities (i.e., making an overall judgment of one's ability in a particular domain) and self-monitoring processes (i.e., an "in the moment" awareness of whether one has the necessary knowledge or skills to address a specific problem…

  2. Friends of the National Library of Medicine - How You Can Help the Library Extend Medical Knowledge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Friends of the National Library of Medicine Past Issues / Spring 2008 ... of Michael Spencer, NIH How You Can Help the Library Extend Medical Knowledge You can be a ...

  3. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rajiv Kumar; Raina, Sunil Kumar; Verma, Aruna Kumari; Shora, Tejali

    2016-01-01

    Context: Emergency contraception (EC) is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401) of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401) was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident. PMID:27413353

  4. Knowledge of and Attitudes toward Medical Professionalism among Students and Junior Doctors in Trinidad and Tobago

    PubMed Central

    Peters, D; Ramsewak, SS; Youssef, FF

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The past decade has seen an increasing focus on professionalism within the medical school curriculum. This reflects the growing demand for doctors who demonstrate empathy and uphold the altruistic values of the Hippocratic Oath. Such is often challenged by the resource-constrained environments of developing nations requiring uniquely tailored interventions within these regions. Purpose: As part of a wider effort to develop training of medical professionalism at our institution, an initiative was pursued to assess the current knowledge about and attitudes toward medical professionalism. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional descriptive study of fourth and fifth year medical students and junior doctors. A questionnaire was adapted and revised from a previously published study. Questions were grouped into categories pertaining to knowledge about professionalism and attitudes toward professionalism. Overall, 191 questionnaires were analysed (168 students and 23 doctors). Results: Junior doctors'scores were higher than medical students for all knowledge subscales but scores on the attitude subscales were significantly lower than medical students. Overall, in both groups, attitude scores were higher than knowledge scores. There was an overall trend of decreasing attitude scores as persons progressed through their training years and into clinical practice. Conclusions: Results demonstrate limited knowledge about medical professionalism but good attitudes toward this trait. Taken together, this perhaps highlights a receptivity toward more formal training within this area that is also justified by the marked decline in attitude scores over time. PMID:26360688

  5. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Errea, Renato A.; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D.; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A.; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-01-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (p<0.001) whereas the last three years showed higher scores in clinical knowledge (p<0.001). In conclusion, students from this private medical school gained substantial knowledge in NTD throughout the career which seems to be related to improvement in clinical knowledge rather than to socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts. This study assures the feasibility of measuring the level of knowledge of NTD in medical students and stresses the importance of evaluating education on NTD as it may need more emphasis in epidemiological concepts, especially at developing countries such as Peru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases. PMID:26523733

  6. Medical Student Knowledge of Neglected Tropical Diseases in Peru: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Errea, Renato A; Vasquez-Rios, George; Machicado, Jorge D; Gallardo, Maria Susana; Cornejo, Marilhia; Urquiaga, Jorge F; Montoya, Diego; Zamudio, Rodrigo; Terashima, Angelica; Marcos, Luis A; Samalvides, Frine

    2015-11-01

    In developing countries, education to health-care professionals is a cornerstone in the battle against neglected tropical diseases (NTD). Studies evaluating the level of knowledge of medical students in clinical and socio-demographic aspects of NTD are lacking. Therefore, a cross-sectional study was conducted among students from a 7 year-curriculum medical school in Peru to assess their knowledge of NTD by using a pilot survey comprised by two blocks of 10 short questions. Block I consisted of socio-demographic and epidemiological questions whereas block II included clinical vignettes. Each correct answer had the value of 1 point. Out of 597 responders (response rate: 68.4%), 583 were considered to have valid surveys (male:female ratio: 1:1.01; mean age 21 years, SD ± 2.42). Total knowledge showed a raising trend through the 7-year curriculum. Clinical knowledge seemed to improve towards the end of medical school whereas socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts only showed progress the first 4 years of medical school, remaining static for the rest of the curricular years (p = 0.66). Higher mean scores in socio-demographic and epidemiological knowledge compared to clinical knowledge were seen in the first two years (p<0.001) whereas the last three years showed higher scores in clinical knowledge (p<0.001). In conclusion, students from this private medical school gained substantial knowledge in NTD throughout the career which seems to be related to improvement in clinical knowledge rather than to socio-demographic and epidemiological concepts. This study assures the feasibility of measuring the level of knowledge of NTD in medical students and stresses the importance of evaluating education on NTD as it may need more emphasis in epidemiological concepts, especially at developing countries such as Peru where many people are affected by these preventable and treatable diseases. PMID:26523733

  7. The Knowledge, Attitude, and Perception towards Epilepsy amongst Medical Students in Uyo, Southern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Ekeh, Bertha C.; Ekrikpo, Udeme E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. Epilepsy remains a stigmatized disease especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Lack of information and illiteracy has been blamed as the cause of the stigmatization. This stigmatization stems from the fact that the traditional African belief views epilepsy as a spiritual disease. We studied the knowledge, attitude, and perception towards epilepsy amongst medical students comparing the knowledge of the clinical students with that of the basic medical (preclinical) students. Methodology. The participants were medical students in University of Uyo. We administered questionnaires which explored the knowledge of etiology (perceived and medically proven). We studied the beliefs in infectivity of epilepsy, treatment together with their attitudes, and perception to persons with epilepsy. Results. Most of the participants do not have a good knowledge of epilepsy. The knowledge, however, was much better amongst the clinical students. There is some difference in the attitudes of the clinical students compared with the basic students. Conclusion. There is a knowledge gap in epilepsy even amongst medical students. Participants still harbor the traditional African beliefs that epilepsy is a spiritual disease. Mercifully, the knowledge is better amongst the clinical students. This is not surprising since the clinical students have had clinical exposure to epilepsy. PMID:26556558

  8. A Comparison of Clustered Knowledge Structures in Iliad and in Quick Medical Reference

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Michael J; Turner, Charles; Hesse, Brad; Miller, Randolph

    1988-01-01

    Iliad is a medical expert system whose medical knowledge is organized by disease into “frames” that each contain multiple findings that may be expected in that disease. These findings are processed sequentially, using Bayes' Theorem, when knowledge about the patient becomes available. Iliad incorporates newly designed knowledge frames called “clusters”. Clusters are Boolean decision frames containing conditionally dependent findings that often describe important pathophysiologic concepts. Pathophysiologic concepts are so pervasive in medical teaching that supposedly non-clustered expert systems might contain implicit pathophysiologic clusters. Quick Medical Reference (QMR) is a non-clustered expert system. QMR assigns each patient finding a score called an “evoking strength”. We performed a cluster analysis upon these evoking strengths for findings in pulmonary disease and discovered definite clusters of findings. The clusters discovered corresponded closely with Iliad clusters. Clustered knowledge structures are natural human mental models. We believe QMR's knowledge engineers unconsciously imposed natural, clustered knowledge models onto QMR. Clustered knowledge models could improve both the performance and teaching qualities of medical expert systems.

  9. First Year Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Wei-Hsin; Hoffman, Kimberly G.; Hosokawa, Michael C.; Gray, M. Peggy; Zweig, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of an extracurricular geriatric program on medical students' knowledge of, and attitudes toward, the elderly and their interest in studying geriatric medicine. The participants were first-year medical students (n = 137) who joined the Senior Teacher Education Partnership (STEP) program that…

  10. Evaluating Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Knowledge in Medical Education: A Collaborative Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, John B., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Medical students performed less well on examinations about drug abuse problems and patient management than on traditional medical board examinations. The best knowledge was of pharmacology of drug abuse, Alcoholics Anonymous, and treatment of delirium tremens. Students knew less about metabolic and biochemical areas, emergency-room treatment, and…

  11. First-Year Residents' Caring, Medical Knowledge, and Clinical Judgment in Relation to Laboratory Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnold, Paul R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study of 36 first-year Northwestern University (Illinois) medical residents found that students' medical knowledge was a predictor of increased laboratory test use, that clinical judgment was a predictor of decreased laboratory use, and that level of caring was statistically unrelated to amount of laboratory use. (Author/MSE)

  12. Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices regarding Whole Body Donation among Medical Professionals in a Hospital in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballala, Kirthinath; Shetty, Avinash; Malpe, Surekha Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Voluntary body donation has become an important source of cadavers for anatomical study and education. The objective of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding whole body donation among medical professionals in a medical institute in India. A cross sectional study was conducted at Kasturba Hospital, Manipal,…

  13. Relating Medical Students' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experience to an Interest in Geriatric Medicine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, James T.; Wray, Linda A.; Halter, Jeffrey B.; Williams, Brent C.; Supiano, Mark A.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined medical students' interest in geriatrics: Are knowledge, positive attitudes, and prior experience with older adults associated with an interest in geriatric medicine? Design and Methods: Entering University of Michigan medical students completed three surveys: the Revised Facts on Aging Quiz, the University of…

  14. Knowledge based acquisition of rules for medical diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Drastal, G.A.; Kulikowski, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Medical consultation systems in the expert framework contain rules written under the guidance of expert physicians. The authors present a methodology and preliminary implementation of a system which learns compiled rule chains from positive case examples of a diagnostic class and negative examples of alternative diagnostic classes. Rule acquisition is guided by the constraints of physiological process models represented in the system. Evaluation of the system is proceeding in the area of glaucoma diagnosis, and an example of an experiment in this domain is included. 9 references.

  15. Medical and Psychology Students' Knowledge and Attitudes regarding Aging and Sexuality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Rachel J.; Zweig, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    The current study surveys medical and doctoral psychology students (N = 100) from an urban northeastern university regarding knowledge and attitudes toward elderly sexuality and aging using the Facts on Aging Quiz, the Aging Sexuality Knowledge and Attitudes Scale, and measures of interest in gerontology, academic/clinical exposure to aging and…

  16. Breast Cancer Screening Knowledge and Skills of Students upon Entering and Exiting a Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kann, P. Elizabeth; Lane, Dorothy S.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared the breast cancer screening knowledge of 27 medical students in first and fourth years. In the fourth year additional questions were asked about training and training needs. Although students performed significantly better on knowledge-based questions in the fourth year, considerable room for improvement remained. Most students…

  17. Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature: The Indexing Aid Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Miller, Nancy E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval, whose goal is to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. Appendices include background information on NLM…

  18. ['How Much Sex do Medical Studies Need?' - A Survey of the Knowledge and Interest in Sexual Medicine of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Nieder, Timo Ole; Scherbaum, Norbert; Briken, Peer

    2014-12-01

    Background: Because of the increasing need for medical care of problems concerning human sexuality, the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) in 2010 suggested to include sexual medicine in the current curricula of medical studies. Based on the ISSM's suggestions sexual medicine should be taught on a multidisciplinary basis throughout the whole study process. Furthermore, health care providers have repeatedly indicated that they have lacking knowledge concerning sexual medicine and patients have criticized that their health care providers only infrequently address their sexuality. Methods: 404 medical students from 2 German university medical centers answered an online questionnaire assessing the quality of sexual medicine education. The students were asked about their interest in and their knowledge about different issues concerning human sexuality in the following 4 domains: Sexual development, Sexual behavior, Sexual physiology and psychology, Sexual medicine and therapy of sexual disorders. Results: The great majority of students were interested in education about sexual medicine within medical studies, whereby most students were of the opinion that sexual medicine should be included in the already existing subjects. Furthermore, students mostly evaluated the current quality of sexual medicine education as insufficient and more than half of the students thought that they do not have enough knowledge about human sexuality for their future profession as medical health care providers. On average the students correctly answered 50% of the knowledge questions, however they showed some knowledge gaps especially in the domains of sexual development and sexual physiology and psychology. Discussion: The results of the present study suggest that medical students have lacking knowledge concerning important parts of human sexuality but at the same time express great interest in the field. Therefore, in Germany more structured educational programs in sexual

  19. Fusion of psychiatric and medical high fidelity patient simulation scenarios: effect on nursing student knowledge, retention of knowledge, and perception.

    PubMed

    Kameg, Kirstyn M; Englert, Nadine Cozzo; Howard, Valerie M; Perozzi, Katherine J

    2013-12-01

    High fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) has become an increasingly popular teaching methodology in nursing education. To date, there have not been any published studies investigating HFPS scenarios incorporating medical and psychiatric nursing content. This study utilized a quasi-experimental design to assess if HFPS improved student knowledge and retention of knowledge utilizing three parallel 30-item Elsevier HESI(TM) Custom Exams. A convenience sample of 37 senior level nursing students participated in the study. The results of the study revealed the mean HESI test scores decreased following the simulation intervention although an analysis of variance (ANOVA) determined the difference was not statistically significant (p = .297). Although this study did not reveal improved student knowledge following the HFPS experiences, the findings did provide preliminary evidence that HFPS may improve knowledge in students who are identified as "at-risk." Additionally, students responded favorably to the simulations and viewed them as a positive learning experience. PMID:24274245

  20. Attitude and knowledge of hearing loss among medical doctors selected to initiate a residency in Mexico.

    PubMed

    López-Vázquez, M; Berruecos, P; Lopez, L E; Cacho, J

    2009-03-01

    Early diagnosis and intervention of hearing loss are directly influenced by the knowledge and attitude towards this condition among medical personnel, particularly in countries where screening is not performed routinely. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the attitude and knowledge of hearing loss in a group of physicians. A questionnaire with five Likert-type items and five multiple choice and fill-in-the-blank items was completed by 2727 physicians selected to start a medical residency. Results suggested that physicians' knowledge level on the matter is deficient and their attitude is far from the ideal; however, physicians selected for a residency in audiology showed slightly better results. PMID:19283581

  1. Knowledge brokers, companions, and navigators: a qualitative examination of informal caregivers’ roles in medical tourism

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many studies examining the phenomena of medical tourism have identified health equity issues associated with this global health services practice. However, there is a notable lack of attention in this existing research to the informal care provided by the friends and family members who typically accompany medical tourists abroad. To date, researchers have not examined the care roles filled by informal caregivers travelling with medical tourists. In this article, we fill this gap by examining these informal caregivers and the roles they take on towards supporting medical tourists’ health and wellbeing. Methods We conducted 21 interviews with International Patient Coordinators (IPCs) working at medical tourism hospitals across ten countries. IPCs work closely with informal caregivers as providers of non-medical personal assistance, and can therefore offer broad insight on caregiver roles. The interviews were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Three roles emerged: knowledge broker, companion, and navigator. As knowledge brokers, caregivers facilitate the transfer of information between the medical tourist and formal health care providers as well as other staff members at medical tourism facilities. The companion role involves providing medical tourists with physical and emotional care. Meanwhile, responsibilities associated with handling documents and coordinating often complex journeys are part of the navigation role. Conclusions This is the first study to examine informal caregiving roles in medical tourism. Many of the roles identified are similar to those of conventional informal caregivers while others are specific to the transnational context. We conclude that these roles make informal caregivers an integral part of the larger phenomenon of medical tourism. We further contend that examining the roles taken on by a heretofore-unconsidered medical tourism stakeholder group sheds valuable insight into how this industry operates and that such

  2. Knowledge Discovery in Medical Mining by using Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivathsa, P. K.

    2011-12-01

    Medical Data mining could be thought of as the search for relationships and patterns within the medical data, which facilitates the acquisition of useful knowledge for effective medical diagnosis. Consequently, the predictability of disease will become more effective and the early detection of disease certainly facilitates an increased exposure to required patient care with focused treatment, economic feasibility and improved cure rates. So, the present investigation is carried on medical data(PIMA) using DM and GA based Neural Network technique and the results predict that the methodology is not only reliable but also helps in furthering the scope of the subject.

  3. Lead-free piezoelectric materials and ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghaddos, Elaheh; Hejazi, Mehdi; Safari, Ahmad

    2015-06-01

    Piezoelectric materials have been vastly used in ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging. In this paper, firstly, the most promising lead-free compositions with perovskite structure for medical imaging applications have been reviewed. The electromechanical properties of various lead-free ceramics, composites, and single crystals based on barium titanate, bismuth sodium titanate, potassium sodium niobate, and lithium niobate are presented. Then, fundamental principles and design considerations of ultrasonic transducers are briefly described. Finally, recent developments in lead-free ultrasonic probes are discussed and their acoustic performance is compared to lead-based transducers. Focused transducers with different beam focusing methods such as lens focusing and mechanical shaping are explained. Additionally, acoustic characteristics of lead-free probes including the pulse-echo results as well as their imaging capabilities for various applications such as phantom imaging, in vitro intravascular ultrasound imaging of swine aorta, and in vivo or ex vivo imaging of human eyes and skin are reviewed.

  4. Bassoonists' medical problems-current state of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dawson, William J

    2012-06-01

    Specific musical instruments can be a source of physical problems to their players. Based on reviews of the literature and personal experience, this paper summarizes current knowledge of problems affecting musicians who play instruments in the bassoon family (including the bassoon, contrabassoon, and several other instruments). Prevalence rates are higher in reports of surveys (ranging up to 86%), compared to clinical reports of patients seen and treated. Significant risk factors include young age, small body size, female gender, and use of large instruments. Problems unique to bassoonists are rare; most physical difficulties also are seen in general musculoskeletal clinical practices and in musicians playing all types of instruments. The left upper extremity is more commonly affected by overuse-related conditions in bassoonists. Non-playing-related problems are equally important for consideration (such as degenerative disorders and acute trauma), since they also affect practice and performance. Little experimental data exist to validate current and widely-held principles of treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention. PMID:22739824

  5. From data to knowledge through concept-oriented terminologies: experience with the Medical Entities Dictionary.

    PubMed

    Cimino, J J

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge representation involves enumeration of conceptual symbols and arrangement of these symbols into some meaningful structure. Medical knowledge representation has traditionally focused more on the structure than the symbols. Several significant efforts are under way, at local, national, and international levels, to address the representation of the symbols though the creation of high-quality terminologies that are themselves knowledge based. This paper reviews these efforts, including the Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) in use at Columbia University and the New York Presbyterian Hospital. A decade's experience with the MED is summarized to serve as a proof-of-concept that knowledge-based terminologies can support the use of coded patient data for a variety of knowledge-based activities, including the improved understanding of patient data, the access of information sources relevant to specific patient care problems, the application of expert systems directly to the care of patients, and the discovery of new medical knowledge. The terminological knowledge in the MED has also been used successfully to support clinical application development and maintenance, including that of the MED itself. On the basis of this experience, current efforts to create standard knowledge-based terminologies appear to be justified. PMID:10833166

  6. Knowledge of Palliative Care Among Medical Interns in a Tertiary Health Institution in Northwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nnadi, Daniel Chukwunyere; Singh, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Background: Palliative care is the proactive care which seeks to maximize quality of life for people and families facing life-threatening illnesses. Objectives: To ascertain the existing knowledge of palliative care among medical interns and determine the effect of a structured educational intervention on improvement of their knowledge levels. Subjects and Methods: This is a quasi-experimental, interventional study with a one group pre- and post-test design involving medical interns rotating through the various departments of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto. The study population was chosen by convenience sampling method. The interns completed a pre- and a post-test assessment following a structured educational intervention for the evaluation of knowledge of palliative care. Knowledge was evaluated by a self-administered structured questionnaire. Results: A total number of 49 medical interns were recruited, among whom were 41 males and 8 females. Their ages ranged from 21 to 36 years with a mean of 27.7 (standard deviation 2.14) years. In the pretest, 11/49 (22.5%) of the respondents had poor knowledge level of palliative care; however, in the postintervention, only 2/49 (4.1%) of the respondents had poor knowledge. Similarly, good knowledge levels appreciated from 9/49 (18.4%) to 14/49 (28.6%) while very good knowledge increased from 10/49 (20.4%) to 19/49 (38.8%). This effect was statistically significant (Chi-square test 11.655 df = 3, P = 0.009). Conclusion: There is poor knowledge of palliative care among the interns due to ignorance. Following an educational intervention, the knowledge levels appreciated significantly. Palliative care should be part of the medical curriculum. PMID:27559266

  7. Knowledge of medical-legal issues. Survey of Ontario family medicine residents.

    PubMed Central

    Saltstone, S. P.; Saltstone, R.; Rowe, B. H.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To ascertain how much family medicine residents know about medical-legal issues and what their attitudes toward medical-legal training are. DESIGN: Survey using multiple-choice questions to assess knowledge of typical legal scenarios and attitudes to training. Responses to questions were assessed using a Likert scale. SETTING: University of Ottawa's Family Medicine Program, including the Northeastern Ontario Family Medicine Program and the Melrose and Elizabeth Bruyere Family Medicine Centres. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-five family medicine residents in the University of Ottawa's Family Medicine Program. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Demographic information and answers to questions assessing respondents' knowledge of and attitudes toward medical-legal issues. RESULTS: Mean score for correct responses was 8.6 out of 16 possible correct responses. Resident's knowledge about certain issues was excellent, such as knowing that comments can be constructed as sexual abuse and that they should report patients whose medical conditions make it dangerous for them to operate motor vehicles. On other issues, such as how to treat incompetent individuals and how to treat minors when parents refuse consent for treatment, residents' knowledge seemed poor. Although residents thought knowledge of medical-legal issues was important for providing good-quality care to patients and avoiding litigation, they felt inadequately trained in and uncomfortable about dealing with these issues. CONCLUSIONS: Residents are somewhat confused about medical-legal issues. They seem very interested in learning medical-legal principles. These findings should encourage educators to provide opportunity for residents to gain knowledge in these areas. PMID:9111983

  8. Khmer dental and medical students' knowledge about the betel quid chewing habit in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Reichart, P A; Schmidtberg, W; Scheifele, C

    1997-08-01

    95 of 144 questionnaires submitted by volunteer Khmer medical and dental students on the betel quid chewing habit in Cambodia were evaluated (58 medical, 37 dental). Questions related to the composition of the betel quid, the physiological and oral effects as well as traditional and sociological aspects. Statistical tests showed that there were differences between dental and medical students, particularly relating to the knowledge about oral effects. While 81.1% of dental students knew that betel quid chewing causes oral cancer, only 31.0% of the medical students were adequately informed. Similarly, 51.4% of the dental students knew about the relation between betel quid chewing and submucous fibrosis compared to 8.6% of the medical students (P < 0.001). In contrast, only 18.9% of the dental students thought that betel quid chewing strengthens the gum, while 56.9% of the medical students believed that betel quid chewing would have this effect (P < 0.001). The answers also showed that students do not indulge in the betel quid habit. The decline of the betel quid chewing habit was also indicated by the fact that while 5.3% of students had parents chewing betel quid, in contrast 40% of students reported grandparents with this habit. There are deficiencies of knowledge about the most important effects of betel quid chewing, particularly in medical students. Since both medical and dental students will in their future professional life have an enormous impact on health and health education, it seems justified that the dental and medical curricula should focus on these traditional habits. Proper health education starting in the dental and medical school is warranted in Cambodia and probably also in other South and Southeast Asian countries where the betel quid chewing habit is prevalent so as ultimately to improve public knowledge on the oral and other effects of this habit. PMID:9567917

  9. Medical students' knowledge and attitude towards complementary and alternative medicine - A survey in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Ameade, Evans Paul Kwame; Amalba, Anthony; Helegbe, Gideon Kofi; Mohammed, Baba Sulemana

    2016-07-01

    Interest, use of and research into Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM; bǔ chōng yǔ tì dài yī xué) is on the increase in recent times even in developed countries. It may therefore be appropriate if medical students who would become future physicians possess adequate knowledge and better attitude towards CAMS. This study assessed medical students' knowledge of, attitude towards, and usage of CAM as well as their opinion about integrating CAMs into the medical curriculum. In a cross-sectional study, 203 medical students in 2nd, 3rd and 4th year classes completed a questionnaire. Data was analyzed using SPSS 18 and GraphPad 5.01. Association between different variables was tested. The overall mean knowledge score was 19.6%. Students in higher years of study were significantly more knowledgeable in CAMs (p = 0.0006). The best known CAM was herbal medicine (63.6%), with relatives and friends being their main source of information. Students' attitude towards CAM was good (75.1%) with majority (71.5%) favouring introduction of CAM into the medical curriculum; preferably at the preclinical level (67.5%). Year of study, gender and locality where student grew up did not significantly affect attitude towards CAM use. Up to 117 (59.0%) of the students had ever used CAM especially herbal medicine. Although students in this study were deficient in knowledge on CAMs, their attitude and usage was good. Herbal medicine was the best known and used CAM. Majority of the students believed knowledge on CAM would be beneficial to their practice hence, desirous of its introduction into their medical curriculum. PMID:27419086

  10. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... destroyed airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test report must state: (1) The name of the... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed...

  11. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... destroyed airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test report must state: (1) The name of the... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed...

  12. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... destroyed airman certificate, medical certificate, or knowledge test report must state: (1) The name of the... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed...

  13. Impact of Mode of Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical Students towards Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Abdul; Ansari, M. Ahmed; Raheem, Ahmed; Khan, Aleena; Arshad, Mohammad Hussham; Motiani, Vanita; Akhtar, Muhammad Shahzeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Equipping students with skills in medical research should be an integral part of medical education systems. This study is designed to gauge the difference in knowledge and attitudes towards health research between two sets of undergraduate medical students; those enrolled in the new Problem Based Learning (PBL) education system versus those of the conventional Lecture Based Learning (LBL) curricula. Materials and Methods From the 4th and 5th years of medical university students, 90 participants were recruited from the Aga Khan University (PBL group) and Dow University of Health Sciences (LBL group) and were presented with structured and pre-validated questionnaire. Responses obtained for knowledge and attitudes of each group were recorded on a scale and graduated in percentages to be compared statistically for differences to identify the effectiveness of each curriculum. Results The score on the knowledge scale for the PBL group was found to be 44.77% against the 31.55% of the LBL students (p-value<0.001). Furthermore, the mean attitude score of AKU students was 72.22% as opposed to the 56.11% of the DUHS participants (p-value<0.001). Conclusion The PBL group achieved significantly higher scores in all aspects than the LBL group, showing healthier attitudes towards health science research along with better knowledge. Hence, the apparent positive influence of PBL curricula on attitudes towards research may be helpful in improving research output of medical students in Pakistan. PMID:27190837

  14. Gaps in the knowledge about advancements in rabies vaccines among the undergraduate medical students.

    PubMed

    Laskar, Ananya Ray; Singh, Megha Chandra; Saha, S S

    2010-12-01

    Enormous developments have taken place during the past few years in the field of Rabies prevention and control particularly rabies vaccines. Intra-dermal Rabies Vaccination (IDRV) has already emerged as a safe, ethical and cost-effective replacement. However appropriate dissemination of knowledge and implementation by medical fraternity is imperative for effective prevention and control of this fatal disease. Gaps were found in the knowledge of medical students regarding the newer rabies vaccines. This can be resolved to great extent by updating the undergraduate curriculum with the current control strategies used in this field. PMID:22471199

  15. Medical interns' knowledge of tuberculosis and DOTS strategy in northern Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Charkazi, A R; Kouchaki, G; Nejad, M Soleymani; Gholizade, A H

    2010-12-01

    The increasing incidence of tuberculosis (TB) is a major concern to public health policy-makers. To assess knowledge about TB and the DOTS strategy among medical students in a high incidence area of the Islamic Republic of Iran, a questionnaire designed around the national TB programme guidelines was given to 80 interns in Golestan and Mazandaran medical schools in December 2007. The overall mean knowledge score was 1.80 (SD 1.61) items correct out of 15. Knowledge about diagnosis, treatment and monitoring was especially poor. There were no significant differences between the knowledge of interns who had completed their internships in the infectious diseases or community health departments compared with those who had not. PMID:24988400

  16. Pragmatically-Structured, Lexical-Semantic Knowledge Bases for Unified Medical Language Systems

    PubMed Central

    Evans, David A.

    1988-01-01

    Unified medical language systems must accommodate expressions ranging from fixed-form standardised vocabularies to the free-text, natural language of medical charts. Such ability will depend on the identification, representation, and organisation of the concepts that form the useful core of the biomedical conceptual domain. The MedSORT-II and UMLS Projects at Carnegie Mellon University have established a feasibile design for the development of lexicons and knowledge bases to support the automated processing of varieties of expressions (in the subdomain of clinical findings) into uniform representations. The essential principle involves incorporating lexical-semantic typing restrictions in a pragmatically-structured knowledge base. The approach does not depend on exhaustive knowledge representation, rather takes advantage of selective, limited relations among concepts. In particular, the projects have demonstrated that practical, comprehensive, and accurate processing of natural-language expressions is attainable with partial knowledge bases, which can be rapidly prototyped.

  17. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem ("Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb") of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12(th) century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17(th) century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections. PMID:24669114

  18. The role of Ibn Sina (Avicenna)'s medical poem in the transmission of medical knowledge to medieval Europe

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Halim, Rabie El-Said

    2014-01-01

    The Medical Poem (“Al-Urjuzah Fi Al-Tibb”) of Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 980-1037), is the subject of this primary-source study evaluating its scientific value, poetics and pedagogical significance as well as assessing its role in the transmission of medical knowledge to Medieval Europe. In addition to one original manuscript and two modern editions, the English translation by Krueger was also studied. Ibn Sina's poem on medicine consisting of meticulously classified 1326 verses, can be considered as a poetic summary of his encyclopedic textbook: The Canon of Medicine; hence its popularity in the East then the West as a tool in the process of transmitting medical knowledge from master to student. Since first translated by Gerard of Cremona (1114-1187) in the middle of the 12th century, the Latinized poem was frequently published in Medieval Europe either independently or combined with the Latinized Canon of Medicine or with the Articella; the famous collection of Greco-Roman and Latinized Arabian medical treatises in use in the universities of Salerno, Montpelier, Bologna and Paris up to the 17th century. The study of the Krueger's English edition revealed few places where the full meanings of the original Arabic text were not conveyed. A list of those places is given together with the suggested corrections. PMID:24669114

  19. The Surgeon General's Policy Statement on Medical Aspects of Childhood Lead Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinfeld, Jesse L.

    This document is a policy statement written by the Bureau of Community Environmental Management and approved by the Surgeon General of the U.S. Public Health Service. Its purpose is to assist in the development and implementation of programs for the control of lead poisoning in children. Information included covers the medical aspects of…

  20. Disruptive Technologies: A Credible Threat to Leading Programs in Continuing Medical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Clayton M.; Armstrong, Elizabeth G.

    1998-01-01

    Disruptive technologies are simple convenient innovations that have triggered failures of some well-managed companies. They may threaten continuing medical-education programs so focused on leading-edge technology they lose sight of the very different educational needs of growing numbers of health care providers, who are turning to consultants, the…

  1. Assessment of the knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among pre-clinical medical students in Israel

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s medical students are the future physicians of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). It is therefore essential that medical students possess the appropriate knowledge and attitudes regarding PLWHA. This study aims to evaluate knowledge and attitudes of pre-clinical Israeli medical students and to assess whether their knowledge and attitudes change throughout their pre-clinical studies. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among all pre-clinical medical students from the four medical schools in Israel during the academic year of 2010/2011 (a total of 1,470 students). A self-administered questionnaire was distributed. The questionnaire sought student responses pertaining to knowledge of HIV transmission and non-transmission routes, basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS treatment and attitudes towards HIV/AIDS. Results The study’s response rate was 62.24 percent. Knowledge among pre-clinical medical students was generally high and showed a statistically significant improvement as students progressed through their pre-clinical studies. However, there were some misconceptions, mostly regarding HIV transmission via breastfeeding and knowledge of HIV prevention after exposure to the virus. Students’ attitudes were found to include stigmatizing notions. Furthermore, the majority of medical students correlated HIV with shame and fear. In addition, students’ attitudes toward HIV testing and providing confidential medical information were contradictory to health laws, protocols and guidelines. Overall, no positive changes in students’ attitudes were observed during the pre-clinical years of medical school. Conclusion The knowledge of pre-clinical medical students in Israel is generally high, although there are some knowledge inadequacies that require more emphasis in the curricula of the medical schools. Contrary to HIV-related knowledge, medical students’ attitudes are unaffected by their progression through medical school. Therefore, medical

  2. Can a Web-Based Curriculum Improve Students' Knowledge of, and Attitudes About, the Interpreted Medical Interview?

    PubMed Central

    Kalet, Adina L; Mukherjee, Debjani; Felix, Karla; Steinberg, Sarah E; Nachbar, Martin; Lee, Amy; Changrani, Joytsna; Gany, Francesca

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To develop and evaluate a web-based curriculum to introduce first year medical students to the knowledge and attitudes necessary for working with limited English proficient (LEP) patients through interpreters. Method Six hundred and forty first year medical students over 4 consecutive years took this curriculum as part of their Patient Physician and Society course. They viewed 6 patient-physician-interpreter video vignettes, gave open text analyses of each vignette, and compared their responses to those generated by experts, thereby receiving immediate formative feedback. They listened to video commentaries by a cultural expert, lawyer, and ethicist about working with LEP patients, completed pre- and postmodule questionnaires, which tested relevant knowledge and attitudes, and were provided a summative assessment at the end of the module. Students completed an optional survey assessing the educational value of, and providing open text commentary about, the module. Results Seventy-one percent (n=456) of first year students who completed the module consented to have their data included in this evaluation. Mean knowledge (19 items) scores improved (46% pre- to 62% postmodule, P<.001), reflecting improvements in knowledge about best interpreter practices and immigration demographics and legal issues. Mean scores on 4 of 5 attitude items improved, reflecting attitudes more consistent with culturally sensitive care of LEP patients. Mean satisfaction with the educational value of the module for 155 students who completed the postmodule survey was 2.9 on a scale of 1 to 4. Conclusion Our web-curriculum resulted in short-term improvement in the knowledge and attitudes necessary to interact with LEP patients and interpreters. The interactive format allowed students to receive immediate formative feedback and be cognizant of the challenges and effective strategies in language discordant medical encounters. This is important because studies suggest that the use of

  3. Expert System Knowledge Acquisition for Domains of Medical Workup: An Augmented Transition Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Perry L.; Blumenfrucht, Steven J.; Rose, John R.; Rothschild, Michael; Weltin, Gregory; Swett, Henry A.; Mars, Nicolass J.I.

    1986-01-01

    HYDRA is a knowledge acquisition tool designed to assist in the construction of expert systems which critique medical workup. HYDRA is designed to guide the domain expert through the process of assembling the knowledge needed to critique workup, and simultaneously to help structure the critiquing system itself. There is a clear need for computer-based tools to help a domain expert assure that the knowledge in an expert system is accurate, consistent, and complete. HYDRA demonstrates one approach to providing such a capability.

  4. A Correspondence Analysis of Child-Care Students' and Medical Students' Knowledge about Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen; Lawson, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the application of correspondence analysis to transcripts gathered from focussed interviews about teaching and learning held with a small sample of child-care students, medical students and the students' teachers. Seven dimensions emerged from the analysis, suggesting that the knowledge that underlies students' learning…

  5. Development of a Scale to Measure Laypersons' Beliefs about Medical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Laura L. B.; Wheeler, Denna L.; Laster, Bonnie B.; McGaugh, Miriam; Morse, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Literature on participatory health care suggests that, though many patients desire basic information, a substantial number prefer a passive role. This variability is explored as a function of laypersons' beliefs about the nature of medical knowledge, referred to as epistemological beliefs, through the evaluation of a newly-developed…

  6. Stroke Knowledge among Urban and Frontier First Responders and Emergency Medical Technicians in Montana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Michael J.; Oser, Carrie; Gohdes, Dorothy; Fogle, Crystelle C.; Dietrich, Dennis W.; Burnett, Anne; Okon, Nicholas; Russell, Joseph A.; DeTienne, James; Harwell, Todd S.; Helgerson, Steven D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To assess stroke knowledge and practice among frontier and urban emergency medical services (EMS) providers and to evaluate the need for additional prehospital stroke training opportunities in Montana. Methods: In 2006, a telephone survey of a representative sample of EMS providers was conducted in Montana. Respondents were stratified…

  7. Determining the reasons for medication prescriptions in the EHR using knowledge and natural language processing.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of medication indications is significant for automatic applications aimed at improving patient safety, such as computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) contains pertinent information related to patient safety such as information related to appropriate prescribing. However, the reasons for medication prescriptions are usually not explicitly documented in the patient record. This paper describes a method that determines the reasons for medication uses based on information occurring in outpatient notes. The method utilizes drug-indication knowledge that we acquired, and natural language processing. Evaluation showed the method obtained a sensitivity of 62.8%, specificity of 93.9%, precision of 90% and F-measure of 73.9%. This pilot study demonstrated that linking external drug indication knowledge to the EHR for determining the reasons for medication use was promising, but also revealed some challenges. Future work will focus on increasing the accuracy and coverage of the indication knowledge and evaluating its performance using a much larger set of drugs frequently used in the outpatient population. PMID:22195134

  8. Physician Assisted Suicide: Knowledge and Views of Fifth-Year Medical Students in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildmann, Jan; Herrmann, Eva; Burchardi, Nicole; Schwantes, Ulrich; Vollmann, Jochen

    2006-01-01

    Suicide and assisted suicide are not criminal acts in Germany. However, attempting suicide may create a legal duty for physicians to try to save a patient's life. This study presents data on medical students' legal knowledge and ethical views regarding physician assisted suicide (PAS). The majority of 85 respondents held PAS to be illegal. More…

  9. Determining the Reasons for Medication Prescriptions in the EHR using Knowledge and Natural Language Processing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ying; Salmasian, Hojjat; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert; Friedman, Carol

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of medication indications is significant for automatic applications aimed at improving patient safety, such as computerized physician order entry and clinical decision support systems. The Electronic Health Record (EHR) contains pertinent information related to patient safety such as information related to appropriate prescribing. However, the reasons for medication prescriptions are usually not explicitly documented in the patient record. This paper describes a method that determines the reasons for medication uses based on information occurring in outpatient notes. The method utilizes drug-indication knowledge that we acquired, and natural language processing. Evaluation showed the method obtained a sensitivity of 62.8%, specificity of 93.9%, precision of 90% and F-measure of 73.9%. This pilot study demonstrated that linking external drug indication knowledge to the EHR for determining the reasons for medication use was promising, but also revealed some challenges. Future work will focus on increasing the accuracy and coverage of the indication knowledge and evaluating its performance using a much larger set of drugs frequently used in the outpatient population. PMID:22195134

  10. Teaching Electroconvulsive Therapy to Medical Students: Effects of Instructional Method on Knowledge and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warnell, Ronald L.; Duk, Anthony D.; Christison, George W.; Haviland, Mark G.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of learning about electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) via live observation to learning via an instructional videotape. Method: During their psychiatry clerkship, 122 medical students were randomized using these two educational methods, and their ECT knowledge and attitudes were assessed during the first and last weeks…

  11. Impact of a Preventive Cardiology Curriculum on Knowledge and Attitudes of First-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veitia, Marie C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    A study of 54 first-year Marshall University (West Virginia) medical students found that a preventive cardiology curriculum improved both knowledge of and attitudes about preventive cardiology in general and on all 4 subscales (epidemiological evidence, risk factor characteristics, pathophysiology, primary interventions). (Author/MSE)

  12. Enhancing Nursing Students' Medication Knowledge: The Effect of Learning Materials Delivered by Short Message Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Tsao, Chiung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of using mobile phone short message service (SMS) to enhance knowledge of medications among nursing students. A quasi-experimental design was used. A convenience sample of 111 nursing students who were taking a pharmacology course at a university in southern Taiwan received an invitation to…

  13. Nutrition knowledge, attitudes and practices among senior medical students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hu, S P; Liu, J F; Shieh, M J

    1997-10-01

    A questionnaire administered to 528 senior medical students from all 9 medical colleges in Taiwan revealed a need for curriculum modifications to improve nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. At present, 5 of the medical schools offer elective courses on nutrition, but a nutrition curriculum is not required during medical training. The 20 items on the questionnaire concerned the nutritional functions of various nutrients, nutrition management in disease states, nutrition in disease prevention, and nutrition status assessment. On a 10-point scale, the average score was 5.99 on general nutrition knowledge and 5.15 on clinical nutritional knowledge. Correct responses were highest (77.0%) on the 2 questions concerning the nutritive content of foods and lowest (17.35%) on nutrition status assessment. Only 50% knew the definition of a balanced diet and just 30% were concerned about the caloric content of their own diet. Overall, these findings suggest that nutrition education, including an evaluation of one's own diet, should be incorporated into the training programs of Taiwanese medical students. PMID:9322192

  14. Knowledge-based approaches to the maintenance of a large controlled medical terminology.

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J J; Clayton, P D; Hripcsak, G; Johnson, S B

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Develop a knowledge-based representation for a controlled terminology of clinical information to facilitate creation, maintenance, and use of the terminology. DESIGN: The Medical Entities Dictionary (MED) is a semantic network, based on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), with a directed acyclic graph to represent multiple hierarchies. Terms from four hospital systems (laboratory, electrocardiography, medical records coding, and pharmacy) were added as nodes in the network. Additional knowledge about terms, added as semantic links, was used to assist in integration, harmonization, and automated classification of disparate terminologies. RESULTS: The MED contains 32,767 terms and is in active clinical use. Automated classification was successfully applied to terms for laboratory specimens, laboratory tests, and medications. One benefit of the approach has been the automated inclusion of medications into multiple pharmacologic and allergenic classes that were not present in the pharmacy system. Another benefit has been the reduction of maintenance efforts by 90%. CONCLUSION: The MED is a hybrid of terminology and knowledge. It provides domain coverage, synonymy, consistency of views, explicit relationships, and multiple classification while preventing redundancy, ambiguity (homonymy) and misclassification. PMID:7719786

  15. Decisions about knowledge in medical practice: the effect of temporal features of a task.

    PubMed

    Menchik, Daniel A

    2014-11-01

    A classic question of social science is how knowledge informs practice. Research on physicians' decisions about medical knowledge has focused on doctors' personal capabilities and features of the knowledge corpus, producing divergent findings. This study asks, instead, How is decision making about the use of knowledge influenced by features of work? From observations of one team's decisions in multiple clinical and administrative contexts, the author argues that making decisions is contingent upon temporal features of physicians' tasks. Physicians receive feedback at different speeds, and they must account for these speeds when judging what they can prioritize. This finding explains doctors' perceived uncertainty in other studies as a product of the long feedback loop in tasks, and their certainty or pragmatism as a product of shorter feedback loops. In these latter scenario's, physicians consider and deploy scientific knowledge after--and not before, as is usually assumed--determining a fruitful plan of action. PMID:25848669

  16. Combining Task Execution and Background Knowledge for the Verification of Medical Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommersom, Arjen; Groot, Perry; Lucas, Peter; Balser, Michael; Schmitt, Jonathan

    The use of a medical guideline can be seen as the execution of computational tasks, sequentially or in parallel, in the face of patient data. It has been shown that many of such guidelines can be represented as a 'network of tasks', i.e., as a number of steps that have a specific function or goal. To investigate the quality of such guidelines we propose a formalization of criteria for good practice medicine a guideline should comply to. We use this theory in conjunction with medical background knowledge to verify the quality of a guideline dealing with diabetes mellitus type 2 using the interactive theorem prover KIV. Verification using task execution and background knowledge is a novel approach to quality checking of medical guidelines.

  17. Medical providers' self perceived knowledge and skills for working with eating disorders: a national survey.

    PubMed

    Linville, Deanna; Brown, Tiffany; O'Neil, Maya

    2012-01-01

    Research indicates that individuals suffering from an eating disorder (ED) consult their general practitioners more frequently than those without an eating disorder (Mond, Myers, Crosby, Hay, & Mitchell, 2010). However, little is known about medical providers' existing knowledge of and training in ED detection, intervention, and treatment. This study aimed to examine national medical providers' self-perceived knowledge, skills, and needs around eating disorder screening and intervention strategies. Utilizing survey design, a randomized sample of national medical providers responded to a 23-question survey. Sixty-eight percent of respondents indicated that they did not think to screen for an eating disorder because it was not the presenting concern and nearly 59% of providers did not feel like they had the skills necessary to intervene with eating disorders. Training implications and future research directions are discussed. PMID:22188056

  18. Physicians' knowledge, attitude and practices regarding management of medications in Ramadan.

    PubMed

    Jaber, D; Albsoul-Younes, A; Wazaify, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of physicians regarding the management of medications in Ramadan we used a self-administered questionnaire on a target sample of 381 physicians at Jordan University Hospital, King Abdulla University Hospital and a number of private clinics in Amman, during September and October of 2008. A total of 297 questionnaires were returned. Physicians' KAP about management of medications in Ramadan was generally insufficient. The main factors that affected KAP were age, nationality, specialty, and country and year of last qualification (P < 0.05). Female physicians scored better than males, and fellows scored better than other groups for knowledge. Most physicians' attitudes and practices were in line with religious opinion in regard to which routes of drug administration can nullify fasting, indicating that physicians have adequate knowledge in this area. PMID:24932935

  19. Knowledge about cancer screening among medical students and internal medicine residents in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; García-Aceituno, Luis; Villa, Antonio R; Perfecto-Arroyo, Miguel; Rojas-Flores, Miriam; León-Rodríguez, Eucario

    2010-12-01

    It is extremely important that physicians are aware of cancer screening precise indications. We sought to explore its knowledge among Mexican medical students and internal medicine residents. Students and residents completed a questionnaire-based survey about breast, cervical, colon, and prostate cancer screening. Four hundred fifty-one individuals answered the survey: 64.52% students and 35.48% residents. Mean knowledge score was 63.97 ± 14.97. Residents scored higher than students (p = 0.0001). No difference in the education concerning cervical and colon cancer screening was found. Knowledge of screening guidelines is suboptimal among medical students and residents. Further efforts should be targeted to educational and training programs in this country. PMID:20221811

  20. A European perspective on medical tourism: the need for a knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Percivil; Lunt, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 1990s, medical tourism, whereby individuals choose to travel across national borders or overseas to receive treatments, has been increasingly recognized in the United States and Asia. This article highlights the emergence of medical tourism in the European context. It examines the drivers for such developments and situates medical tourism within the broader context of health globalization and forms of patient mobility in the European Union. In outlining the developments of medical tourism in Europe, the authors distinguish between two types of medical tourist: the citizen and the consumer. The discussion explores the need for greater empirical research on medical tourism in Europe and argues that such research will contribute toward knowledge of patient mobility and the broader theorization of medical tourism. The authors make suggestions about the content of this research agenda, including understanding the development of medical tourist markets, the nature of choice, equity implications, the role of brokers and intermediaries, and general issues for health management. PMID:20799671

  1. The sensitivity of medical diagnostic decision-support knowledge bases in delineating appropriate terms to document in the medical record.

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, M. J.; Barnett, G. O.; Morgan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    A pertinent, legible and complete medical record facilitates good patient care. The recording of the symptoms, signs and lab findings which are relevant to a patient's condition contributes importantly to the medical record. The consideration and documentation of other disease states known to be related to the patient's primary illness provide further enhancement. We propose that developing sets of disease-specific core elements which a physician may want to document in the medical record can have many benefits. We hypothesize that for a given disease, terms with high importance (TI) and frequency (TF) in the DX-plain, QMR and Iliad knowledge bases (KBs) are terms which are used commonly in the medical record, and may be, in fact, terms which physicians would find useful to document. A study was undertaken to validate ten such sets of disease-specific core elements. For each of ten prevalent diseases, high TI and TF terms from the three KBs mentioned were pooled to derive the set of core elements. For each disease, all patient records (range 385 to 16,972) from a computerized ambulatory medical record database were searched to document the actual use by physicians of each of these core elements. A significant percentage (range 50 to 86%) of each set of core elements was confirmed as being used by the physicians. In addition, all medical concepts from a selection of full text records were identified, and an average of 65% of the concepts were found to be core elements.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1807600

  2. Aluminium and lead abnormalities in children on haemodialysis: relationship with some medications

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, Samar; Mokhtar, Inas; El-Saaid, Gamila S.; Raafat, Mona; Abd-El Haleem, Dalia A.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The determination of toxic elements in the biological samples of human beings is an important clinical procedure. This study was performed to investigate the prevalence of abnormal blood contents of 2 trace elements (TEs), aluminum (Al),and lead (Pb) in hemodialysis (HD) patients and to analyze their relationship with the medications, such as CaCO3, Ca acetate, 1,25-dihydroxy vit. D3, and erythropoietin (EPO), as well as hematocrit level. Material and methods We included 43 patients on maintenance HD and they had continued the previously mentioned medications for at least 3 months. None of the patients were on Al containing phosphate binding agents. Results Serum aluminum and lead levels were significantly increased than in the healthy controls, but levels of both of them were far below toxic values. Male patients had higher mean levels of lead than did females. A strong positive correlation was found between serum Al and serum Pb levels among patients (r = 0.075, p = 0.0001).The serum level of Pb was positively correlated with the serum albumin in HD patients (r = 0.45, p = 0.03). Both serum aluminium and lead levels positively correlated with the EPO dose taken by the patients (r = 0.77, p = 0.0001 and r = 0.67, p = 0.0001 respectively). Conclusions The blood level of trace metals of these HD patients was not related to their medications except for the EPO dose. However, caution must be exercised in interpreting this result as dose and duration of medication may play an important role. Al and Pb over load may be considered from the causes of inadequate response to epoetin therapy. PMID:22371781

  3. Pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of medication for termination of pregnancy in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, Kate; Footman, Katharine; Akora, Vitalis; Liambila, Wilson; Ngo, Thoai D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess pharmacy workers’ knowledge and provision of abortion information and methods in Kenya. Methods In 2013 we interviewed 235 pharmacy workers in Nairobi, Mombasa and Kisumu about the medical abortion services they provide. We also used mystery clients, who made 401 visits to pharmacies to collect first-hand information on abortion practices. Results The majority (87.5%) of pharmacy workers had heard of misoprostol but only 39.2% had heard of mifepristone. We found that pharmacy workers had limited knowledge of correct medical abortion regimens, side effects and complications and the legal status of abortion drugs. 49.8% of pharmacy workers reported providing abortion information to clients and 4.3% reported providing abortion methods. 75.2% of pharmacies referred mystery clients to another provider, though 64.2% of pharmacies advised mystery clients to continue with their pregnancy. Pharmacy workers reported that they were experiencing demand for abortion services from clients. Conclusions Pharmacy workers are important providers of information and referrals for women seeking abortion, however their medical abortion knowledge is limited. Training pharmacy workers on medical abortion may improve the quality of information provided and access to safe abortion. PMID:26869694

  4. KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION OF PARENTS ON THE USE OF COUGH AND COLD MEDICATIONS IN CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Yong, Chew Chin; Islahudin, Farida; Shah, Noraida Mohamed

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the knowledge, attitude and perception of parents on the use of cough and cold medications in children. Questionnaires were distributed to parents of children aged < or =6 years in selected kindergartens. The overall knowledge of the parents (n=248) was satisfactory with a mean score of 5.87 +/- 1.70 (from a total of 10) and the overall attitude was positive with a mean score of 41.15 +/- 6.72 (from a total of 50). Ten percent of parents admitted administering cough and cold medications in children aged <2 years. Age of the parents, education level and monthly income were found to significantly influence knowledge level (p<0.05). Spearman's rank-order correlation between knowledge and attitude scores showed a statistically significant positive linear relationship (r(s), = 0.290, p<0.05). The study provides some insights into the use of cough and cold medications in children from the parents' perspectives. PMID:26521526

  5. Trend of knowledge production of research centers in the field of medical sciences in iran.

    PubMed

    Falahat, K; Eftekhari, Mb; Habibi, E; Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M; Mojarrab, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science). Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country. PMID:23865017

  6. A case report of adult lead toxicity following use of Ayurvedic herbal medication

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Ayurvedic medications consist of herbs that may be intentionally combined with metals, such as lead, mercury, iron, and zinc. Ayurvedic practitioners and their patients believe that the toxic properties of the metals are reduced or eliminated during preparation and processing. Case report A 69 year old Caucasian male retired professional with a prior history of stroke presented for evaluation of new onset depression, fatigue, generalized weakness, constipation, anorexia, and weight loss. History revealed that his symptoms were temporally related to initiation of an Ayurvedic herbal medication. The patient had been previously admitted to another hospital for these symptoms and was found to have a severe anemia for which no etiology was found. Laboratory tests revealed an elevated blood lead level and a diagnosis of symptomatic lead toxicity was made. The patient was treated with intramuscular, intravenous, and oral chelation therapy to promote lead excretion. Because of complaints of continued poor mental function, neuropsychological tests were administered before and after one of the chelation treatments and showed improvement in measures of attention and other cognitive domains. In addition, the patient was able to discontinue use of antidepressant medication after chelation. Discussion A high index of suspicion of metal toxicity is necessary among persons with characteristic symptoms and signs in the absence of occupational exposure. Despite limited evidence for chelation in adults and in those with modest blood lead levels, this patient appeared to benefit from repeated chelation therapy. Both allopathic and alternative medicine practitioners and public health specialists need to be aware of the potential for contamination of and side effects from alternative pharmacologic and herbal therapies. PMID:24083830

  7. Correlation between Knowledge, Experience and Common Sense, with Critical Thinking Capability of Medical Faculty's Students at Indonesia Christian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeak, Bernadetha

    2015-01-01

    This research discusses correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Student. As to the objective of this research is to find the correlation between knowledge, experience and common sense with critical thinking of Medical Faculty's Students at Christian University of Indonesia. It is…

  8. Knowledge and Attitude of Medical Nurses toward Oral Health and Oral Health Care of Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharif, Suzana; Saddki, Norkhafizah; Yusoff, Azizah

    2016-01-01

    Background This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes of medical nurses regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Methods This cross sectional study of 133 nurses in the district of Tumpat, Kelantan (Malaysia) used self-administered questionnaires. Results Most nurses knew that dental plaque is associated with periodontal disease (97.7%). However, most nurses erroneously believed that tooth decay (86.5%) and excessive sugar consumption (87.2%) led to periodontal disease. About half of the nurses knew about the relationship between periodontal disease of pregnant women and low birth weight (43.6%) and preterm birth (48.9%). Many nurses had the misconception that the developing foetus draws calcium from the mothers’ teeth (78.2%). Most nurses had good attitudes toward improving their oral health knowledge (97.0%) and agreed they should help to deliver oral health education to pregnant women (94.0%). Age, length of service as a nurse, and length of service in antenatal care had no effect on the scores for the nurses’ knowledge and attitude regarding oral health and oral health care of pregnant women. Conclusion Medical nurses had limited knowledge about oral health of pregnant women and had some misunderstandings about oral health, although they had good attitudes. Age, length of service as a nurse, and length service in antenatal care had no effect on the knowledge and attitude scores of the nurses. PMID:27540327

  9. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  10. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lead Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Lead Poisoning is Preventable If your home was built before ... of the RRP rule. Read more . Learn about Lead Poisoning Prevention Week . Report Uncertified Contractors and Environmental Violations ...

  11. The politics of healthcare informatics: knowledge management using an electronic medical record system.

    PubMed

    Bar-Lev, Shirly

    2015-03-01

    The design and implementation of an electronic medical record system pose significant epistemological and practical complexities. Despite optimistic assessments of their potential contribution to the quality of care, their implementation has been problematic, and their actual employment in various clinical settings remains controversial. Little is known about how their use actually mediates knowing. Employing a variety of qualitative research methods, this article attempts an answer by illustrating how omitting, editing and excessive reporting were employed as part of nurses' and physicians' political efforts to shape knowledge production and knowledge sharing in a technologically mediated healthcare setting. PMID:25581280

  12. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-06-01

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance-a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464-4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041-2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self-medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120-2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343-2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477-3.991; p < 0.001) were more likely to use antibiotics in self-medication. Lithuanian residents' knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention. PMID:26090612

  13. Public Knowledge, Beliefs and Behavior on Antibiotic Use and Self-Medication in Lithuania

    PubMed Central

    Pavydė, Eglė; Veikutis, Vincentas; Mačiulienė, Asta; Mačiulis, Vytautas; Petrikonis, Kęstutis; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2015-01-01

    Irrational antibiotic use has led society to antibiotic resistance—a serious health problem worldwide. This study aimed to assess public knowledge, beliefs, and behavior concerning antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. The cross-sectional survey method was processed using a validated questionnaire in different regions of Lithuania. In total, 1005 adults completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. More than half of the respondents (61.1%) had poor knowledge of antibiotics. Almost half of the respondents incorrectly identified antibiotics as being effective either against viral (26.0%) or mixed (bacterial and viral) infections (21.7%). The respondents with lower educational qualifications (OR = 2.515; 95% CI 1.464–4.319; p = 0.001) and those from rural areas (OR = 1.765; 95% CI 1.041–2.991; p = 0.035) were significantly less knowledgeable of antibiotics. There was no significant difference between genders, different age groups, or different parenthood status. The determined level of self–medication with antibiotics was 31.0%. The men (OR = 1.650; 95% CI 1.120–2.430; p = 0.011), the respondents from rural areas (OR = 2.002; 95% CI 1.343–2.985; p = 0.001), and those without children (OR = 2.428; 95% CI 1.477–3.991; p < 0.001) were more likely to use antibiotics in self-medication. Lithuanian residents’ knowledge of antibiotics is insufficient. More information about antibiotic use should be provided by physicians and pharmacists. Self-medication with antibiotics is a serious problem in Lithuania and requires considerable attention. PMID:26090612

  14. An Increase in Medical Student Knowledge of Radiation Oncology: A Pre-Post Examination Analysis of the Oncology Education Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Ariel E. Mulleady Bishop, Pauline; Dad, Luqman; Singh, Deeptej; Slanetz, Priscilla J.

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: The Oncology Education Initiative was created to advance oncology and radiation oncology education by integrating structured didactics into the existing core radiology clerkship. We set out to determine whether the addition of structured didactics could lead to a significant increase in overall medical student knowledge about radiation oncology. Methods and Materials: We conducted a pre- and posttest examining concepts in general radiation oncology, breast cancer, and prostate cancer. The 15-question, multiple-choice exam was administered before and after a 1.5-hour didactic lecture by an attending physician in radiation oncology. Individual question changes, overall student changes, and overall categorical changes were analyzed. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed (significance level 0.05). Results: Of the 153 fourth-year students, 137 (90%) took the pre- and posttest and were present for the didactic lecture. The average test grade improved from 59% to 70% (p = 0.011). Improvement was seen in all questions except clinical vignettes involving correct identification of TNM staging. Statistically significant improvement (p {<=} 0.03) was seen in the questions regarding acute and late side effects of radiation, brachytherapy for prostate cancer, delivery of radiation treatment, and management of early-stage breast cancer. Conclusions: Addition of didactics in radiation oncology significantly improves medical students' knowledge of the topic. Despite perceived difficulty in teaching radiation oncology and the assumption that it is beyond the scope of reasonable knowledge for medical students, we have shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn and absorb general principles regarding radiation oncology.

  15. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... obvious symptoms, it frequently goes unrecognized. CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program is committed to the Healthy People ... Lead Levels Information for Parents Tips for preventing lead poisoning About Us Overview of CDC’s Childhood Lead Poisoning ...

  16. Knowledge, awareness, and attitude regarding infection prevention and control among medical students: a call for educational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Awab Ali; Elshafie, Sittana Shamseldin

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical students can be exposed to serious health care-associated infections, if they are not following infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. There is limited information regarding the knowledge, awareness, and practices of medical students regarding IPC and the educational approaches used to teach them these practices. Aim To evaluate the knowledge, awareness, and attitude of medical students toward IPC guidelines, and the learning approaches to help improve their knowledge. Methods A cross-sectional, interview-based survey included 73 medical students from Weill Cornell Medical College, Qatar. Students completed a questionnaire concerning awareness, knowledge, and attitude regarding IPC practices. Students’ knowledge was assessed by their correct answers to the survey questions. Findings A total of 48.44% of the respondents were aware of standard isolation precautions, 61.90% were satisfied with their training in IPC, 66.13% were exposed to hand hygiene training, while 85.48% had sufficient knowledge about hand hygiene and practiced it on a routine basis, but only 33.87% knew the duration of the hand hygiene procedure. Conclusion Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of IPC measures among Weill Cornell Medical Students in Qatar were found to be inadequate. Multifaceted training programs may have to target newly graduated medical practitioners or the training has to be included in the graduate medical curriculum to enable them to adopt and adhere to IPC guidelines. PMID:27579002

  17. Knowledge and skill in motion: layers of Tibetan medical education in India.

    PubMed

    Pordié, Laurent; Blaikie, Calum

    2014-09-01

    This article examines the transmission of Tibetan medical knowledge in the Himalayan region of Ladakh (India), taking three educational settings as ethnographic ports of entry. Each of these corresponds to a different operating mode in the standardisation of medical knowledge and learning processes, holding profound implications for the way this therapeutic tradition is known, valued, applied and passed on to the next generation. Being at the same time a cause and a consequence of intra-regional variability in Tibetan medicine, the three institutional forms coexist in constant interaction with one another. The authors render this visible by examining the 'taskscapes' that characterize each learning context, that is to say, the specific and interlocking sets of practices and tasks in which a practitioner must be skilled in order to be considered competent. The authors build upon this notion by studying two fields of transmission and practice, relating to medicine production and medical ethics. These domains of enquiry provide a rich grounding from which to examine the transition from enskilment to education, as well as the overlaps between them, and to map out the connections linking different educational forms to social and medical legitimacy in contemporary India. PMID:25074035

  18. Medical students' knowledge of indications for imaging modalities and cost analysis of incorrect requests, shiraz, iran 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Islami Parkoohi, Parisa; Jalli, Reza; Danaei, Mina; Khajavian, Shiva; Askarian, Mehrdad

    2014-05-01

    Medical imaging has a remarkable role in the practice of clinical medicine. This study intends to evaluate the knowledge of indications of five common medical imaging modalities and estimation of the imposed cost of their non-indicated requests among medical students who attend Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. We conducted across-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire to assess the knowledge of indications of a number of medical imaging modalities among 270 medical students during their externship or internship periods. Knowledge scoring was performed according to a descriptive international grade conversion (fail to excellent) using Iranian academic grading (0 to 20). In addition, we estimated the cost for incorrect selection of those modalities according to public and private tariffs in US dollars. The participation and response rate was 200/270 (74%). The mean knowledge score was fair for all modalities. Similar scores were excellent for X-ray, acceptable for Doppler ultrasonography, and fair for ultrasonography, CT scan and MRI. The total cost for non-indicated requests of those modalities equaled $104303 (public tariff) and $205581 (private tariff). Medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences lacked favorable knowledge about indications for common medical imaging modalities. The results of this study have shown a significant cost for non-indicated requests of medical imaging. Of note, the present radiology curriculum is in need of a major revision with regards to evidence-based radiology and health economy concerns. PMID:24850988

  19. Features of Effective Medical Knowledge Resources to Support Point of Care Learning: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David A.; Sorensen, Kristi J.; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A.; Wilkinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. Methods We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. Results We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. Conclusion The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field. PMID:24282535

  20. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... destroyed knowledge test report must be made by letter to the Department of Transportation, FAA,...

  1. 14 CFR 61.29 - Replacement of a lost or destroyed airman or medical certificate or knowledge test report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... or medical certificate or knowledge test report. 61.29 Section 61.29 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... certificate or knowledge test report. (a) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed airman... payment for the appropriate fee. (c) A request for the replacement of a lost or destroyed knowledge...

  2. (ETHNO-)MEDICAL ETHICS IN GLOBALIZING CHINA: TRACING LOCAL KNOWLEDGE AND ADAPTATION OF BIOMEDICINE.

    PubMed

    Micollier, Evelyne

    2015-12-01

    Encounters between several bodies of therapeutic knowledge have led to a restructuring of the entire health system, including a transformation in medical ethics. Defining "new ethics" with both Chinese and international characteristics, is part of the ongoing knowledge production process: plural health ideas, practices and medical sciences develop within the broader framework of social and economic transition. Such transition simultaneously reveals and encourages China's influence and position in an era of globalization including in the technical and knowledge production domains. Re-alignments in medical ethics in Reform China (post-1979) highlight a rather under-explored aspect of medical plurality enabling these ethics to be used as an analytical lens to provide information about social and political issues. In this article, two sets of ethical principles, one from Late Imperial China (Late Ming Era), the other from post-Mao China (1980s), are detailed and analysed. They were selected as case-studies mainly because they reflected at the time of their emergence an on-going radical change in society in the realm of health and medicine. Therefore both sets unveil the process of legitimizing a "Chinese medicine" in a context of epistemological shift: such a process takes various conceptual and practicalforms framed along the lines of the current dominant ideological system and constrained by socio-economic and political factors. Finally, issues relative to research ethics, bioethics and the New Health Reform guidelines raised in the 2000s, which represents also a significant historical turn for China, are discussed. Drawn from the overall discussion throughout the text, several concluding remarks contribute to advocate for "win-win" encounters--from the East to the West and from the South to the South, and for more implementable transnational/global ethics designing. PMID:27120825

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of health professionals and women towards medication use in breastfeeding: A review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medicines, especially those available over-the-counter, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals such as general practitioners and pharmacists. The primary aim of this review therefore, was to investigate the literature relating to health professionals' and women's knowledge, attitudes and practices towards medication use and safety in breastfeeding. The limited literature that was uncovered identified that general practitioners and pharmacists have poor knowledge, but positive attitudes, and variable practices that are mostly guided by personal experience. They tend to make decisions about the use of a medicine whilst breastfeeding based on the potential 'risk' that it poses to the infant in terms of possible adverse reactions, rather than its 'compatibility' with breast milk. The decision-making process between health professionals and women is usually not a negotiated process, and women are often asked to stop breastfeeding whilst taking a medicine. Women, in turn, are left dissatisfied with the advice received, many choosing not to initiate therapy or not to continue breastfeeding. Some directions for future research have been suggested to address the issues identified in this critical area. This review is important from a societal perspective because many breastfeeding women require and regularly take medications, especially those available without prescription, and the safe use of these is dependent on the advice provided by health professionals, which is ultimately influenced by their knowledge, attitudes and practices. However, there is an absence of high quality evidence from randomised controlled trials on the safety of medications taken during breastfeeding, which naturally would hinder health professionals from appropriately advising women. It is equally important to know about women's experiences of advice received from health professionals, and whether

  4. Knowledge Exchange for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Research: An Integrated Evidence and Knowledge Exchange Framework Leading to More Effective Research Dissemination Practices

    PubMed Central

    Levesque, Peter; Davidson, Simon; Kidder, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge Exchange refers to activities that help to create and support the conditions and culture that lead to the most effective access, implementation, utilization, and evaluation of the most credible evidence for improved mental health outcomes for children and youth in Ontario. Although knowledge exchange and associated concepts such as knowledge transfer and translation are increasingly well developed in other aspects of health and healthcare, it is underdeveloped in mental health generally. This paper introduces some of the basic concepts of knowledge exchange and calls for more development of knowledge exchange in the area of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Research. Methods This is a discussion paper that presents a general overview of the Centre’s approach to knowledge exchange. It links the discussion to related concepts and to the need to overcome the research to practice gap. The Integrated Evidence and Knowledge Exchange Framework of the Provincial Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health is introduced. Areas of active development in knowledge exchange are categorized into three objectives: context, content, and capacity. Results The use of an Integrated Evidence and Knowledge Exchange Framework for the Centre’s Grants and Awards program activities and evaluation has begun to explicitly and transparently link the evidence on effective knowledge exchange with the evidence on effective treatment for children and youth with mental health difficulties including ADHD. This framework is expected to produce greater transparency as well as improved attainment of outputs, outcomes, and impacts of these grants and awards in child and youth mental health. Conclusions Knowledge exchange activities may reduce the confusion for parents & care-givers, practitioners, researchers, and administrators, seeking the most credible data, information and knowledge about the most effective treatments for ADHD. An active process that

  5. A Survey of the Knowledge of Venous Thromboembolism Prophylaxis among the Medical Staff of Intensive Care Units in North China

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiao; Sun, Bing; Yang, Yuanhua; Tong, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Background Guideline concordance for venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis in critically ill patients in intensive care units (ICUs) varies across different countries. Objective To explore how the medical staff of ICUs in China comprehend and practice VTE prophylaxis. Method Questionnaires comprising 39 questions and including 4 dimensions of thromboprophylaxis were administered in ICUs in North China. Results In all, 52 ICUs at 23 tertiary hospitals in 7 Chinese provinces and municipalities were surveyed. A total of 2500 questionnaires were sent, and 1861 were returned, corresponding to a response rate of approximately 74.4%. Of all surveyed medical staff, 36.5% of physicians and 22.2% of nurses were aware of the guidelines in China, and 19.0% of physicians and 9.5% of nurses comprehended the 9th edition of the guidelines of the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP). Additionally, 37.6% of the medical staff chose a prophylaxis method based on the related guidelines, and 10.3% could demonstrate the exact indication for mechanical pattern application. Worries about skin injury, difficulty with removal and discomfort during mechanical thromboprophylaxis were cited by more than 30% of nurses, which was significantly more frequent than for physicians (graduated compression stockings: 54.3% VS 34.1%, 60.7% VS 49%, and 59.4% VS 54%, p = 0.000; intermittent pneumatic compression: 31% VS 22.2%, 19.2% VS 13.9%, and 37.8% VS 27.2%, p = 0.000). Conclusions and Relevance The knowledge of VTE prophylaxis among the medical staff of ICUs in North China remains limited, which may lead to a lack of standardization of VTE prophylaxis. Strengthened, standardized training may help medical staff to improve their comprehension of the relevant guidelines and may finally reduce the occurrence of VTE in ICUs and improve the prognosis of critically ill patients with VTE. PMID:26418162

  6. Traditional knowledge and formulations of medicinal plants used by the traditional medical practitioners of bangladesh to treat schizophrenia like psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Md Nasir; Kabidul Azam, Md Nur

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia. PMID:25101175

  7. Traditional Knowledge and Formulations of Medicinal Plants Used by the Traditional Medical Practitioners of Bangladesh to Treat Schizophrenia Like Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Kabidul Azam, Md. Nur

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a subtle disorder of brain development and plasticity; it affects the most basic human processes of perception, emotion, and judgment. In Bangladesh the traditional medical practitioners of rural and remote areas characterized the schizophrenia as an insanity or a mental problem due to possession by ghosts or evil spirits and they have used various plant species' to treat such symptoms. The aim of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal plant survey and documentation of the formulations of different plant parts used by the traditional medical practitioners of Rangamati district of Bangladesh for the treatment of schizophrenia like psychosis. It was observed that the traditional medical practitioners used a total of 15 plant species to make 14 formulations. The plants were divided into 13 families, used for treatment of schizophrenia and accompanying symptoms like hallucination, depression, oversleeping or insomnia, deterioration of personal hygiene, forgetfulness, and fear due to evil spirits like genies or ghost. A search of the relevant scientific literatures showed that a number of plants used by the medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses and traditional medicinal knowledge has been a means towards the discovery of many modern medicines. Moreover, the antipsychotic drug reserpine, isolated from the dried root of Rauvolfia serpentina species, revolutionized the treatment of schizophrenia. So it is very much possible that formulations of the practitioner, when examined scientifically in their entireties, can form discovery of lead compounds which can be used as safe and effective antipsychotic drug to treat schizophrenia. PMID:25101175

  8. Knowledge about Ultraviolet Radiation Hazards and Tanning Behavior of Cosmetology and Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Zuba, Ewelina Bogumiła; Francuzik, Wojciech; Malicki, Przemysław; Osmola-Mańkowska, Agnieszka; Jenerowicz, Dorota

    2016-04-01

    Dear Editor, Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well-known physical hazard responsible for photoaging, photoallergic, and phototoxic reactions as well as carcinogenesis, including life-threatening melanomas (1,2). Overexposure to both natural and artificial UV radiation is a public health concern. 30% of cancers diagnosed worldwide are skin cancers. Approximately three million non-melanoma skin cancers and 132 000 new cases of melanomas are diagnosed globally each year (3). Sunburns, especially in childhood, are a very important risk factor for melanomas. Several studies demonstrated a positive association between sunbed use and an increased incidence of malignant melanoma (4). Current medical and cosmetology students will soon be knowledge providers about the risks of excessive exposure to UV radiation and prophylaxis of its consequences. Our aim was to evaluate their knowledge about the side effects of ultraviolet radiation and tanning behaviors. Details on the knowledge and habits of students were obtained during classes at the Poznan University of Medical Sciences. With approval from the Institutional Bioethical Committee, a 41-question anonymous survey was conducted in the spring of 2012 among 190 medical (1-6 year) and cosmetology students (1-5 year). The mean age of the study group was 22.3 years (standard deviation (SD) = 2.4 years), range 19-28 years. The survey was composed of closed and open-ended questions prepared by the authors. The first part of the form included demographic data: gender, age, degree course, and school year. The students were also asked about their reaction to sunlight, sunburns in childhood, and personal and family history of skin cancers or dysplastic nevus syndrome. The factual section of the survey contained questions evaluating responder knowledge about sunbeds and risk of UV radiation as well as their personal tanning habits. The open-ended questions asked responders to provide definitions of: skin phototype, sun protection factor

  9. [Is human behavior the leading cause of complications in medical practice?].

    PubMed

    Renouard, Franck; Perrault-Pierre, Edith

    2016-03-01

    Medical errors and the resulting complications are most often analyzed from a purely technical viewpoint. The impact of human behavior is very seldom raised among the major causes of severe undesirable events (SUE) in the medical field. When human responsibility is advanced, the thrust is always negative and critical, i.e. the "culprit" did not comply with the rules. However, in other risk-related human activities, such as aeronautics or the nuclear energy sector, the influence of human behavior in triggering SUEs has been examined and is now acknowledged to be one of the main causes of complications and problems. Specific protocols have been devised to reduce the number of mistakes made and to eliminate repercussions when errors inevitably occur. This novel approach has considerably reduced the accident rate in this type of industry. The aim of this article is to show that the same approach can be adopted in medicine and that taking human factors into account when analyzing medical practices can lead to significant improvements in safety and security. PMID:27083218

  10. Rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards medical male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Andrew; Ogbonnaya, Harbor

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical male circumcision (MMC) is a key strategy in the South African HIV infection prevention package. Women may have a potentially powerful role in supporting such a strategy. Circumcision is not a traditional part of Zulu society, and Zulu women may have limited knowledge and ambivalent or negative attitudes towards MMC. Aim This study employs quantitative data to expand insight into rural Zulu women's knowledge of and attitudes towards MMC, and is important as women could potentially yield a powerful positive or negative influence over the decisions of their partners and sons. Setting A hospital-based antenatal clinic in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Methods Participants were 590 pregnant, mostly isiZulu-speaking women. Data on their knowledge of and attitude towards MMC were collected using a questionnaire and were analysed descriptively. Results The majority of the women supported MMC; however, knowledge of the potential benefits was generally poor. Most would encourage their partners and sons to undergo MMC. The preferred place for the procedure was a hospital. Conclusion Zulu participants supported MMC and would support their partners and children being circumcised. Knowledge around potential benefits was worryingly poor, and further research into disseminating information is essential. The findings highlight the need for an expanded campaign of health education for women, and innovative means are suggested to enhance information accessibility. Reasons for preferring that MMC be carried out in hospital need to be explored further. PMID:26245595

  11. The emergency physician and knowledge transfer: continuing medical education, continuing professional development, and self-improvement.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Barbara J; Binder, Louis S; Marsden, Julian

    2007-11-01

    A workshop session from the 2007 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference, Knowledge Translation in Emergency Medicine: Establishing a Research Agenda and Guide Map for Evidence Uptake, focused on developing a research agenda for continuing medical education (CME) in knowledge transfer. Based on quasi-Delphi methodology at the conference session, and subsequent electronic discussion and refinement, the following recommendations are made: 1) Adaptable tools should be developed, validated, and psychometrically tested for needs assessment. 2) "Point of care" learning within a clinical context should be evaluated as a tool for practice changes and improved knowledge transfer. 3) The addition of a CME component to technological platforms, such as search engines and databases, simulation technology, and clinical decision-support systems, may help knowledge transfer for clinicians or increase utilization of these tools and should, therefore, be evaluated. 4) Further research should focus on identifying the appropriate outcomes for physician CME. Emergency medicine researchers should transition from previous media-comparison research agendas to a more rigorous qualitative focus that takes into account needs assessment, instructional design, implementation, provider change, and care change. 5) In the setting of continued physician learning, barriers to the subsequent implementation of knowledge transfer and behavioral changes of physicians should be elicited through research. PMID:17967962

  12. Evaluation of long-term maintenance of a large medical knowledge base.

    PubMed Central

    Giuse, D A; Giuse, N B; Miller, R A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of long-term maintenance activities on existing portions of a large internal medicine knowledge base. DESIGN: Five physicians who were not among the original developers of the knowledge base independently updated a total of 15 QMR disease profiles; each updated submission was modified by a review of group serving as the "gold standard, " and the pre- and post-study versions of each updated disease profile were compared. MEASUREMENTS: Numbers and types of changes, defined as any difference between the original version and the final version of a disease profile; reason for each change; and bibliographic references cited by the physicians as supporting evidence. RESULTS: A total of 16% of all entries were modified by the updating process; up to 95% of the entries in a disease profile were affected. The two most common modifications were changes to the frequency of an entry, and creation of a new entry. Laboratory findings were affected much more often than were history, symptom, or physical exam findings. The dominant reason for changes was appearance of new evidence in the medical literature. The literature cited ranged from 1944 to the present. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides an evaluation of the rate of change within the QMR medical knowledge base due to long-term maintenance. The results show that this is a demanding activity that may profoundly affect certain portions of a knowledge base, and that different types of knowledge (e.g., simple laboratory vs expensive or invasive laboratory findings) are affected by the process in different ways. PMID:7496879

  13. Managing proposals and evaluations of updates to medical knowledge: theory and applications.

    PubMed

    Anselma, Luca; Bottrighi, Alessio; Montani, Stefania; Terenziani, Paolo

    2013-04-01

    The process of keeping up-to-date the medical knowledge stored in relational databases is of paramount importance. Since quality and reliability of medical knowledge are essential, in many cases physicians' proposals of updates must undergo experts' evaluation before possibly becoming effective. However, until now no theoretical framework has been provided in order to cope with this phenomenon in a principled and non-ad hoc way. Indeed, such a framework is important not only in the medical domain, but in all Wikipedia-like contexts in which evaluation of update proposals is required. In this paper we propose GPVM (General Proposal Vetting Model), a general model to cope with update proposal⧹evaluation in relational databases. GPVM extends the current theory of temporal relational databases and, in particular, BCDM - Bitemporal Conceptual Data Model - "consensus" model, providing a new data model, new operations to propose and accept⧹reject updates, and new algebraic operators to query proposals. The properties of GPVM are also studied. In particular, GPVM is a consistent extension of BCDM and it is reducible to it. These properties ensure consistency with most relational temporal database frameworks, facilitating implementation on top of current frameworks and interoperability with previous approaches. PMID:23380684

  14. BRIEF REPORT: Brief Instrument to Assess Geriatrics Knowledge of Surgical and Medical Subspecialty House Officers

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Brent C; Fitzgerald, James T

    2006-01-01

    PROBLEM Initiatives are underway to increase geriatrics training in nonprimary care disciplines. However, no validated instrument exists to measure geriatrics knowledge of house officers in surgical specialties and medical subspecialties. METHODS A 23-item multiple-choice test emphasizing inpatient care and common geriatric syndromes was developed through expert panels and pilot testing, and administered to 305 residents and fellows at 4 institutions in surgical disciplines (25% of respondents), emergency medicine (29%), medicine subspecialties (19%), internal medicine (12%), and other disciplines (15%). RESULTS Three items decreased internal reliability. The remaining 20 items covered 17 topic areas. Residents averaged 62% correct on the test. Internal consistency was appropriate (Cronbach's α coefficient = 0.60). Validity was supported by the use of expert panels to develop content, and by overall differences in scores by level of training (P<.0001) and graded improvement in test performance, with 58%, 63%, 62%, and 69% correct responses among HO1, HO2, HO3, and HO4s, respectively. CONCLUSIONS This reliable, valid measure of clinical geriatrics knowledge can be used by a wide variety of surgical and medical graduate medical education programs to guide curriculum reform or evaluate program performance to meet certification requirements. The instrument is now available on the web. PMID:16704394

  15. Medical students' knowledge, perceptions, and behavioral intentions towards the H1N1 influenza, swine flu, in Pakistan: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zara A; Hussain, Sarah A; Hussain, Faisal A

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the knowledge of H1N1 among medical students, their perceptions, and behavioral intentions in the wake of the H1N1 pandemic influenza. There were significant gaps in important self-isolation protocols and preventive measures. Increased contact with both patients and colleagues can lead to unintentional transmission and contraction of influenza. Universities should introduce and encourage infection control guidelines into routine curriculum. PMID:22361359

  16. Training medical students to manage a chronic pain patient: both knowledge and communication skills are needed.

    PubMed

    Leila, Niemi-Murola; Pirkko, Heasman; Eeva, Pyörälä; Eija, Kalso; Reino, Pöyhiä

    2006-02-01

    Most studies concerning pain education of undergraduate medical students focus on knowledge, but little is known about the interviewing skills and pain evaluation. At the end of the fifth study year and at the beginning of the sixth year the students were asked to answer an electronical questionnaire to evaluate how the IASP curriculum on pain had been covered during the studies. In addition, the interviewing skills of the fifth year medical students were assessed using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE). The students met a standardized patient suffering from postherpetic neuralgia, who was instructed to express depressive and exhausted feelings. A total of 97 students received the questionnaire and 35% responded with identification. All students answering the IASP questionnaire evaluated teaching of postherpetic pain and antidepressant treatment as sufficient. OSCE appeared as a feasible instrument in the assessment of chronic pain education. Eighty-eight percent of the students made the correct diagnosis. However, only 35% asked about sleep disturbances and 16% about depression. When developing a curriculum on pain education, attention should be paid to pedagogic methods about helping the students to implement the learned knowledge in their practice. Formative assessment of both knowledge and skills is essential for the development of a functional pain curriculum. PMID:16310721

  17. Knowledge and attitude of final - year medical students in Germany towards palliative care - an interinstitutional questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To care for terminally ill and dying patients requires a thorough medical education, encompassing skills, knowledge, and attitudes in the field of palliative care. Undergraduate medical students in Germany will receive mandatory teaching in palliative care in the near future driven by recent changes in the Medical Licensure Act. Before new curricula can be implemented, the knowledge of medical students with respect to palliative care, their confidence to handle palliative care situations correctly, their therapeutic attitude, and their subjective assessment about previous teaching practices have to be better understood. Method We designed a composite, three-step questionnaire (self estimation of confidence, knowledge questions, and opinion on the actual and future medical curriculum) conducted online of final - year medical students at two universities in Germany. Results From a total of 318 enrolled students, 101 responded and described limited confidence in dealing with specific palliative care issues, except for pain therapy. With regard to questions examining their knowledge base in palliative care, only one third of the students (33%) answered more than half of the questions correctly. Only a small percentage of students stated they had gained sufficient knowledge and experience in palliative care during their studies, and the vast majority supported the introduction of palliative care as a mandatory part of the undergraduate curriculum. Conclusion This study identifies medical students' limited confidence and knowledge base in palliative care in 2 German universities, and underlines the importance of providing a mandatory palliative care curriculum. PMID:22112146

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes and Proposals of Medical Students Concerning Transplantations in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Dardavessis, Theodore; Xenophontos, Pantelis; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Kiritsi, Maria; Vayionas, Malamatenia Arvanitidou

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: In Greece, there is limited research on issues related to organ donation. We aimed to study the attitudes, knowledge, and actions of local medical students regard to organ donation and transplantations of tissues and organs in Greece. Methods: This cross-sectional questionnaire based survey was done in Laboratory of Hygiene and Social Medicine, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece on medical students in years 1 to 6. In a sample of 600 medical students, a special anonymous questionnaire, which included data as sex, age, and semester of studies, as well as questions regarding certain aspects of transplantation, was distributed. 558 valid questionnaires were completed (men 52.3% and women 47.7%). Results: The vast majority of the sample (93.6%) were in favor of transplantations whereas 32 (5.7%) of the students claimed to be organ donors. 78.9% claimed ignorance of the existing legislation concerning transplantations and organ donation in our country. 81.2% believed that the voting of law, which would consider all Greek organ donors after death will cause strong reactions. As the main causes, responsible for the shortage of transplants in our country were stated to be the inadequate public information, Greek mentality, and the lack of organized transplant centers. Public information through Media, a lifelong free health check-up for organ donors and activation of voluntary organizations that promote organ donation were proposed as the most important actions that could increase organ donation and transplantations in Greece. Conclusions: The need for further informative actions stressing the importance of organ donations appears to be the only way to increase transplantations in our country and towards this direction medical students could also be activated. A new medical curriculum should increase medical students′ awareness of the organ shortage problem. Public education is recommended to correct misconceptions. PMID:21811659

  19. Knowledge discovery in medical systems using differential diagnosis, LAMSTAR & k-NN.

    PubMed

    Isola, Rahul; Carvalho, Rebeck; Tripathy, Amiya Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Medical data is an ever-growing source of information generated from the hospitals in the form of patient records. When mined properly the information hidden in these records is a huge resource bank for medical research. As of now, this data is mostly used only for clinical work. This data often contains hidden patterns and relationships, that can lead to better diagnosis, better medicines, better treatment and overall, a platform to better understand the mechanisms governing almost all aspects of the medical domain. Unfortunately, discovery of these hidden patterns and relationships often goes unexploited. However there is on-going research in medical diagnosis which can predict the diseases of the heart, lungs and various tumours based on the past data collected from the patients.They are mostly limited to domain specific systems that predict diseases restricted to their area of operation like heart, brain and various other domains. These are not applicable to the whole medical dataset. The system proposed in this paper uses this vast storage of information so that diagnosis based on this historical data can be made. It focuses on computing the probability of occurrence of a particular ailment from the medical data by mining it using a unique algorithm which increases accuracy of such diagnosis by combining the key points of Neural Networks, Large Memory Storage and Retrieval (LAMSTAR), k-NN and Differential Diagnosis all integrated into one single algorithm. The system uses a Service-Oriented Architecture wherein the system components of diagnosis, information portal and other miscellaneous services are provided.This algorithm can be used in solving a few common problems that are encountered in automated diagnosis these days, which include: diagnosis of multiple diseases showing similar symptoms, diagnosis of a person suffering from multiple diseases, receiving faster and more accurate second opinion and faster identification of trends present in the medical

  20. Computers in medical education: information and knowledge management, understanding, and learning.

    PubMed

    Henry, J B

    1990-10-01

    Desktop computers have evolved to permit physicians in practice and/or training to access and manage information to enhance knowledge, understanding, and learning. There are compelling reasons why the personal computer is key to learning and important in medical education. Above all, the computer enhances and amplifies the learning process. Using the desktop computer effectively is relatively easy. We teach our students to research information in books and journals and hope that, as practicing physicians, they do it even more to be current and maintain their competency. Why not a desktop computer to access and manage information, analyze it, and present findings? Computer technology is available to do virtually all of these tasks. Some tools are critical for medical students. For some time, all medical students have needed a black bag and microscope. Now every medical student needs a computer. Ample courseware is available and expanding rapidly for basic sciences and clinical disciplines. The explosion in biomedical information will continue. Finding information is key to understanding and learning rather than depending solely on memory, recall, or library trips for information. The desktop computer will benefit students, faculty, and future physicians and other health professionals as life-long learners. PMID:2210737

  1. [Physicians, books and medical knowledge in Norway around the year 1700].

    PubMed

    Dahl, Gina

    2009-12-17

    Development of medicine in the early modern period (1500-1800) formed the basis for modern medicine, in that iatrochemical and mechanistic perceptions of the human body gradually became more influential. Several different medical theories prevailed and were tested in parallel, and perceptual changes developed over time. Few studies have looked into the knowledge universe that Norwegian doctors were part of in this period. I have examined book collections owned by the physicians Jacob Woldenberg, Georg Blumenthal and Paul Dons, in order to discern how physicians practicing in Norway around 1700 responded to this particular situation of "complexity". In general, these book collections covered antique medical theories and more recent debates within the medical profession at the time. Most of the books are from Germany and the Netherlands, which means the three doctors were part of firstly a German and secondly a Dutch medical tradition. The article is based on the authors' doctoral thesis about doctors' and clergymens' book collections in the period 1650-1750. PMID:20029579

  2. Cigarette and waterpipe smoking associated knowledge and behaviour among medical students in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Jradi, H; Wewers, M E; Pirie, P R; Binkley, P F; Ferketich, K

    2013-10-01

    As future physicians capable of controlling tobacco dependence in the population, medical students are considered a main target for tobacco control interventions. This cross-sectional study reported on the prevalence of tobacco use (cigarettes and waterpipes) and associated knowledge and behaviour among 6th-year medical students in 2009-2010 from 6 medical schools in Lebanon. The self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professional Survey (GHPSS) core questions also enquired about training in tobacco cessation approaches. All enrolled students were asked to participate; the response rate was 191/354 (54.3%). The prevalence of tobacco use was 26.3% for cigarettes and 29.5% for waterpipes. Smoking waterpipes was the only significant predictor for cigarette smoking and there was no difference by sex and socioeconomic status. A minority reported ever receiving any formal training in treatment approaches for tobacco dependence. Medical schools should include tobacco dependence treatment training programmes in their curriculum and discourage tobacco use. PMID:24313150

  3. [Increasing the effectiveness of training of medical students in promoting the knowledge of medicine and hygiene].

    PubMed

    Eme'lianova, G F; Pavlov, V A; Patoka, G A

    1989-01-01

    Fifth-year students of the medical faculty prepare one of the course of lectures on the subject of healthy lifestyle promotion, using methodological literature supplied by the Chair and the necessary information. This work is carried out during hours reserved for independent training under the supervision of teachers. The students deliver these lectures to schoolchildren during days and hours specified by the timetable. The lecturing includes demonstration of visual aids. Independent training and lecturing, on the one hand, promotes positive motivation in students in relation to the most important part of their future activity--dissemination of medical and hygienic knowledge and, on the other, raises the level of hygienic education among schoolchildren. PMID:2595448

  4. Estimating personalized risk ranking using laboratory test and medical knowledge (UMLS).

    PubMed

    Patil, Meru A; Bhaumik, Sandip; Paul, Soubhik; Bissoyi, Swarupananda; Roy, Raj; Ryu, Seungwoo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Concept Graph Engine (CG-Engine) that generates patient specific personalized disease ranking based on the laboratory test data. CG-Engine uses the Unified Medical Language System database as medical knowledge base. The CG-Engine consists of two concepts namely, a concept graph and its attributes. The concept graph is a two level tree that starts at a laboratory test root node and ends at a disease node. The attributes of concept graph are: Relation types, Semantic types, Number of Sources and Symmetric Information between nodes. These attributes are used to compute the weight between laboratory tests and diseases. The personalized disease ranking is created by aggregating the weights of all the paths connecting between a particular disease and contributing abnormal laboratory tests. The clinical application of CG-Engine improves physician's throughput as it provides the snapshot view of abnormal laboratory tests as well as a personalized disease ranking. PMID:24109927

  5. Awareness and Knowledge of Ergonomics Among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oladeinde, BH; Ekejindu, IM; Omoregie, R; Aguh, OD

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ergonomics awareness helps in its right application and contributes significantly to general wellbeing and safety of worker at workplace. Aim: This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed at assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of the science of ergonomics among Medical Laboratory Scientists in Benin City, Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: A total of 106 medical laboratory scientists comprising 64 and 42 in public and private laboratories, respectively, were recruited for this study using systematic random sampling technique. Data were obtained from the study participants using a questionnaire and subsequently analyzed with the statistical software INSTAT®. Results: Out of 106 study participants, 27 (25.5%) were reported to have heard of the term ergonomics. Awareness was significantly associated with gender (male vs. female: 38.5% [15/39] vs. 17.9% [12/67]; odds ratio = 2.9; 95% confidence interval = 1.2, 7.1;P = 0.02). Awareness of ergonomics was not significantly affected by affiliation (P = 0.18), area of specialization (P = 0.78), post-qualification experience (P = 0.43), and educational qualification (P = 0.23) of the study participants. Irrespective of the affiliation of the participant, only 6 of 27 (22.2%) participants who were aware of ergonomics knew at least a benefit of right application of ergonomics in the laboratory. Knowledge of risk factors for the development of musculoskeletal disorders was reported by 8 of 27 (29.6%) persons who claimed to be aware of ergonomics. Conclusions: Awareness of ergonomics and knowledge of gains of its right application was poor among the study participants. Regular ergonomic education of medical laboratory scientists in Nigeria is advocated. PMID:27057381

  6. Interactive Learning Module Improves Resident Knowledge of Risks of Ionizing Radiation Exposure From Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Alexander Y; Breaud, Alan H; Schneider, Jeffrey I; Kadom, Nadja; Mitchell, Patricia M; Linden, Judith A

    2016-01-01

    Physician awareness of the risks of ionizing radiation exposure related to medical imaging is poor. Effective educational interventions informing physicians of such risk, especially in emergency medicine (EM), are lacking. The SIEVERT (Suboptimal Ionizing Radiation Exposure Education - A Void in Emergency Medicine Residency Training) learning module was designed to improve provider knowledge of the risks of radiation exposure from medical imaging and comfort in communicating these risks to patients. The 1-hour module consists of introductory lecture, interactive discussion, and role-playing scenarios. In this pilot study, we assessed the educational effect using unmatched, anonymous preintervention and postintervention questionnaires that assessed fund of knowledge, participant self-reported imaging ordering practices in several clinical scenarios, and trainee comfort level in discussing radiation risks with patients. All 25 EM resident participants completed the preintervention questionnaire, and 22 completed the postintervention questionnaire within 4 hours after participation. Correct responses on the 14-question learning assessment increased from 6.32 (standard deviation = 2.36) preintervention to 12.23 (standard deviation = 1.85) post-intervention. Overall, 24% of residents were comfortable with discussing the risks of ionizing radiation exposure with patients preintervention, whereas 41% felt comfortable postintervention. Participants ordered fewer computed tomography scans in 2 of the 4 clinical scenarios after attending the educational intervention. There was improvement in EM residents' knowledge regarding the risks of ionizing radiation exposure from medical imaging, and increased participant self-reported comfort levels in the discussion of these risks with patients after the 1-hour SIEVERT learning module. PMID:26657346

  7. Telephone survey of hospital staff knowledge of medical device surveillance in a Paris hospital.

    PubMed

    Mazeau, Valérie; Grenier-Sennelier, Catherine; Paturel, Denys Xavier; Mokhtari, Mostafa; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaëlle

    2004-12-01

    Reporting of incidents or near incidents because of medical devices in French hospitals relies on procedures following European and national guidelines. The authors intend to evaluate hospital staff knowledge on these surveillance procedures as a marker of appropriate application. A telephone survey is conducted on a sample of Paris University hospital staff (n = 327) using a structured questionnaire. Two-hundred sixteen persons completed the questionnaire. The response rate was lower among physicians, especially surgeons paid on an hourly basis. Rates of correct answers were different according to age, seniority, job, and department categories. Physicians and nurses correctly answered questions on theoretical knowledge more often than the other job categories. However, on questions dealing with actual practice conditions, correct answers depended more on age and seniority with a U-shaped distribution (minimum rates in intermediate categories of age and seniority). PMID:15492050

  8. An expert-guided decision tree construction strategy: an application in knowledge discovery with medical databases.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Y. S.; King, P. H.; Higgins, M. S.; Pierce, D.; Patel, N. P.

    1997-01-01

    With the steady growth in electronic patient records and clinical medical informatics systems, the data collected for routine clinical use have been accumulating at a dramatic rate. Inter-disciplinary research provides a new generation of computation tools in knowledge discovery and data management is in great demand. In this study, an expert-guided decision tree construction strategy is proposed to offer an user-oriented knowledge discovery environment. The strategy allows experts, based on their expertise and/or preference, to override inductive decision tree construction process. Moreover, by reviewing decision paths, experts could focus on subsets of data that may be clues to new findings, or simply contaminated cases. PMID:9357618

  9. Implementation of the WHO-6-step method in the medical curriculum to improve pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Segers, Wieke S; de Wildt, Dick J; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Keijsers, Loes; Jansen, Paul A F

    2015-01-01

    Aim The only validated tool for pharmacotherapy education for medical students is the 6-step method of the World Health Organization. It has proven effective in experimental studies with short term interventions. The generalizability of this effect after implementation in a contextual-rich medical curriculum was investigated. Methods The pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of cohorts of students, from years before, during and after implementation of a WHO-6-step-based integrated learning programme were tested using a standardized assessment containing 50 items covering knowledge of basic (n = 25) and clinical (n = 24) pharmacology, and pharmacotherapy skills (n = 1 open question). All scores are expressed as a percentage of the maximum score possible per (sub)domain. Results In total, 1652 students were included between September 2010 and July 2014 (participation rate 89%). The WHO-6-step-based learning programme improved students’ knowledge of basic pharmacology (mean score ± SD, 60.6 ± 10.5% vs. 63.4 ± 10.9%, P < 0.01) and clinical or applied pharmacology (63.7 ± 10.4% vs. 67.4 ± 10.3%, P < 0.01), and improved their pharmacotherapy skills (68.8 ± 26.1% vs. 74.6% ± 22.9%, P 0.02). Moreover, satisfaction with education increased (5.7 ± 1.3 vs. 6.3 ± 1.0 on a 10-point scale, P < 0.01) and as did students’ confidence in daily practice (from −0.81 ± 0.72 to −0.50 ± 0.79 on a −2 to +2 scale, P < 0.01). Conclusions The WHO-6-step method was successfully implemented in a medical curriculum. In this observational study, the integrated learning programme had positive effects on students’ knowledge of basic and applied pharmacology, improved their pharmacotherapy skills, and increased satisfaction with education and self-confidence in prescribing. Whether this training method leads to better patient care remains to be established. PMID:25556708

  10. Knowledge and skills for management of sexually transmitted infections among rural medical practitioners in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nazmul; Mridha, Malay K.; Kristensen, Sibylle; Vermund, Sten H.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infection (STI) management is considered rudimentary among rural medical practitioners (RMPs) in Bangladesh. We sought to understand the level of knowledge and skills in STI management and to assess the impact of a two-day training orientation among RMPs in Tangail district. Data were collected through a baseline survey of 225 practicing RMPs in the study area and a three-month follow-up survey of 99 RMPs who participated in a two-day STI/HIV orientation training. The level of formal training among RMPs ranged from none (22.7%), to paramedical training (14.7%) and local medical assistant training (62.6%). The baseline survey revealed a low level of STI/HIV knowledge and misconceptions about the transmission of STI/HIV among RMPs. RMPs mostly prescribed first line antibiotics for treatment of common reproductive tract infections (RTIs) including STIs, but they rarely prescribed the correct dosages according to the national RTI/STI management guidelines. Only 3% of RMPs were able to correctly answer all four HIV transmission (unprotected sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, needle sharing and mother to child transmission) questions at baseline, while 94.9% of RMPs answered all four correctly at three months following the training (p=0.001). Only 10% of RMPs reported suggesting the recommended drug (azithromycin) and only 2% mentioned about the recommended dosage (2gm single dose) for the treatment of urethritis/cervicitis; compared to 49.5% suggested azithromycin at follow-up with 39.4% mentioned the recommended 2gm single dose (p=0.001). Our study found low level of knowledge and poor practices related RTI/STI management among RMPs. Short orientation training and education intervention shown promise to increase knowledge and management skills for RTIs/STIs. PMID:25954593

  11. The Digital Anatomist Distributed Framework and Its Applications to Knowledge-based Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Brinkley, James F.; Rosse, Cornelius

    1997-01-01

    Abstract The domain of medical imaging is anatomy. Therefore, anatomic knowledge should be a rational basis for organizing and analyzing images. The goals of the Digital Anatomist Program at the University of Washington include the development of an anatomically based software framework for organizing, analyzing, visualizing and utilizing biomedical information. The framework is based on representations for both spatial and symbolic anatomic knowledge, and is being implemented in a distributed architecture in which multiple client programs on the Internet are used to update and access an expanding set of anatomical information resources. The development of this framework is driven by several practical applications, including symbolic anatomic reasoning, knowledge based image segmentation, anatomy information retrieval, and functional brain mapping. Since each of these areas involves many difficult image processing issues, our research strategy is an evolutionary one, in which applications are developed somewhat independently, and partial solutions are integrated in a piecemeal fashion, using the network as the substrate. This approach assumes that networks of interacting components can synergistically work together to solve problems larger than either could solve on its own. Each of the individual projects is described, along with evaluations that show that the individual components are solving the problems they were designed for, and are beginning to interact with each other in a synergistic manner. We argue that this synergy will increase, not only within our own group, but also among groups as the Internet matures, and that an anatomic knowledge base will be a useful means for fostering these interactions. PMID:9147337

  12. The Digital Anatomist distributed framework and its applications to knowledge-based medical imaging.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, J F; Rosse, C

    1997-01-01

    The domain of medical imaging is anatomy. Therefore, anatomic knowledge should be a rational basis for organizing and analyzing images. The goals of the Digital Anatomist Program at the University of Washington include the development of an anatomically based software framework for organizing, analyzing, visualizing and utilizing biomedical information. The framework is based on representations for both spatial and symbolic anatomic knowledge, and is being implemented in a distributed architecture in which multiple client programs on the Internet are used to update and access an expanding set of anatomical information resources. The development of this framework is driven by several practical applications, including symbolic anatomic reasoning, knowledge based image segmentation, anatomy information retrieval, and functional brain mapping. Since each of these areas involves many difficult image processing issues, our research strategy is an evolutionary one, in which applications are developed somewhat independently, and partial solutions are integrated in a piecemeal fashion, using the network as the substrate. This approach assumes that networks of interacting components can synergistically work together to solve problems larger than either could solve on its own. Each of the individual projects is described, along with evaluations that show that the individual components are solving the problems they were designed for, and are beginning to interact with each other in a synergistic manner. We argue that this synergy will increase, not only within our own group, but also among groups as the Internet matures, and that an anatomic knowledge base will be a useful means for fostering these interactions. PMID:9147337

  13. Knowledge and acceptability of alternative HIV prevention bio-medical products among MSM who bareback.

    PubMed

    Nodin, N; Carballo-Diéguez, A; Ventuneac, A M; Balan, I C; Remien, R

    2008-01-01

    Condom use is the best available strategy to prevent HIV infection during sexual intercourse. However, since many people choose not to use condoms in circumstances in which HIV risk exists, alternatives to condom use for HIV prevention are needed. Currently there are several alternative bio-medical HIV-prevention products in different stages of development: microbicides, vaccines, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Seventy-two men who have sex with men (MSM) who took part in a study on Internet use and intentional condomless anal intercourse were asked about these four products during a semi-structured interview. The questions explored knowledge and acceptability of all the products and willingness to participate in microbicide and vaccine trials. Qualitative analysis of the data suggests that these men had virtually no knowledge of PrEP, very limited knowledge of microbicides, some information about PEP and considerably more knowledge about vaccines. Reactions towards the products were generally positive except for PrEP, for which reactions were polarized as either enthusiastic or negative. With the exception of PrEP, many men expressed willingness to use the products in the future. Most men would be willing to participate in trials for microbicides and vaccines if given basic reassurances. Concerns over negative side effects and preoccupation with possible infection were some of the motives given for non-willingness to participate in a vaccine trial. These results should inform the development of future trials of biomedical prevention products. PMID:18278621

  14. The Impact of Pediatric Palliative Care Education on Medical Students' Knowledge and Attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Przysło, Łukasz; Kędzierska, Bogna; Stolarska, Małgorzata; Młynarski, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Most undergraduate palliative care curricula omit pediatric palliative care (PPC) issues. Aim of the study was to evaluate the pilot education programme. Methods. All 391 students of Faculty of Medicine (FM) and 59 students of Division of Nursing (DN) were included in anonymous questionnaire study. Respondents were tested on their knowledge and attitude towards PPC issues before and at the end of the programme and were expected to evaluate the programme at the end. Results. For final analysis, authors qualified 375 double forms filled in correctly (320 FM and 55 DN). Before the programme, students' knowledge assessed on 0–100-point scale was low (FM: median: 43.35 points; 25%–75%: (40p–53.3p); DN: 26.7p; 13.3p–46.7p), and, in addition, there were differences (P < 0.001) between both faculties. Upon completion of the programme, significant increase of the level of knowledge in both faculties was noted (FM: 80p; 73.3–100; DN: 80p; 66.7p–80p). Participation in the programme changed declared attitudes towards some aspects of withholding of special procedures, euthanasia, and abortion. Both groups of students positively evaluated the programme. Conclusions. This study identifies medical students' limited knowledge of PPC. Educational intervention changes students' attitudes to the specific end-of-life issues. There is a need for palliative care curricula evaluation. PMID:24501581

  15. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  16. From the stretcher to the pharmacy's shelf: drug leads from medically important brazilian venomous arachnid species.

    PubMed

    Rates, Breno; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Nunes, Kênia Pedrosa; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2011-10-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals have always caught the attention of mankind due to their lethality and other clinical implications. However, since the molecules obtained from animal venoms have been the product of millions of years of evolutionary process, toxins could be used to probe physiological mechanisms and could serve as leads for drug development. The present work reviews the state of the art pertaining to venom molecules from Brazilian medically important arachnid species bearing potential biotechnological applications. Special focus is given to toxins isolated from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus and the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Lycosa erythrognatha, whose venoms possess molecules acting as erectile function modulators and as antihypertensive, analgesic, neuroprotective and antimicrobial agents. PMID:21824079

  17. How Current Are Leading Evidence-Based Medical Textbooks? An Analytic Survey of Four Online Textbooks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The consistency of treatment recommendations of evidence-based medical textbooks with more recently published evidence has not been investigated to date. Inconsistencies could affect the quality of medical care. Objective To determine the frequency with which topics in leading online evidence-based medical textbooks report treatment recommendations consistent with more recently published research evidence. Methods Summarized treatment recommendations in 200 clinical topics (ie, disease states) covered in four evidence-based textbooks–UpToDate, Physicians’ Information Education Resource (PIER), DynaMed, and Best Practice–were compared with articles identified in an evidence rating service (McMaster Premium Literature Service, PLUS) since the date of the most recent topic updates in each textbook. Textbook treatment recommendations were compared with article results to determine if the articles provided different, new conclusions. From these findings, the proportion of topics which potentially require updating in each textbook was calculated. Results 478 clinical topics were assessed for inclusion to find 200 topics that were addressed by all four textbooks. The proportion of topics for which there was 1 or more recently published articles found in PLUS with evidence that differed from the textbooks’ treatment recommendations was 23% (95% CI 17-29%) for DynaMed, 52% (95% CI 45-59%) for UpToDate, 55% (95% CI 48-61%) for PIER, and 60% (95% CI 53-66%) for Best Practice (χ 2 3=65.3, P<.001). The time since the last update for each textbook averaged from 170 days (range 131-209) for DynaMed, to 488 days (range 423-554) for PIER (P<.001 across all textbooks). Conclusions In online evidence-based textbooks, the proportion of topics with potentially outdated treatment recommendations varies substantially. PMID:23220465

  18. Efficacy of a 3-Hour Aboriginal Health Teaching in the Medical Curriculum: Are We Changing Student Knowledge and Attitudes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Alysia W.; Boshart, Samantha; Seelisch, Jennifer; Eshaghian, Reza; McLeod, Ryan; Nisker, Jeff; Richmond, Chantelle A. M.; Howard, John M.

    2012-01-01

    There is national recognition of the need to incorporate Aboriginal health issues within the medical school curricula. This study aims to evaluate changes in medical students' knowledge and attitudes about Aboriginal health, and their preparedness to work in Aboriginal communities after attending a 3-hour Aboriginal health seminar. A…

  19. Three Medical School Responses to the HIV/AIDS Epidemic and the Effect on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Donna G.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 1991 and 1994 graduating medical school students at medical schools (N=175) in Colorado, New Mexico and South Dakota found that differences in prevalence of AIDS/HIV cases in those states did not affect schools' training programs but indirectly affected students' knowledge and attitudes, which were related to the numbers of…

  20. Anatomical Knowledge Retention in Third-Year Medical Students Prior to Obstetrics and Gynecology and Surgery Rotations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M.; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F.; Krapf, Jill M.

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an…

  1. Test de Evaluacion de Conocimientos Medicos-CIIPME (Test of Evaluation of Medical Knowledge-CIIPME). Publication No. 42.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfici, C.; And Others

    The purpose of this research is to build a test for the evaluation of the knowledge needed by medical students before entering clinical courses in medical school. The criterion for this was provided by teachers in both the pre-clinical and clinical subjects. The Pilot instrument consisted of 335 items that covered 8 sections. Each one of these…

  2. Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Efforts of Malaysian Medical Students Regarding Exposure to Environmental Tobacco and Cigarette Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisch, Ann Stirling; Kurtz, Margot; Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    1999-01-01

    Study examines changes in knowledge, attitudes, and preventive efforts of Malaysian students concerning cigarette smoking and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke from their first pre-clinical year in medical school until their final clinical year. Although there were significant improvements in knowledge about smoking and environmental…

  3. Medical Students' Knowledge, Familiarity, and Attitudes towards Hematopoietic Stem Cell Donation: Stem Cell Donation Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Praveena; Wolanskyj, Alexandra; Ehlers, Shawna L; Litzow, Mark R; Patnaik, Mrinal S; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K

    2016-09-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with blood disorders and genetic diseases. Approximately 70% of the HSCTs currently performed in the United States use stems cells from an unrelated donor who donated voluntarily. Medical students (MS) are a young, diverse, influential population whose willingness to engage in altruistic acts, such as donating stem cells, may be correlated with knowledge on the topic. A literature gap exists in MS perspectives towards HSCT and the bone marrow registry (BMR) and prior studies suggest that misconceptions about donation deter MS from participation on the BMR, which may decrease opportunities to educate other potential donors. We performed a cross-sectional survey among the 4-year cohort of MS at Mayo Medical School in Rochester, Minnesota. The questionnaire evaluated multiple areas including whether MS were current members of the BMR and/or prior blood donors, MS current knowledge on donor eligibility (DE) and the donation process (DP), MS familiarity with HSCT and the DP, and MS attitudes towards joining the BMR and towards donating stem cells. The responses were analyzed and assessed alongside a self-reported, standardized scale measuring students' altruistic behaviors. There were 99 out of 247 potential respondents (40%), with 45% (n = 44) of MS in preclinical years 1 or 2, 37% (n = 37) in clinical years 3 or 4, and 18% (n = 18) in research or alternative portions of their training, of which 43% (n = 41) in total were current BMR members. BMR status correlated positively with prior blood donation (P = .015) and female sex (P = .014). Respondents had a 57.7% and 63.7% average correct response rate regarding knowledge of DE and DP, respectively, with knowledge of DE not surprisingly higher in BMR members (P < .0001). The majority of MS surveyed, 68% (n = 65), had learned about HSCT during medical school. BMR status correlated with the

  4. ‘A Most Protean Disease’: Aligning Medical Knowledge of Modern Influenza, 1890–1914

    PubMed Central

    Bresalier, Michael

    2012-01-01

    This article reconstructs the process of defining influenza as an infectious disease in the contexts of British medicine between 1890 and 1914. It shows how professional agreement on its nature and identity involved aligning different forms of knowledge produced in the field (public health), in the clinic (metropolitan hospitals) and in the laboratory (bacteriology). Two factors were crucial to this process: increasing trust in bacteriology and the organisation of large-scale collective investigations into influenza by Britain’s central public authority, the Medical Department of the Local Government Board. These investigations integrated epidemiological, clinical and bacteriological evidence into a new definition of influenza as a specific infection, in which a germ – Bacillus influenzae – was determined as playing a necessary but not sufficient role in its aetiology, transmission and pathogenesis. In defining ‘modern influenza’, bacteriological concepts and techniques were adapted to and selectively incorporated into existing clinical, pathological and epidemiological approaches. Mutual alignment thus was crucial to its construction and, more generally, to shaping developing relationships between laboratory, clinical and public health medicine in turn-of-the-century Britain. While these relationships were marked by tension and conflict, they were also characterised by important patterns of convergence, in which the problems, interests and practices of public health professionals, clinicians and laboratory pathologists were made increasingly commensurable. Rather than retrospectively judge the late nineteenth-century definition of influenza as being based on the wrong microbe, this article argues for the need to examine how it was established through a particular alignment of medical knowledge, which then underpinned medical approaches to the disease up to and beyond the devastating 1918–19 pandemic. PMID:23112382

  5. Knowledge discovery from data as a framework to decision support in medical domains

    PubMed Central

    Gibert, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Knowledge discovery from data (KDD) is a multidisciplinary discipline which appeared in 1996 for “non trivial identifying of valid, novel, potentially useful, ultimately understandable patterns in data”. Pre-treatment of data and post-processing is as important as the data exploitation (Data Mining) itself. Different analysis techniques can be properly combined to produce explicit knowledge from data. Methods Hybrid KDD methodologies combining Artificial Intelligence with Statistics and visualization have been used to identify patterns in complex medical phenomena: experts provide prior knowledge (pK); it biases the search of distinguishable groups of homogeneous objects; support-interpretation tools (CPG) assisted experts in conceptualization and labelling of discovered patterns, consistently with pK. Results Patterns of dependency in mental disabilities supported decision-making on legislation of the Spanish Dependency Law in Catalonia. Relationships between type of neurorehabilitation treatment and patterns of response for brain damage are assessed. Patterns of the perceived QOL along time are used in spinal cord lesion to improve social inclusion. Conclusion Reality is more and more complex and classical data analyses are not powerful enough to model it. New methodologies are required including multidisciplinarity and stressing on production of understandable models. Interaction with the experts is critical to generate meaningful results which can really support decision-making, particularly convenient transferring the pK to the system, as well as interpreting results in close interaction with experts. KDD is a valuable paradigm, particularly when facing very complex domains, not well understood yet, like many medical phenomena.

  6. A survey exploring the knowledge and perceptions of senior medical students in Nepal toward generic medicines

    PubMed Central

    Gyawali, Sudesh; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Saha, Archana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The accurate knowledge of generic medicine issues among future prescribers will enhance the prescribing of cost-effective medicines. This study aimed to explore the knowledge and perception of senior medical students about the generic medicines. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 237 senior medical students (final year students and interns) using a validated self-administered questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 20 for windows and comparison of difference was done using linear by linear association. A p value of less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The average age (standard deviation) of the respondents was 23.54 (1.39) years. Almost 5% of respondents correctly answered the question regarding the regulatory limits for bioequivalence. Almost two-thirds of respondents correctly agreed that generic medicine is bioequivalent to a brand-name medicine, and 79.3% and 72.5% of respondents correctly agreed that the medicine should be present in the same dosage form and same dose, respectively, as the brand-name medicines. However, almost half of the respondents had impression that brand-name medicines are required to meet higher safety standard than generic medicines. Almost 90% of respondents felt that advertisement by the drug companies would influence the use of brand-name medicine and they need more information about generic medicine. Conclusion: This study highlights the negative perception and knowledge deficit among the respondents. The students’ responses to almost all the statements were almost similar to the respondents’ academic year (final year students and interns), gender and nationality. PMID:27551423

  7. Combined numerical and linguistic knowledge representation and its application to medical diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesad, Phayung; Yen, Gary G.

    2002-07-01

    In this study, we propose a novel hybrid intelligent system (HIS) which provides a unified integration of numerical and linguistic knowledge representations. The proposed HIS is hierarchical integration of an incremental learning fuzzy neural network (ILFN) and a linguistic model, i.e., fuzzy expert system, optimized via the genetic algorithm. The ILFN is a self-organizing network with the capability of fast, one-pass, online, and incremental learning. The linguistic model is constructed based on knowledge embedded in the trained ILFN or provided by the domain expert. The knowledge captured from the low-level ILFN can be mapped to the higher-level linguistic model and vice versa. The GA is applied to optimize the linguistic model to maintain high accuracy, comprehensibility, completeness, compactness, and consistency. After the system being completely constructed, it can incrementally learn new information in both numerical and linguistic forms. To evaluate the system's performance, the well-known benchmark Wisconsin breast cancer data set was studied for an application to medical diagnosis. The simulation results have shown that the prosed HIS perform better than the individual standalone systems. The comparison results show that the linguistic rules extracted are competitive with or even superior to some well-known methods.

  8. Towards knowledge-based retrieval of medical images. The role of semantic indexing, image content representation and knowledge-based retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A

    1998-01-01

    Medicine is increasingly image-intensive. The central importance of imaging technologies such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making, combined with the trend to store many "traditional" clinical images such as conventional radiographs, microscopic pathology and dermatology images in digital format present both challenges and an opportunities for the designers of clinical information systems. The emergence of Multimedia Electronic Medical Record Systems (MEMRS), architectures that integrate medical images with text-based clinical data, will further hasten this trend. The development of these systems, storing a large and diverse set of medical images, suggests that in the future MEMRS will become important digital libraries supporting patient care, research and education. The representation and retrieval of clinical images within these systems is problematic as conventional database architectures and information retrieval models have, until recently, focused largely on text-based data. Medical imaging data differs in many ways from text-based medical data but perhaps the most important difference is that the information contained within imaging data is fundamentally knowledge-based. New representational and retrieval models for clinical images will be required to address this issue. Within the Image Engine multimedia medical record system project at the University of Pittsburgh we are evolving an approach to representation and retrieval of medical images which combines semantic indexing using the UMLS Metathesuarus, image content-based representation and knowledge-based image analysis. PMID:9929345

  9. [Exploring the changes of inheritance model of medical knowledge as viewed from the description of physicians in the Song Dynasty].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haipeng

    2014-11-01

    From the Southern and Northern Dynasties to the beginning of the Northern Song Dynasty, the models of "master and apprentice" and "physician of long family tradition for generations" were the main ways for teaching medical knowledge. With the rapid amassment of medical books in the Song Dynasty, "reading text" became increasingly important and prominent in the inheritance of medical knowledge, which could be seen clearly from the descriptions on physicians in the Song Dynasty. For instance, Hao Yun's medical knowledge was recorded as a model of "master and apprentice" in Hao Yun's Epitaph written by Zhang Xun. However, in Ye Mengde's description, this model was played down, while at the same time, "reading text" was emphasized. Pang Anshi, though coming from a physician family for generations, got rid of some medical knowledge from his own family and turned to the medical knowledge by "reading text". According to Pang Anshi's Epitaph written by Zhang Lei and Fang ji Zhuan (Biography of Technicians) in Song shi (The Song History), Pang Anshi was a typical model of becoming a famous physician by "reading text". In the Epitaph, Pang Anshi's brilliance was stressed, and in the latter, "reading text" was more important and the family tradition was denied. In the description of the Song Dynasty, Chen Zhaoyu's wonderful medical skills was coming from the "practice", and "reading text" was denied right away. What is more, "reading text" was introspected and criticized through Chen Zhaoyu's lip. The different descriptions of the Song Dynasty reflected the change of inheritance model of medical knowledge. PMID:25620356

  10. Saudi Nursing and Medical Student’s Knowledge and Attitude toward Organ Donation- A Comparative Cross-Sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Proper awareness among health professionals about organ donation is important for increasing organ procurement. Personal commitment and attitude of nurses are imperative as they have key role in identifying potential donors. The aim of this study was to compare prevailing knowledge and attitude of undergraduate female Saudi nursing and medical students’ toward organ donation. Methodology A cross sectional questionnaire using 29 item were filled by nursing (n=46) and medical (n=63) students’ at University of Dammam (KSA) during academic year 2014–15, to check and compare their knowledge and attitude about organ donation. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics; chi square test and bivariate analysis to find out correlation. Results Level of knowledge of nursing group were significantly lower (p=0.000) than medical group while no significant difference in attitude score (p=0.591) between the two groups were found. Major source of knowledge for nursing was media (65.2%) and college/university for medical (50.8%) group. Both groups chose “anyone in need” as preferred recipients’ upon donation (nursing 60.3% and medical 52.2%) and opted “anyone” as donor in case of recipient (nursing 52.2% and medical 49.2%). The results indicate positive correlation between level of knowledge and attitude toward organ donation. Conclusions Nursing students have low knowledge toward organ donation as compared to medical students although they shows positive attitude toward this issue. This study ascertains the need of an effective educational program for nursing students of Saudi Arabia to improve their knowledge regarding organ donation and to raise organ procurement. PMID:27103903

  11. Paradoxical thromboembolic stroke during extraction of a recalled St Jude Medical Riata defibrillator lead with conductor externalization.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Jacob M; Theuns, Dominic A M J; Thøgersen, Anna M

    2014-02-01

    Recalled St Jude Medical Riata leads have a high rate of insulation failures with potential thrombogenic externalized conductors. We report a paradoxical thromboembolic stroke through a persistent foramen ovale during extraction of a lead with externalization. We suggest mandatory transesophageal echocardiography prior to extraction to screen for lead-related thrombosis and routes of right-to-left shunting to reduce risk of thromboembolic complications. PMID:23933851

  12. Assessing the change in attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of medical students towards chiropractic after an educational intervention.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jessica J; Di Loreto, Luciano; Kara, Alim; Yu, Kavan; Mattia, Alicia; Soave, David; Weyman, Karen; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Objective : We assessed the change in attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of medical students towards chiropractic after a 1-hour educational intervention. Methods : A mixed-methods approach was used with a 52-item cross-sectional paper survey and 1 focus group of third-year medical students. The views of these medical students towards chiropractic were assessed previously in their second-year of medical school. ANOVA and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to assess between-group differences between the medical students' views before and after the educational intervention. The constant comparative method for analyzing qualitative data was used to identify emergent themes from the focus group transcript. Results : Of 112 third-year medical students, 58 completed the survey (51.7% response rate). The focus group consisted of 6 medical students. Self-reported understanding of chiropractic and number of attitude-positive responses were significantly higher in the group after the educational session. The average number of correct responses assessing knowledge on chiropractic also was significantly higher. Focus group themes were that medical students wanted exposure to chiropractic in clinical settings, had negative attitudes towards chiropractic formed from hidden curriculum, had concerns regarding evidence and safety of chiropractic, and thought that timing of the session on chiropractic was too late in the curriculum. Conclusions : The attitudes and knowledge of medical students towards chiropractic improved immediately after a 1-hour educational intervention. Formally educating medical students on chiropractic may help minimize hidden curriculum issues regarding chiropractic, as identified by the medical students, and facilitate collaboration between medical and chiropractic providers. PMID:25237768

  13. Assessing the change in attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of medical students towards chiropractic after an educational intervention*

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jessica J.; Di Loreto, Luciano; Kara, Alim; Yu, Kavan; Mattia, Alicia; Soave, David; Weyman, Karen; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    Objective We assessed the change in attitudes, knowledge, and perspectives of medical students towards chiropractic after a 1-hour educational intervention. Methods A mixed-methods approach was used with a 52-item cross-sectional paper survey and 1 focus group of third-year medical students. The views of these medical students towards chiropractic were assessed previously in their second-year of medical school. ANOVA and the Wilcoxon rank-sum test were used to assess between-group differences between the medical students' views before and after the educational intervention. The constant comparative method for analyzing qualitative data was used to identify emergent themes from the focus group transcript. Results Of 112 third-year medical students, 58 completed the survey (51.7% response rate). The focus group consisted of 6 medical students. Self-reported understanding of chiropractic and number of attitude-positive responses were significantly higher in the group after the educational session. The average number of correct responses assessing knowledge on chiropractic also was significantly higher. Focus group themes were that medical students wanted exposure to chiropractic in clinical settings, had negative attitudes towards chiropractic formed from hidden curriculum, had concerns regarding evidence and safety of chiropractic, and thought that timing of the session on chiropractic was too late in the curriculum. Conclusions The attitudes and knowledge of medical students towards chiropractic improved immediately after a 1-hour educational intervention. Formally educating medical students on chiropractic may help minimize hidden curriculum issues regarding chiropractic, as identified by the medical students, and facilitate collaboration between medical and chiropractic providers. PMID:25237768

  14. Multidimensional representations: The knowledge domain of germs held by students, teachers and medical professionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rua, Melissa Jo

    The present study examined the understandings held by 5th, 8th, and 11th-grade students, their teachers and medical professionals about germs. Specifically, this study describes the content and structure of students' and adults' conceptions in the areas of germ contraction, transmission, and treatment of infectious and non-infectious diseases caused by microorganisms. Naturalistic and empirical research methods were used to investigate participants' conceptions. Between and within group similarities were found using data from concept maps on the topic "flu," drawings of germs, a 20 word card sort related to germs and illness, and a semi-structured interview. Concept maps were coded according to techniques by Novak and Gowan (1984). Drawings of germs were coded into four main categories (bacteria, viruses, animal cell, other) and five subcategories (disease, caricature, insect, protozoa, unclassified). Cluster patterns for the card sorts of each group were found using multidimensional scaling techniques. Six coding categories emerged from the interview transcripts: (a) transmission, (b) treatment, (c) effect of weather on illness, (d) immune response, (e) location of germs, and (f) similarities and differences between bacteria and viruses. The findings showed students, teachers and medical professionals have different understandings about bacteria and viruses and the structures of those understandings vary. Gaps or holes in the participants knowledge were found in areas such as: (a) how germs are transmitted, (b) where germs are found, (c) how the body transports and uses medicine, (d) how the immune system functions, (e) the difference between vaccines and non-prescription medicines, (f) differences that exist between bacteria and viruses, and (g) bacterial resistance to medication. The youngest students relied heavily upon personal experiences with germs rather than formal instruction when explaining their conceptions. As a result, the influence of media was

  15. An Examination of How Knowledgeable and Skilled Elementary Principals Lead Special Education Programs in Alabama: Four Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Richard Raymond

    2012-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increased the importance of having principals who are not only effective leaders of general education programs but knowledgeable and skilled in special education and able to effectively lead special education programs. The researcher examined four principals of elementary schools (i.e., kindergarten through…

  16. 'The chearful haunts': John Armstrong (1709-1779), physician, poet, satirist and leveller of medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Charles S; Scott, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    John Armstrong, the first honours graduate of the University of Edinburgh School of Medicine, was famous in his day for a lengthy didactic poem entitled The Art of Preserving Health (1744). He is now obscure except to scholars specializing in the 18th century and, when discussed at all, often dismissed as a failed physician who wrote mediocre poetry in a quest for money and fame. A new exegesis by Adam Budd exhumes Armstrong as an original voice who offered timely and reassuring advice to Britons as they braced for another epidemic of plague; who depicted illness through the lens of a vulnerable and sympathetic physician, and who was perhaps above all else a leveller of medical knowledge. Elaborating on Budd's thesis, it would seem that Armstrong, a complicated man, has frequently been misread and was in some ways ahead of his time. PMID:24585614

  17. Knowledge-Based, Interactive, Custom Anatomical Scene Creation for Medical Education: The Biolucida System

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Wayne; Brinkley, James F.

    2005-01-01

    Few biomedical subjects of study are as resource-intensive to teach as gross anatomy. Medical education stands to benefit greatly from applications which deliver virtual representations of human anatomical structures. While many applications have been created to achieve this goal, their utility to the student is limited because of a lack of interactivity or customizability by expert authors. Here we describe the first version of the Biolucida system, which allows an expert anatomist author to create knowledge-based, customized, and fully interactive scenes and lessons for students of human macroscopic anatomy. Implemented in Java and VRML, Biolucida allows the sharing of these instructional 3D environments over the internet. The system simplifies the process of authoring immersive content while preserving its flexibility and expressivity. PMID:16779148

  18. Knowledge and interests of Romanian medical students in parasitology, tropical and travel medicine.

    PubMed

    Neghina, Raul; Calma, Crenguta Livia; Neghina, Adriana Maria

    2011-01-01

    As travel has become easier and faster, the rate of tropical infections across the world is expected to increase; more students working abroad are going to encounter these diseases more often. Disorders of parasitic etiology play an important role in travel and tropical medicine. The aim of our study was to assess the preclinical students' knowledge regarding parasitic diseases, tropical and travel medicine in the broad context of their professional background. A total of 346 Romanian medical students completed a 13-item questionnaire on the above-mentioned topics. In order to allow for complex evaluation, the questionnaire also included items related to their extracurricular training as well as their future perspectives. The majority of the students (97.7%) declared they had prior knowledge (before studying parasitology) of malaria. Most of the responders (90.2%) knew that a journey in (sub)tropical regions requires adequate prophylactic measures. About a quarter of those interviewed (26.4%) would agree to practice tropical medicine after graduation. They were mainly interested in helping people from underdeveloped countries regardless of remuneration (52.7%). The majority of students (59.8%) wished to practice clinical medicine. It has been observed that fewer than 5% of the questioned students had ever read a scientific paper or book in the field of tropical medicine. English was the most commonly spoken foreign language (92.8%), and 99.1% of students had at least intermediate computer skills. Finally, 71.6% of students would choose to practice the specialty of travel medicine if it were available in Romania. The implementation of appropriate measures towards the globalization of medical teaching in Romanian universities should represent an important issue in this new millennium, in which borders between various nations are starting to fade; otherwise the next generations of physicians will lose the chance to gain wider experiences and share the international

  19. Knowledge and Awareness of Familial Hypercholesterolaemia among Registered Medical Practitioners in Tamil Nadu: Are They Suboptimal?

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Shanthi; Pang, Jing; Watts, Gerald F

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is the most common monogenic disorder causing premature Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). However, the majority of people with FH are undiagnosed and under treated. Aim To determine awareness, knowledge and practices of registered medical practitioners regarding FH in India. Materials and Methods Physicians from a southern state of India (Tamil Nadu) who see the general cases were requested to complete a structured online survey questionnaire based on the outcomes on screening, diagnostic and service aspects of FH. Results A total of 133 physicians were surveyed, 27.9% perceived themselves to have above average familiarity with FH and 71.4% correctly described FH. 41.4% of physicians were unaware and unsure whether they had FH patients under their care. The awareness of specific aspects of FH were as follows: heritability 35.3%, prevalence 31.6%, typical lipid profile 34.6%, CVD relating to FH13.5%, genetic testing 33.1%, cascade screening 41.4%, preventive, management and referral services for FH 12.8%, 49.6% of them thought that the age for screening young people for FH should be 13 to 18 years. 84.2% selected GP’s as the most effective health care provider for the early detection and care of FH as being useful. 69.2% selected interpretive commenting on lipid profile to highlight patients at risk of FH. 91.7% and 19.5% of physicians identified statins as monotherapy and statin with ezetimibe as combination therapy for FH, respectively. Conclusion The study identified substantial deficit in the awareness and knowledge of FH among primary care physicians in Tamil Nadu. Extensive and continuous medical education programs are required to close the gap in coronary prevention. PMID:27437273

  20. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-01-01

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:24761231

  1. Embrittlement phenomenon of Ag core MP35N cable as lead conductor in medical device.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Li, Bernie; Zhang, Haitao

    2013-02-01

    Ag core MP35N (Ag/MP35N) wire has been used in lead electric conductor wires in the medical device industry for many years. Recently it was noticed that the combination of silver and MP35N restricts its wire drawing process. The annealing temperature in Ag/MP35N has to be lower than the melting temperature of pure Ag (960 °C), which cannot fully anneal MP35N. The lower annealing temperature results in a highly cold worked MP35N, which significantly reduces Ag/MP35N ductility. The embrittlement phenomenon of Ag/MP35N cable was observed in tension and bending deformation. The effect of the embrittlement on the wire flex fatigue life was evaluated using a newly developed flex fatigue testing method. The Ag/MP35N cable fatigue results was analyzed with a Coffin-Manson approach and compared to the MP35N cable fatigue results. The root causes of the Ag/Mp35N embrittlement phenomenon are discussed. PMID:23231759

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice of Contraception among Postpartum Women Attending Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital.

    PubMed

    Bajracharya, A

    2015-01-01

    Background Failure to plan a pregnancy can adversely affect the health of the family as a whole. High parity is related to increased maternal, perinatal and infant deaths and is associated with nutritional problems of both mother and child. Hence, good knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among women are important. This study is aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of contraception among the postpartum women attending Kathmandu Medical College Teaching Hospital. Objective To determine the knowledge, attitude and the practice of various contraceptive methods among the postpartum women. Method A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in the department of Obstetrics and Gynecology on 400 postpartum women (within 42 days of delivery) who delivered and came for follow-up in this institution. All the postnatal women were interviewed with pre-designed questionnaire and information on sociodemographic variable, awareness and knowledge of various contraceptive methods, previous and current use of family planning methods, source of information, utilization and reasons for use/non-use of family planning methods were obtained. Data collected were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20. The results were presented as percentages, means, tables and charts. Result Majority of the participants 363 (90.8%) were aware of contraceptive usage. Amongst 60.5% of women who had previously used contraception, OCPs were the commonest one. Maximum number of participants (60.35%) had used modern contraceptives in the past. The most common source of information on contraception was media (55.7%). The reason of using contraception was spacing between the subsequent pregnancies, while the most common reason of discontinuation or not willing to use family planning methods was husband being abroad, fear of side effects and not knowing which contraceptives to use. Conclusion The contraceptive awareness and knowledge among the postpartum women was high but

  3. Leading the Way: Indigenous Knowledge and Collaboration at The Woolyungah Indigenous Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloin, Colleen; Marshall, Anne; Adams, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper derives from collaborative research undertaken by staff at the Woolyungah Indigenous Centre, into our own teaching practice. It articulates a particular strand of inquiry emanating from the research: the importance of Indigenous knowledges as this is taught at Woolyungah in the discipline of Indigenous Studies. The paper is a reflection…

  4. Anatomical knowledge retention in third-year medical students prior to obstetrics and gynecology and surgery rotations.

    PubMed

    Jurjus, Rosalyn A; Lee, Juliet; Ahle, Samantha; Brown, Kirsten M; Butera, Gisela; Goldman, Ellen F; Krapf, Jill M

    2014-01-01

    Surgical anatomy is taught early in medical school training. The literature shows that many physicians, especially surgical specialists, think that anatomical knowledge of medical students is inadequate and nesting of anatomical sciences later in the clinical curriculum may be necessary. Quantitative data concerning this perception of an anatomical knowledge deficit are lacking, as are specifics as to what content should be reinforced. This study identifies baseline areas of strength and weakness in the surgical anatomy knowledge of medical students entering surgical rotations. Third-year medical students completed a 20-25-question test at the beginning of the General Surgery and Obstetrics and Gynecology rotations. Knowledge of inguinal anatomy (45.3%), orientation in abdominal cavity (38.8%), colon (27.7%), and esophageal varices (12.8%) was poor. The numbers in parentheses are the percentage of questions answered correctly per topic. In comparing those scores to matched test items from this cohort as first-year students in the anatomy course, the drop in retention overall was very significant (P = 0.009) from 86.9 to 51.5%. Students also scored lower in questions relating to pelvic organs (46.7%), urogenital development (54.0%), pulmonary development (17.8%), and pregnancy (17.8%). These data showed that indeed, knowledge of surgical anatomy is poor for medical students entering surgical clerkships. These data collected will be utilized to create interactive learning modules, aimed at improving clinically relevant anatomical knowledge retention. These modules, which will be available to students during their inpatient surgical rotations, connect basic anatomy principles to clinical cases, with the ultimate goal of closing the anatomical knowledge gap. PMID:24591485

  5. Perception, knowledge, and attitude toward mental disorders and psychiatry among medical undergraduates in Karnataka: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Aruna, G.; Mittal, Shobhana; Yadiyal, Muralidhara B.; Acharya, Chandana; Acharya, Srilekha; Uppulari, Chinmay

    2016-01-01

    Context: Globally, psychiatry as a subject, psychiatrists as professionals, and patients with psychiatric disorders are subjected to cultural stereotypes and negative attitude by the general population. What is of alarming concern is that these prejudices exist within the medical community as well. Aims: This study aims at evaluating the perception, knowledge, and attitude toward psychiatric disorders, therapeutic modalities used in psychiatry, psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals among undergraduate medical students in Karnataka. Settings and Design: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional type of study conducted in three medical colleges located in Karnataka. Materials and Methods: A sample of 500 students from all three professional phases of MBBS was selected using purposive sampling. A semistructured prevalidated questionnaire was used to assess the perception, knowledge, and attitude of undergraduate medical students toward psychiatric disorders and psychiatry. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 16.0. Results: The undergraduate medical student population had significant shortcomings in knowledge and attitude pertaining to psychiatric disorders, more glaring in the initial years of education. A comparatively positive opinion was obtained regarding psychiatry as a subject and psychiatrists as professionals, which may reflect the changing trends and concepts, both in society and medical community. Conclusion: This study highlights the need for better educational measures at undergraduate level in order to shape a positive attitude of the health care providers towards psychiatry, which is essential for ensuring better care for patients as well as reduction of stigma surrounding psychiatric disorders. PMID:26985108

  6. Testing knowledge of human gross anatomy in medical school: an applied contextual-learning theory method.

    PubMed

    Clough, R W; Lehr, R P

    1996-01-01

    The traditional gross anatomy laboratory experience, with modifications in evaluations that we outline later, meets the criteria of contextual-learning theory, expands the repertoire of core objectives we identify for our students, and may increase the likelihood of cognitive permanence of anatomical data. Our subjects included approximately 54 first-year medical students from each of three sequential class years (1996, 1997, 1998). As an alternative to more typical written and practical exams, examinations in a major portion of our gross anatomy program consist of two approximately 30 minute oral expositions by each student to his or her peers and a faculty member. Students demonstrate specific detail on cadaver, x-ray, cross sections, or a model. Clinical applications, spatial relationships, nomenclature, and functions are strongly emphasized. The results of this teaching approach to the utilization of anatomical knowledge in clinical situations requires further assessment: however, new attributes have been afforded our students with implementation of the present program: First, students learn anatomical detail equally well as the students of the more traditional system (based on board exam results). Second, students who completed the program indicate that this approach provides a useful simulation of what is expected later in their training. Third, students gradually gain confidence in verbal presentation, they demonstrate cognitive synthesis of separate conceptual issues, they retain information, and they are quite visibly more enthusiastic about anatomy and its importance in medicine. Our program demonstrates that the learning of applicable human anatomy is facilitated in a contextual-learning environment. Moreover, by learning anatomy in this way, other equally beneficial attributes are afforded the medical student, including, but not limited to, increases in communication skills, confidence in verbal presentation, synthesis of anatomical concepts

  7. USE AND KNOWLEDGE ON THE INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN MEDICAL EDUCATION -BOSNIAN AND HERZEGOVINIAN EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Begic, Nedim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Information technologies (IT) are becoming a tool without which further education of both medical students and doctors would not be possible. Aim: The aim of this paper was to analyze the use of IT in the prism of two systems, the old system and the Bologna system. Material and methods: Answers from questionnaires from total of 459 students (2012/13–2015/16 generation) were analyzed. Results: The presence of large number of female students, in both systems is significant (p <0.05). About 92% of students of the old system and 98% of students of the Bologna system use computer in everyday work (only 36% of old system and 47% of the Bologna system are using “faculties” computers). The computer is used for entertainment, education, information (via Internet) and for communication (e-mail, chat, social networks) (68.5% of the old system and 84% of students of the Bologna system have chosen all 4 offered answers). MS Word and MS Power Point are significantly more used compared to the use of MS Excel in both systems (p <0.05). The knowledge necessary to use their computers student of both systems have acquired through individual work. Students feel that they need to improve knowledge of the treatment of sub-base (76% of students of the old system and 62% of students of the Bologna system). Having analyzed the generation of 2015/16, 84.5% of students of the Bologna system and 75% of students of the old system used smartphones or tablets. The purpose of using a smartphone is, in most cases for accessing the social networks. 77.4% of smartphone users of the Bologna system, or 73.3% of the users of the old system have installed an application from the medical field. We analyzed the opinions of the availability of online course content and the degree of computerization of the study process and the possibility of electronic access to the literature - the results are not at the appropriate level. Conclusion: Education in software solutions that are connected

  8. Iliad and Medical HouseCall: evaluating the impact of common sense knowledge on the diagnostic accuracy of a medical expert system.

    PubMed Central

    Bouhaddou, O.; Lambert, J. G.; Morgan, G. E.

    1995-01-01

    Diagnostic expert systems are gaining acceptance among physicians. Recently, a comparative study of the performance of four major commercial diagnostic programs demonstrated that the information they produce contains a certain amount of irrelevancy that the trained physician ignores. Medical HouseCall is a consumer health information expert system based on a medical expert system for physicians, Iliad. To enhance the usefulness of Medical HouseCall to health care consumers, we are interested in significantly reducing the amount of irrelevancy contained in the diagnostic differential list. Testing with over 470 'textbook' cases revealed that a large part of the irrelevancy can be eliminated by adding universal and medical 'common sense' knowledge. Using four performance measures, we compared, on a subset of cases, the differential lists from two versions of the program: the refined knowledge base (1995) and an older version (1994) 'pre-common sense'. The results suggest that the performance of a diagnostic expert system can be significantly improved with the addition of common sense knowledge. PMID:8563388

  9. An adaptive knowledge-driven medical image search engine for interactive diffuse parenchymal lung disease quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Yimo; Zhou, Xiang Sean; Bi, Jinbo; Jerebkoa, Anna; Wolf, Matthias; Salganicoff, Marcos; Krishnana, Arun

    2009-02-01

    Characterization and quantification of the severity of diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (DPLDs) using Computed Tomography (CT) is an important issue in clinical research. Recently, several classification-based computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems [1-3] for DPLD have been proposed. For some of those systems, a degradation of performance [2] was reported on unseen data because of considerable inter-patient variances of parenchymal tissue patterns. We believe that a CAD system of real clinical value should be robust to inter-patient variances and be able to classify unseen cases online more effectively. In this work, we have developed a novel adaptive knowledge-driven CT image search engine that combines offline learning aspects of classification-based CAD systems with online learning aspects of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) systems. Our system can seamlessly and adaptively fuse offline accumulated knowledge with online feedback, leading to an improved online performance in detecting DPLD in both accuracy and speed aspects. Our contribution lies in: (1) newly developed 3D texture-based and morphology-based features; (2) a multi-class offline feature selection method; and, (3) a novel image search engine framework for detecting DPLD. Very promising results have been obtained on a small test set.

  10. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  11. Assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among medical and nursing students: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Andrew; Salamonson, Yenna; Hu, Wendy; Gallego, Gisselle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Chronic pain results in significant personal, societal and economic burden. Doctors and nurses have a pivotal role in patient pain management. In order to determine the effectiveness of current pain education on knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of medical and nursing students, there needs to be a valid measure to assess and quantify these domains. We reviewed the literature to identify approaches for assessing knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management among nursing and medical students. Methods: Databases of peer-reviewed literature including CINAHL, EMBASE, ERIC, PsycInfo, Medline and PubMed were searched for articles published between 1993 and December 2014 using the following search terms: student, graduate, intern, junior, pain, pain management, analgesia, analgesic, pharmacology, pharmacological, knowledge, competence, attitude, preparedness, practice, nursing, medical, doctor, nurse. Results: The search revealed over 3500 articles, and on application of the inclusion criteria, 26 articles were included in the review. A total of 14 instruments were used in these studies with the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP) as the main instrument in 9 out of the 26 articles. The various instruments used different question formats such as multiple-choice questions (MCQs), true/false statements and Likert scales that went from 3 points to 7 points. Clinical skills examinations were also used in four studies to assess pain management. Conclusion: There is no gold standard instrument currently used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitudes to pain management. The results of this review showed, despite the diversity of standardised instruments that have been used to assess knowledge, perceptions and attitude to pain management, the literature has consistently reported that knowledge about pain management among nursing and medical students was generally poor among both groups. PMID:27551407

  12. Knowledge Translation for Research Utilization: Design of a Knowledge Translation Model at Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majdzadeh, Reza; Sadighi, Jila; Nejat, Saharnaz; Mahani, Ali Shahidzade; Gholami, Jaleh

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: The present study aimed to generate a model that would provide a conceptual framework for linking disparate components of knowledge translation. A theoretical model of such would enable the organization and evaluation of attempts to analyze current conditions and to design interventions on the transfer and utilization of research…

  13. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Senior Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzahrani, Sami H; Bashawri, Jamil; Salawati, Emad M; Bakarman, Marwan A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in medical students in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, it evaluated their views on the incorporation of CAM in their medical syllabus. Methods. The study was conducted by selecting a cross-sectional sample of senior medical students in the Faculty of Medicine. A validated and reliable self-administered questionnaire was used to explore the knowledge, attitude, and benefits of CAM. It was distributed to a sample of 273 students. Results. The study included 242 students, making the response rate 88.6%. Only two-thirds of students (62.4%) were aware of acupuncture principles and only 17.4% recognized that chiropractic is associated with pain management. The knowledge of common herbs such as St. John's Wort, Echinacea, and Ginkgo biloba was limited among the students. Older students had a positive CAM attitude compared to younger students (p = 0.027). Conclusion. Students attitudes toward CAM learning were encouraging regardless of their limited knowledge on the subject. A high percentage of students agreed that CAM in combination with conventional therapy is beneficial in treating unusual cases, but the choice of CAM should be based on evidence. Furthermore, medical students are still reluctant to have CAM practitioners in their referral network. PMID:27066102

  14. Knowledge and Attitudes towards Complementary and Alternative Medicine among Senior Medical Students in King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bashawri, Jamil; Bakarman, Marwan A.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. This study assessed the knowledge and attitudes regarding complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in medical students in Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, it evaluated their views on the incorporation of CAM in their medical syllabus. Methods. The study was conducted by selecting a cross-sectional sample of senior medical students in the Faculty of Medicine. A validated and reliable self-administered questionnaire was used to explore the knowledge, attitude, and benefits of CAM. It was distributed to a sample of 273 students. Results. The study included 242 students, making the response rate 88.6%. Only two-thirds of students (62.4%) were aware of acupuncture principles and only 17.4% recognized that chiropractic is associated with pain management. The knowledge of common herbs such as St. John's Wort, Echinacea, and Ginkgo biloba was limited among the students. Older students had a positive CAM attitude compared to younger students (p = 0.027). Conclusion. Students attitudes toward CAM learning were encouraging regardless of their limited knowledge on the subject. A high percentage of students agreed that CAM in combination with conventional therapy is beneficial in treating unusual cases, but the choice of CAM should be based on evidence. Furthermore, medical students are still reluctant to have CAM practitioners in their referral network. PMID:27066102

  15. Knowledge of Hazards of Self-Medication among Secondary School Students in Ethiopia East Local Government Area of Delta State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyeke, Patrick; Dafe, Onoharigho Festus

    2016-01-01

    This study is set out to ascertain the knowledge of hazards of self-medication among Secondary School Students. The descriptive Survey design was adopted for the work. The population of the study is 9,500 students in the public Secondary Schools, in Ethiope East Local Government Area of Delta State. The sample is 300 students randomly selected…

  16. Evaluation of Knowledge, Practices, and Possible Barriers among Healthcare Providers regarding Medical Waste Management in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Harun-Or-Rashid, Md.; Hirosawa, Tomoya; Hai, Md. Shaheen Bin Abdul; Siddique, Md. Ruhul Furkan; Sakamoto, Junichi; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Background Improper handling of medical wastes, which is common in Bangladesh, could adversely affect the hospital environment and community at large, and poses a serious threat to public health. We aimed to assess the knowledge and practices regarding medical waste management (MWM) among healthcare providers (HCPs) and to identify possible barriers related to it. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out during June to September, 2012 including 1 tertiary, 3 secondary, and 3 primary level hospitals in Dhaka division, Bangladesh through 2-stage cluster sampling. Data were collected from 625 HCPs, including 245 medical doctors, 220 nurses, 44 technologists, and 116 cleaning staff who were directly involved in MWM using a self-administered (researcher-administered for cleaning staff), semi-structured questionnaire. Results Nearly one-third of medical doctors and nurses and two-thirds of technologists and cleaning staff had inadequate knowledge, and about half of medical doctors (44.0%) and cleaning staff (56.0%) had poor practices. HCPs without prior training on MWM were more likely to have poor practices compared to those who had training. Lack of personal protective equipment, equipment for final disposal, MWM-related staff, proper policy/guideline, and lack of incinerator were identified as the top 5 barriers. Conclusions Strengthening and expansion of ongoing educational programs/training is necessary to improve knowledge and practices regarding MWM. The government should take necessary steps and provide financial support to eliminate the possible barriers related to proper MWM. PMID:25488747

  17. What Do Physicians Believe About the Way Decisions Are Made? A Pilot Study on Metacognitive Knowledge in the Medical Context.

    PubMed

    Iannello, Paola; Perucca, Valeria; Riva, Silvia; Antonietti, Alessandro; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-11-01

    Metacognition relative to medical decision making has been poorly investigated to date. However, beliefs about methods of decision making (metacognition) play a fundamental role in determining the efficiency of the decision itself. In the present study, we investigated a set of beliefs that physicians develop in relation to the modes of making decisions in a professional environment. The Solomon Questionnaire, designed to assess metacognitive knowledge about behaviors and mental processes involved in decision making, was administered to a sample of 18 emergency physicians, 18 surgeons, and 18 internists. Significant differences in metacognitive knowledge emerged among these three medical areas. Physicians' self-reports about the decision process mirrored the peculiarities of the context in which they operate. Their metacognitive knowledge demonstrated a reflective attitude that is an effective tool during the decision making process. PMID:27247686

  18. What Do Physicians Believe About the Way Decisions Are Made? A Pilot Study on Metacognitive Knowledge in the Medical Context

    PubMed Central

    Iannello, Paola; Perucca, Valeria; Riva, Silvia; Antonietti, Alessandro; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Metacognition relative to medical decision making has been poorly investigated to date. However, beliefs about methods of decision making (metacognition) play a fundamental role in determining the efficiency of the decision itself. In the present study, we investigated a set of beliefs that physicians develop in relation to the modes of making decisions in a professional environment. The Solomon Questionnaire, designed to assess metacognitive knowledge about behaviors and mental processes involved in decision making, was administered to a sample of 18 emergency physicians, 18 surgeons, and 18 internists. Significant differences in metacognitive knowledge emerged among these three medical areas. Physicians’ self-reports about the decision process mirrored the peculiarities of the context in which they operate. Their metacognitive knowledge demonstrated a reflective attitude that is an effective tool during the decision making process. PMID:27247686

  19. Ultrafest: A Novel Approach to Ultrasound in Medical Education Leads to Improvement in Written and Clinical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Kiah; Beier, Lancelot; Langdorf, Mark I.; Anderson, Craig L.; Fox, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of hands-on training at a bedside ultrasound (US) symposium (“Ultrafest”) to improve both clinical knowledge and image acquisition skills of medical students. Primary outcome measure was improvement in multiple choice questions on pulmonary or Focused Assessment with Sonography in Trauma (FAST) US knowledge. Secondary outcome was improvement in image acquisition for either pulmonary or FAST. Methods Prospective cohort study of 48 volunteers at “Ultrafest,” a free symposium where students received five contact training hours. Students were evaluated before and after training for proficiency in either pulmonary US or FAST. Proficiency was assessed by clinical knowledge through written multiple-choice exam, and clinical skills through accuracy of image acquisition. We used paired sample t-tests with students as their own controls. Results Pulmonary knowledge scores increased by a mean of 10.1 points (95% CI [8.9–11.3], p<0.00005), from 8.4 to a posttest average of 18.5/21 possible points. The FAST knowledge scores increased by a mean of 7.5 points (95% CI [6.3–8.7] p<0.00005), from 8.1 to a posttest average of 15.6/21. We analyzed clinical skills data on 32 students. The mean score was 1.7 pretest and 4.7 posttest of 12 possible points. Mean improvement was 3.0 points (p<0.00005) overall, 3.3 (p=0.0001) for FAST, and 2.6 (p=0.003) for the pulmonary US exam. Conclusion This study suggests that a symposium on US can improve clinical knowledge, but is limited in achieving image acquisition for pulmonary and FAST US assessments. US training external to official medical school curriculum may augment students’ education. PMID:25671024

  20. Ageism and its clinical impact in oncogeriatry: state of knowledge and therapeutic leads

    PubMed Central

    Schroyen, Sarah; Adam, Stéphane; Jerusalem, Guy; Missotten, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a major health problem that is widespread in elderly people. Paradoxically, older people suffering from cancer are often excluded from clinical trials and are undertreated when compared to younger patients. One explanation for these observations is age stigma (ie, stereotypes linked to age, and thus ageism). These stigmas can result in deleterious consequences for elderly people’s mental and physical health in “normal” aging. What, then, is the impact in a pathological context, such as oncology? Moreover, health care professionals’ attitudes can be tainted with ageism, thus leading to undesirable consequences for patients. To counter these stigmas, we can apply some possible interventions emerging from research on normal aging and from social psychology, such as intergenerational contact, activation of positive stereotypes, self-affirmation, and so on; these tools can improve opinions of aging among the elderly people themselves, as well as health care professionals, thus affecting patients’ mental and physical health. PMID:25678781

  1. The Health Innovations Scholars Program: A Model for Accelerating Preclinical Medical Students' Mastery of Skills for Leading Improvement of Clinical Systems.

    PubMed

    Sweigart, Joseph R; Tad-Y, Darlene; Pierce, Read; Wagner, Emilie; Glasheen, Jeffrey J

    2016-07-01

    Dramatic changes in health care require physician leadership. Efforts to instill necessary skills often occur late in training. The Heath Innovations Scholars Program (HISP) provided preclinical medical students with experiential learning focused on process improvement. Students led initiatives to improve the discharge process for stroke patients. All students completed an aptitude survey and Quality Improvement Knowledge Assessment Test (QIKAT) before and after the program. Significant improvements occurred across subject areas of leadership (18.4%, P < .001), quality and safety (14.7%, P < .001), and health care systems operations (21.2%, P < .008), and in the domains of knowledge (25.9%, P < .001) and skills (25.2%, P < .001). Average cumulative QIKAT results improved significantly (8.33 to 9.83, P = .04). Three of 4 recommended interventions were implemented. Furthermore, students engaged in other process improvement work on return to their home institutions. The HISP successfully advanced preclinical medical students' ability to lead clinical systems improvement. PMID:25855673

  2. Knowledge and practice about TT vaccination among undergraduate female medical students.

    PubMed

    Basher, M S

    2010-10-01

    Neonatal Tetanus (NT) is a clinical form of tetanus, generally occurs through infection via unhealed umbilicus. Newborns can be successfully protected against tetanus by vaccinating women with Tetanus Toxoid (TT). In our country, target groups for vaccination are vaccinated at Out-reach Centres (ORCs) and fixed centres (health facilities) free of cost. All women of reproductive age group, regardless of their marital and pregnancy status, are accessible to the vaccination programme. Illiteracy is one of the known important factors that stand in the way of vaccination. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was intended to assess knowledge about EPI diseases and vaccines, and TT vaccination status among 62 purposively selected undergraduate female students of Mymensingh Medical College (MMC), Mymensingh of session 2006-2007. Semi-structured interview schedule was used for data collection. Data were managed manually by using master sheet and scientific calculator. Out of sixty-two, 44(70.97%) female students started to receive TT vaccination after completion of 15 years. Of them, only 5(11.36%) had completed the five dose schedule till the conduction of the study. Educational status of women is vital for effective utilization of available preventive health services. Vaccination programme is geographically, economically and culturally accessible in our country. Literacy status of our respondents was very high. Nonetheless, access rate for TT vaccine was very much dissatisfactory. So based on these findings, it can be concluded that creating community awareness is an important factor to improve utilization status of preventive programmes including vaccination. PMID:20956892

  3. Over-the-counter self-medication leading to intracranial hypertension in a young lady.

    PubMed

    Ramana Reddy, A M; Prashanth, L K; Sharat Kumar, G G; Chandana, G; Jadav, Rakesh

    2014-10-01

    Intracranial hypertension (idiopathic-IIH and secondary) is a potentially treatable condition. Although various factors such as female gender and obesity, certain drugs have been implicated as risk factors for IIH, there remains a lack of clarity in the exact causal-effect relationship. In India, self-medication by obtaining drugs over the counter due to lack of adequate drug regulation and ignorance of the public is a very common practice with a potential for severe adverse effects. We present a case of a young lady who has developed intracranial hypertension possibly due to self-medication with steroids and cyproheptadine, obtained over the counter. PMID:25288841

  4. Personal profile of medical students selected through a knowledge-based exam only: are we missing suitable students?

    PubMed Central

    Abbiati, Milena; Baroffio, Anne; Gerbase, Margaret W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A consistent body of literature highlights the importance of a broader approach to select medical school candidates both assessing cognitive capacity and individual characteristics. However, selection in a great number of medical schools worldwide is still based on knowledge exams, a procedure that might neglect students with needed personal characteristics for future medical practice. We investigated whether the personal profile of students selected through a knowledge-based exam differed from those not selected. Methods Students applying for medical school (N=311) completed questionnaires assessing motivations for becoming a doctor, learning approaches, personality traits, empathy, and coping styles. Selection was based on the results of MCQ tests. Principal component analysis was used to draw a profile of the students. Differences between selected and non-selected students were examined by Multivariate ANOVAs, and their impact on selection by logistic regression analysis. Results Students demonstrating a profile of diligence with higher conscientiousness, deep learning approach, and task-focused coping were more frequently selected (p=0.01). Other personal characteristics such as motivation, sociability, and empathy did not significantly differ, comparing selected and non-selected students. Conclusion Selection through a knowledge-based exam privileged diligent students. It did neither advantage nor preclude candidates with a more humane profile. PMID:27079886

  5. Neurotic Disorders of General Medical Outpatients in Xi’an, China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Help-Seeking Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Chunping; Ma, Lihua; Wang, Bo; Yan, Yongping; Huang, Yueqin; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Li, Lu; Lang, Hongjuan; Hua, Qianzhen

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study assessed knowledge of neurotic disorders, and attitudes and preferences toward professional help and treatment for them, among general medical outpatients in general hospitals in Xi’an, China. Methods General medical outpatients (N=372) from general hospitals in China were recruited by using a stratified cluster sampling method between June and September 2010. In face-to-face interviews, participants age 16 years or older were assessed for their knowledge, attitudes, and help-seeking preferences in regard to neurotic disorders (obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder). Demographic data were also collected. Results Lack of insight into neurotic disorders was common among medical outpatients in general hospitals of Xi’an, China. Twenty-four percent to 58% of the outpatients had some knowledge of the symptoms and treatment of neurotic disorders. Only 11% of the outpatients would reveal to others that they or a family member suffered from neurotic disorders. When faced with the problem of neurotic disorders, the preference of the respondents was to visit a psychiatrist in a general hospital (44%), and only 17% would visit a physician in a psychiatric hospital. Major ways for the outpatients to obtain knowledge regarding neurotic disorders were via radio and television (36%), and only 18%223% of outpatients obtained knowledge about neurotic disorders through printed public health materials and by attending lectures. Conclusions Study results underscore the need for information campaigns aimed at improving the mental health literacy of general medical outpatients. Such campaigns must consider culturally relevant beliefs to facilitate the development of specific educational programs. PMID:24733481

  6. Can Concept Sorting Provide a Reliable, Valid and Sensitive Measure of Medical Knowledge Structure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclaughlin, Kevin; Coderre, Sylvain; Mortis, Garth; Fick, Gordon; Mandin, Henry

    2007-01-01

    Context: Evolution from novice to expert is associated with the development of expert-type knowledge structure. The objectives of this study were to examine reliability and validity of concept sorting (ConSort[C]) as a measure of static knowledge structure and to determine the relationship between concepts in static knowledge structure and…

  7. Structuration and acquisition of medical knowledge. Using UMLS in the conceptual graph formalism.

    PubMed Central

    Volot, F.; Zweigenbaum, P.; Bachimont, B.; Ben Said, M.; Bouaud, J.; Fieschi, M.; Boisvieux, J. F.

    1993-01-01

    The use of a taxonomy, such as the concept type lattice (CTL) of Conceptual Graphs, is a central structuring piece in a knowledge-based system. The knowledge it contains is constantly used by the system, and its structure provides a guide for the acquisition of other pieces of knowledge. We show how UMLS can be used as a knowledge resource to build a CTL and how the CTL can help the process of acquisition for other kinds of knowledge. We illustrate this method in the context of the MENELAS natural language understanding project. PMID:8130568

  8. Common Medications Which Lead to Unintended Alterations in Weight Gain or Organ Lipotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Medici, Valentina; McClave, Stephen A; Miller, Keith R

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most common chronic conditions in the world. Its management is difficult, partly due to the multiple associated comorbidities including fatty liver, diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. As a result, the choice of prescription medications in overweight and obese patients has important implications as some of them can actually worsen the fat accumulation and its associated metabolic complications. Several prescription medications are associated with weight gain with mechanisms that are often poorly understood and under-recognized. Even less data are available on the distribution of fat and lipotoxicity (the organ damage related to fat accumulation). The present review will discuss the drugs associated with weight gain, their mechanism of action, and the magnitude and timing of their effect. PMID:26700070

  9. Linking human anatomy to knowledge bases: a visual front end for electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Stewart; Pouchard, Line; Ward, Richard; Atkins, Gary; Cole, Martin; Lorensen, Bill; Ade, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    A new concept of a visual electronic medical record is presented based on developments ongoing in the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency Virtual Soldier Project. This new concept is based on the holographic medical electronic representation (Holomer) and on data formats being developed to support this. The Holomer is being developed in two different visualization environments, one of which is suitable for prototyping the visual electronic medical record. The advantages of a visual approach as a front end for electronic medical records are discussed and specific implementations are presented. PMID:15718802

  10. New Minimum Relative Humidity Requirements Are Expected to Lead to More Medical Device Failures.

    PubMed

    Kohani, Mehdi; Pecht, Michael

    2016-03-01

    In 2010, the Addendum D to ASHRAE Standard 170, "Ventilation of healthcare facilities," lowered the minimum relative humidity (RH) requirement of anesthetizing locations (including operating rooms, operating/surgical cystoscopic rooms, delivery rooms (Caesarean), recovery rooms, critical and intensive care, newborn intensive care, treatment rooms, trauma rooms (crisis or shock), laser eye rooms, newborn nursery suites, and endoscopy rooms) from 30 % to 20 %. The new minimum limit was adopted based on the results of a review paper that suggested that lowering humidity levels will have little or no impact on providing a safe environment for patients, staff, or medical equipment. That review paper reached this conclusion by assuming that there were no medical device failures due to electrostatic discharge (ESD). However, in an examination of the FDA's MAUDE database of reported defects and recalls, we identified numerous medical device failures explicitly due to ESD. This paper presents technical reliability and safety concerns regarding the new guidelines and recommends that such changes should not be implemented and that the guidelines should be revoked. PMID:26660689

  11. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed

    Faria, Miguel A

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists' and the Nazi doctors' dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the 'collective' or 'greater good.' Thus in the 20(th) century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  12. Leading change: introducing an electronic medical record system to a paramedic service.

    PubMed

    Baird, Shawn; Boak, George

    2016-05-01

    Purpose Leaders in health-care organizations introducing electronic medical records (EMRs) face implementation challenges. The adoption of EMR by the emergency medical and ambulance setting is expected to provide wide-ranging benefits, but there is little research into the processes of adoption in this sector. The purpose of this study is to examine the introduction of EMR in a small emergency care organization and identify factors that aided adoption. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews with selected paramedics were followed up with a survey issued to all paramedics in the company. Findings The user interfaces with the EMR, and perceived ease of use, were important factors affecting adoption. Individual paramedics were found to have strong and varied preferences about how and when they integrated the EMR into their practice. As company leadership introduced flexibility of use, this enhanced both individual and collective ability to make sense of the change and removed barriers to acceptance. Research limitations/implications This is a case study of one small organization. However, there may be useful lessons for other emergency care organizations adopting EMR. Practical implications Leaders introducing EMR in similar situations may benefit from considering a sense-making perspective and responding promptly to feedback. Originality/value The study contributes to a wider understanding of issues faced by leaders who seek to implement EMRs in emergency medical services, a sector in which there has been to date very little research on this issue. PMID:27198703

  13. The road being paved to neuroethics: A path leading to bioethics or to neuroscience medical ethics?

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, U.S. President Barack Obama decreed the creation of the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, as part of his $100 million Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) initiative. In the wake of the work of this Commission, the purpose, goals, possible shortcomings, and even dangers are discussed, and the possible impact it may have upon neuroscience ethics (Neuroethics) both in clinical practice as well as scientific research. Concerns were expressed that government involvement in bioethics may have unforeseen and possibly dangerous repercussions to neuroscience in particular and to medicine in general. The author emphasizes that the lessons of history chronicle that wherever governments have sought to alter medical ethics and control medical care, the results have frequently been perverse and disastrous, as in the examples of the communist Soviet Union and National Socialist (Nazi) Germany. The Soviet psychiatrists’ and the Nazi doctors’ dark descent into ghastly experimentation and brutality was a product of convoluted ethics and physicians willingly cooperating with authoritarianism citing utilitarianism in the pursuit of the ‘collective’ or ‘greater good.’ Thus in the 20th century, as governments infringed on the medical profession, even the Liberal Democracies have not been immune to the corruption of ethics in science and medicine. PMID:25324975

  14. A study on knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among medical students in Puducherry, India.

    PubMed

    Kowsalya, V; Vijayakumar, R; Chidambaram, R; Srikumar, R; Reddy, E Prabhakar; Latha, S; Fathima, I Gayathri; Kumar, C Kishor

    2013-05-01

    Knowledge, attitude and practice studies have been used to understand the various factors that influence blood donation which is the basis for donor mobilization and retention strategies. Role of youngsters in voluntary blood donation is crucial to meet the demand of safe blood. The present study was aimed to assess the level of knowledge, attitude and practice regarding voluntary blood donation among the health care students. A validated and pre-tested questionnaire on knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation were assessed among 371 medical students from Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Institute, Puducherry, India. Result showed that knowledge on blood donation among respondents was 44.8% (1st year 36.7%, 2nd year 42.8% and 3rd year 54.9%). About 62.6% of non-donors (1st year 51%, 2nd year 61% and 3rd year 77%) showed positive attitude by expressing their willingness to donate blood while 22.8%.of the non-donors had negative attitude (1st year 33%, 2nd year 23% and 3rd year 13%). In practice 13.2% of students had donated blood (1st year 10%, 2nd year 13% and 3rd year 24%), in which 2.7% of male students alone donating blood on regular basis. Over all 3rd year student showed significantly higher knowledge compared with 1st years, in attitude and practice section 3rd year student's showed significantly higher positive attitude and practice than that of 1st and 2nd years. The present study reveals that there is a positive association among knowledge, attitude and practice on blood donation, which suggest that positive attitude and practice can be improved by inculcating knowledge on blood donation among college students to recruit and donate blood regularly, which will help to achieve 100% of blood donation on voluntary basis. PMID:24498809

  15. Perception, Attitude, and Knowledge Regarding Antimicrobial Resistance, Appropriate Antimicrobial Use, and Infection Control Among Future Medical Practitioners: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Chuenchom, Nuttagarn; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Chaiwarith, Romanee; Deoisares, Rawisut; Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo

    2016-05-01

    A questionnaire-based study was conducted among final-year Thai medical students. The problem of antimicrobial resistance is well recognized, but their knowledge of antimicrobial resistance, appropriate antimicrobial use, and infection control was substantially limited. Only half of these students recognized existence of an antimicrobial stewardship program or infection control unit in their hospitals. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:603-605. PMID:26809753

  16. The Social Cognition of Medical Knowledge: With Special Reference to Childhood Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; O'Regan, John

    2009-01-01

    This article arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating…

  17. The Impact of Curricular Changes on the Geriatrics Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills of Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Michael H.; Tanabe, Marianne K. G.; Sakai, Damon H.; Masaki, Kamal H.; Kasuya, Richard T.; Blanchette, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    We redesigned our medical school's Problem-Based Learning (PBL) curriculum to include a substantial increase in required geriatrics content. Innovations included new PBL health care problems and standardized patients (SPs) throughout the first three years and a new required four-week, fourth-year rotation. We used data from the AAMC Medical School…

  18. An approach to enrich online medical Problem-Based Learning with tacit healthcare knowledge.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Yu-N; Rashid, Faridah Abdul; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2003-01-01

    Existing Problem-Based Learning (PBL) problems, though suitable in their own right for teaching purposes, are limited in their potential to evolve by themselves and to create new knowledge. Presently, they are based on textbook examples of past cases and/or cases that have been transcribed by a clinician. In this paper, we present (a) a tacit healthcare knowledge representation formalism called Healthcare Scenarios, (b) the relevance of healthcare scenarios in PBL in healthcare and medicine, (c) a novel PBL-Scenario-based tacit knowledge explication strategy and (d) an online PBL Problem Composer and Presenter (PBL-Online) to facilitate the acquisition and utilisation of expert-quality tacit healthcare knowledge to enrich online PBL. We employ a confluence of healthcare knowledge management tools and Internet technologies to bring tacit healthcare knowledge-enriched PBL to a global and yet more accessible level. PMID:14664077

  19. Issues and Structures for Sharing Medical Knowledge Among Decision-Making Systems: The 1989 Arden Homestead Retreat

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Paul D.; Pryor, T. Allan; Wigertz, Ove B.; Hripcsak, George

    1989-01-01

    To address the issue of facilitating transfer and integration of the variety of computer-based programs which contain medical expertise, a retreat was held at Columbia University's Arden Homestead conference center June 16-18, 1989. The focus of this retreat was to explore ways in which the medical expertise contained in knowledge-based systems could be shared and expanded. During the three day meeting, the eighteen attendees from ten institutions discussed: (a) the need for better ways of mapping terminology used in one setting or program to terms with similar meaning that have been used in other programs, (b) the need for catalogues which list the variety of programs which are available, (c) a representational syntax and format for sharing modular medical knowledge, (d) the possibility of developing standards for interfacing program modules so that they could be “snapped” into place in a variety of systems, (e) methods for evaluating, validating and testing knowledge based systems, and (f) the legal and financial aspects of sharing systems which influence the care that is given to a patient. We emerged from the retreat with a feeling that there was an enthusiastic but not unanimous consensus that sharing should occur in order to advance the field of medical information systems. We accepted an initial version of a working document for the representation of Medical Logic Modules (MLM's), appointed leaders for subcommittees to address the issues which had surfaced and settled upon an approach for dealing with the legal and financial aspects of the sharing process.

  20. Combining knowledge discovery from databases (KDD) and case-based reasoning (CBR) to support diagnosis of medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranieri, Andrew; Yearwood, John; Pham, Binh

    1999-07-01

    The development of data warehouses for the storage and analysis of very large corpora of medical image data represents a significant trend in health care and research. Amongst other benefits, the trend toward warehousing enables the use of techniques for automatically discovering knowledge from large and distributed databases. In this paper, we present an application design for knowledge discovery from databases (KDD) techniques that enhance the performance of the problem solving strategy known as case- based reasoning (CBR) for the diagnosis of radiological images. The problem of diagnosing the abnormality of the cervical spine is used to illustrate the method. The design of a case-based medical image diagnostic support system has three essential characteristics. The first is a case representation that comprises textual descriptions of the image, visual features that are known to be useful for indexing images, and additional visual features to be discovered by data mining many existing images. The second characteristic of the approach presented here involves the development of a case base that comprises an optimal number and distribution of cases. The third characteristic involves the automatic discovery, using KDD techniques, of adaptation knowledge to enhance the performance of the case based reasoner. Together, the three characteristics of our approach can overcome real time efficiency obstacles that otherwise mitigate against the use of CBR to the domain of medical image analysis.

  1. Physicians' knowledge and continuing medical education regarding fitness to drive: a questionnaire-based survey in Southeast Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Pfäffli, Matthias; Thali, Michael J; Eggert, Sebastian

    2012-05-01

    Valid information for physicians in Switzerland concerning knowledge and continuing education in traffic medicine is not available. Also, their attitude to the legally prescribed periodic driving fitness examinations is unclear. In order to gain more information about these topics, 635 resident physicians in Southeast Switzerland were sent a questionnaire (response rate 52%). In a self-estimation, 79% of the queried physicians claimed to know the minimal medical requirements for drivers which are important in their specialty. Statistically significant differences existed between the specialties, whereby general practitioners most frequently claimed to know the minimal medical requirements (90%). It appears that the minimal medical requirements for drivers are well known to the queried physicians. Fifty-two percent of the physicians favored an expansion of continuing education in traffic medicine. Such an expansion was desired to a lesser extent by physicians without knowledge of the minimal requirements (p < 0.001). A clear majority of the medical professionals adjudged the legally prescribed periodic driving fitness examinations as being an expedient means to identify unfit drivers. A national standardized form for reporting potentially unfit drivers to the licensing authorities was supported by 68% of the responding physicians. Such a form could simplify and standardize the reports to the licensing authorities. PMID:22012301

  2. Medical Knowledge Base Acquisition: The Role of the Expert Review Process in Disease Profile Construction

    PubMed Central

    Giuse, Nunzia Bettinsoli; Bankowitz, Richard A.; Giuse, Dario A.; Parker, Ronnie C.; Miller, Randolph A.

    1989-01-01

    In order to better understand the knowledge acquisition process, we studied the changes which a newly developed “preliminary” QMR disease profile undergoes during the expert review process. Changes in the ten most recently created disease profiles from the INTERNIST-1/QMR knowledge base were analyzed. We classified the changes which occurred during knowledge base construction by the type of change and the reason for the change. Observed changes to proposed findings could be grouped according to whether a change was needed to maintain consistency with the existing knowledge base, or because of disagreement over knowledge content with the domain expert. Out of 987 total proposed findings in the ten profiles, 233 findings underwent 274 changes, approximately one change for each three proposed findings. A total of 43% of the changes were additions or deletions of findings or links compared to the preliminary disease profile, and 33% of the changes were alterations in the numerical value of the evoking strength or frequency. A total of 126 (46%) of changes were required to maintain consistency of the knowledge base, whereas the remaining 148 (54%) changes were altered based on suggestions made by the domain expert based on domain content. The type of change (consistency vs. domain knowledge) was found to correlate both with the class of finding (newly constructed vs. previously used) and with the experience of the profiler (novice vs. experienced). These differences suggest that some but not all aspects of the disease profiling process can be improved upon with experience. Since it is generally agreed that the construction of a knowledge base depends heavily upon the knowledge acquisition process, this study provides some insight into areas of investigation for others interested in the construction of automated tools to aid the process of knowledge base construction. It also provides support for the observation that knowledge base construction has at least some

  3. Emergency medical services knowledge and attitudes about non-heart-beating donors: Effect of an educational intervention

    PubMed Central

    Burker, Eileen J.; Fingerhut, David; Ebneter, Daria; Giza, Mallory; Weber, Rachel Espey; Noone, Peadar G.; Egan, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than 750,000 people die of sudden death each year, and many are potential non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) for lung transplant. Although critical, the role of emergency medical services (EMS) personnel in assisting with recovery of NHBD lungs has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge of and attitudes about NHBDs among EMS personnel, evaluate the extent to which knowledge and personal experience with organ donation is associated with attitude, and ascertain the effectiveness of an intervention designed to teach EMS professionals about NHBDs. Methods EMS professionals (n = 361) completed measures of knowledge of and attitudes about NHBDs and then watched a presentation by a transplant doctor about traditional organ donation, NHBDs, and transplantation. Participants were able to ask questions during and after the presentation. Participants completed the measures again 3 months later. Results EMS professionals had a high rate of personal experience with organ donation and positive attitudes toward traditional organ donation. However, they showed lack of knowledge about NHBDs and felt less skilled in being part of the NHBD process, consistent with knowledge scores. The educational intervention was somewhat effective in improving knowledge about NHBDs. Scores improved significantly on 5 of 13 items. Conclusions Lung recovery from NHBDs offers the potential of a very large supply for transplantation. This research suggests that with additional training, EMS professionals may be willing to be part of a NHBD recovery team. PMID:25447576

  4. Knowledge and perception regarding clinical trials among doctors of government medical colleges: A questionnaire-based study

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Supriyo; Pradhan, Richeek; Dubey, Lily; Barman, Lisa; Biswas, Tanmoy; Das, Manisha; Chatterjee, Suparna

    2016-01-01

    Aims: By virtue of being a specialized field by itself, the science of clinical trials (CTs) may not be well understood by doctors who are not specifically trained in it. A lack of knowledge may translate to a negative perception toward CT. With the idea of getting a situational snapshot, we estimated the knowledge and perception of CTs among doctors from government medical colleges of West Bengal who are not trained on CT in their postgraduate curriculum. Several determinants of knowledge and perception regarding CT were also evaluated. Methods: We have quantified the knowledge and perception of CTs by a structured validated questionnaire. Development and validation of the questionnaire was performed prior to the study. Results: Among 133 participants, 7.5% received focused training on CT and 16.5% participated in CTs as investigators. Majority of the doctors were unfamiliar with the basic terminologies such as, “adverse event” and “good clinical practice.” Encouragingly, 93.3% doctors advised that a detailed discussion of CT methodology should be incorporated in the under graduate medical science curriculum. They had an overall positive attitude toward CTs conducted in India, with a mean score that is 72.6% of the maximum positive score. However, a large number of the doctors were skeptical about the primary motivation and operations of pharmaceutical industry sponsored CTs, with 45% of them believing that patients are exploited in these sponsored CTs. Conclusion: Participant doctors had a basic knowledge of CT methodology. The study has revealed specific areas of deficient knowledge, which might be emphasized while designing focused training on CT methodology. PMID:27141476

  5. Medical Student Knowledge of Oncology and Related Disciplines: a Targeted Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Oskvarek, Jonathan; Braunstein, Steve; Farnan, Jeanne; Ferguson, Mark K; Hahn, Olwen; Henderson, Tara; Hong, Susan; Levine, Stacie; Rosenberg, Carol A; Golden, Daniel W

    2016-09-01

    Despite increasing numbers of cancer survivors, non-oncology physicians report discomfort and little training regarding oncologic and survivorship care. This pilot study assesses medical student comfort with medical oncology, surgical oncology, radiation oncology, hospice/palliative medicine, and survivorship care. A survey was developed with input from specialists in various fields of oncologic care at a National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer center. The survey included respondent demographics, reports of experience with oncology, comfort ratings with oncologic care, and five clinical vignettes. Responses were yes/no, multiple choice, Likert scale, or free response. The survey was distributed via email to medical students (MS1-4) at two US medical schools. The 105 respondents were 34 MS1s (32 %), 15 MS2s and MD/PhDs (14 %), 26 MS3s (25 %), and 30 MS4s (29 %). Medical oncology, surgical oncology, and hospice/palliative medicine demonstrated a significant trend for increased comfort from MS1 to MS4, but radiation oncology and survivorship care did not. MS3s and MS4s reported the least experience with survivorship care and radiation oncology. In the clinical vignettes, students performed the worst on the long-term chemotherapy toxicity and hospice/palliative medicine questions. Medical students report learning about components of oncologic care, but lack overall comfort with oncologic care. Medical students also fail to develop an increased self-assessed level of comfort with radiation oncology and survivorship care. These pilot results support development of a formalized multidisciplinary medical school oncology curriculum at these two institutions. An expanded national survey is being developed to confirm these preliminary findings. PMID:26153490

  6. An open-source, mobile-friendly search engine for public medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Samwald, Matthias; Hanbury, Allan

    2014-01-01

    The World Wide Web has become an important source of information for medical practitioners. To complement the capabilities of currently available web search engines we developed FindMeEvidence, an open-source, mobile-friendly medical search engine. In a preliminary evaluation, the quality of results from FindMeEvidence proved to be competitive with those from TRIP Database, an established, closed-source search engine for evidence-based medicine. PMID:25160206

  7. Physician-assisted suicide, euthanasia and palliative sedation: attitudes and knowledge of medical students

    PubMed Central

    Anneser, Johanna; Jox, Ralf J.; Thurn, Tamara; Borasio, Gian Domenico

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In November 2015, the German Federal Parliament voted on a new legal regulation regarding assisted suicide. It was decided to amend the German Criminal Code so that any “regular, repetitive offer” (even on a non-profit basis) of assistance in suicide would now be considered a punishable offense. On July 2, 2015, a date which happened to be accompanied by great media interest in that it was the day that the first draft of said law was presented to Parliament, we surveyed 4th year medical students at the Technical University Munich on “physician-assisted suicide,” “euthanasia” and “palliative sedation,” based on a fictitious case vignette study. Method: The vignette study described two versions of a case in which a patient suffered from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (physical suffering subjectively perceived as being unbearable vs. emotional suffering). The students were asked about the current legal norms for each respective course of action as well as their attitudes towards the ethical acceptability of these measures. Results: Out of 301 students in total, 241 (80%) participated in the survey; 109 answered the version 1 questionnaire (physical suffering) and 132 answered the version 2 questionnaire (emotional suffering). The majority of students were able to assess the currently prevailing legal norms on palliative sedation (legal) and euthanasia (illegal) correctly (81.2% and 93.7%, respectively), while only a few students knew that physician-assisted suicide, at that point in time, did not constitute a criminal offense. In the case study that was presented, 83.3% of the participants considered palliative sedation and the simultaneous withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration as ethically acceptable, 51.2% considered physician-assisted suicide ethically legitimate, and 19.2% considered euthanasia ethically permissible. When comparing the results of versions 1 and 2, a significant difference could only be seen in the assessment of

  8. Discourse structures in medical reports--watch out! The generation of referentially coherent and valid text knowledge bases in the MEDSYNDIKATE system.

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

    1999-01-01

    The automatic analysis of medical narratives currently suffers from neglecting text structure phenomena such as referential relations between discourse units. This has unwarranted effects on the descriptional adequacy of medical knowledge bases automatically generated from texts. The resulting representation bias can be characterized in terms of incomplete, artificially fragmented and referentially invalid knowledge structures. We focus here on four basic types of textual reference relations, viz. pronominal and nominal anaphora, textual ellipsis and metonymy and show how to deal with them in an adequate text parsing device. Since the types of reference relations we discuss show an increasing dependence on conceptual background knowledge, we stress the need for formally grounded, expressive conceptual representation systems for medical knowledge. Our suggestions are based on experience with MEDSYNDIKATE, a medical text knowledge acquisition system designed to properly deal with various sorts of discourse structure phenomena. PMID:10075128

  9. The Role of Obesity Training in Medical School and Residency on Bariatric Surgery Knowledge in Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Fatima Cody; Johnson, Erica D.; Claridy, Mechelle D.; Earle, Rebecca L.; Kaplan, Lee M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. US primary care physicians are inadequately educated on how to provide obesity treatment. We sought to assess physician training in obesity and to characterize the perceptions, beliefs, knowledge, and treatment patterns of primary care physicians. Methods. We administered a cross-sectional web-based survey from July to October 2014 to adult primary care physicians in practices affiliated with the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). We evaluated survey respondent demographics, personal health habits, obesity training, knowledge of bariatric surgery care, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs regarding the etiology of obesity and treatment strategies. Results. Younger primary care physicians (age 20–39) were more likely to have received some obesity training than those aged 40–49 (OR: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.008–0.822) or those 50+ (OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.004–0.321). Physicians who were young, had obesity, or received obesity education in medical school or postgraduate training were more likely to answer bariatric surgery knowledge questions correctly. Conclusions. There is a need for educational programs to improve physician knowledge and competency in treating patients with obesity. Obesity is a complex chronic disease, and it is important for clinicians to be equipped with the knowledge of the multiple treatment modalities that may be considered to help their patients achieve a healthy weight. PMID:26339506

  10. Towards improved knowledge sharing: assessment of the HL7 Reference Information Model to support medical logic module queries.

    PubMed

    Jenders, R A; Sujansky, W; Broverman, C A; Chadwick, M

    1997-01-01

    Because clinical databases vary in structure, access methods and vocabulary used to represent data, the Arden Syntax does not define a standard model for querying databases. Consequently, database queries are encoded in ad hoc ways and enclosed in "curly braces" in Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). However, the nonstandard representation of queries impairs sharing of MLMs, an impediment that has come to be known as the "curly braces problem." As a first step in solving this problem, we evaluated the proposed HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM) as a foundation for a standard query model for the Arden Syntax. Specifically, we analyzed the MLM knowledge base at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center and compared the queries in these MLMs to the RIM. We studied 488 queries in 104 MLMs, identifying 674 total query data elements. Laboratory tests accounted for 45.8% of these elements, while demographic and ADT data accounted for 37.6%. Pharmacy orders accounted for 10.5%, medical problems for 4.3% and MLM output messages for 1.6%. We found that the RIM encompasses all but those data elements signifying MLM output (1.6% of the total). We conclude that the majority of queries in the CPMC knowledge base access a relatively small set of data elements and that the RIM encompasses these elements. We propose extensions of this analysis to continue construction of an Arden query model capable of solving the "curly braces problem." PMID:9357638

  11. Can ill-structured problems reveal beliefs about medical knowledge and knowing? A focus-group approach

    PubMed Central

    Roex, Ann; Clarebout, Geraldine; Dory, Valerie; Degryse, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Epistemological beliefs (EB) are an individual's cognitions about knowledge and knowing. In several non-medical domains, EB have been found to contribute to the way individuals reason when faced with ill-structured problems (i.e. problems with no clear-cut, right or wrong solutions). Such problems are very common in medical practice. Determining whether EB are also influential in reasoning processes with regard to medical issues to which there is no straightforward answer, could have implications for medical education. This study focused on 2 research questions: 1. Can ill-structured problems be used to elicit general practice trainees' and trainers' EB? and 2. What are the views of general practice trainees and trainers about knowledge and how do they justify knowing? Methods 2 focus groups of trainees (n = 18) were convened on 3 occasions during their 1st year of postgraduate GP training. 2 groups of GP trainers (n = 11) met on one occasion. Based on the methodology of the Reflective Judgement Interview (RJI), participants were asked to comment on 11 ill-structured problems. The sessions were audio taped and transcribed and an adapted version of the RJI scoring rules was used to assess the trainees' reasoning about ill-structured problems. Results Participants made a number of statements illustrating their EB and their importance in clinical reasoning. The level of EB varied widely form one meeting to another and depending on the problem addressed. Overall, the EB expressed by trainees did not differ from those of trainers except on a particular ill-structured problem regarding shoulder pain. Conclusion The use of focus groups has entailed some difficulties in the interpretation of the results, but a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn. Ill-structured medical problems can be used to elicit EB. Most trainees and trainers displayed pre-reflective and quasi-reflective EB. The way trainees and doctors view and justify knowledge are likely to be

  12. GPs’ thoughts on prescribing medication and evidence-based knowledge: The benefit aspect is a strong motivator

    PubMed Central

    Skoglund, Ingmarie; Segesten, Kerstin; Björkelund, Cecilia

    2007-01-01

    Objective To describe GPs’ thoughts of prescribing medication and evidence-based knowledge (EBM) concerning drug therapy. Design Tape-recorded focus-group interviews transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative methods. Setting GPs from the south-eastern part of Västra Götaland, Sweden. Subjects A total of 16 GPs out of 178 from the south-eastern part of the region strategically chosen to represent urban and rural, male and female, long and short GP experience. Methods Transcripts were analysed using a descriptive qualitative method. Results The categories were: benefits, time and space, and expert knowledge. The benefit was a merge of positive elements, all aspects of the GPs’ tasks. Time and space were limitations for GPs’ tasks. EBM as a constituent of expert knowledge should be more customer adjusted to be able to be used in practice. Benefit was the most important category, existing in every decision-making situation for the GP. The core category was prompt and pragmatic benefit, which was the utmost benefit. Conclusion GPs’ thoughts on evidence-based medicine and prescribing medication were highly related to reflecting on benefit and results. The interviews indicated that prompt and pragmatic benefit is important for comprehending their thoughts. PMID:17497487

  13. Does knowledge about bloodborne pathogens influence the reuse of medical injection syringes among women in Pakistan?

    PubMed

    Janjua, Naveed Z; Mahmood, Bushra; Imran Khan, M

    2014-01-01

    Injections with re-used syringes have been identified as a major risk factor for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in Pakistan. We analyzed data from the 2006-2007 Pakistan Demographic Health Survey (PDHS) to describe the distribution of injections administered with newly opened syringes and assessed the association of knowledge about bloodborne pathogens with syringe reuse in Pakistan. In the PDHS, women aged 12-49 years were enrolled through a multistage stratified cluster-sampling strategy across Pakistan. Approximately 10,000 women were interviewed to collect information regarding receiving injections, the use of syringes taken out of new unopened packages for their last injections, and knowledge regarding the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), HBV and HCV through the re-use of syringes and transfusion of unscreened blood. Of the 5126/10,023 women who provided information concerning their last injection, 4342 (86%) received this injection with a new syringe taken out of an unopened package. The proportion of injections received with a new syringe increased with the education level, wealth, HIV knowledge and knowledge about HCV/HBV transmission through the re-use of syringes. In the multivariable model, respondents in the 4th (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 2.1, 95%CI: 1.4-3.0) and 5th (AOR: 2.4, 95%CI: 1.6-3.5) wealth quintiles, with some education (AOR: 1.4, 95%CI: 1.1-1.9), those in the 4th quartile of the HIV knowledge score (AOR: 1.5, 95%CI: 1.1-2.0), and those with the knowledge that a new syringe protects against HCV/HBV and HIV (AOR: 2.3, 95%CI: 1.5-3.5) were more likely to receive injections with a newly opened syringe. The patients' knowledge regarding the transmission of bloodborne pathogens is an important factor in receiving injections with a new syringe. PMID:24861642

  14. Improving medical students’ knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices

    PubMed Central

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student’s critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  15. Improving medical students' knowledge of genetic disease: a review of current and emerging pedagogical practices.

    PubMed

    Wolyniak, Michael J; Bemis, Lynne T; Prunuske, Amy J

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is an essential subject to be mastered by health professional students of all types. However, technological advances in genomics and recent pedagogical research have changed the way in which many medical training programs teach genetics to their students. These advances favor a more experience-based education focused primarily on developing student's critical thinking skills. In this review, we examine the current state of genetics education at both the preclinical and clinical levels and the ways in which medical and pedagogical research have guided reforms to current and emerging teaching practices in genetics. We discover exciting trends taking place in which genetics is integrated with other scientific disciplines both horizontally and vertically across medical curricula to emphasize training in scientific critical thinking skills among students via the evaluation of clinical evidence and consultation of online databases. These trends will produce future health professionals with the skills and confidence necessary to embrace the new tools of medical practice that have emerged from scientific advances in genetics, genomics, and bioinformatics. PMID:26604852

  16. Medical Students' Learning from Patient-Led Teaching: Experiential versus Biomedical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group…

  17. A Knowledge-based Learning and Testing System for Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Siobhan

    The traditional medical curriculum and internships must be supplemented by standardized teaching modalities, such as computer-assisted instruction using patient simulators. A patient simulator is defined as a representation of a clinical situation in which an individual conducts the diagnosis and management of a patient. Advantages include…

  18. First-Year Medical Students' Knowledge of, Attitudes Toward, and Personal Histories of Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinane, Paula M.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Surveyed 370 first-year medical students concerning family violence of which 38% reported a history of personal abuse; only one-third of these were well-informed about family violence. Women felt more strongly than men about need for violence education. Students reporting a history of violence more strongly favored violence education and advocacy…

  19. Assessing the attitudes, knowledge and perspectives of medical students to chiropractic

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jessica J.; Di Loreto, Luciano; Kara, Alim; Yu, Kavan; Mattia, Alicia; Soave, David; Weyman, Karen; Kopansky-Giles, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess second-year medical students’ views on chiropractic. Methods: A three-step triangulation approach was designed, comprising a 53-item survey, nine key informant interviews and one focus group of 8 subjects. ANOVA was used to assess attitude-response survey totals over grouping variables. Constant comparison method and NVivo was used for thematic analysis. Results: 112 medical students completed the survey (50% response rate). Subjects reporting no previous chiropractic experience/exposure or interest in learning about chiropractic were significantly more attitude-negative towards chiropractic. Thematically, medical students viewed chiropractic as an increasingly evidence-based complementary therapy for low back/chronic pain, but based views on indirect sources. Within formal curriculum, they wanted to learn about clinical conditions and benefits/risks related to treatment, as greater understanding was needed for future patient referrals. Conclusion: The results highlight the importance of exposure to chiropractic within the formal medical curriculum to help foster future collaboration between these two professions. PMID:23482682

  20. Assessment of Genetics Knowledge and Skills in Medical Students: Insight for a Clinical Neurogenetics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Phillip L.; Pettiford, Jennifer M.; Combs, Susan E.; Heffron, Ari; Healton, Sean; Hovaguimian, Alexandra; Macri, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    The pace of discovery in biochemistry and genetics and its effect on clinical medicine places new curricular challenges in medical school education. We sought to evaluate students' understanding of neurogenetics and its clinical applications to design a pilot curriculum into the clinical neurology clerkship. We utilized a needs assessment and a…

  1. Standardizing Evaluation of On-Line Continuing Medical Education: Physician Knowledge, Attitudes, and Reflection on Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casebeer, Linda; Kristofco, Robert E.; Strasser, Sheryl; Reilly, Michael; Krishnamoorthy, Periyakaruppan; Rabin, Andrew; Zheng, Shimin; Karp, Simone; Myers, Lloyd

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Physicians increasingly earn continuing medical education (CME) credits through on-line courses, but there have been few rigorous evaluations to determine their effects. The present study explores the feasibility of implementing standardized evaluation templates and tests them to evaluate 30 on-line CME courses. Methods: A time…

  2. Data Mining and Domain Knowledge: An Exploration of Methods to Advance Medical Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Kelley M.

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the medical domain consider the double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial the gold standard. The data for these clinical trials are collected for a specifically defined hypothesis and there is very little in the realm of secondary data analyses conducted. The underlying purpose of this work is to demonstrate the value and…

  3. Differences in Knowledge Application by Students and Medical Experts in Clinical Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Wiel, Margaretha W. J.; And Others

    In this study Dutch subjects with four different levels of expertise (24 second-year, 24 fourth-year, 24 sixth-year medical students, and 24 internists with at least 4 years of experience) studied, diagnosed, and explained four clinical cases. Diagnostic accuracy increased with the increasing level of expertise. The number of concepts used and the…

  4. [Dissemination of medical knowledge to the public in Iceland by a country doctor 1782-1834].

    PubMed

    Bjarnason, Orn

    2011-05-01

    Jón Pétursson (1733-1801) was an apprentice af the first Chief Medical Officer of Iceland. In 1765 Pétursson enrolled in the Medical Faculty at the University of Copenhagen. In 1769 with the Faculties approval he published a monograph on the so called Icelandic Scurvy. In 1770-71 Pétursson served as ship's surgeon in the Royal Danish Navy on an expedition to the Mediterranean. In 1772-1775 he served as an assistant to the Chief Medical Officer and the newly appointed apothecary, who shared premises at Nes, Reykjavík. In 1775 he was appointed surgeon (chirurgeon) to the Northern District. Pétursson wrote two medical book while serving his district, both being prepared now for republication. A. The Lækningabók fyrir almúga (Leechbook for common people) published posthumously 1834, edited by Sveinn Pálsson surgeon. It was undoubtedly inspired by the Swiss physician Tissot and his book Avis au peuple sur sa santé ou traité des maladies plus fréquentes 1761. B. A treatise on rheumatism or dirorder of the joints (Stutt ágrip um iktsýki edur lidaveiki, 1782). In Scand J Rheumatol 1996: 25; 134-7 the authors point out that Péturssons description of what he calls arthritis vaga encompasses these essential features: It is common, chronic, destructive, inflammatory polyarthritis, sometimes with systemic manifestations. It affects peope of all ages and has a female preponderance. They state that only rheumatoid arthritis fulfills these specifications. They conclude that medical history should give Pétursson credit for the first definite description of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:21586803

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Energy Drink Consumption and Side Effects in a Cohort of Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Bonanno, Valentina; Catalano, Rosanna; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Giugno, Sara; Sciuto, Valentina; Immordino, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning energy drink consumption and the prevalence of side effects among medical students. Twenty-two percent of respondents were regular users, particularly men (p < .0005). Users were younger (p = .027) and drank alcohol more frequently (p = .008) than "non-users." Forty-nine percent consumed alcohol associated with energy drinks. Forty-five percent of medical students declared side effects after energy drink consumption, such as palpitations (35%), insomnia (21%), and irritability (20%). The study confirms a large use of energy drinks among students and the occurrence of side effects. The use of energy drinks may influence the ingestion of large amounts of alcohol. PMID:26466517

  6. Amniotic fluid embolism: a leading cause of maternal death yet still a medical conundrum.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, N J; Percival, V; Paech, M J

    2013-11-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism is a rare and potentially catastrophic condition that is unique to pregnancy. The presentation may range from relatively subtle clinical events to sudden maternal cardiac arrest. Despite an increased awareness of the condition, it remains a leading cause of maternal mortality. The underlying mechanisms of amniotic fluid embolism are poorly understood, but current theories support an immune-based mechanism which is triggered by potentially small amounts of amniotic fluid gaining access to the maternal circulation. This can result in a wide spectrum of clinical findings, with cardiovascular and haematological disturbances being prominent. The management of a suspected episode of amniotic fluid embolism is generally considered to be supportive, although in centres with specific expertise, echocardiography may assist in guiding management. Whilst outcomes after an episode of amniotic fluid embolism are still concerning, mortality would appear to have decreased in recent times, likely secondary to an improved awareness of the condition, advances in acute care and the inclusion of less severe episodes in case registries. PMID:24035408

  7. Antibiotics for upper respiratory infections: public knowledge, beliefs and self-medication in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Ivanovska, Verica; Zdravkovska, Milka; Bosevska, Golubinka; Angelovska, Bistra

    2013-01-01

    Self-medication as part of the irrational use of antibiotics contributes to the spread of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this community-based survey in Macedonia was to determine public knowledge, beliefs and self-medication with antibiotics for upper respiratory infections. A cross-sectional study was conducted in three administrative regions in Macedonia in April 2012. 402 eligible participants answered an anonymous questionnaire. The analysis of answers involved descriptive quantitative statistics (frequencies and percentages). We also tested for significant associations between demographic characteristics and non-prescription use of antibiotics. Our respondents demonstrated a relatively low level of public knowledge about antibiotics and upper respiratory infection treatments in comparison to the EU countries. The study found that 71.4% of participants stored antibiotics at home, and 43.3% purchased antibiotics over-the-counter in the last year, despite national regulation that restricts antibiotics as prescription-only medicines. Actual self-medication with antibiotics for a recent upper respiratory infection episode was reported in 17.8% of adults and 1.8% of children aged 0-4 years. We did not find any significant association between participants demography and non-prescription use of antibiotics. Our results put in the group of eastern and southern EU countries with the highest rates for non-prescription use of antibiotics in Europe. Multifaceted interventions are needed to prevent self-medication with antibiotics, including: enforcement of regulations that restrict over-the-counter sales of antibiotics, monitoring of antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance rates and combined public education strategies. PMID:24280886

  8. Experimentation with and knowledge regarding water-pipe tobacco smoking among medical students at a major university in Brazil*, **

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Water-pipe tobacco smoking is becoming increasingly more common among young people. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of the use of water pipes and other forms of tobacco use, including cigarette smoking, among medical students, as well as to examine the attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge of those students regarding this issue. METHODS: We administered a questionnaire to students enrolled in the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, in São Paulo, Brazil. The respondents were evaluated in their third and sixth years of medical school, between 2008 and 2013. Comparisons were drawn between the two years. RESULTS: We evaluated 586 completed questionnaires. Overall, the prevalence of current cigarette smokers was low, with a decline among males (9.78% vs. 5.26%) and an increase among females (1.43% vs. 2.65%) in the 3rd and 6th year, respectively. All respondents believed that health professionals should advise patients to quit smoking. However, few of the medical students who smoked received physician advice to quit. Experimentation with other forms of tobacco use was more common among males (p<0.0001). Despite their knowledge of its harmful effects, students experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking in high proportions (47.32% and 46.75% of the third- and sixth-year students, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of experimentation with water-pipe tobacco smoking and other forms of tobacco use is high among aspiring physicians. Our findings highlight the need for better preventive education programs at medical schools, not only to protect the health of aspiring physicians but also to help them meet the challenge posed by this new epidemic. PMID:24831393

  9. Gaps in primary healthcare electronic medical record research and knowledge: findings of a pan-Canadian study.

    PubMed

    Terry, Amanda L; Stewart, Moira; Fortin, Martin; Wong, Sabrina T; Kennedy, Maureen; Burge, Fred; Birtwhistle, Richard; Grava-Gubins, Inese; Webster, Greg; Thind, Amardeep

    2014-01-01

    While the barriers to electronic medical record (EMR) adoption by physicians are well-known, we have much less knowledge about the broader challenges regarding EMR use faced by primary healthcare (PHC) EMR stakeholders in Canada. Therefore, we conducted interviews (from June 2009 to September 2010) and consultation sessions (in October and November 2009) with these stakeholders, as well as carrying out a research capacity assessment, to identify, describe and prioritize gaps in PHC EMR knowledge and research. Twelve thematic gaps emerged; four were identified as the most important: the need to ascertain the value of EMRs, the need to better understand elements of EMR implementation and adoption, the need to develop innovative data entry and extraction procedures, and a lack of agreement and understanding of data sharing. To advance EMR use, Canada needs to address these gaps; yet, we currently have a lack of research capacity with which to accomplish this. PMID:25410695

  10. Between the foreign and the local: French midwifery, traditional practitioners, and vernacular medical knowledge about childbirth in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Warren, Adam

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the politics of midwifery and the persecution of untitled female assistants in childbirth in early republican Peru. A close reading of late colonial publications and the works of Benita Paulina Cadeau Fessel, a French obstetriz director of a midwifery school in Lima, demonstrates both trans-Atlantic and local influences in the campaign against untitled midwives. Cadeau Fessel's efforts to promote midwifery built upon debates among writers in Peru's enlightened press, who vilified untrained midwives' and wet nurses' vernacular medical knowledge and associated them with Lima's underclass. One cannot understand the transfer of French knowledge about professional midwifery to Peru without reference to the social, political, and cultural context. PMID:25742106

  11. Texas Medical Schools Beef Up Nutrition Education.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-11-01

    With lifestyle-related diseases on the rise, some medical schools help to arm future doctors with the nutrition knowledge they'll need. Texas medical schools and residency programs are getting ahead of the curve in addressing this public-health-meets-medical-education issue, with medical students often leading the charge. PMID:26536515

  12. HIV-Related Knowledge and Attitudes among First Year Medical Students in Mumbai, India Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samant, Yogindra; Mankeshwar, Ranjit; Sankhe, Lalit; Parker, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Background: The total number of people with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection in India is estimated to be 10% of all global cases. People living with HIV in India often experience discrimination while receiving health care due to inadequate knowledge and fear among health care professionals. Data presented in this paper represents the…

  13. Effects of Postgraduate Medical Education “Boot Camps” on Clinical Skills, Knowledge, and Confidence: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Blackmore, Christopher; Austin, Janice; Lopushinsky, Steven R; Donnon, Tyrone

    2014-01-01

    Background Throughout their medical education, learners face multiple transition periods associated with increased demands, producing stress and concern about the adequacy of their skills for their new role. Objective We evaluated the effectiveness of boot camps in improving clinical skills, knowledge, and confidence during transitions into postgraduate or discipline-specific residency programs. Methods Boot camps are in-training courses combining simulation-based practice with other educational methods to enhance learning and preparation for individuals entering new clinical roles. We performed a search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and ERIC using boot camp and comparable search terms. Inclusion criteria included studies that reported on medical education boot camps, involved learners entering new clinical roles in North American programs, and reported empirical data on the effectiveness of boot camps to improve clinical skills, knowledge, and/or confidence. A random effects model meta-analysis was performed to combined mean effect size differences (Cohen's d) across studies based on pretest/posttest or comparison group analyses. Results The search returned 1096 articles, 15 of which met all inclusion criteria. Combined effect size estimates showed learners who completed boot camp courses had significantly “large” improvements in clinical skills (d  =  1.78; 95% CI 1.33–2.22; P < .001), knowledge (d  =  2.08; 95% CI 1.20–2.96; P < .001), and confidence (d  =  1.89; 95% CI 1.63–2.15; P < .001). Conclusions Boot camps were shown as an effective educational strategy to improve learners' clinical skills, knowledge, and confidence. Focus on pretest/posttest research designs limits the strength of these findings. PMID:26140112

  14. Maths for medications: an analytical exemplar of the social organization of nurses' knowledge.

    PubMed

    Dyjur, Louise; Rankin, Janet; Lane, Annette

    2011-07-01

    Within the literature that circulates in the discourses organizing nursing education, there are embedded assumptions that link student performance on maths examinations to safe medication practices. These assumptions are rooted historically. They fundamentally shape educational approaches assumed to support safe practice and protect patients from nursing error. Here, we apply an institutional ethnographic lens to the body of literature that both supports and critiques the emphasis on numeracy skills and medication safety. We use this form of inquiry to open an alternate interrogation of these practices. Our main argument posits that numeracy skills serve as powerful distraction for both students and teachers. We suggest that they operate under specious claims of safety and objectivity. As nurse educators, we are captured by taken-for-granted understandings of practices intended to produce safety. We contend that some of these practices are not congruent with how competency actually unfolds in the everyday world of nursing practice. Ontologically grounded in the materiality of work processes, we suggest there is a serious disjuncture between educators' assessment and evaluation work where it links into broad nursing assumptions about medication work. These underlying assumptions and work processes produce contradictory tensions for students, teachers and nurses in direct practice. PMID:21668619

  15. Visual Search of Experts in Medical Image Reading: The Effect of Training, Target Prevalence, and Expert Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Ryoichi; Kobayashi, Kazufumi; Maeda, Eriko; Yoshikawa, Takeharu; Yokosawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study are (a) To determine the effect of training on the multiple-target lesion search performance; and (b) To examine the effect of target prevalence on the performance of radiologists and novices. We conducted four sessions of 500 trials in a lesion search on a medical image task in which participants searched for three different target lesions. Participants were 10 radiologists and novices. In each session, the prevalence of the different target lesions varied from low (2%) to high (40%). The sensitivity of novices was higher in the later sessions than in the first session, whereas there were no differences among sessions in radiologists. The improvement on sensitivity of novices was largely due to attenuations of false alarm (FA) errors. In addition, miss rates of the three targets did not differ in data of novices, whereas radiologists produced a higher miss rate for the highest prevalence target lesion (non-serious lesion) than for the other two lesions (serious lesions). The conclusions are (a) The training for the multiple-target lesion search task can be effective to reduce FA errors; and (b) The prevalence effect on lesion search can be attenuated by the multiple-target identification and the knowledge about seriousness of lesions. This suggests that acquired knowledge about normal cases and serious lesions is an important aspect of a radiologists’ skill in searching for medical lesions and their high performance levels. PMID:23576997

  16. Noninvasive Femur Bone Volume Estimation Based on X-Ray Attenuation of a Single Radiographic Image and Medical Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiattisin, Supaporn; Chamnongthai, Kosin

    Bone Mineral Density (BMD) is an indicator of osteoporosis that is an increasingly serious disease, particularly for the elderly. To calculate BMD, we need to measure the volume of the femur in a noninvasive way. In this paper, we propose a noninvasive bone volume measurement method using x-ray attenuation on radiography and medical knowledge. The absolute thickness at one reference pixel and the relative thickness at all pixels of the bone in the x-ray image are used to calculate the volume and the BMD. First, the absolute bone thickness of one particular pixel is estimated by the known geometric shape of a specific bone part as medical knowledge. The relative bone thicknesses of all pixels are then calculated by x-ray attenuation of each pixel. Finally, given the absolute bone thickness of the reference pixel, the absolute bone thickness of all pixels is mapped. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, experiments on 300 subjects were performed. We found that the method provides good estimations of real BMD values of femur bone. Estimates shows a high linear correlation of 0.96 between the volume Bone Mineral Density (vBMD) of CT-SCAN and computed vBMD (all P<0.001). The BMD results reveal 3.23% difference in volume from the BMD of CT-SCAN.

  17. UMLS as Knowledge Base-A Rule-Based Expert System Approach to Controlled Medical Vocabulary Management

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, James J.; Hripcsak, George; Johnson, Stephen B.; Friedman, Carol; Fink, Daniel J.; Clayton, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine is developing a Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) which addresses the need for integration of several large, nationally accepted vocabularies. This is important to the clinical information system under development at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center (CPMC). We are using UMLS components as the core of our effort to integrate existing local CPMC vocabularies which are not among the source vocabularies of the UMLS. We are also using the UMLS to build a knowledge base of vocabulary structure and content such that logical rules can be developed to assist in the management of our integrated vocabularies. At present, the UMLS Semantic Network is used to organize terms which describe laboratory procedures. We have developed a set of rules for identifying undesirable conditions in our vocabulary. We have applied these rules to 526 laboratory test terms and have found ten cases (2%) of definite redundancy and sixty-eight cases (13%) of potential redundancy. The rules have also been used to organize the terminology in new ways that facilitate its management. Using the UMLS model as a vocabulary knowledge base allows us to apply an expert system approach to vocabulary integration and management.

  18. Knowledge and Practices of Obtaining Informed Consent for Medical Procedures among Specialist Physicians: Questionnaire Study in 6 Croatian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jukić, Marko; Kvolik, Slavica; Kardum, Goran; Kozina, Slavica; Tomić, Ana; Juraga

    2009-01-01

    Aim To assess physicians’ knowledge and practices for obtaining patients’ informed consent to medical procedures. Methods An anonymous and voluntary survey of knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent was conducted among 470 physicians (63% response rate) working in 6 hospitals: 93 specialists in anesthesiology, 166 in internal medicine, and 211 in surgery. Results Only 54% physicians were acquainted with the fact that the procedure for obtaining consent was regulated by the law. Internists and surgeons were better informed than anesthesiologists (P = 0.024). More than a half of respondents (66%) were familiar with the fact that a law on patient rights was passed in Croatia; there were no differences among different specialties (P = 0.638). Only 38% of the physicians were fully informed about the procedure of obtaining consent. Internists and surgeons provided detailed information to the patient in 33% of the cases and anesthesiologists in 16% of the cases (P < 0.050). Internists reported spending more time on informing the patient than anesthesiologists and surgeons (P < 0.001). There were no differences in knowledge and practices for obtaining informed consent between physicians working in university and those working in community hospitals (P ≥ 0.05 for all questions). Conclusion Physicians in Croatia have no formal education on informed consent and implement the informed consent process in a rather formal manner, regardless of the type of hospital or medical specialty. Systemic approach at education and training at the national level is needed to improve the informed consent process. PMID:20017225

  19. [Soldiers and HIV: impact of medical knowledge on the analysis of discrimination in the constitution].

    PubMed

    Pou Giménez, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In 2007 the Mexican Supreme Court issued several opinions dealing with military personnel dismissed from the Army because of their being HIV-positive. The author describes the main questions under discussion and the core arguments developed by the Court, and stresses three reasons why these cases deserve close attention: positively, because they reinforced the use of the proportionality principle as a tool for identifying discriminatory norms and because they opened the door to the use of specialized scientific knowledge in constitutional adjudication; negatively, because they failed to build on the direct normative efficacy of the right to health. PMID:22622320

  20. Redefining Medication Adherence in the Treatment of Schizophrenia: How Current Approaches to Adherence Lead to Misinformation and Threaten Therapeutic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Weiden, Peter J

    2016-06-01

    Medication adherence is as much of a problem today as it was 50 years ago. A major barrier to progress is that the definition emphasizes obedience to medication recommendations rather than shared outcome goals. As a result, schizophrenia patients are keenly aware of the social risks of disclosing nonadherence. Nondisclosure leads to misinformation, which in turn leads to serious errors in medication decisions. Another consequence is that adherence struggles may harm the therapeutic relationship. When nonadherence is inevitable, the strategy should shift to the use of harm reduction strategies that aim to preserve the therapeutic relationship while mitigating risks. PMID:27216900

  1. Instructional Curriculum Improves Medical Staff Knowledge and Efficacy for Patients Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Edwardsen, Elizabeth A.; Dichter, Melissa E.; Walsh, Patrick; Cerulli, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives This study assesses VA mental health providers’ understanding of intimate partner violence (IPV) and the perception of patient benefit of routine inquiry and service referral. The impact of an instructional curriculum was also examined following an interactive training. Methods An evidence-based curriculum was offered to VA mental health providers. The curriculum utilized didactic methods, case scenarios, and resources regarding referrals and statutes regarding crimes related to violence and abuse. The participants completed pre- and post-training surveys to assess their perceptions about IPV and to evaluate the training. Results Seventy-three individuals completed the training. Fifty-four of the participants were female, and thirty-three were over the age of 45. Fifty-one individuals completed both surveys. There were no differences between participants’ views of the seriousness of IPV in the community or their practices before or after the training. However, participants scored significantly higher on the knowledge and efficacy measures after the training (p<.001). Conclusion Following an educational intervention, providers demonstrate more knowledge and efficacy regarding routine inquiry and referral for IPV. Barriers to universal implementation still warrant attention. PMID:22165653

  2. The Mayo Clinic Author Catalog: A Living Repository of Medical Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Key, Jack D.; Sholtz, Katherine J.

    1973-01-01

    Since 1907 records have been kept of publications by staff members of the Mayo Clinic, and this information has been invaluable. The Author Catalog has proved itself such a useful tool for the Mayo Clinic that other libraries, large and small, may wish to consider adopting such a service. The Mayo medical complex is a large institution with more than 500 staff and faculty members engaged in the publication of clinical, educational, and research findings. The great amount of cross-disciplinary cooperation and interdepartmental research makes essential an up-to-date record of what is going on. The Mayo Clinic Library developed a comprehensive computerized method for identifying research and for identifying and indexing publications of Mayo staff members. At the end of 1971 more than 25,000 citations had been stored on computer tape. Images PMID:4122094

  3. Modeling and Encoding Clinical Causal Relationships in a Medical Knowledge Base

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method for the computer modeling and encoding of clinical causal relationships (CR's). This method draws on the theory of multivariate linear models and path analysis. The representation was used to encode medical CR's derived empirically from a clinical database by the RX computer project described in SCAMC82. The emphasis in the representation is on capturing the intensities of effects and the variation in the effects across a patient population. This information is used by RX in determining the validity of other CR's. The representation uses a directed graph formalism in which the nodes are frames and the arcs contain seven descriptive features of individual CR's: intensity, distribution, direction, mathematical form, setting, validity, and evidence. Because natural systems (such as the human body) are inherently probabilistic, linear models are useful in representing causal flow in them.

  4. Patient knowledge and use of acetaminophen in over-the-counter medications.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Jason; Sands, Shannon; Davis, Erica; Nielsen, Joel; Warholak, Terri

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To evaluate patient knowledge of over-the-counter (OTC) products containing acetaminophen and to determine patients' accuracy in dosing adult, child, and infant formulations. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Six community pharmacies in Tucson, AZ, between February and May 2011. PARTICIPANTS 88 adults aged 19 to 89 years. INTERVENTION Investigator-administered, semistructured interviews. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Patient knowledge of and ability to safely use OTC products containing acetaminophen, including understanding risks, identifying products, and dosing different formulations. RESULTS Although most (86%) participants heard of acetaminophen, only 68% understood at least one of its uses and only 9% knew the abbreviation APAP. Virtually all knew that consuming too much acetaminophen in 1 day could be harmful, but only 17% and 35% knew that overdoses could result in death or liver damage, respectively. On average, participants correctly identified 80% (range 27-100%) of products with and without acetaminophen from a lineup of 11 OTC products. Although 38% (n = 84) of participants correctly measured both the child and infant doses of acetaminophen, doses ranged from one-half to twice the amount of the labeled child dose and one-third of the labeled infant dose. Findings from the regression analysis suggested that on average, women and those with college degrees had higher overall scores, while participants' age or parent status were nonsignificant predictors. CONCLUSION Many patients remain confused about using acetaminophen safely, signaling the need for greater patient education to prevent unintentional harm. The results further specify common misunderstandings to address during patient contact, which also includes replacing "APAP" with "acetaminophen" on any prescription bottle labels or patient-directed information. PMID:24362497

  5. [Good use and knowledge of paracetamol (acetaminophen) among self-medicated patients: Prospective study in community pharmacies].

    PubMed

    Severin, Anne-Elise; Petitpain, Nadine; Scala-Bertola, Julien; Latarche, Clotilde; Yelehe-Okouma, Melissa; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Gillet, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol), the highest over-the-counter (OTC) selling drug in France, is also the first cause of acute hepatic failure. We aimed to assess the good use and the knowledge of acetaminophen in a setting of urban self-medicated patients. We conducted a prospective observational study in randomly selected community pharmacies of Metz (France) agglomeration. Patients coming to buy OTC acetaminophen for themselves or their family had to answer to an anonymous autoquestionnaire. Responses were individually and concomitantly analyzed through 3 scores: good use, knowledge and overdosage. Twenty-four community pharmacies participated and 302 patients were interviewed by mean of a dedicated questionnaire. Most of patients (84.4%) could be considered as "good users" and independent factors of good use were (i) a good knowledge of acetaminophen (OR=5.3; P<0.0001) and more surprisingly; (ii) the fact of having no children (parentality: OR=0.1; P=0.006). Responses corresponding to involuntary overdosage were mostly due to a too short interval between drug intakes (3hours). Only 30.8% of patients were aware of liver toxicity of acetaminophen and only 40.7% knew the risk of the association with alcohol. Both good use and knowledge were significantly higher in patients looking for information from their pharmacist, physician and package leaflet. Patients should definitely be better informed about acetaminophen to warrant a better safety of its consumption. Pharmacists and physicians have to remind patients the risk factors of unintentional overdose and liver toxicity. Package leaflets have also to be more informative. PMID:27235652

  6. Nurturing 21st century physician knowledge, skills and attitudes with medical home innovations: the Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education teaching health center curriculum experience

    PubMed Central

    Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Gollamudi, Lakshmi Rani; Sheth, Jignesh; Ebersole, Brian; Gardner, Katlyn J.; Nardella, Julie; Ruddy, Meaghan P.; Meade, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The effect of patient centered medical home (PCMH) curriculum interventions on residents’ self-reported and demonstrated knowledge, skills and attitudes in PCMH competency arenas (KSA) is lacking in the literature. This study aimed to assess the impact of PCMH curricular innovations on the KSA of Internal Medicine residents. Methods. Twenty four (24) Internal Medicine residents—12 Traditional (TR) track residents and 12 Teaching Health Center (THC) track residents—began training in Academic Year (AY) 2011 at the Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education (WCGME). They were followed through AY2013, covering three years of training. PCMH curricular innovations were focally applied July 2011 until May 2012 to THC residents. These curricular innovations were spread program-wide in May 2012. Semi-annual, validated PCMH Clinician Assessments assessing KSA were started in AY2011 and were completed by all residents. Results. Mean KSA scores of TR residents were similar to those of THC residents at baseline for all PCMH competencies. In May 2012, mean scores of THC residents were significantly higher than TR residents for most KSA. After program-wide implementation of PCMH innovations, mean scores of TR residents for all KSA improved and most became equalized to those of THC residents. Globally improved KSA scores of THC and TR residents were maintained through May 2014, with the majority of improvements above baseline and reaching statistical significance. Conclusions. PCMH curricular innovations inspired by Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA’s) Teaching Health Center funded residency program expansion quickly and consistently improved the KSA of Internal Medicine residents. PMID:25699213

  7. Nurturing 21st century physician knowledge, skills and attitudes with medical home innovations: the Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education teaching health center curriculum experience.

    PubMed

    Thomas-Hemak, Linda; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Gollamudi, Lakshmi Rani; Sheth, Jignesh; Ebersole, Brian; Gardner, Katlyn J; Nardella, Julie; Ruddy, Meaghan P; Meade, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The effect of patient centered medical home (PCMH) curriculum interventions on residents' self-reported and demonstrated knowledge, skills and attitudes in PCMH competency arenas (KSA) is lacking in the literature. This study aimed to assess the impact of PCMH curricular innovations on the KSA of Internal Medicine residents. Methods. Twenty four (24) Internal Medicine residents-12 Traditional (TR) track residents and 12 Teaching Health Center (THC) track residents-began training in Academic Year (AY) 2011 at the Wright Center for Graduate Medical Education (WCGME). They were followed through AY2013, covering three years of training. PCMH curricular innovations were focally applied July 2011 until May 2012 to THC residents. These curricular innovations were spread program-wide in May 2012. Semi-annual, validated PCMH Clinician Assessments assessing KSA were started in AY2011 and were completed by all residents. Results. Mean KSA scores of TR residents were similar to those of THC residents at baseline for all PCMH competencies. In May 2012, mean scores of THC residents were significantly higher than TR residents for most KSA. After program-wide implementation of PCMH innovations, mean scores of TR residents for all KSA improved and most became equalized to those of THC residents. Globally improved KSA scores of THC and TR residents were maintained through May 2014, with the majority of improvements above baseline and reaching statistical significance. Conclusions. PCMH curricular innovations inspired by Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA's) Teaching Health Center funded residency program expansion quickly and consistently improved the KSA of Internal Medicine residents. PMID:25699213

  8. Influence of patients’ disease knowledge and beliefs about medicines on medication adherence: findings from a cross-sectional survey among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Palestine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common serious health problem. Medication adherence is a key determinant of therapeutic success in patients with diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to assess medication adherence and its potential association with beliefs and diabetes – related knowledge in patients with type II DM. Methods This study was carried out at Al-Makhfia governmental diabetes primary healthcare clinic in Nablus, Palestine. Main outcome of interest in the study was medication adherence. The Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ) was used to assess beliefs. Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMSA-8©) was used to assess medication adherence. The Michigan diabetes knowledge test (MDKT) was used to assess diabetes – related knowledge. Univariate and multivariate analysis were carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 20). Results Four hundred and five patients were interviewed. The mean ± SD age of the participants was 58.3 ± 10.4 (range = 28 – 90) years. More than half (53.3%) of the participants were females. Approximately 42.7% of the study sample were considered non-adherent (MMAS-8© score of < 6). Multivariate analysis showed that the following variables were significantly associated with non-adherence: disease-related knowledge, beliefs about necessity of anti-diabetic medications, concerns about adverse consequences of anti-diabetic medications and beliefs that medicines in general are essentially harmful. Diabetic patients with high knowledge score and those with strong beliefs in the necessity of their anti-diabetic medications were less likely to be non-adherent ([O.R = 0.87, 95% CI of 0.78 – 0.97] and [O.R = 0.93, 95% of 0.88 – 0.99] respectively). However, diabetic patients with high concerns about adverse consequences of anti-diabetic medications and those with high belief that all medicines are harmful were more likely to be non-adherent ([O.R = 1.09; 95% C

  9. Are Informing Knowledge and Supportive Attitude Enough for Tobacco Control? A Latent Class Analysis of Cigarette Smoking Patterns among Medical Teachers in China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Lu; Luo, Dan; Silenzio, Vincent M.B.; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Tian, Yongquan

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study is one part of a five-year tobacco-control project in China, which aimed to gain insight into the smoking behavior, knowledge, and attitudes among medical teachers in China. Methods: In May 2010, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among medical teachers of Xiangya Medical School, Central South University, China. Results: A total number of 682 medical teachers completed the surveys. Latent class analysis indicated the sample of smoking patterns was best represented by three latent subgroups of smoking consumption severity levels. Most respondents were informed of smoking related knowledge, but lack of knowledge on smoking cessation. Most of them held a supportive attitude towards their responsibilities among tobacco control, as well as the social significance of smoking. However, both smoking related knowledge and attitude were not correlated with severity of smoking consumption among medical teachers. Conclusion: The smoking prevalence among medical teachers in China remains high. Programs on smoking cessation training are required. Future study should also develop targeted interventions for subgroups of smokers based on smoking consumption. Persistent and effective anti-tobacco efforts are needed to achieve the goals of creating smoke-free campuses and hospitals. PMID:26404331

  10. From data to knowledge in e-health applications: an integrated system for medical information modelling and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Dotsika, Fefie

    2003-12-01

    The system described in this paper uses the technological advances in information technology in order to influence and improve healthcare practice by enabling the flexible modelling, direct representation and adaptable use of medical knowledge. It aims at resolving a number of difficulties encountered by current information repositories, such as costly customization, reusability, high maintenance and poor information modelling, by employing the architecture of the functional data model (FDM), while maintaining full interoperability with existing systems by means of XML. On the information-modelling front the system supports a variety of modelling techniques that are especially relevant to medical applications, such as complex objects, incomplete or missing information, partially structured data and multimedia content. A prototype implementation of the system has been developed which consists of a multimedia-enhanced version of the functional database language FDL, and a web-based, two-way translator interface between the application's native language and XML. This interface provides full interoperability with other, heterogeneous systems over the web, thus, significantly reducing the complexity of developing distributed healthcare systems and e-health applications. PMID:14668128

  11. Knowledge and use of electronic information resources by medical sciences faculty at The University of the West Indies

    PubMed Central

    Renwick, Shamin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to determine faculty's knowledge of electronic resources, access to a computer, use of electronic resources (both number and frequency) available at the Medical Sciences Library (MSL), and the areas of training needed and to identify areas for further research. Methods: A survey was administered to faculty in medicine, pharmacy, dentistry, and veterinary sciences at The University of the West Indies. The questions covered computer literacy, computer access and location, knowledge and use of electronic resources, and training needs. Results: The response rate was 70%, of whom 97% were computer users. Seventy-three percent used computers daily, and 82% felt that their computer literacy level was average or beyond. Overall, it was found that faculty had high awareness of the electronic resources made available by the MSL but low use of MSL-specific resources supporting the suggested problem of underutilization. Many respondents felt that e-resources were important, and, though many felt that they were competent users, 83% were self-taught and many still expressed a need for training. Over 60% felt that a workshop with a hands-on component was the preferred format for training. It was recommended that there be greater promotion of the library's e-resources. PMID:15685270

  12. Lucky Guess or Knowledge: A Cross-Sectional Study Using the Bland and Altman Analysis to Compare Confidence-Based Testing of Pharmacological Knowledge in 3rd and 5th Year Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT…

  13. Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus Infection, Cervical Cancer and Willingness to pay for Cervical Cancer Vaccination among Ethnically Diverse Medical Students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maharajan, Mari Kannan; Rajiah, Kingston; Num, Kelly Sze Fang; Yong, Ng Jin

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of medical students and determine variation between different cultural groups. A secondary aim was to find out the willingness to pay for cervical cancer vaccination and the relationships between knowledge and attitudes towards Human Papillomavirus vaccination. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a private medical university between June 2014 and November 2014 using a convenient sampling method. A total of 305 respondents were recruited and interviewed with standard questionnaires for assessment of knowledge, attitudes and practice towards human papilloma virus and their willingness to pay for HPV vaccination. Knowledge regarding human papilloma virus, human papilloma virus vaccination, cervical cancer screening and cervical cancer risk factors was good. Across the sample, a majority (90%) of the pupils demonstrated a high degree of knowledge about cervical cancer and its vaccination. There were no significant differences between ethnicity and the participants' overall knowledge of HPV infection, Pap smear and cervical cancer vaccination. Some 88% of participants answered that HPV vaccine can prevent cervical cancer, while 81.5% of medical students said they would recommend HPV vaccination to the public although fewer expressed an intention to receive vaccination for themselves. PMID:26320444

  14. Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices and Beliefs about Medical Male Circumcision (MMC) among a Sample of Health Care Providers in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Dévieux, Jessy G.; Saxena, Anshul; Rosenberg, Rhonda; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Jean-Gilles, Michèle; Madhivanan, Purnima; Gaston, Stéphanie; Rubens, Muni; Theodore, Harry; Deschamps, Marie-Marcelle; Koenig, Serena P.; Pape, Jean William

    2015-01-01

    Background Haiti has the highest number of people living with HIV infection in the Caribbean/Latin America region. Medical male circumcision (MMC) has been recommended to help prevent the spread of HIV. We sought to assess knowledge, attitudes, practices and beliefs about MMC among a sample of health care providers in Haiti. Methods A convenience sample of 153 health care providers at the GHESKIO Centers in Haiti responded to an exploratory survey that collected information on several topics relevant to health providers about MMC. Descriptive statistics were calculated for the responses and multivariable logistic regression was conducted to determine opinions of health care providers about the best age to perform MMC on males. Bayesian network analysis and sensitivity analysis were done to identify the minimum level of change required to increase the acceptability of performing MMC at age less than 1 year. Results The sample consisted of medical doctors (31.0%), nurses (49.0%), and other health care professionals (20.0%). Approximately 76% showed willingness to offer MMC services if they received training. Seventy-six percent believed that their male patients would accept circumcision, and 59% believed infancy was the best age for MMC. More than 90% of participants said that MMC would reduce STIs. Physicians and nurses who were willing to offer MMC if provided with adequate training were 2.5 (1.15–5.71) times as likely to choose the best age to perform MMC as less than one year. Finally, if the joint probability of choosing “the best age to perform MMC” as one year or older and having the mistaken belief that "MMC prevents HIV entirely" is reduced by 63% then the probability of finding that performing MMC at less than one year acceptable to health care providers is increased by 35%. Conclusion Participants demonstrated high levels of knowledge and positive attitudes towards MMC. Although this study suggests that circumcision is acceptable among certain health

  15. Medical students’ knowledge, attitude, and practice of complementary and alternative medicine: a pre-and post-exposure survey in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Mansour, Mohammed Abdullah; Al-Bedah, Abdullah MN; AlRukban, Mohammed Othman; Elsubai, Ibrahim S; Mohamed, Elsadiq Yousif; El Olemy, Ahmed Tawfik; Khalil, Asim AH; Khalil, Mohamed KM; Alqaed, Meshari Saleh; Almudaiheem, Abdullah; Mahmoud, Waqas Sami; Medani, Khalid Altohami; Qureshi, Naseem Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidently, complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a recognized medical practice that efficiently uses multiple treatment therapies and techniques in the prevention and management of a variety of human disorders. Many medical schools have integrated CAM curriculum in medical education system worldwide. Research in knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of diverse health professionals exposed to CAM courses is important from many perspectives including improvement in KAP and teaching skills of faculty, together with capacity building and curriculum development. Objective and setting This pre- and post-design cross-sectional study aimed to assess CAM-KAP of two intakes of medical students in Majmaah University, Saudi Arabia. Methods The second-year medical students of the first (year 2012–2013) and second (year 2013–2014) intake (n=26 and 39, respectively) were selected for this study. A reliable, 16-item self-administered questionnaire was distributed among all the students for answering before and after the 48-hour CAM course. The data were analyzed using appropriate statistical test of significance. Results Medical students’ knowledge and attitude toward CAM significantly improved across some subitems of CAM questionnaire with a positive trend in the rest of its items including their views on CAM practices. Conclusion CAM course tends to have a positive impact on KAP of medical students. The preliminary results of this study call for further research with a larger sample in academic settings across the nation. PMID:26082671

  16. The Benefits and Costs of Accreditation of Undergraduate Medical Education Programs Leading to the MD Degree in the United States and Its Territories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhtadi, Dalal J.

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the value of accreditation of all 126 fully-accredited four-year undergraduate medical education programs leading to the MD degree in the US through two lenses, "perceived benefits and costs" from the perspective of the leadership of internal stakeholders of the aforementioned programs. The online survey was sent to a…

  17. Citation Analysis of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences in ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and Google Scholar

    PubMed Central

    Zarifmahmoudi, Leili; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Citation tracking is an important method to analyze the scientific impact of journal articles and can be done through Scopus (SC), Google Scholar (GS), or ISI web of knowledge (WOS). In the current study, we analyzed the citations to 2011-2012 articles of Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (IJBMS) in these three resources. Material and Methods: The relevant data from SC, GS, and WOS official websites. Total number of citations, their overlap and unique citations of these three recourses were evaluated. Results: WOS and SC covered 100% and GS covered 97% of the IJBMS items. Totally, 37 articles were cited at least once in one of the studied resources. Total number of citations were 20, 30, and 59 in WOS, SC, and GS respectively. Forty citations of GS, 6 citation of SC, and 2 citations of WOS were unique. Conclusion: Every scientific resource has its own inaccuracies in providing citation analysis information. Citation analysis studies are better to be done each year to correct any inaccuracy as soon as possible. IJBMS has gained considerable scientific attention from wide range of high impact journals and through citation tracking method; this visibility can be traced more thoroughly. PMID:24379959

  18. [Validation of the Portuguese version of an instrument to measure the degree of patient knowledge about their medication].

    PubMed

    Rubio, Joaquín Salmerón; García-Delgado, Pilar; Ferreira, Paula Iglésias; Santos, Henrique Mateus; Martínez-Martínez, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    The scope of this study was the validation of a cross-culturally adapted questionnaire into Portuguese in five community pharmacies in Portugal. The discriminatory power of items, content and construct validity and factor analysis of the main components and their reliability and stability were determined. A high degree of semantic equivalence between the original questionnaire and the cross-culturally adapted questionnaire into Portuguese was observed. A Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin index of 0.550 was obtained and the Bartlett sphericity test confirmed the adequacy of the data for the application of factor analysis (p <0.0001). Three factors which accounted for 52.6% of the total variability were considered. With respect to reliability the following results were obtained: 0.519 for Cronbach's alpha test; 0.89 for Cohen's kappa coefficient; and 0.756 (IC=0.598-0.963) for the CCI exam. In this work, the first adaptation for the Portuguese culture of a specific questionnaire was produced to measure the degree of knowledge patients have about their medication. PMID:24820597

  19. The Use of Stimulant Medication and Behavioral Interventions for the Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Survey of Parents' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroh, Jennifer; Frankenberger, William; Cornell-Swanson, La Vonne; Wood, Courtney; Pahl, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    We examined parents' knowledge, attitudes, and information sources regarding Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), including treatment with stimulant medication and behavioral interventions. Responses from parents with a child diagnosed with ADHD and parents without a child diagnosed with ADHD were also compared. Participants consisted…

  20. The Effect of Student- and Teacher-Centered Small-Group Learning in Medical School on Knowledge Acquisition, Retention and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolars, Joseph C.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Compares the effects of two types of small-group instruction on retention and application of gastroenterology knowledge during a gastroenterology pathophysiology course taught to 198 second-year medical students. Concludes that the specific format of small-group instruction appears to have little impact on retention or application of…

  1. Influence of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration branch on medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine

    PubMed Central

    Balajić, Karolina; Barac-Latas, Vesna; Drenjančević, Ines; Ostojić, Marko; Fabijanić, Damir; Puljak, Livia

    2012-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether the introduction of a vertical subject on research in biomedicine and founding of The Cochrane Collaboration branch at the University of Split School of Medicine influenced students’ knowledge and attitudes toward evidence-based medicine (EBM), including the use of research literature. Methods We used a 26-item questionnaire on EBM knowledge and attitudes to survey 1232 medical students of all study years in 3 medical schools in Croatia (Split, Rijeka, Osijek) and the Croatian-speaking medical school in Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Results Students from the University of Split School of Medicine who had been exposed to the vertical subject on research in biomedicine and activities of The Cochrane Collaboration at the school had better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward EBM. In general, students rarely searched for evidence; 28% of students searched for evidence more than once a month and 96% of students used only textbooks in Croatian and teachers’ handouts, even though 74% of students agreed that articles from scholarly journals were an important supplement for textbooks. Conclusion Building up an environment that fosters EBM may be beneficial for students’ knowledge and attitudes toward EBM. Teachers should encourage and require using evidence during all the courses in medical school. PMID:22911530

  2. ‘Please don't call me Mister’: patient preferences of how they are addressed and their knowledge of their treating medical team in an Australian hospital

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Shaun R; Hughes, Andrew J; Friedman, N Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate how patients prefer to be addressed by healthcare providers and to assess their knowledge of their attending medical team's identity in an Australian Hospital. Setting Single-centre, large tertiary hospital in Australia. Participants 300 inpatients were included in the survey. Patients were selected in a sequential, systematic and whole-ward manner. Participants were excluded with significant cognitive impairment, non-English speaking, under the age of 18 years or were too acutely unwell to participate. The sample demographic was predominately an older population of Anglo-Saxon background. Primary and secondary outcome measures Patients preferred mode of address from healthcare providers including first name, title and second name, abbreviated first name or another name. Whether patients disliked formal address of title and second name. Secondarily, patient knowledge of their attending medical team members name and role and if correct, what position within the medical hierarchy they held. Results Over 99% of patients prefer informal address with greater than one-third having a preference to being called a name other than their legal first name. 57% of patients were unable to correctly name a single member of their attending medical team. Conclusions These findings support patient preference of informal address; however, healthcare providers cannot assume that a documented legal first name is preferred by the patient. Patient knowledge of their attending medical team is poor and suggests current introduction practices are insufficient. PMID:26739720

  3. Identification of factors involved in medication compliance: incorrect inhaler technique of asthma treatment leads to poor compliance

    PubMed Central

    Darbà, Josep; Ramírez, Gabriela; Sicras, Antoni; García-Bujalance, Laura; Torvinen, Saku; Sánchez-de la Rosa, Rainel

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the impact of delivery device of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA) on asthma medication compliance, and investigate other factors associated with compliance. Materials and methods We conducted a retrospective and multicenter study based on a review of medical registries of asthmatic patients treated with ICS/LABA combinations (n=2,213) whose medical devices were either dry powder inhalers (DPIs, such as Accuhaler®, Turbuhaler®, and NEXThaler®) or pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI). Medication compliance included persistence outcomes through 18 months and medication possession ratios. Data on potential confounders of treatment compliance such as asthma exacerbations, comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and health care resource utilization were also explored. Results The probability of asthma medication compliance in case of DPIs was lower compared to pMDIs, which suggests that inhaler devices influence inhalation therapies. There were additional confounding factors that were considered as explanatory variables of compliance. A worse measure of airflow obstruction (forced expiration volume in 1 second), comorbidities and general practitioner (GP) consultations more than once per month decreased the probability of compliance. Within comorbidities, alcoholism was positively associated with compliance. Patients of 29–39, 40–50, and 51–61 age groups or suffering from more than two exacerbations during the study period were more likely to comply with their medication regime. The effects of DPIs toward compliance varied with the different DPIs. For instance, Accuhaler® had a greater negative effect on compliance compared to Turbuhaler® and Nexthaler® in cases of patients who suffered exacerbations. We found that GP consultations reduced the probability of medication compliance for patients treated with formoterol/budesonide combination. For retired patients, visiting the GP increased the

  4. Improving Medication Knowledge among Older Adults with Heart Failure: A Patient-Centered Approach to Instruction Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Weiner, Michael; Young, James; Steinley, Douglas; Deer, Melissa; Murray, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: We investigated whether patient-centered instructions for chronic heart failure medications increase comprehension and memory for medication information in older adults diagnosed with chronic heart failure. Design and Methods: Patient-centered instructions for familiar and unfamiliar medications were compared with instructions for the…

  5. Forming, transfer and globalization of medical-pharmaceutical knowledge in South East Asian missions (17th to 18th c.) - historical dimensions and modern perspectives.

    PubMed

    Anagnostou, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    From the 17th to the 18th centuries, missionaries in Southeast Asia dedicated themselves to providing and establishing a professional medical-pharmaceutical supply for the local population and therefore explored the genuine Materia medica for easily available and affordable remedies, especially medicinal plants. In characteristic medical-pharmaceutical compendia, which can be classified as missionary pharmacopoeias, they laid down their knowledge to advise others and to guarantee a professional health care. As their knowledge often resulted from an exchange with indigenous communities, these compendia provide essential information about traditional plant uses of Southeast Asian people. Individual missionaries such as the Jesuit Georg Joseph Kamel (1661-1706) not only strove to explore medicinal plants but performed botanical studies and even composed comprehensive herbals. The Jesuit missionaries in particular played roles in both the order's own global network of transfer of medicinal drugs and knowledge about the application, and within the contemporary local and European scientific networks which included, for example, the famous Royal Society of London. The results of their studies were distributed all over the world, were introduced into the practical Materia medica of other regions, and contributed significantly to the academization of knowledge. In our article we will explain the different intentions and methods of exploring, the resulting works and the consequences for the forming of the pharmaceutical and scientific knowledge. Finally, we will show the options which the works of the missionaries can offer for the saving of traditional ethnopharmacological knowledge and for the development of modern phytotherapeutics and pharmaceutical supply. The publication is based on a comprehensive study on the phenomenon of missionary pharmacy which has been published as a book in 2011 (Anagnostou, 2011a) and shows now the potential of historical medical

  6. The medical examination in United States immigration applications: the potential use of genetic testing leads to heightened privacy concerns.

    PubMed

    Burroughs, A Maxwell

    2005-01-01

    The medical examination has been an integral part of the immigration application process since the passing of the Immigration Act of 1891. Failing the medical examination can result in denial of the application. Over the years the medical examination has been expanded to include questioning about diseases that are scientifically shown to be rooted in an individual's genetic makeup. Recent advances in the fields of genomics and bioinformatics are making accurate and precise screening for these conditions a reality. Government policymakers will soon be faced with decisions regarding whether or not to sanction the use of these newly-developed genetic tests in the immigration application procedure. The terror threat currently facing the United States may ultimately bolster the argument in favor of genetic testing and/or DNA collection of applicants. However, the possibility of a government mandate requiring genetic testing raises a host of ethical issues; including the threat of eugenics and privacy concerns. Genetic testing has the ability to uncover a wealth of sensitive medical information about an individual and currently there are no medical information privacy protections afforded to immigration applicants. This article examines the potential for genetic testing in the immigration application process and the ethical issues surrounding this testing. In particular, this article explores the existing framework of privacy protections afforded to individuals living in the United States and how this and newly-erected standards like those released by the Health and Human Services (HHS) might apply to individuals seeking to immigrate to the United States. PMID:16619448

  7. Data-mining to build a knowledge representation store for clinical decision support. Studies on curation and validation based on machine performance in multiple choice medical licensing examinations.

    PubMed

    Robson, Barry; Boray, Srinidhi

    2016-06-01

    Extracting medical knowledge by structured data mining of many medical records and from unstructured data mining of natural language source text on the Internet will become increasingly important for clinical decision support. Output from these sources can be transformed into large numbers of elements of knowledge in a Knowledge Representation Store (KRS), here using the notation and to some extent the algebraic principles of the Q-UEL Web-based universal exchange and inference language described previously, rooted in Dirac notation from quantum mechanics and linguistic theory. In a KRS, semantic structures or statements about the world of interest to medicine are analogous to natural language sentences seen as formed from noun phrases separated by verbs, prepositions and other descriptions of relationships. A convenient method of testing and better curating these elements of knowledge is by having the computer use them to take the test of a multiple choice medical licensing examination. It is a venture which perhaps tells us almost as much about the reasoning of students and examiners as it does about the requirements for Artificial Intelligence as employed in clinical decision making. It emphasizes the role of context and of contextual probabilities as opposed to the more familiar intrinsic probabilities, and of a preliminary form of logic that we call presyllogistic reasoning. PMID:27089305

  8. Knowledge and attitudes of non-occupational HIV post-exposure prophylaxis amongst first- and second-year medical students at Stellenbosch University in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Meintjes, Willem A.J.; Chola, Lumbwe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a worldwide problem, with 68% of infected people residing in sub-Saharan Africa. Antiretroviral therapy is used as post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) to prevent infection in cases of occupational exposure, and use has recently been expanded to non-occupational exposure. Studies have demonstrated a lack of awareness of non-occupational PEP (NO-PEP) in the general population. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate knowledge and attitudes towards availability of, access to and use of NO-PEP amongst first- and second-year medical students. Setting Participants were medical undergraduates of Stellenbosch University in the Western Cape of South Africa who were registered in 2013. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study of 169 students was performed. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires handed out in a classroom in August 2013. Self-reported knowledge and attitudes towards NO-PEP and barriers to access to and use of NO-PEP were analysed using frequency tables. Associations between self-reported and objective knowledge of NO-PEP were analysed by odds ratios. Results Over 90% of students had good knowledge on HIV transmission, and about 75% knew how it can be prevented. Twenty eight per cent (n = 47) of students reported knowledge of NO-PEP; 67% reported hearing about it from lecturers, whilst 1% reported hearing about it from their partner. Students who knew the correct procedure to take when a dose is forgotten were 2.4 times more likely to report knowledge of NO-PEP than those who did not know what to do when a dose is forgotten (p = 0.029). No other associations were statistically significant. Conclusion Students had positive attitudes towards the use of NO-PEP and also identified barriers to its use. Despite good knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission, knowledge on NO-PEP was poor. PMID:26245421

  9. Knowledge and skills retention following Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission course for final year medical students in Rwanda: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kyamanya, Patrick; Van Steirteghem, Samuel; Becker, Martin; English, Mike; Lissauer, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine whether, after the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission (ETAT+) course, a comprehensive paediatric life support course, final year medical undergraduates in Rwanda would achieve a high level of knowledge and practical skills and if these were retained. To guide further course development, student feedback was obtained. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of knowledge and skills of all final year medical undergraduates at the University of Rwanda in academic year 2011–2012 who attended a 5-day ETAT+ course. Students completed a precourse knowledge test. Knowledge and clinical skills assessments, using standardised marking, were performed immediately postcourse and 3–9 months later. Feedback was obtained using printed questionnaires. Results 84 students attended the course and re-evaluation. Knowledge test showed a significant improvement, from median 47% to 71% correct answers (p<0.001). For two clinical skills scenarios, 98% passed both scenarios, 37% after a retake, 2% failed both scenarios. Three to nine months later, students were re-evaluated, median score for knowledge test 67%, not significantly different from postcourse (p>0.1). For clinical skills, 74% passed, with 32% requiring a retake, 8% failed after retake, 18% failed both scenarios, a significant deterioration (p<0.0001). Conclusions Students performed well on knowledge and skills immediately after a comprehensive ETAT+ course. Knowledge was maintained 3–9 months later. Clinical skills, which require detailed sequential steps, declined, but most were able to perform them satisfactorily after feedback. The course was highly valued, but several short courses and more practical teaching were advocated. PMID:24925893

  10. Key opinion leaders and the corruption of medical knowledge: what the Sunshine Act will and won't cast light on.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry, in its marketing efforts, often turns to "key opinion leaders" or "KOLs" to disseminate scientific information. Drawing on the author's fieldwork, this article documents and examines the use of KOLs in pharmaceutical companies' marketing efforts. Partly due to the use of KOLs, a small number of companies with well-defined and narrow interests have inordinate influence over how medical knowledge is produced, circulated, and consumed. The issue here, as in many other cases of institutional corruption, is that a few actors have accumulated the power to shape the information on which many others base their decisions. Efforts to address this corruption should focus on correcting large imbalances in the current political economy of medical knowledge. A sequestration of pharmaceutical research and development on one hand from pharmaceutical marketing on the other, though difficult to achieve, would address this and many other problems. PMID:24088154

  11. The effect of implementing undergraduate competency-based medical education on students’ knowledge acquisition, clinical performance and perceived preparedness for practice: a comparative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the gains and losses associated with the implementation of undergraduate competency-based medical education. Therefore, we compared knowledge acquisition, clinical performance and perceived preparedness for practice of students from a competency-based active learning (CBAL) curriculum and a prior active learning (AL) curriculum. Methods We included two cohorts of both the AL curriculum (n = 453) and the CBAL curriculum (n = 372). Knowledge acquisition was determined by benchmarking each cohort on 24 interuniversity progress tests against parallel cohorts of two other medical schools. Differences in knowledge acquisition were determined comparing the number of times CBAL and AL cohorts scored significantly higher or lower on progress tests. Clinical performance was operationalized as students’ mean clerkship grade. Perceived preparedness for practice was assessed using a survey. Results The CBAL cohorts demonstrated relatively lower knowledge acquisition than the AL cohorts during the first study years, but not at the end of their studies. We found no significant differences in clinical performance. Concerning perceived preparedness for practice we found no significant differences except that students from the CBAL curriculum felt better prepared for ‘putting a patient problem in a broad context of political, sociological, cultural and economic factors’ than students from the AL curriculum. Conclusions Our data do not support the assumption that competency-based education results in graduates who are better prepared for medical practice. More research is needed before we can draw generalizable conclusions on the potential of undergraduate competency-based medical education. PMID:23711403

  12. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

  13. The Knowledge and Uptake of Travel Vaccine Among Medical Doctors in a Tertiary Health Institution in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Zuwaira Ibrahim; Afolaranmi, Tolulope O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Travelers play a significant role in the spread of infectious diseases across international borders, through their travel patterns and behaviors. Travel maybe the only risk factor for infectious diseases that are well controlled in the travelers’ country of residence, particularly vaccine-preventable diseases. The role of vaccination among travelers is an essential component of the control of travel-associated infectious diseases. This study was conducted to assess the knowledge and uptake of travel vaccine among medical doctors in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH). Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in 2013 using quantitative method of data collection among 189 medical doctors. Epi Info™ statistical software package version 3.5.4 was used for data analysis and a P ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: The mean age of the respondents was 33.8 ± 4.5 years, majority of the respondents (96.3%) were aware of travel vaccines with 45 (71.4%) of the 63 respondents who had embarked on international travel prior to the study had taken travel vaccine in their last travel. Knowledge of travel vaccination was found to have statistically significant relationship with uptake of travel vaccine (P = 0.013). Conclusion: This study has revealed the need to improve the knowledge and uptake of travel vaccine among medical doctors. PMID:26170542

  14. The distinction between linguistic and conceptual semantics in medical terminology and its implication for NLP-based knowledge acquisition.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, W; Buekens, F; De Moor, G; Waagmeester, A

    1998-11-01

    Natural language understanding systems have to exploit various kinds of knowledge in order to represent the meaning behind texts. Getting this knowledge in place is often such a huge enterprise that it is tempting to look for systems that can discover such knowledge automatically. We describe how the distinction between conceptual and linguistic semantics may assist in reaching this objective, provided that distinguishing between them is not done too rigorously. We present several examples to support this view and argue that in a multilingual environment, linguistic ontologies should be designed as interfaces between domain conceptualizations and linguistic knowledge bases. PMID:9865030

  15. Hand Hygiene: Knowledge and Attitudes of Fourth-Year Clerkship Medical Students at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Hamadah, Reem; Kharraz, Razan; Alshanqity, Airabab; AlFawaz, Danah; Eshaq, Abdulaziz M

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the clerkship (clinical) medical students’ knowledge of hand hygiene as the single most important precautionary measure to reduce nosocomial healthcare-associated infections. The aim of this study is to explore the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices among fourth-year clerkship medical students at Alfaisal University, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional, paper-based, Yes/No formatted questionnaire was administered to explore the students’ knowledge of, and attitudes towards, hand hygiene practices. Data were decoded in Microsoft Excel sheet and presented as numbers and percentages. Results: One hundred and eleven students (n=111/147) participated in the questionnaire (response rate: 76%). Although the majority of students had a fair knowledge of hand hygiene practices, a number of them had some misconceptions. Only 14% of students correctly agreed to the statement: "Traditional hand washing (water, plus regular soap) decreases the number of germs." Furthermore, only 32% of students correctly answered that "hand washing with a regular soap, instead of an antiseptic soap, is better in limiting the transmission of clostridium difficile infections". Almost all students (93%) agreed to the importance of hand hygiene education in medical curricula and its awareness in healthcare centers. Despite the importance of hand hygiene, only 13% of students reviewed the respective WHO and CDC guidelines before starting their clinical training in the teaching hospital. Discussion: The students’ inadequate knowledge about hand hygiene needs to be enriched by well-structured curricular and extra-curricular programs as well as more positive attitudes by healthcare workers. PMID:26430584

  16. Knowledge and Perceptions of Newly Graduated Medical Practitioners in Malaysia of Their Role in Medical Care of People with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyle, Judith L.; Iacono, Teresa; Liddell, Merilyn

    2010-01-01

    Improving content and consistency on developmental disabilities in undergraduate medical curricula has been recommended as a means of improving health outcomes for people with developmental disabilities. Although often the subject of studies in Western countries, little is known about content on developmental disabilities in undergraduate…

  17. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  18. Differences in Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior towards HIV/AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Infections between Sexually Active Foreign and Chinese Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Martin; Huang, Qiao; Rashid, Abid; Ma, Xiu Lan; Yuan, HongFang; Escalera Antezana, Juan Pablo; Yeltay, Rakhmanov; Rao, Meng; He, Qian; Xiong, ChengLiang; Zhang, HuiPing

    2016-01-01

    Although the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) decreased in the last decade worldwide, the number of deaths due to HIV/AIDS and communicable diseases including syphilis, hepatitis, and tuberculosis had dramatically increased in developing countries. Education and behavior are incredibly important factors to prevent these diseases' spread. This study highlights the range of differences in knowledge, attitude, and behavior of 434 sexually active medical students towards HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Because the surveyed population constitutes the forefront of healthcare providers and was originated from different area of the world, this is the first time a study sought to investigate the behavioral attitude of this group of population irrespective of the three levels of their academic and professional knowledge. Several factors including sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behavior, HIV/AIDS, and STIs related patterns play a key role in medical student attitude and behavior towards people infected with HIV/AIDS and STIs. Our findings add consistent value in prior studies which aimed to stop new infections and also imply further investigations on the management of the studied infections by medical students. The present study arouses much interest among participants and provides evidence of reinforcing medical students' education on HIV/AIDS and STIs. PMID:27195287

  19. Global Health Education: a cross-sectional study among German medical students to identify needs, deficits and potential benefits (Part 2 of 2: Knowledge gaps and potential benefits)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In Germany, educational deficits or potential benefits involved in global health education have not been analysed till now. Objective We assess the importance medical students place on learning about social determinants of health (SDH) and assess their knowledge of global health topics in relation to (i) mobility patterns, their education in (ii) tropical medicine or (iii) global health. Methods Cross-sectional study among medical students from all 36 medical schools in Germany using a web-based, semi-structured questionnaire. Participants were recruited via mailing-lists of students' unions, all medical students registered in 2007 were eligible to participate in the study. We captured international mobility patterns, exposure to global health learning opportunities and attitudes to learning about SDH. Both an objective and subjective knowledge assessment were performed. Results 1126 online-replies were received and analysed. International health electives in developing countries correlated significantly with a higher importance placed on all provided SDH (p ≤ 0.006). Participation in tropical medicine (p < 0.03) and global health courses (p < 0.02) were significantly associated with a higher rating of 'culture, language and religion' and the 'economic system'. Global health trainings correlated with significantly higher ratings of the 'educational system' (p = 0.007) and the 'health system structure' (p = 0.007), while the item 'politics' was marginally significant (p = 0.053). In the knowledge assessment students achieved an average score of 3.6 (SD 1.5; Mdn 4.0), 75% achieved a score of 4.0 or less (Q25 = 3.0; Q75 = 4.0) from a maximum achievable score of 8.0. A better performance was associated with international health electives (p = 0.032), participation in tropical medicine (p = 0.038) and global health (p = 0.258) courses. Conclusion The importance medical students in our sample placed on learning about SDH strongly interacts with students

  20. Getting libraries involved in industry-university-government collaboration : Libraries should support inauguration of business and lead SME into a knowledge-based society : What Toshiaki Takeuchi does as Business Library Association's President

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Utako

    Getting libraries involved in industry-university-government collaboration : Libraries should support inauguration of business and lead SME into a knowledge-based society : What Toshiaki Takeuchi does as Business Library Association's President

  1. Safe medication use based on knowledge of information about contraindications concerning cross allergy and comprehensive clinical intervention

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Zhou, Quan

    2013-01-01

    Background An investigation of safety issues regarding information on contraindications related to cross allergy was conducted to promote clinical awareness and prevent medical errors in a 2200-bed tertiary care teaching hospital. Methods Prescribing information on contraindications concerning cross allergy was collected from an information system and package inserts. Data mining and descriptive analysis were performed. A risk register was used for project management and risk assessment. A Plan, Do, Check, Act cycle was used as part of continuous quality improvement. Records of drug counseling and medical errors were collected from an online reporting system. A pharmacist-led multidisciplinary team initiated an intervention program on cross allergy in August 2008. Results Four years of risk management at our hospital achieved successful outcomes, ie, the number of medical errors related to cross allergies decreased by 97% (10 cases monthly before August 2008 versus three cases yearly in 2012) and risk rating decreased significantly [initial risk rating: 25(high-risk) before August 2008 versus final risk rating:6 (medium-risk) in December 2012]. Conclusion We conclude that comprehensive clinical interventions are very effective through team cooperation. Medication use has potential for safety risks if sufficient attention is not paid to contraindications concerning cross allergy. The potential for cross allergy involving drugs which belong to completely different pharmacological classes is easily overlooked and can be dangerous. Pharmacists can play an important role in reducing the risk of cross allergy as well as recommending therapeutic alternatives. PMID:23459439

  2. Psychotropic Medications: An Investigation of the Knowledge of Counseling Graduate Students and Attitudes toward Coursework of Counselor Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Escobedo, Pedro Sanchez; Beamish, Patricia M.; Stump, Earl; Krause, Naomi

    Counselors working in clinical settings are frequently confronted with clients taking psychotropic medications. Counselors working in non-clinical school and industrial settings are often required to identify clients who need referral for psychopharmacological support. If counselors are to assist their clients in exploring treatment options, it is…

  3. How to Achieve Synergy between Medical Education and Cognitive Neuroscience? An Exercise on Prior Knowledge in Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiter, Dirk J.; van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Fernandez, Guillen

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in contemporary research is how to connect medical education and cognitive neuroscience and achieve synergy between these domains. Based on this starting point we discuss how this may result in a common language about learning, more educationally focused scientific inquiry, and multidisciplinary research projects. As the topic of…

  4. [Advances in research of complementary and integrative medicine: a review of recent publications in some of the leading medical journals].

    PubMed

    Gamus, Dorit

    2015-01-01

    This article assesses the evidence for effectiveness, adverse effects and cost-effectiveness of complementary therapies, as reflected in publications in high impact factor medical journals during the years 2012-2014. The search detected 13 randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and 14 meta-analyses, which collectively assessed results of 191 RCTs involving the participation of several thousand patients. Pain was the major focus of acupuncture research in both clinical and fMRI studies, which demonstrated that the effect of acupuncture is beyond the placebo effect. In addition, RCTs supported the use of acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in moderate to severe depression. A promising trend was reported for the ameliorating effect of acupuncture in gout. Spinal manipulations may be helpful in cervical pain and yoga may be a useful treatment option for chronic neck pain, chronic low back pain and for pain-related disability. Beneficial effects of adding hypnosis and massage therapy to the treatment of fibromyalgia patients were also documented. Tai-chi may reduce balance impairment in mild-to-moderate Parkinson's disease and improve symptoms in patients with osteoarthritis. Products containing cranberry are associated with protective effects in some subgroups of patients with recurrent urinary tract infections. Chinese herbs may assist in glycemic control of diabetes patients and improve survival rate of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Some of the complementary therapies were found to be cost-effective. Physicians should be aware of the possible adverse effects of these treatments and of possible drug-herb interactions. Further larger scale trials are justified. PMID:25796668

  5. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Leadless Quad Flat No-Lead/bottom Termination Components (QFN/BTC) Package Trends and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Bottom terminated components and quad flat no-lead (BTC/QFN) packages have been extensively used by commercial industry for more than a decade. Cost and performance advantages and the closeness of the packages to the boards make them especially unique for radio frequency (RF) applications. A number of high-reliability parts are now available in this style of package configuration. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the status of BTC/QFN and their advanced versions of multi-row QFN (MRQFN) packaging technologies. The report provides a comprehensive review of packaging trends and specifications on design, assembly, and reliability. Emphasis is placed on assembly reliability and associated key design and process parameters because they show lower life than standard leaded package assembly under thermal cycling exposures. Inspection of hidden solder joints for assuring quality is challenging and is similar to ball grid arrays (BGAs). Understanding the key BTC/QFN technology trends, applications, processing parameters, workmanship defects, and reliability behavior is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-on packages for evaluation and testing, as well as for the low risk insertion in high-reliability applications.

  6. Body of Knowledge (BOK) for Leadless Quad Flat No-Lead/Bottom Termination Components (QFN/BTC) Package Trends and Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghaffarian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    Bottom terminated components and quad flat no-lead (BTC/QFN) packages have been extensively used by commercial industry for more than a decade. Cost and performance advantages and the closeness of the packages to the boards make them especially unique for radio frequency (RF) applications. A number of high-reliability parts are now available in this style of package configuration. This report presents a summary of literature surveyed and provides a body of knowledge (BOK) gathered on the status of BTC/QFN and their advanced versions of multi-row QFN (MRQFN) packaging technologies. The report provides a comprehensive review of packaging trends and specifications on design, assembly, and reliability. Emphasis is placed on assembly reliability and associated key design and process parameters because they show lower life than standard leaded package assembly under thermal cycling exposures. Inspection of hidden solder joints for assuring quality is challenging and is similar to ball grid arrays (BGAs). Understanding the key BTC/QFN technology trends, applications, processing parameters, workmanship defects, and reliability behavior is important when judicially selecting and narrowing the follow-on packages for evaluation and testing, as well as for the low risk insertion in high-reliability applications.

  7. Test your troubleshooting knowledge.

    PubMed

    Snyder, E

    2001-01-01

    While troubleshooting and repairing medical instrumentation may be all that BMETs would like to do, it's just too limited in scope to perform the job effectively. Flattened organizations can require greater responsibility for BMETs--and lead to greater ambiguity. Besides electronic troubleshooting skills, mechanical ability, and the knowledge of how medical equipment normally operates, additional skills are required of the BMET to effectively facilitate a repair--such as knowledge of pertinent codes and standards, job safety laws and guidelines, politeness, and empathy for the equipment user. You will notice that many of these relate to interpersonal relations. The ability to interact with fellow health care workers in a non-threatening manner and to have an appreciation for their perspectives are valuable customer service skills--potentially more valuable than being able to do component-level troubleshooting! PMID:11668951

  8. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals.

    PubMed

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  9. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  10. Prior Knowledge, Older Age, and Higher Allowance Are Risk Factors for Self-Medication with Antibiotics among University Students in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Hui; Cui, Binglin; Zhang, Dangui; Farrar, Jeremy; Law, Frieda; Ba-Thein, William

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) has been reported among university students in many countries, but little research has been done on this issue in China. The objective of this study was to evaluate knowledge and behaviors of university students and risk factors concerning SMA. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a novel questionnaire-based data collection instrument, an anonymous online survey was conducted with the students of Shantou University (STU), a university comprising 8 schools/colleges in eastern Guangdong, China. Of 1,300 respondents (13.8% of total eligible participants), 47.8% had self-treated with antibiotics. Logistic regression analysis identified prior knowledge of antibiotics (PKA), older age, and higher monthly allowance as independent risk factors for SMA. PKA significantly influenced students' knowledge about antibiotics, their uses, and common adverse reactions (all p<0.05). Among self-medicated students, 61.7% used antibiotics at least twice in the previous year. Community pharmacies were the major source of self-prescribed antibiotics. Reported common indications for SMA were sore throat (59.7%), fever (38.2%), cough (37.4%), runny nose (29.3%), and nasal congestion (28.7%). While 74.1% of self-medication episodes were based on students' own experiences, only 31.1% of students claimed to understand the package insert. Alteration of antibiotics and dosage during the course of self-treatment was made by 63.8% and 55.6% of students, respectively. At least two kinds of antibiotics were simultaneously taken by 82.6% of students. The majority of self-medicated students failed to complete the course of antibiotics. Adverse reactions were reported by 16.3% of students. Amoxicillin was the most common antibiotic used for self-medication. Conclusions High prevalence of SMA was noted among STU students. Presence of risk factors and risk-associated behaviors/attitudes in the study population calls for focused educational intervention

  11. Investigations of Anatomical Variations of the Thorax and Heart, and Anatomical Knowledge for First Year Medical Dental and Podiatry Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verenna, Anne-Marie

    2013-01-01

    The universal presence of anatomy in healthcare professions is undeniable. It is a cornerstone to each of the clinical and basic sciences. Therefore, further expansion of current anatomical knowledge and effective methods to teach anatomy is essential. In this work, the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery with the trunks of the brachial…

  12. Health Knowledge and Behavior of Junior High School Students: Nebraska Regional Medical Program. Final Report: Project 0013.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian M.; And Others

    This paper reports on a survey conducted to assist the health education faculty of the Nebraska Center for Health Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. The objectives of the study were to: (1) gather base line data on the health knowledge and behavior of a sample of Nebraska junior high school students; (2) compare Nebraska junior high school…

  13. Knowledge, attitude, and barriers towards the use of evidence based practice among senior dental and medical students in western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Bahammam, Maha A.; Linjawi, Amal I.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the knowledge, attitude, and barriers using evidence based practice (EBP) by future Saudi dentists and physicians. Methods: A questionnaire adapted from an EBP questionnaire was distributed to dental and medical final year students and new graduates at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia during the 2012 to 2013 academic year. The questionnaire consisted of 14 multiple-choice questions, and 2 open ended questions and was divided into 5 sections assessing different categories. Data were grouped as dental (DS) and medical (MS) students. Descriptive and group comparison statistics were conducted. Results: Out of 400, 297 students responded (DS=207, MS=90) with a 74% response rate. The students’ knowledge and attitude were low with no significant difference between the 2 groups. Students’ knowledge and attitudes towards EBP were assessed: EBP course attendance (DS=40.1%, MS=13.3%; p=0.000), reading journals (DS=6.3%, MS=3.3%; p=0.313), awareness of EBP components (DS=7.7%, MS=0%; p=0.332), and awareness towards the strongest evidence for EBP (DS=58.9%, MS=53.3%; p=0.370). More than half of the students in both groups did not use EBP in their treatment (DS=85%, MS=84.4%; p=0.842). The greatest reported barriers were; “EBP is difficult to understand” (DS=88.9%, MS=72.2%; p=0.000), and no time (DS=54.6%, MS=46.7%; p=0.210). Conclusion: The reported knowledge and attitudes among the junior health care physicians is considered below the required competency standards. These findings highlight the urgent need for changes in the current educational strategies to assure successful implementation of EBP in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25316471

  14. Yaws, syphilis, sexuality, and the circulation of medical knowledge in the British Caribbean and the Atlantic world.

    PubMed

    Paugh, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    This history of the disease categories "yaws" and "syphilis" explores the interplay between European and African medical cultures in the early modern Atlantic world. The assertion made by both early modern and modern medical authorities, that yaws and syphilis are the same disease, prompts a case study of the history of disease that reflects on a variety of issues in the history of medicine: the use of ideas about contagion to demarcate racial and sexual difference at sites around the British Empire; the contrast between persistently holistic ideas about disease causation in the Black Atlantic and the growth of ontological theories of disease among Europeans and Euro-Americans; and the controversy over the African practice of yaws inoculation, which may once have been an effective treatment but was stamped out by plantation owners who viewed it as a waste of their enslaved laborers' valuable time. PMID:24976161

  15. Diagnosis and management of acute kidney injury: deficiencies in the knowledge base of non-specialist, trainee medical staff.

    PubMed

    Muniraju, T M; Lillicrap, M H; Horrocks, J L; Fisher, J M; Clark, R M W; Kanagasundaram, N S

    2012-06-01

    Enhanced education has been recommended to improve non-specialist management of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, the extent of any gaps in knowledge has yet to be defined fully. The aim of this study was to assess understanding of trainee doctors in the prevention, diagnosis and initial management of AKI. An anonymised questionnaire was completed by hospital-based trainees across Newcastle Renal Unit's catchment area. Responses were evaluated against a panel of pre-defined ideal answers. The median score was 9.5 out of 20 (n = 146; range 0-17) and was lower in more junior trainees. Fifty percent of trainees could not define AKI, 30% could not name more than two risk factors for AKI and 37% could not name even one indication for renal referral. These serious gaps in knowledge highlight the need for enhanced education aimed at all training grades. Organisational changes may also be required to optimise patient safety. PMID:22783771

  16. FORECAST 2000: a prediction of skills, knowledge, and abilities required by senior medical treatment facility leaders into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K

    1994-07-01

    This paper reports results from a Delphi study conducted among the Commanders and Deputy Commanders for Administration of 37 Army medical treatment facilities (MTFs), who identified the most important issues challenging their institutions for the remainder of this decade, and the skills, knowledge, and abilities required by MTF leaders to deal successfully with those challenges. A Delphi mail-out was conducted in two iterations. Respondents identified 187 health care issues which were divided by content into nine domains by a panel of health care experts. The domains, ranked by importance, were cost-finance, health care delivery, access to care, quality and risk management, technology, professional staff relations, leadership, marketing, and ethics. In the second Delphi iteration, MTF leaders agreed upon the necessary skills, knowledge, and abilities of future leaders. Results indicated that future leadership will require enhanced financial, quantitative, and technical skills, as well as competence in a broad array of interpersonal and communication skills. Implications for military medical leader development initiatives are discussed. PMID:7816221

  17. Relation between the Global Burden of Disease and Randomized Clinical Trials Conducted in Latin America Published in the Five Leading Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Perel, Pablo; Miranda, J. Jaime; Ortiz, Zulma; Casas, Juan Pablo

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1990 non communicable diseases and injuries account for the majority of death and disability-adjusted life years in Latin America. We analyzed the relationship between the global burden of disease and Randomized Clinical Trials (RCTs) conducted in Latin America that were published in the five leading medical journals. Methodology/Principal Findings We included all RCTs in humans, exclusively conducted in Latin American countries, and published in any of the following journals: Annals of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We described the trials and reported the number of RCTs according to the main categories of the global burden of disease. Sixty-six RCTs were identified. Communicable diseases accounted for 38 (57%) reports. Maternal, perinatal, and nutritional conditions accounted for 19 (29%) trials. Non-communicable diseases represent 48% of the global burden of disease but only 14% of reported trials. No trial addressed injuries despite its 18% contribution to the burden of disease in 2000. Conclusions/Significance A poor correlation between the burden of disease and RCTs publications was found. Non communicable diseases and injuries account for up to two thirds of the burden of disease in Latin America but these topics are seldom addressed in published RCTs in the selected sample of journals. Funding bodies of health research and editors should be aware of the increasing burden of non communicable diseases and injuries occurring in Latin America to ensure that this growing epidemic is not neglected in the research agenda and not affected by publication bias. PMID:18301772

  18. Conception of Pharmacological Knowledge and Needs Amongst Nigerian Medical Students at Lagos State University College of Medicine: Implication for Future Biomedical Science in Africa.

    PubMed

    Agaga, Luther Agbonyegbeni; John, Theresa Adebola

    2016-01-01

    In Nigeria, medical students are trained in more didactic environments than their counterparts in researchintensive academic medical centers. Their conception of pharmacology was thus sought. Students who are taking/have takenthe medical pharmacology course completed an 18-question survey within 10min by marking one/more choices fromalternatives. Instructions were: "Dear Participant, Please treat as confidential, give your true view, avoid influences, avoidcrosstalk, return survey promptly." Out of 301 students, 188 (62.46%) participated. Simple statistics showed: 61.3%respondents associated pharmacology with medicine, 24.9% with science, 16.8 % with industry, and 11.1% with government;32.8% want to know clinical pharmacology, 7.1% basic pharmacology, 6.7% pharmacotherapy, and 34.2% want a blend ofall three; 57.8% want to know clinical uses of drugs, 44.8% mechanisms of action, 44.4% side effects, and 31.1% differentdrugs in a group; 45.8% prefer to study lecturers' notes, 26.7% textbooks, 9.8% the Internet, and 2.7% journals; 46.7% usestandard textbooks, 11.5% revision texts, 2.66% advanced texts, and 8.4% no textbook; 40.4% study pharmacology to beable to treat patients, 39.1% to complete the requirements for MBBS degree, 8.9% to know this interesting subject, and 3.1%to make money. Respondents preferring aspects of pharmacology were: 42.7, 16, 16, and 10 (%) respectively for mechanismsof action, pharmacokinetics, side effects, and drug lists. Medical students' conception and need for pharmacology werebased on MBBS degree requirements; they lacked knowledge/interest in pharmacology as a science and may not be thepotential trusts for Africa's future pharmacology. PMID:27574769

  19. Lucky guess or knowledge: a cross-sectional study using the Bland and Altman analysis to compare confidence-based testing of pharmacological knowledge in 3rd and 5th year medical students.

    PubMed

    Kampmeyer, Daniela; Matthes, Jan; Herzig, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-choice-questions are common in medical examinations, but guessing biases assessment results. Confidence-based-testing (CBT) integrates indicated confidence levels. It has been suggested that correctness of and confidence in an answer together indicate knowledge levels thus determining the quality of a resulting decision. We used a CBT approach to investigate whether decision quality improves during undergraduate medical education. 3rd- and 5th-year students attended formative multiple-choice exams on pharmacological issues. Students were asked to indicate their confidence in a given answer. Correctness of answers was scored binary (1-correct; 0-wrong) and confidence levels were transformed to an ordinal scale (guess: 0; rather unsure: 0.33; rather sure: 0.66; very sure: 1). 5th-year students gave more correct answers (73 ± 16 vs. 49 ± 13 %, p < 0.05) and were on average more confident regarding the correctness of their answers (0.61 ± 0.18 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13, p < 0.05). Correlation of these parameters was stronger for 5th-year students (r = 0.81 vs. r = 0.52), but agreement of confidence and correctness ('centration') was lower. By combining the Bland-and-Altman approach with categories of decision-quality we found that 5th-year students were more likely to be 'well-informed' (41 vs. 5 %), while more 3rd-students were 'uninformed' (24 vs. 76 %). Despite a good correlation of exam results and confidence in given answers increased knowledge might be accompanied by a more critical view at the own abilities. Combining the statistical Bland-and-Altman analysis with a theoretical approach to decision-quality, more advanced students are expected to apply correct beliefs, while their younger fellows are rather at risk to hesitate or to act amiss. PMID:25103688

  20. A pilot study on the incidence of severe photosensitivity reactions leading to hospitalization linked to topical ketoprofen and other medications in selected European regions.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Simone; Naldi, Luigi; Lecchi, Silvia; Kürzinger, Marie-Laure; Auclert, Laurent; Gori, Mario; Chosidow, Olivier; Hercogova, Jana

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of exposure to topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), particularly ketoprofen, in a convenience sample of the population, to obtain estimates of the incidence of severe photosensitivity leading to hospitalization, and to assess causative factors in three catchment areas: the Paris metropolitan area, the Lombardy region (Italy) and the Prague area. All cases of severe photosensitivity not explained by underlying conditions and admitted to hospitals in the selected areas were included in the study. Controls were patients consecutively admitted to hospitals, in the same areas, for an acute condition or for an elective procedure not suspected of being related to medication use. From October 2012 to September 2013, 920 controls were recruited (median age 44 years, 50.8% females); 8 severe photosensitivity cases were reported in the population aged 18-74 years of the 3 geographical areas during the 1-year surveillance period, corresponding to an incidence rate of 4.81 cases per 10 million person-years (95% confidence interval - CI, 2.07-9.48). Six controls reported 1-month exposure to topical ketoprofen, with an estimated prevalence of 0.65% (95% CI, 0.24-1.42). The population attributable risk for severe photosensitivity reactions linked to ketoprofen was 11.92% (95% CI, -0.12-52.99). This study was conducted in selected European areas and showed that the incidence of severe photosensitivity reactions leading to hospitalization as well as the exposure rate to topical ketoprofen were low. Among topical NSAIDs, topical ketoprofen was the leading cause of photosensitivity reactions but accounted for a limited number of hospitalized cases. Probably most of the relevant reactions were managed in the outpatient setting and a community based case-control study is advisable. PMID:27433339

  1. Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: knowledge level of medical students of clinical years of University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Zulkifli, Zainal; Ismail, Salwani

    2016-01-01

    The innovation of penicillin by Dr Alexander Fleming in 1928 and its use in clinical practice saved many lives, especially during the Second World War. Tuberculosis still carries a significant public health threat and has re-emerged over the past two decades, even in modern countries where tuberculosis was thought to be eliminated. The World Health Organization defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was initially effective for treatment of infections caused by the microbe. Therefore, the findings of the current study will provide data to enable the design of a new educational program to better equip our students in confronting antimicrobial resistance. This study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, which was undertaken in the Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The study participants were students of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program (MBBS) of Year III, IV, and V. A total of 142 out of 164 (86%) medical students returned the questionnaire. Specifically, the year-wise breakdown of responses was 29% (41), 39% (55), and 32% (45) for Year III, IV, and V, respectively. Among the study respondents, 28% (40) were male, and the remaining 72% (102) were female. In all, 67% of the participants felt more confident in “making an accurate diagnosis of infection/sepsis.” The majority (88%) of the study participants stated that they would like more training on antibiotic selection. This research has found that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice; the students are demanding more educational intervention to face the threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27042083

  2. Antibiotic prescribing and resistance: knowledge level of medical students of clinical years of University Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Haque, Mainul; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Zulkifli, Zainal; Ismail, Salwani

    2016-01-01

    The innovation of penicillin by Dr Alexander Fleming in 1928 and its use in clinical practice saved many lives, especially during the Second World War. Tuberculosis still carries a significant public health threat and has re-emerged over the past two decades, even in modern countries where tuberculosis was thought to be eliminated. The World Health Organization defines antimicrobial resistance as the resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial drug that was initially effective for treatment of infections caused by the microbe. Therefore, the findings of the current study will provide data to enable the design of a new educational program to better equip our students in confronting antimicrobial resistance. This study was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey, which was undertaken in the Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. The study participants were students of the Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery program (MBBS) of Year III, IV, and V. A total of 142 out of 164 (86%) medical students returned the questionnaire. Specifically, the year-wise breakdown of responses was 29% (41), 39% (55), and 32% (45) for Year III, IV, and V, respectively. Among the study respondents, 28% (40) were male, and the remaining 72% (102) were female. In all, 67% of the participants felt more confident in "making an accurate diagnosis of infection/sepsis." The majority (88%) of the study participants stated that they would like more training on antibiotic selection. This research has found that there is a gap between theoretical input and clinical practice; the students are demanding more educational intervention to face the threat of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:27042083

  3. Safety in numbers 3: Authenticity, Building knowledge & skills and Competency development & assessment: the ABC of safe medication dosage calculation problem-solving pedagogy.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Meriel Hutton, B; Coben, Diana; Clochesy, John M; Pontin, David

    2013-03-01

    When designing learning and assessment environments it is essential to articulate the underpinning education philosophy, theory, model and learning style support mechanisms that inform their structure and content. We elaborate on original PhD research that articulates the design rationale of authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) learning and diagnostic assessment environments. These environments embody the principles of authenticity, building knowledge and skills and competency assessment and are designed to support development of competence and bridging of the theory-practice gap. Authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments capture the features and expert practices that are located in real world practice cultures and recreate them in authentic virtual clinical environments. We explore how this provides students with a safe virtual authentic environment to actively experience, practice and undertake MDC-PS learning and assessment activities. We argue that this is integral to the construction and diagnostic assessment of schemata validity (mental constructions and frameworks that are an individual's internal representation of their world), bridging of the theory-practice gap and cognitive and functional competence development. We illustrate these principles through the underpinning pedagogical design of two online virtual authentic learning and diagnostic assessment environments (safeMedicate and eDose™). PMID:23177732

  4. The ‘Dark Side’ and ‘Bright Side’ of Personality: When Too Much Conscientiousness and Too Little Anxiety Are Detrimental with Respect to the Acquisition of Medical Knowledge and Skill

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J. Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a ‘dark side’ and those generally viewed as negative can have a ‘bright side’ depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a ‘dark side’ reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a ‘bright side’ enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning ‘backbone’, whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on

  5. Knowledge, Beliefs and Practices Regarding Antiretroviral Medications for HIV Prevention: Results from a Survey of Healthcare Providers in New England

    PubMed Central

    Krakower, Douglas S.; Oldenburg, Catherine E.; Mitty, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Ira B.; Kurth, Ann E.; Maloney, Kevin M.; Gallagher, Donna; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral treatment for HIV-infection before immunologic decline (early ART) and pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission, but routine adoption of these practices by clinicians has been limited. Methods Between September and December 2013, healthcare practitioners affiliated with a regional AIDS Education and Training Center in New England were invited to complete online surveys assessing knowledge, beliefs and practices regarding early ART and PrEP. Multivariable models were utilized to determine characteristics associated with prescribing intentions and practices. Results Surveys were completed by 184 practitioners. Respondent median age was 44 years, 58% were female, and 82% were white. Among ART-prescribing clinicians (61% of the entire sample), 64% were aware that HIV treatment guidelines from the Department of Health and Human Services recommended early ART, and 69% indicated they would prescribe ART to all HIV-infected patients irrespective of immunologic status. However, 77% of ART-prescribing clinicians would defer ART for patients not ready to initiate treatment. Three-fourths of all respondents were aware of guidance from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommending PrEP provision, 19% had prescribed PrEP, and 58% of clinicians who had not prescribed PrEP anticipated future prescribing. Practitioners expressed theoretical concerns and perceived practical barriers to prescribing early ART and PrEP. Clinicians with higher percentages of HIV-infected patients (aOR 1.16 per 10% increase in proportion of patients with HIV-infection, 95% CI 1.01–1.34) and infectious diseases specialists (versus primary care physicians; aOR 3.32, 95% CI 0.98–11.2) were more likely to report intentions to prescribe early ART. Higher percentage of HIV-infected patients was also associated with having prescribed PrEP (aOR 1.19, 95% CI 1.06–1.34), whereas female gender (aOR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10–0.71) was associated

  6. The Literacy Instructional Leader: Perceptions of the Importance of Areas, Responsibility, and Use of Literacy Knowledge Elementary Principals Need to Lead an Effective Literacy Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Barbara Marie

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover and compare perceptions of three different groups of Indiana elementary educators concerning the importance of areas of the principal's literacy knowledge base, as well as responsibility for and use of this knowledge by principals to adequately support effective research-based literacy instruction. The…

  7. Relationships Between Health Literacy and Genomics-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Perceived Importance, and Communication in a Medically Underserved Population.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Blanchard, Melvin; Milam, Laurel; Pokharel, Manusheela; Elrick, Ashley; Goodman, Melody S

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p < .0001), lower awareness of FHH (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.28, 0.90], p = .020), and greater perceived importance of genetic information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p = .0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p = .013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p = .0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients. PMID:27043759

  8. Clustering and Symbolic Analysis of Cardiovascular Signals: Discovery and Visualization of Medically Relevant Patterns in Long-Term Data Using Limited Prior Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Zeeshan; Guttag, John; Stultz, Collin

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes novel fully automated techniques for analyzing large amounts of cardiovascular data. In contrast to traditional medical expert systems our techniques incorporate no a priori knowledge about disease states. This facilitates the discovery of unexpected events. We start by transforming continuous waveform signals into symbolic strings derived directly from the data. Morphological features are used to partition heart beats into clusters by maximizing the dynamic time-warped sequence-aligned separation of clusters. Each cluster is assigned a symbol, and the original signal is replaced by the corresponding sequence of symbols. The symbolization process allows us to shift from the analysis of raw signals to the analysis of sequences of symbols. This discrete representation reduces the amount of data by several orders of magnitude, making the search space for discovering interesting activity more manageable. We describe techniques that operate in this symbolic domain to discover rhythms, transient patterns, abnormal changes in entropy, and clinically significant relationships among multiple streams of physiological data. We tested our techniques on cardiologist-annotated ECG data from forty-eight patients. Our process for labeling heart beats produced results that were consistent with the cardiologist supplied labels 98.6[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] of the time, and often provided relevant finer-grained distinctions. Our higher level analysis techniques proved effective at identifying clinically relevant activity not only from symbolized ECG streams, but also from multimodal data obtained by symbolizing ECG and other physiological data streams. Using no prior knowledge, our analysis techniques uncovered examples of ventricular bigeminy and trigeminy, ectopic atrial rhythms with aberrant ventricular conduction, paroxysmal atrial tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation, and pulsus paradoxus.

  9. Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2007-10-01

    This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week intervention designed to address documented misconceptions identified by a precourse instrument. The course produced statistically significant gains in teacher knowledge of evolution and the nature of science and a significant decrease in misconceptions about evolution and natural selection. Nevertheless, teachers’ postcourse preference positions remained unchanged; the majority of science teachers still preferred that antievolutionary ideas be taught in school.

  10. Lead Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on lead exposure is presented including forms of lead, sources, hematologic effects, neurologic effects, endocrine effects, renal effects, and reproductive and developmental effects. The purpose of the Lead Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Lead Exposure at LeRC are discussed.

  11. Prior Knowledge Activation: How Different Concept Mapping Tasks Lead to Substantial Differences in Cognitive Processes, Learning Outcomes, and Perceived Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurlitt, Johannes; Renkl, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of characteristic features of concept mapping used for prior knowledge activation. Characteristic demands of concept mapping include connecting lines representing the relationships between concepts and labeling these lines, specifying the type of the semantic relationships. In the first experiment,…

  12. Does Increasing Biology Teacher Knowledge of Evolution and the Nature of Science Lead to Greater Preference for the Teaching of Evolution in Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehm, Ross H.; Schonfeld, Irvin Sam

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether or not an increase in secondary science teacher knowledge about evolution and the nature of science gained from completing a graduate-level evolution course was associated with greater preference for the teaching of evolution in schools. Forty-four precertified secondary biology teachers participated in a 14-week…

  13. Preparing the Next Generations of Technology Project Managers to Lead through Knowledge Sharing: A Case Study at a Large Transportation Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kargbo, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify knowledge transfer gaps and current practices, prepare current project managers to accept the challenges associated with leadership opportunities that are coming available due to retirements through cross training efforts and succession planning, and to identify the proper management of knowledge…

  14. Medication reviews.

    PubMed

    Blenkinsopp, Alison; Bond, Christine; Raynor, David K

    2012-10-01

    Recent years have seen a formalization of medication review by pharmacists in all settings of care. This article describes the different types of medication review provided in primary care in the UK National Health Service (NHS), summarizes the evidence of effectiveness and considers how such reviews might develop in the future. Medication review is, at heart, a diagnostic intervention which aims to identify problems for action by the prescriber, the clinician conducting the review, the patient or all three but can also be regarded as an educational intervention to support patient knowledge and adherence. There is good evidence that medication review improves process outcomes of prescribing including reduced polypharmacy, use of more appropriate medicines formulation and more appropriate choice of medicine. When 'harder' outcome measures have been included, such as hospitalizations or mortality in elderly patients, available evidence indicates that whilst interventions could improve knowledge and adherence they did not reduce mortality or hospital admissions with one study showing an increase in hospital admissions. Robust health economic studies of medication reviews remain rare. However a review of cost-effectiveness analyses of medication reviews found no studies in which the cost of the intervention was greater than the benefit. The value of medication reviews is now generally accepted despite lack of robust research evidence consistently demonstrating cost or clinical effectiveness compared with traditional care. Medication reviews can be more effectively deployed in the future by targeting, multi-professional involvement and paying greater attention to medicines which could be safely stopped. PMID:22607195

  15. Where Will LEAD Lead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildman, Louis

    After setting forth eight assumptions concerning the education of educational administrators, findings about the Leadership in Educational Administration Development (LEAD) program are discussed. The analysis is based on the first-year applications, telephone conversations with staff at a majority of the project sites, and additional material…

  16. Association of Weight Loss and Medication Adherence Among Adults With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: SHIELD (Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes)☆

    PubMed Central

    Grandy, Susan; Fox, Kathleen M.; Hardy, Elise

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to prescribed diabetes medications is suboptimal, which can lead to poor glycemic control and diabetic complications. Treatment-related weight gain is a side effect of some oral antidiabetic agents and insulin, which may negatively affect adherence to therapy. Objective This study investigated whether adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who lost weight had better medication adherence than those who gained weight. Methods Weight change over 1 year (2007 to 2008) was assessed among respondents in the US Study to Help Improve Early evaluation and management of risk factors Leading to Diabetes (SHIELD). Weight loss of >1.0%, ≥3%, and ≥5% of weight was compared with weight gain of ≥1.0%. Medication adherence was assessed using the Morisky 4-item questionnaire for medication-taking behavior, with lower scores representing better adherence. Results There were 746 T2DM respondents who lost >1.0%, 483 who lost ≥3%, 310 who lost ≥5%, and 670 who gained ≥1.0% of weight. Each weight-loss group had significantly lower Morisky scores than the weight-gain group; mean scores of 0.389 versus 0.473 (P = 0.050) for the >1.0% weight-loss group, 0.365 versus 0.473 (P = 0.026) for the ≥3% weight-loss group, and 0.334 versus 0.473 (P = 0.014) for the ≥5% weight-loss group. Significantly fewer respondents who lost weight had received insulin, sulfonylurea, or thiazolidinedione therapy (57%) compared with respondents who gained weight (64%) (P = 0.002). Demographics, exercise habits, and dieting were similar between weight-loss and weight-gain groups. Conclusions T2DM respondents with weight loss had significantly better medication adherence and were less likely to be on treatment regimens that increase weight than T2DM respondents with weight gain. These findings suggest that strategies that lead to weight loss, including use of diabetes medications associated with weight loss, may improve medication adherence. PMID:24465048

  17. The ancestors of Norman Bethune (1890-1939) traced back to the Bethunes of Skye, leading members of the MacBeth/Beaton medical dynasty.

    PubMed

    Munro, A; Macintyre, I M C

    2013-01-01

    Norman Bethune became famous through his work in the Spanish Civil War, his advocacy of socialised medicine in North America and his association with Mao Zedong's revolutionary movement in China. It has been suggested that he may have been descended from the Bethune or Beaton medical dynasty, who for generations served as physicians to kings of Scotland, the Lords of the Isles and to some of the larger Scottish clans. This paper traces his lineage back to the Isle of Skye. In the absence of old parish records as aids to tracing genealogy, other available evidence has confirmed that Bethune was indeed in the direct line of descent from the Bethunes or Beatons of Husabost, in Skye, one of the largest branches of this medical kindred, who were physicians to the MacLeods of Dunvegan. PMID:24087809

  18. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  19. Computerized medication administration records decrease medication occurrences.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Hill, J J; Wilson, R G; Nipper, K; Kwon, I W

    1997-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated that medication errors occur at a number of locations in the continuum between ordering of drug therapy and administration of the medication. Computer management of patient medication profiles offers the opportunity to enhance communication between pharmacists and nurses, and to decrease medication errors and delays in delivery of therapy. A number of authors have postulated that computerization of medication profiles would enhance medication delivery accuracy and timeliness, but no study has demonstrated this improvement. We report the results of a retrospective analysis undertaken to assess the improvements resulting from sharing a computerized medication record. We used a broader definition of medication occurrences that includes the more traditional definition, and averted errors, delays in delivery of medications and information, and disagreements between pharmacy and nursing medication profiles. We compared medication occurrences reported through an existing internal system between two periods; the first when separate pharmacy and nursing medication records were used, and the second period when a shared medication record was used by pharmacy and nursing. Average medication occurrences per admission decreased from 0.1084 to 0.0658 (p < 0.01). Medication occurrences per dose decreased from 0.0005 to 0.0003 (p < 0.01). The use of a shared medication record by pharmacy and nursing led to a statistically significant decrease in medication occurrences. Information shared between the two professions allowed timely resolution of discrepancies in medication orders, leading to better execution of drug therapy, decreased medication occurrences, and increased efficiency. PMID:10166241

  20. Psychopharmacological Intervention. I: Teacher Perceptions of Psychotropic Medication for Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study examined perceptions, knowledge, and opinions regarding medication of 146 teachers of students with serious emotional disturbances. Among findings were that global impressions were most often used to evaluate drug effects and that hyperactivity and delusions/hallucinations were most likely to lead to medication. (DB)

  1. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  2. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Experiments Stories Lessons Topics Games Activities Lessons MENU Lead Poisoning Kids Homepage Topics Pollution Lead Poisoning What is ... you can avoid contact with it! Sources of Lead Poisoning HOUSE PAINTS: Before1950, lead-based paint was used ...

  3. Lead Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to determine lead sources, educating family members about lead poisoning , and instituting follow-up testing to monitor the ... high levels of lead, see the article on Lead Poisoning . The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has ...

  4. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead Poisoning What is it and who is affected? Lead is a highly toxic substance, exposure to which ... and children can suffer from the effects of lead poisoning, but childhood lead poisoning is much more frequent. ...

  5. Senior Nursing Students' Participation in a Community Research Project: Effect on Student Self-Efficacy and Knowledge Concerning Drug Interactions Arising from Self-Medication in Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neafsey, Patricia J.; Shellman, Juliette

    2002-01-01

    Of 13 nursing students in a community nursing clinical project, 7 worked with older adults who received instruction about drug interaction. Compared to the six whose patients did not receive instruction, these students achieved greater knowledge and self-efficacy scores related to drug interaction. (Contains 16 references.) (SK)

  6. Assessment of knowledge, attitude, and practice with regard to evidence-based dentistry among dental students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Eslamipour, Faezeh; Ghaiour, Marzieh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is an approach to oral health that requires the application and examination of relevant scientific data related to the patient's oral health and his priorities. The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude, and practice of dental students of Isfahan about EBD. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive study, 168 dental students in 3 final years of their education who engaged in clinical practice by consensus sampling were recruited. For data collection, a validated questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was consisted of demographic questions and some questions about four issues: Knowledge of self-assess (KSA), evidence-based practice, actual knowledge and attitude about EBD. Data were analyzed with t-test, one-way ANOVA, Chi-square, and linear regression with SPSS 16. Results: One hundred and thirty-six students from 168 students were filled the questionnaire. The mean of KSA was 13 ± 4.3, mean of usage of useful references in EBD was 16.9 ± 7.6. One-third of students were studied their last article in last 6 months before. The mean of actual knowledge and attitude was 7.4 ± 2.3 and 24 ± 3.8, respectively. The relation between 4 main issues was significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: By considering overall interest and positive attitude toward learning EBD in dental students, it is highly recommended that practical educational courses about EBD be planned by dental faculties. PMID:27500165

  7. Impact of an Online Medical Internet Site on Knowledge and Practice of Health Care Providers: A Mixed Methods Study of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence Project

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Vanessa K; Townson, Andrea F; Higgins, Caroline E; Rogers, Jess; Wolfe, Dalton L

    2014-01-01

    Background It is not known whether ongoing access to a broad-based Internet knowledge resource can influence the practice of health care providers. We undertook a study to evaluate the impact of a Web-based knowledge resource on increasing access to evidence and facilitating best practice of health care providers. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate (1) the impact of the Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Evidence (SCIRE) project on access to information for health care providers and researchers and (2) how SCIRE influenced health care providers' management of clients. Methods A 4-part mixed methods evaluation was undertaken: (1) monitoring website traffic and utilization using Google Analytics, (2) online survey of users who accessed the SCIRE website, (3) online survey of targeted end-users, that is, rehabilitation health care providers known to work with spinal cord injury (SCI) clients, as well as researchers, and (4) focus groups with health care providers who had previously accessed SCIRE. Results The online format allowed the content for a relatively specialized field to have far reach (eg, 26 countries and over 6500 users per month). The website survey and targeted end-user survey confirmed that health care providers, as well as researchers perceived that the website increased their access to SCI evidence. Access to SCIRE not only improved knowledge of SCI evidence but helped inform changes to the health providers’ clinical practice and improved their confidence in treating SCI clients. The SCIRE information directly influenced the health providers’ clinical decision making, in terms of choice of intervention, equipment needs, or assessment tool. Conclusions A Web-based knowledge resource may be a relatively inexpensive method to increase access to evidence-based information, increase knowledge of the evidence, inform changes to the health providers’ practice, and influence their clinical decision making. PMID:25537167

  8. Lead in petrol. The isotopic lead experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Facchetti, S. )

    1989-10-01

    Many studies were dedicated to the evaluation of the impact of automotive lead on the environment and to the assessment of its absorption in the human population. They can be subdivided into two groups, those based on changes of air and blood lead concentrations and those based on changes of air and blood lead isotopic compositions. According to various authors, 50-66% of the lead added to petrol is mobilized in the atmosphere, while most of the remainder adheres to the walls of the exhaust system from which it is expelled by mechanical and thermal shocks in the forms of easily sedimented particles. The fraction directly emitted by engine exhaust fumes is found in the form of fine particles, which can be transferred a long way from the emitting sources. However important the contribution of petrol lead to the total airborne lead may be, our knowledge does not permit a straightforward calculation of the percentage of petrol lead in total blood lead, which of course can also originate from other sources (e.g., industrial, natural). To evaluate this percentage in 1973, the idea of the Isotopic Lead Experiment (ILE project) was conceived to label, on a regional scale, petrol with a nonradioactive lead of an isotopic composition sufficiently different from that of background lead and sufficiently stable in time. This Account summarizes the main results obtained by the ILE project.

  9. Can Online Consumers Contribute to Drug Knowledge? A Mixed-Methods Comparison of Consumer-Generated and Professionally Controlled Psychotropic Medication Information on the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Ongoing initiatives to filter online health searches exclude consumer-generated content from search returns, though its inferiority compared with professionally controlled content is not demonstrated. The antidepressant escitalopram and the antipsychotic quetiapine have ranked over the last 5 years as top-selling agents in their respective drug classes. Both drugs have various off-label mental health and non–mental health uses, ranging from the relief of insomnia and migraines to the treatment of severe developmental disorders. Objective Our objective was to describe the most frequently reported effects of escitalopram and quetiapine in online consumer reviews, to compare them with effects described in professionally controlled commercial health websites, and to gauge the usability of online consumer medication reviews. Methods A stratified simple random sample of 960 consumer reviews was selected from all 6998 consumer reviews of the two drugs in 2 consumer-generated (www.askapatient.com and www.crazymeds.us) and 2 professionally controlled (www.webmd.com and www.revolutionhealth.com) health websites. Professional medication descriptions included all standard information on the medications from the latter 2 websites. All textual data were inductively coded for medication effects, and intercoder agreement was assessed. Chi-square was used to test for associations between consumer-reported effects and website origination. Results Consumers taking either escitalopram (n = 480) or quetiapine (n = 480) most frequently reported symptom improvement (30.4% or 146/480, 24.8% or 119/480) or symptom worsening (15.8% or 76/480, 10.2% or 49/480), changes in sleep (36% or 173/480, 60.6% or 291/480) and changes in weight and appetite (22.5% or 108/480, 30.8% or 148/480). More consumers posting reviews on consumer-generated rather than professionally controlled websites reported symptom worsening on quetiapine (17.3% or 38/220 versus 5% or 11/220, P < .001), while

  10. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Lead is a metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust. Lead can be found in all parts of our ... from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may ...

  11. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... swallows a lead object or breathes in lead dust, some of the poison can stay in the ... a health problem. Lead is everywhere, including dirt, dust, new toys, and old house paint. Unfortunately, you ...

  12. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... homes. • Most people, especially children, who suffer from lead poisoning are exposed through lead-contaminated household dust or ... and six if they are at risk of lead poisoning (see: ). Who can I call to get more ...

  13. Developing Medical Geology in Uruguay: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-01-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population’s exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  14. Developing medical geology in Uruguay: a review.

    PubMed

    Mañay, Nelly

    2010-05-01

    Several disciplines like Environmental Toxicology, Epidemiology, Public Health and Geology have been the basis of the development of Medical Geology in Uruguay during the last decade. The knowledge and performance in environmental and health issues have been improved by joining similar aims research teams and experts from different institutions to face environmental problems dealing with the population's exposure to metals and metalloids and their health impacts. Some of the Uruguayan Medical Geology examples are reviewed focusing on their multidisciplinary approach: Lead pollution and exposed children, selenium in critically ill patients, copper deficiency in cattle and arsenic risk assessment in ground water. Future actions are also presented. PMID:20623004

  15. "Peer2Peer" – A university program for knowledge transfer and consultation in dealing with psychosocial crises in med-school and medical career

    PubMed Central

    Vajda, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Medical students are exposed to various psychosocial problems and challenges. Specific consultations services and programs can support them. “Peer2Peer” is such a consultation program and was implemented at the Medical University of Graz. It focusses on crisis intervention, psychosocial stress management, junior mentoring as well as student education in this field. Besides, it also offers student tutors of the program practical skills trainings. The program was restructured in winter term 2014/15. Methods: On the one hand, “Peer2Peer” gives insights into topics such as the current state of research concerning the students’ psychological strain and psychosocial crises in acutely stressful situations and preventive approaches for coping with these kinds of situations on the other hand. These aspects are taught by means of elective courses, lectures and workshops. Furthermore, “Peer2Peer” provides consultation services by student tutors who give face-to-face advice if required. These tutors receive ongoing training in organizational and professional issues. Results: Since the summer term of 2015, 119 students have been trained (via lectures and elective courses), while 61 contacts (short consultation) and 33 contacts (full consultation) have been supervisied. In total, two psychotherapeutic and one psychosocial follow ups were recommended. There are seven students who participate as tutors in the program. Conclusions: The “Peer2Peer” program is intended to enable a low-threshold access for medical students facing psychosocial crises situations and to help them in dealing with stress and learning problems. An increase in support contacts from the summer term of 2015 to the winter term of 2015/16 can be considered a success. A first evaluation of the different components of the program started in the winter semester of 2015/16. The student tutors have not only acquired practical skills in dealing with students in crises situations but also

  16. Neuro psychiatry 1943: the role of documentary film in the dissemination of medical knowledge and promotion of the U.K. psychiatric profession.

    PubMed

    Jones, Edgar

    2014-04-01

    In 1943, Basil Wright produced a documentary film about the treatment of servicemen and civilians with psychological disorders at Mill Hill Emergency Medical Service Hospital. Funded by the Ministry of Information, Neuro Psychiatry was shot to convince influential clinicians and policy makers in North America that the British had developed expertise in the management of psychiatric casualties. By emphasizing novel and apparently effective interventions and excluding severe or intractable cases from the film, Wright encouraged an optimistic sense of achievement. Filmed at a time when victory was considered an eventual outcome, the picture presented a health service to which all had access without charge. Children and unemployed women, two groups excluded under the 1911 National Insurance Act, had been required to pay for healthcare in the prewar period and were shown receiving free treatment from the Emergency Medical Service. However, the therapeutic optimism presented in the film proved premature. Most U.K. battle casualties arose in the latter half of the conflict and follow-up studies failed to confirm the positive outcome statistics reported in the film. Aubrey Lewis, clinical director of the hospital, criticized research projects conducted at Mill Hill for a lack of rigor. The cinematographic skills of Wright and director Michael Hankinson, together with their reformist agenda, created a clinical presentation that emphasized achievements without acknowledging the limitations not only of the therapies offered by doctors but also the resources available to a nation at war. PMID:23134695

  17. Improving on-line skills and knowledge. A randomized trial of teaching rural physicians to use on-line medical information.

    PubMed Central

    Kronick, Jonathan; Blake, Catherine; Munoz, Eeva; Heilbrunn, Lila; Dunikowski, Lynn; Milne, William Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the change in frequency and methods with which a pilot group of rural physicians consulted on-line medical resources before and after an educational intervention. DESIGN: Physicians were randomly assigned to an educational intervention or control group. Self-administered questionnaires were completed before and 3 months after the intervention. SETTING: Rural practices in southwestern Ontario. PARTICIPANTS: Eighty rural (defined as a population of 15000 or less) physicians in southwestern Ontario, with a computer with Internet access. INTERVENTIONS: Individualized 3-hour training session on using the World Wide Web to research patient-related questions. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Frequency of access and comfort with on-line medical information were compared after intervention with baseline data using the Wilcoxon two-sample test. RESULTS: At follow up, the intervention group showed a significant improvement over the control group in their frequency of accessing the World Wide Web to address patient-related questions (P = .009), in their comfort level in using on-line databases (P = .032), and in their frequency of accessing on-line databases (P = .044). CONCLUSION: Rural physicians' comfort and competence in using computers to address patient problems can be improved by an individualized 3-hour training session. PMID:12675544

  18. Neuro Psychiatry 1943: The Role of Documentary Film in the Dissemination of Medical Knowledge and Promotion of the U.K. Psychiatric Profession

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    In 1943, Basil Wright produced a documentary film about the treatment of servicemen and civilians with psychological disorders at Mill Hill Emergency Medical Service Hospital. Funded by the Ministry of Information, Neuro Psychiatry was shot to convince influential clinicians and policy makers in North America that the British had developed expertise in the management of psychiatric casualties. By emphasizing novel and apparently effective interventions and excluding severe or intractable cases from the film, Wright encouraged an optimistic sense of achievement. Filmed at a time when victory was considered an eventual outcome, the picture presented a health service to which all had access without charge. Children and unemployed women, two groups excluded under the 1911 National Insurance Act, had been required to pay for healthcare in the prewar period and were shown receiving free treatment from the Emergency Medical Service. However, the therapeutic optimism presented in the film proved premature. Most U.K. battle casualties arose in the latter half of the conflict and follow-up studies failed to confirm the positive outcome statistics reported in the film. Aubrey Lewis, clinical director of the hospital, criticized research projects conducted at Mill Hill for a lack of rigor. The cinematographic skills of Wright and director Michael Hankinson, together with their reformist agenda, created a clinical presentation that emphasized achievements without acknowledging the limitations not only of the therapies offered by doctors but also the resources available to a nation at war. PMID:23134695

  19. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... our environment. Much of it comes from human activities such as mining and manufacturing. Lead used to be in paint; older houses may still have lead paint. You could be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ...

  20. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  1. Developing a Formal Representation for Medication Appropriateness Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Salmasian, Hojjat; Tran, Tran H; Friedman, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Inappropriate medications use (IMU) is a serious issue of global concern that leads to a waste of resources and potentially harms the patients. IMU can usually be identified by extracting information about the patient’s conditions and treatments, and comparing them with “medication appropriateness criteria”. To enable automation of these criteria, we developed a formal representation for them, which we called Objective Medication Appropriateness Criteria (OMAC). OMAC represents four aspects of the criteria: trigger, rules, action and metadata. Our evaluation showed that OMAC can completely represent explicitly defined medication appropriateness criteria using links to external knowledge sources. OMAC is the first formal representation for medication appropriateness criteria, and will enable development of structured rules for appropriate use of medications that can be implemented using standards for clinical decision support. PMID:25954464

  2. Safety in numbers 4: The relationship between exposure to authentic and didactic environments and nursing students' learning of medication dosage calculation problem solving knowledge and skills.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Clochesy, John M; Hutton, B Meriel; Moseley, Laurie

    2013-03-01

    Advancing the art and science of education practice requires a robust evaluation of the relationship between students' exposure to learning and assessment environments and the development of their cognitive competence (knowing that and why) and functional competence (know-how and skills). Healthcare education translation research requires specific education technology assessments and evaluations that consist of quantitative analyses of empirical data and qualitative evaluations of the lived student experience of the education journey and schemata construction (Weeks et al., 2013a). This paper focuses on the outcomes of UK PhD and USA post-doctorate experimental research. We evaluated the relationship between exposure to traditional didactic methods of education, prototypes of an authentic medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS) environment and nursing students' construction of conceptual and calculation competence in medication dosage calculation problem-solving skills. Empirical outcomes from both UK and USA programmes of research identified highly significant differences in the construction of conceptual and calculation competence in MDC-PS following exposure to the authentic learning environment to that following exposure to traditional didactic transmission methods of education (p < 0.001). This research highlighted that for many students exposure to authentic learning environments is an essential first step in the development of conceptual and calculation competence and relevant schemata construction (internal representations of the relationship between the features of authentic dosage problems and calculation functions); and how authentic environments more ably support all cognitive (learning) styles in mathematics than traditional didactic methods of education. Functional competence evaluations are addressed in Macdonald et al. (2013) and Weeks et al. (2013e). PMID:23305675

  3. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOEpatents

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  4. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... lead is still found in some modern faucets. Soil contaminated by decades of car exhaust or years ... house paint scrapings. Lead is more common in soil near highways and houses. Hobbies involving soldering, stained ...

  5. References to medical authors in non-medical Latin literature.

    PubMed

    Mazzini, Innocenzo

    2014-01-01

    My contribution focuses on discussing the knowledge Roman non-medical authors had of medical literature. My research suggests that the medical authors known and cited belong mainly to the classical and Hellenistic age. The occasions or reasons for an intellectual in antiquity to turn his attention to medical texts were mainly twofold: to bolster a philosophical or ethical claim, and to confirm medical theories. PMID:25195323

  6. Perspective: medical students' perceptions of the poor: what impact can medical education have?

    PubMed

    Wear, Delese; Kuczewski, Mark G

    2008-07-01

    There is currently little knowledge or understanding of medical students' knowledge and attitudes toward the poor. Teaching hospitals bring students face-to-face with poor and uninsured patients on a regular basis. However, an overview of the research available suggests that this contact does not result in students' greater understanding and empathy for the plight of the poor and may, in fact, lead to an erosion of positive attitudes toward the poor. A basic understanding of justice suggests that as the poor are disproportionately the subjects of medical training, this population should enjoy a proportionate benefit for this service. Furthermore, medicine's social contract with the public is often thought to include an ideal of service to the underserved and a duty to help educate the general public regarding the health needs of our nation. In their discussion, the authors situate medical students' attitudes toward the poor within larger cultural perspectives, including attitudes toward the poor and attributions for poverty. They provide three suggestions for improving trainees' knowledge of and attitudes toward the poor-namely, increasing the socioeconomic diversity of students, promoting empathy through curricular efforts, and focusing more directly on role modeling. The authors argue that service learning, especially efforts that include gaining detailed knowledge of a particular person or persons, coupled with critical reflection, presents a very promising direction toward achieving these goals. Finally, they posit an agenda for future educational research that might contribute to the increased efficacy of medical education in this important formative domain. PMID:18580079

  7. "Getting the lead out" in Hartford, Connecticut: a multifaceted lead-poisoning awareness campaign.

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Tara J; Humphries, Owen; Nguyen, Tung; Maljanian, Rose; McCormack, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As part of a citywide effort to increase lead poisoning awareness within the city of Hartford, Connecticut, the Hartford Health Department implemented a multifaceted public health campaign involving several novel elements and partnerships, including the use of municipal sanitation trucks to disseminate lead-poisoning prevention messages throughout the city. To evaluate campaign reach and effectiveness, Health Department personnel collected measures of lead-poisoning knowledge, recall of campaign components, and reports of steps taken to prevent lead poisoning from 180 largely ethnic minority parents of preschool-age children. Key results were as follows: a) Recall of campaign components ranged from 21.5 to 62.6%, with newspaper advertisements and signs on buses and billboards recalled most often and a video broadcast on public-access television recalled least often. b) More than 45% of respondents reported that they took steps to prevent lead poisoning because of at least one of the campaign components, with the newspaper advertisements being the most effective component in terms of prompting lead-poisoning prevention behavior. c) Respondents' awareness was particularly low in terms of how medical personnel and procedures can and cannot detect and prevent lead poisoning in children. This campaign prompted caregivers to take steps to prevent lead poisoning and may help public health professionals in other communities to develop novel ideas through which to embark on similar initiatives. PMID:14698922

  8. Relationships between Knowledge(s): Implications for "Knowledge Integration"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evering, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    This article contributes to a critical dialogue about what is currently called "knowledge integration" in environmental research and related educational programming. Indigenous understandings in particular are seen as offering (re)new(ed) ways of thinking that have and will lead to innovative practices for addressing complex environmental issues.…

  9. Communicating Medical Needs to Non-Medical Managers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacal, Kira; Miller, Robert; Doerr, Harold

    2004-01-01

    Differences in communication styles and languages between groups often lead to miscommunication, confusion, and/or frustration. Engineers, computer specialists, clinicians, and managers often utilize the English language in very different ways, with different groups using the same words to represent different concepts ("complaint" is a typical example). In addition, medical issues are often perceived as "off-nominal" and not "primary mission tasks" by managers, which can cause them to assign lower priorities to medical training time and resources. Knowledge bases differ due to variations in training and skill sets, and the goals (both immediate and long-term) of the communicators may also vary, with managers being primarily concerned with overall mission objectives, while clinicians focus on individual or group health issues. Furthermore, true communication is only possible when clinicians possess a deep understanding of mission requirements as well as the ability to communicate medical requirements on a priority basis using risk assessment, added value, and cost benefit analysis. These understandable differences may contribute to difficulties in expressing concerns and ideas in an efficient manner, particularly in projects, such as the space program or many military operations, where these varied groups must collaborate, and where the final decisions must be made by fully informed mission commanders. Methods: Three scenario-based approaches were developed utilizing decision trees and problem based learning, to help define and integrate these concepts. Results: Use of these techniques by NASA and military personnel will be presented. Discussion: To enhance communication, particularly of medical needs, one must identify the concerns and motivating factors for the other groups; for example, members of management may focus on financial concerns, a desire for risk mitigation, public perceptions, mission objectives, etc. Training clinicians to frame issues in these

  10. Certification and Career Success: A LEADS Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; Dickison, Phil; Levine, Roger

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between certification examination test results and Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) career success. The sample was drawn from the Longitudinal Emergency Medical Technician Attributes and Demographics Study (LEADS). LEADS participants were matched with National Registry of Emergency Medical Technician (NREMT)…

  11. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toggle navigation Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications ( ...

  12. Medical education reimagined: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Prober, Charles G; Khan, Salman

    2013-10-01

    The authors propose a new model for medical education based on the "flipped classroom" design. In this model, students would access brief (~10 minute) online videos to learn new concepts on their own time. The content could be viewed by the students as many times as necessary to master the knowledge in preparation for classroom time facilitated by expert faculty leading dynamic, interactive sessions where students can apply their newly mastered knowledge.The authors argue that the modern digitally empowered learner, the unremitting expansion of biomedical knowledge, and the increasing specialization within the practice of medicine drive the need to reimagine medical education. The changes that they propose emphasize the need to define a core curriculum that can meet learners where they are in a digitally oriented world, enhance the relevance and retention of knowledge through rich interactive exercises, and facilitate in-depth learning fueled by individual students' aptitude and passion. The creation and adoption of this model would be meaningfully enhanced by cooperative efforts across medical schools. PMID:23969367

  13. Analysis of Polarity Information in Medical Text

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaodan; Li, Jianhua; Hirst, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    Knowing the polarity of clinical outcomes is important in answering questions posed by clinicians in patient treatment. We treat analysis of this information as a classification problem. Natural language processing and machine learning techniques are applied to detect four possibilities in medical text: no outcome, positive outcome, negative outcome, and neutral outcome. A supervised learning method is used to perform the classification at the sentence level. Five feature sets are constructed: unigrams, bigrams, change phrases, negations, and categories. The performance of different combinations of feature sets is compared. The results show that generalization using the category information in the domain knowledge base Unified Medical Language System is effective in the task. The effect of context information is significant. Combining linguistic features and domain knowledge leads to the highest accuracy. PMID:16779104

  14. Glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates. PMID:23505792

  15. Lead Pencils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, L. B.

    1971-01-01

    A study, undertaken to determine the lead content of paint on various pencils in the Goddard supply system, is reported. The survey found that lead content varied from .04 mg per pencil for carmine colored pencils to approximately 43 mg per pencil for yellow colored pencils. Results also show that yellow pencils had higher lead content than other colors analyzed. More detailed results are given in tabular form.

  16. Unequal Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilly, Charles

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how the persistence of knowledge inequalities influences higher education. Explores how the control of and access to knowledge affects human well being (i.e., control over production of knowledge, control over its distribution, and access to knowledge by people whose well being it will or could affect). (EV)

  17. Knowledge Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual framework for…

  18. Are Providers More Likely to Contribute to Healthcare Disparities Under High Levels of Cognitive Load? How Features of the Healthcare Setting May Lead to Biases in Medical Decision Making

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Diana J.

    2014-01-01

    Systematic reviews of healthcare disparities suggest that clinicians’ diagnostic and therapeutic decision making varies by clinically irrelevant characteristics, such as patient race, and that this variation may contribute to healthcare disparities. However, there is little understanding of the particular features of the healthcare setting under which clinicians are most likely to be inappropriately influenced by these characteristics. This study delineates several hypotheses to stimulate future research in this area. It is posited that healthcare settings in which providers experience high levels of cognitive load will increase the likelihood of racial disparities via 2 pathways. First, providers who experience higher levels of cognitive load are hypothesized to make poorer medical decisions and provide poorer care for all patients, due to lower levels of controlled processing (H1). Second, under greater levels of cognitive load, it is hypothesized that healthcare providers’ medical decisions and interpersonal behaviors will be more likely to be influenced by racial stereotypes, leading to poorer processes and outcomes of care for racial minority patients (H2). It is further hypothesized that certain characteristics of healthcare settings will result in higher levels of cognitive load experienced by providers (H3). Finally, it is hypothesized that minority patients will be disproportionately likely to be treated in healthcare settings in which providers experience greater levels of cognitive load (H4a), which will result in racial disparities due to lower levels of controlled processing by providers (H4b) and the influence of racial stereotypes (H4c).The study concludes with implications for research and practice that flow from this framework. PMID:19726783

  19. Maintaining a Knowledge Base Using the MEDAS Knowledge Engineering Tools

    PubMed Central

    Naeymi-Rad, Frank; Evens, Martha; Koschmann, Timothy; Lee, Chui-Mei; Gudipati, Rao Y.C.; Kepic, Theresa; Rackow, Eric; Weil, Max Harry

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the process by which a medical expert creates a new knowledge base for MEDAS, the Medical Emergency Decision Assistance System. It follows the expert physician step by step as a new disorder is entered along with its relevant symptoms. As the expanded knowledge base is tested, inconsistencies are detected, and corrections are made, showing at each step the available tools and giving an example of their use.

  20. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  1. Medical Transcriptionists

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment or software that is connected to their computer. However, technological advances have changed the way medical ... this section Medical transcriptionists must be comfortable using computers. Medical transcriptionists typically need postsecondary education. Prospective medical ...

  2. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this page, ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten ...

  3. Integration of aquatic ecology and biological oceanographic knowledge for development of area-based eutrophication assessment criteria leading to water resource remediation and utilization management: a case study in Tha Chin, the most eutrophic river of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Meksumpun, Charumas; Meksumpun, Shettapong

    2008-01-01

    This research was carried out in Tha Chin Watershed in the central part of Thailand with attempts to apply multidisciplinary knowledge for understanding ecosystem structure and response to anthropogenic pollution and natural impacts leading to a proposal for an appropriate zonation management approach for sustainable utilization of the area. Water quality status of the Tha Chin River and Estuary had been determined by analyzing ecological, hydrological, and coastal oceanographic information from recent field surveys (during March 2006 to November 2007) together with secondary data on irrigation, land utilization, and socio-economic status.Results indicated that the Tha Chin River and Estuary was eutrophic all year round. Almost 100% of the brackish to marine areas reflected strongly hypertrophic water condition during both dry and high-loading periods. High NH(4)(+) and PO(4)(3-) loads from surrounding agricultural land use, agro-industry, and community continuously flew into the aquatic environment. Deteriorated ecosystem was clearly observed by dramatically low DO levels (ca 1 mg/l) in riverine to coastal areas and Noctiluca and Ceratium red tide outbreaks occurred around tidal front closed to the estuary. Accordingly, fishery resources were significantly decreased. Some riverine benthic habitats became dominated by deposit-feeding worms e.g. Lumbriculus, Branchiura, and Tubifex, while estuarine benthic habitats reflected succession of polychaetes and small bivalves. Results on analysis on integrated ecosystem responses indicated that changing functions were significantly influenced by particulates and nutrients dynamics in the system.Based on the overall results, the Tha Chin River and Estuary should be divided into 4 zones (I: Upper freshwater zone; II: Middle freshwater zone; III Lower freshwater zone; and IV: Lowest brackish to marine zone) for further management schemes on water remediation. In this study, the importance of habitat morphology and water flow

  4. Ascertaining Problems with Medication Histories

    PubMed Central

    Halapy, Henry; Kertland, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate and complete medication histories are not always obtained in clinical practice. Objective: This qualitative research study was undertaken to explore the barriers to and facilitators of obtaining accurate medication histories. Methods: Individual interviews, based on a structured interview guide, were conducted with 25 patients from both inpatient and ambulatory care clinic settings. Focus groups, based on a semistructured interview guide, were conducted with pharmacists, medical residents, and nurses. Transcribed data were analyzed by forming coded units and assessing these units for emerging themes. Results: Major themes that emerged from the patient interviews included patient ownership of health and medication knowledge (with knowledge of medications and their side effects and how to take medications being seen as important), patient-specific strategies to improve medication histories (e.g., use of regularly updated medication lists), and suggestions for system-level facilitators to improve medication histories (e.g., centralized databases of medication histories, increased patient education regarding the use and purpose of medications). Major themes also emerged from focus groups with health care professionals, including shared responsibility for medication history-taking among all 3 health care professions, perceptions about the barriers to medication history-taking (including patients not knowing their medications and not bringing their medication lists), and suggestions to improve medication histories (e.g., educating patients to bring medication vials to hospital admissions and appointments, using a centralized computer database for medication histories). Conclusions: Key recommendations resulting from this study include using standardized documentation techniques for medication histories, recording of medication history information in centralized electronic databases, educating patients to bring medications to every health care visit

  5. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena. PMID:24405197

  6. Medical Terminology of the Musculoskeletal System. Medical Records. Instructional Unit for the Medical Transcriber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, Minna L.

    Following an analysis of the task of transcribing as practiced in a health facility, this study guide was developed to teach the knowledge and skills required of a medical transcriber. The medical record department was identified as a major occupational area, and a task inventory for medical records was developed and used as a basis for a…

  7. Medical Terminology of the Circulatory System. Medical Records. Instructional Unit for the Medical Transcriber.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosman, Minna L.

    Developed as a result of an analysis of the task of transcribing as practiced in a health facility, this study guide was designed to teach the knowledge and skills required of a medical transcriber. The medical record department was identified as a major occupational area, and a task inventory for medical records was developed and used as a basis…

  8. Holding on to the indispensable medication –A grounded theory on medication use from the perspective of persons with medication overuse headache

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medication overuse headache (MOH) is a chronic headache disorder, caused by overuse of acute medication. To date, it remains unclear why some people overuse these medications. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore how individuals with MOH use medications and other strategies to manage headaches in their daily lives, and their thoughts about their own use of acute medication. Our intention was to develop a theoretical model about the development of MOH, from the perspective of those with MOH. Methods Data collection and analysis were conducted according to grounded theory methodology. The participants were recruited via newspaper advertisements. Fourteen persons with MOH were interviewed in individual qualitative interviews. Results The basic process leading to medication overuse was holding on to the indispensable medication. The acute medication was indispensable to the participants because they perceived it as the only thing that could prevent headaches from ruining their lives. The participants perceived headaches as something that threatened to ruin their lives. As a result, they went to great lengths trying to find ways to manage it. They tried numerous strategies. However, the only strategy actually perceived as effective was the use of acute medication and they eventually became resigned to the idea that it was the only effective aid. The acute medication thus became indispensable. Their general intention was to use as little medication as possible but they found themselves compelled to medicate frequently to cope with their headaches. They did not like to think about their medication use and sometimes avoided keeping track of the amount used. Conclusions This qualitative study adds understanding to the process via which MOH develops from the perspective of those having MOH. Such knowledge may help bridge the gap between the perspectives of patients and health-care professionals. PMID:23697986

  9. Knowledge Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shariq, Syed Z.; Kutler, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The emergence of rapidly expanding technologies for distribution and dissemination of information and knowledge has brought to focus the opportunities for development of knowledge-based networks, knowledge dissemination and knowledge management technologies and their potential applications for enhancing productivity of knowledge work. The challenging and complex problems of the future can be best addressed by developing the knowledge management as a new discipline based on an integrative synthesis of hard and soft sciences. A knowledge management professional society can provide a framework for catalyzing the development of proposed synthesis as well as serve as a focal point for coordination of professional activities in the strategic areas of education, research and technology development. Preliminary concepts for the development of the knowledge management discipline and the professional society are explored. Within this context of knowledge management discipline and the professional society, potential opportunities for application of information technologies for more effectively delivering or transferring information and knowledge (i.e., resulting from the NASA's Mission to Planet Earth) for the development of policy options in critical areas of national and global importance (i.e., policy decisions in economic and environmental areas) can be explored, particularly for those policy areas where a global collaborative knowledge network is likely to be critical to the acceptance of the policies.

  10. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  11. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171

  12. Assessment of knowledge of celiac disease among health care professionals

    PubMed Central

    Assiri, Asaad M.; Saeed, Anjum; Saeed, Elshazaly; El-Mouzan, Mohammad I.; Alsarkhy, Ahmed A.; Al-Turaiki, Muath; Al-Mehaidib, Ali; Rashid, Mohsin; Ullah, Anhar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess knowledge of celiac disease among medical professionals (physicians). Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of hospital-based medical staff in primary, secondary, and tertiary care public, and private hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia (KSA). We carried out the study between January 2013 and January 2104 at King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, KSA. A pretested questionnaire was distributed to the potential participants. A scoring system was used to classify the level of knowledge of participants into 3 categories: poor, fair, and good. Results: A total of 109 physicians completed the survey and of these participants, 86.3% were from public hospitals, and 13.7% from private hospitals; 58.7% were males. Of the physicians, 19.2% had poor knowledge. Interns and residents had fair to good knowledge, but registrars, specialists, and even the consultants were less knowledgeable of celiac disease. Conclusion: Knowledge of celiac disease is poor among a significant number of physicians including consultants, which can potentially lead to delays in diagnosis. Educational programs need to be developed to improve awareness of celiac disease in the health care profession. PMID:25987121

  13. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  14. Teaching transfusion medicine: current situation and proposals for proper medical training

    PubMed Central

    Flausino, Gustavo de Freitas; Nunes, Flávio Ferreira; Cioffi, Júnia Guimarães Mourão; Proietti, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro

    2014-01-01

    The current curricula in medical schools and hospital residence worldwide lack exposure to blood transfusion medicine, and require the reformulation of academic programs. In many countries, training in blood transfusion is not currently offered to medical students or during residency. Clinical evidence indicates that blood transfusions occur more frequently than recommended, contributing to increased risk due to this procedure. Therefore, the rational use of blood and its components is essential, due to the frequent undesirable reactions, to the increasing demand of blood products and the cost of the process. Significant improvements in knowledge of and skills in transfusion medicine are needed by both students and residents. Improvements are needed in both background knowledge and the practical application of this knowledge to improve safety. Studies prove that hemovigilance has an impact on transfusion safety and helps to prevent the occurrence of transfusion-related adverse effects. To ensure that all these aspects of blood transfusion are being properly addressed, many countries have instituted hospital transfusion committees. From this perspective, the interventions performed during the formation of medical students and residents, even the simplest, have proven effective in the acquisition of knowledge and medical training, thereby leading to a reduction in inappropriate use of blood. Therefore, we would like to emphasize the importance of the exposure of medical students and residents to blood services and transfusion medicine in order for them to acquire adequate medical training, as well as to discuss some changes in the current medical curricula regarding transfusion medicine that we judge critical. PMID:25638770

  15. Foundations of medical librarianship.

    PubMed Central

    Meyerhoff, E

    1977-01-01

    The development of medical librarianship during the last forty years is examined as reflected in the changes of its resources, technology, education, and knowledge base. A shift from historical to scientific inquiry constitutes the direction of medical librarianship. Its nexus is the gathering of information and the transfer of knowledge. The social and human resources for this ongoing change and the basis for a quest for excellence is seen in the pool of talent represented by hospital librarians and the aspirations of the women's movement for equality. PMID:332265

  16. Leading Work with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Roger, Ed.; Benjamin, Cathy, Ed.; Curran, Sheila, Ed.; Hunter, Rob, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Leading Work with Young People" provides a selection of writing from a complex and dynamic field of work. The editors bring together key readings and newly commissioned material to present a variety of theoretical and practical perspectives on leading and managing work with young people. The book will equip students with the knowledge, skills,…

  17. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possession of marijuana is illegal under federal law. Medical marijuana refers to using marijuana to treat certain medical ... Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten Taken as a liquid extract Marijuana leaves and buds contain substances ...

  18. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  19. Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge Management (KM) is the process through which organizations generate value from their intellectual and knowledge-based assets. Frequently generating value from such assets means sharing them among employees, divisions and even with other companies in order to develop best practices. This article discusses three basic aspects of…

  20. Knowledge Alive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, David

    2004-01-01

    The strategies that expose learners to the large volume of knowledge, enables them for creative thinking, self-management and deep reading. The different ways of creating knowledge with the help of creativity, communication, organization, problem solving and decision-making are discussed.

  1. School Psychology Applies to Medical College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givens, Thelma; Hartlage, Lawrence C.

    A solution to the problem in the knowledge gap between educational institutions and the medical world is proposed: send a school psychologist to a medical setting to bridge the gap. The author contends that both school and medical facilities would benefit as psychologists could offer physicians and medical students training in the psychological…

  2. Origins of Medical Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F.

    1986-01-01

    Medical informatics is a new knowledge domain of computer and information science, engineering and technology in all fields of health and medicine, including research, education and practice. Medical informatics has evolved over the past 30 years as medicine learned to exploit the extraordinary capabilities of the electronic digital computer to better meet its complex information needs. The first articles on this subject appeared in the 1950s, the number of publications rapidly increased in the 1960s and medical informatics was identified as a new specialty in the 1970s. PMID:3544507

  3. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... The pregnancy is harmful to the woman's health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event ...

  4. Clinical evidence continuous medical education: a randomised educational trial of an open access e-learning program for transferring evidence-based information – ICEKUBE (Italian Clinical Evidence Knowledge Utilization Behaviour Evaluation) – study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Moja, Lorenzo; Moschetti, Ivan; Cinquini, Michela; Sala, Valeria; Compagnoni, Anna; Duca, Piergiorgio; Deligant, Christian; Manfrini, Roberto; Clivio, Luca; Satolli, Roberto; Addis, Antonio; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Dri, Pietro; Liberati, Alessandro

    2008-01-01

    Background In an effort to ensure that all physicians have access to valid and reliable evidence on drug effectiveness, the Italian Drug Agency sponsored a free-access e-learning system, based on Clinical Evidence, called ECCE. Doctors have access to an electronic version and related clinical vignettes. Correct answers to the interactive vignettes provide Continuing Medical Education credits. The aims of this trial are to establish whether the e-learning program (ECCE) increases physicians' basic knowledge about common clinical scenarios, and whether ECCE is superior to the passive diffusion of information through the printed version of Clinical Evidence. Design All Italian doctors naïve to ECCE will be randomised to three groups. Group one will have access to ECCE for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot A and will provide control data for Clinical Evidence chapters and vignettes lot B; group two vice versa; group three will receive the concise printed version of Clinical Evidence. There are in fact two designs: a before and after pragmatic trial utilising a two by two incomplete block design (group one versus group two) and a classical design (group one and two versus group three). The primary outcome will be the retention of Clinical Evidence contents assessed from the scores for clinical vignettes selected from ECCE at least six months after the intervention. To avoid test-retest effects, we will randomly select vignettes out of lot A and lot B, avoiding repetitions. In order to preserve the comparability of lots, we will select vignettes with similar, optimal psychometric characteristics. Trial registration ISRCTN27453314 PMID:18637189

  5. Is Knowledge Really Power?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Robert S.; Kelly, Miriam A.

    1988-01-01

    There is a vast difference between factual information and a sense of understanding that comes from the organization of knowledge in a way in which it can be used in decision processes. Recognition of interdependencies and interrelatedness leads to understanding and utilization. (JD)

  6. Style in medical journals.

    PubMed Central

    Adams Smith, D E

    1983-01-01

    A study of medical journals from 1962 showed a constant preoccupation with style. Editors and contributors on both sides of the Atlantic revile unnecessary obscurity and complexity and the use of jargon, barbarisms, vogue words, and weak impersonal constructions. They bewail the pompous use of verbiage and the "medspeak" typified by acronyms and neologisms created by affixation. Suggestions for possible causes of poor medical style range from editorial demands for compression and a general ignorance of the principles of good writing to faulty logic and the subordination of communication to status seeking. The consequences of bad writing may include the fragmentation of knowledge, an increase in the importance of abstracting services, a trend towards free glossy medical newspapers, and, as remedial measures, workshops and courses in medical writing. Some implications for English language teachers working with foreign medical graduates and preclinical students are discussed. PMID:6414596

  7. Integrating knowledge resources at the point of care: opportunities for librarians.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, S S; Ketchell, D S; Tarczy-Hornoch, P; Masuda, D

    1999-01-01

    Health sciences librarians at the University of Washington (UW) are partners in the evolution of Internet-based clinical information systems for two medical centers, University of Washington Medical Center and Harborview Medical Center, as well as the UW Primary Care Network clinics. Librarians lead information resource and systems development projects and play a variety of roles including facilitator, publisher, integrator, and educator. These efforts have been coordinated with parallel development efforts by the Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS) clinical informatics group in developing electronic medical record systems and clinical decision support tools. The outcome is MINDscape, a very heavily used Web view of the patient medical record with tightly integrated knowledge resources as well as numerous Web-accessible information resources and tools. The goal of this article is to provide a case study of librarian involvement in institutional information systems development at UW and to illustrate the variety of roles that librarians can assume in hospital settings. PMID:10550024

  8. Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

  9. Unsolicited medical opinion.

    PubMed

    Ratzan, R M

    1985-05-01

    By virtue of their professional ethics as healers and because of their specialized technical knowledge and clinical experience in assessing and reacting to real and potential emergencies, physicians have an obligation to offer an unsolicited medical opinion when the following conditions are met: (1) physicians assess a high probability of potentially serious disease in a stranger because of information presented to them, either in the form of a communication or physical signs; (2) physicians judge this information to be latent (not readily interpretable as potentially dangerous by the stranger) and likely to remain latent prior to the onset of symptoms; (3) the physicians possess the medical knowledge appropriate to the professional interpretation of this information. Although not a morally risk-free endeavor (invasion of privacy and the potential creation of a 'sick role' whether or not the diagnosis is correct), offering an unsolicited medical opinion under the above conditions can prevent suffering and save lives in unsuspecting strangers. PMID:4009080

  10. Leading change: 2--planning.

    PubMed

    Kerridge, Joanna

    National initiatives have outlined the importance of involving frontline staff in service improvement, and the ability to influence and manage change has been identified as an essential skill for delivering new models of care. Nurses often have to take the lead in managing change in clinical practice. The second in a three-part series is designed to help nurses at all levels develop the knowledge and skills to function as change agents within their organisations. This article focuses on planning the change and dealing with resistance. PMID:22439509

  11. Patient Disclosure of Medical Misdeeds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Clara; Stivers, Tanya

    2013-01-01

    Modern patients walk a tightrope between respecting medical authority and acting as knowledgeable advocates regarding health issues, with the agency and responsibilities that come with this. This article uses conversation analysis to explore this balance in relation to patient disclosures of medical misdeeds in video-recorded primary care medical…

  12. Childhood lead poisoning: the torturous path from science to policy

    PubMed Central

    Bellinger, David C.; Bellinger, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    The long history of lead poisoning provides many lessons about the process by which scientific knowledge is translated into public health policy. In the United States, lead was added to paint and to gasoline in enormous quantities long after medical evidence clearly showed that excessive lead exposure caused considerable morbidity in the population. This article discusses some of the factors that contributed to the slow pace of efforts to address this problem, including the ubiquity and magnitude of lead exposure during much of the twentieth century, which produced a distorted notion about the blood lead level that can be considered “normal”; the prevailing model of disease during this period, notably the novelty of the concept of subclinical disease; the fact that childhood lead poisoning affected mostly families that were politically and economically disenfranchised, fostering a “blame the victim” attitude; and that controlling lead exposure would have impeded efforts to achieve other desirable goals, illustrating the role that value trade-offs often play in policy decisions. PMID:16585952

  13. Procedural knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgeff, Michael P.; Lansky, Amy L.

    1986-01-01

    Much of commonsense knowledge about the real world is in the form of procedures or sequences of actions for achieving particular goals. In this paper, a formalism is presented for representing such knowledge using the notion of process. A declarative semantics for the representation is given, which allows a user to state facts about the effects of doing things in the problem domain of interest. An operational semantics is also provided, which shows how this knowledge can be used to achieve particular goals or to form intentions regarding their achievement. Given both semantics, the formalism additionally serves as an executable specification language suitable for constructing complex systems. A system based on this formalism is described, and examples involving control of an autonomous robot and fault diagnosis for NASA's Space Shuttle are provided.

  14. Evaluating a medical error taxonomy.

    PubMed Central

    Brixey, Juliana; Johnson, Todd R.; Zhang, Jiajie

    2002-01-01

    Healthcare has been slow in using human factors principles to reduce medical errors. The Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) recognizes that a lack of attention to human factors during product development may lead to errors that have the potential for patient injury, or even death. In response to the need for reducing medication errors, the National Coordinating Council for Medication Errors Reporting and Prevention (NCC MERP) released the NCC MERP taxonomy that provides a standard language for reporting medication errors. This project maps the NCC MERP taxonomy of medication error to MedWatch medical errors involving infusion pumps. Of particular interest are human factors associated with medical device errors. The NCC MERP taxonomy of medication errors is limited in mapping information from MEDWATCH because of the focus on the medical device and the format of reporting. PMID:12463789

  15. [Everyday knowledge--body knowledge--knowledge of experience--specialized knowledge: acquisition, assessment and the orientation of logic concerning cultures of knowledge].

    PubMed

    Labouvie, Eva

    2007-06-01

    The essay explores changes in the understanding, legitimisation, and practice of midwifery. It was one of the earliest professional activities for women. During the eighteenth century a new culture of expertise emphasized theoretical knowledge and adherence to medical disciplines over the empirical practice gained by women. This early phase of professionalisation, with its hierarchies and preferred use of medically accredited knowledge, was not, however, solely divided along gender lines. Female professionalism was not just supplanted by male academic medicalisation. New ways of attaining and assessing knowledge, a different perception of how it is organised, and above all, social change created new patterns of understanding. This process achieved a new professional ethos. In pursuing the issue of gender, various examples are chosen to illustrate how changes in scientific knowledge and its relevant application are mediated. The construct of scientific knowledge and how it is used reflects gender relations and power structures. There is not only competition between female and male perceptions of knowledge, but also male stereotyping of female knowledge, in particular male notions of what kind of knowledge is necessary and how this is perceived by women. Karen Offen used the term ,knowledge wars' to describe how a monopoly of scientific expertise and relevant knowledge works within the professions. PMID:18175544

  16. From data to knowledge: a method for modeling hospital logistic processes.

    PubMed

    Măruşter, Laura; Jorna, René J

    2005-06-01

    When modeling or redesigning a process, the knowledge-management perspective is seldomly used. Using the knowledge categorization developed by van Heusden and Jorna, we propose a knowledge-management perspective to provide a strategy for modeling and redesigning a business process. As an illustration of our approach, we use hospital data of multidisciplinary patients. This specific group of patients requires the involvement of different specialisms for their medical treatment that leads to more efforts regarding the coordination of care for these patients. In order to increase the care efficiency, knowledge that supports the reorganization of care for multidisciplinary patients should be provided. We use the above-mentioned knowledge-management perspective for creating new multidisciplinary units, in which different specialisms coordinate the treatment of specific groups of patients. PMID:16138541

  17. Restoring medical professionalism.

    PubMed

    Bernat, James L

    2012-08-21

    The essence of medical professionalism is placing dedication to the welfare of patients above physicians' personal or proprietary interests. Medicine has become deprofessionalized as a consequence of socioeconomic factors leading to increasing commercialization and perverse financial incentives converting it into a business, the presence of unmanaged conflicts of interest, challenges to medical authority by insurance companies and the consumerism movement, and by gradual changes in the attitudes of physicians. Organized medicine has responded by making explicit its standards of professionalism and its dedication to preserving them. Medical educators have studied the means to develop professional attitudes and behaviors among medical students and residents. Modeling the characteristics of professional behavior by virtuous physicians remains the most effective method to instill professional behaviors in trainees. Restoring professionalism may be abetted by changes in physicians' financial incentives through innovative models of health care delivery, by physicians reducing their conflicts of interest, and by medical societies rejecting a guild identity. PMID:22915177

  18. Heuristic determination of quantitative data for knowledge acquisition in medicine.

    PubMed

    Giuse, D A; Giuse, N B; Bankowitz, R A; Miller, R A

    1991-06-01

    Knowledge acquisition for medical knowledge bases can be aided by programs that suggest possible values for portions of the data. The paper presents an experiment which was used in designing a heuristic to help the process of knowledge acquisition. The heuristic helps to determine numerical data from stylized literature excerpts in the context of knowledge acquisition for the QMR medical knowledge base. Quantitative suggestions from the heuristics are shown to agree substantially with the data incorporated in the final version of the knowledge base. The experiment shows the potential of knowledge base specific heuristics in simplifying the task of knowledge base creation. PMID:1868695

  19. Evaluating ethics competence in medical education.

    PubMed Central

    Savulescu, J; Crisp, R; Fulford, K W; Hope, T

    1999-01-01

    We critically evaluate the ways in which competence in medical ethics has been evaluated. We report the initial stage in the development of a relevant, reliable and valid instrument to evaluate core critical thinking skills in medical ethics. This instrument can be used to evaluate the impact of medical ethics education programmes and to assess whether medical students have achieved a satisfactory level of performance of core skills and knowledge in medical ethics, within and across institutions. PMID:10536759

  20. Working Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, David

    The resurgence of "lifelong learning" has renewed consideration of the nature of "working knowledge." Lifelong learning has many aspects, including construction and distribution of individuals' very self-hood, educational institutions' role in capturing informal experiences, and the juggling required between family and work-based responsibilities.…

  1. Interprofessional collaborative practice for medication safety: Nursing, pharmacy, and medical graduates' experiences and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Amanda Jane; Palmer, Lorinda; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Gilligan, Conor; Outram, Sue

    2016-09-01

    Medication errors are the second most prevalent cause of adverse patient incidents in Australian hospital settings. Although numerous strategies to address this patient safety issue have been implemented, the impact of interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) on medication safety has received limited attention. The aim of this article is to report the perspectives and experiences of recently graduated, currently practicing Australian nurses, pharmacists, and doctors in relation to IPCP and medication safety. Sixty-eight graduates from three Australian states participated in focus groups. Thematic analysis of transcripts was conducted using an iterative process. The findings from this study illustrate how knowing about and valuing the skills and responsibilities of other team members and respecting each person's unique contribution to the work of the team can lead to more effective communication and collaboration in the context of medication safety. Although collaborative practice is critical to safe medication prescribing, dispensing, and administration, there are recurring and pervasive challenges to its achievement. This study indicated the need for improved preparation of graduates to equip them with the knowledge and skills needed to participate in an interprofessional team; and we advocate that deliberate, structured, and meaningful interprofessional clinical education initiatives are required. PMID:27351385

  2. Medication Errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to reduce the risk of medication errors to industry and others at FDA. Additionally, DMEPA prospectively reviews ... List of Abbreviations Regulations and Guidances Guidance for Industry: Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication ...

  3. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future.

    PubMed

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. PMID:27333063

  4. Primordial Germ Cells: Current Knowledge and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Aleksandar; Volarevic, Vladislav; Armstrong, Lyle; Lako, Majlinda; Stojkovic, Miodrag

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a condition that occurs very frequently and understanding what defines normal fertility is crucial to helping patients. Causes of infertility are numerous and the treatment often does not lead to desired pregnancy especially when there is a lack of functional gametes. In humans, the primordial germ cell (PGC) is the primary undifferentiated stem cell type that will differentiate towards gametes: spermatozoa or oocytes. With the development of stem cell biology and differentiation protocols, PGC can be obtained from pluripotent stem cells providing a new therapeutic possibility to treat infertile couples. Recent studies demonstrated that viable mouse pups could be obtained from in vitro differentiated stem cells suggesting that translation of these results to human is closer. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about PGC indicating the perspective of their use in both research and medical application for the treatment of infertility. PMID:26635880

  5. Medical Appointments

    MedlinePlus

    ... trouble concentrating, stomach problems or emotional issues like anxiety. New or increasing side effects or reactions to your medications. Again, for how long? How serious are they? Medication compliance: How well you’ve been taking your medications. Have you missed doses? If so, ...

  6. MEDICAL "DEPRIVATION."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.

    THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL…

  7. Lead toxicity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Vig, E K; Hu, H

    2000-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that lead, even at relatively low levels of exposure, has the potential to harm not only the young and the occupationally-exposed, but also older people. Because they have been alive for a longer period of time, older adults have had more potential exposures to lead. They may have been exposed to lead while working in unregulated occupations, or they may have encountered more lead in the environment on a daily basis. Several large epidemiological studies have found that older people have higher blood and bone lead levels than younger adults. Additionally, sporadic clusters of acute lead exposure among older adults as a result of activities such as ceramic glaze hobby work and consumption of moonshine whiskey continue to be reported. After lead enters the body, it circulates in the blood reaching the soft tissues and bone. Researchers have learned that lead can hibernate within bone for decades. Although lead within bone is of uncertain toxicity to bone tissue, conditions of bone resorption, such as osteoporosis, can cause bone lead to reenter the bloodstream where it can then re-expose the soft tissue, and, potentially, exert delayed deleterious effects. Evidence is emerging that blood and bone lead levels, reflecting relatively modest exposures, are associated with hypertension, renal insufficiency, and cognitive impairment. Medical treatments that now exist to slow the rate of bone resorption may maintain lead within bones. On-going studies evaluating the relationship between body lead stores and both cognitive and renal impairment, as well as the potential modifying effect of bone resorption, will help determine whether bone resorption should be retarded specifically to preserve organ function. Physicians should be aware of potential past and present lead exposures among their older patients. Ongoing lead exposure should be prevented. In the future, treatment of osteoporosis may be undertaken not only to improve bone health but also to

  8. Medical marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Michael

    1991-08-01

    Solid state lasers are the real highlight of my talk today, and were really the star of the year. In every application area I can think of, people have tried with some success to introduce corturiercial solid state products. I'll go into more detail, but aside from solid state, a very significant event happened in Deceniber when one of the laser angioplasty companies (Advanced Interventional Systens) received FDA clearance to begin marketing the excimer for coronary applications (Figure 1) . This is the first time to my knowledge that an excimer has ever been cleared for a medical application in the United States. It's an event that we didn't really expect to happen so soon. It's extremely significant and we'll see where it goes from here. The system needs to be road-tested a bit but to get past the FDA is the major obstacle. Looking back to solid state laser the importance of solid state lasers is as researchers become more involved with the excimer and conduct more clinical studies in ophthalmology, they realize that it's not going to be a panacea for all refractive surgery or other ophthalmolic applications. In many cases it looks like the solid state laser may be the laser of choice in certain types of surgery; most notably perhaps in refractive surgery. We've all read about the success of the excimer at least in capturing the press's attention for corneal sculpting and vision correction. Well, it could be that actually the next generation will be a solid state laser, so let's keep an open mind here.

  9. A look into the Medical and Veterinary Entomology crystal ball.

    PubMed

    Dantas-Torres, F; Cameron, M M; Colwell, D D; Otranto, D

    2014-08-01

    Medical and Veterinary Entomology (MVE) represents a leading periodical in its field and covers many aspects of the biology and control of insects, ticks, mites and other arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. Since the first issue of the journal, researchers working in both developed and developing countries have published in MVE, with direct impact on current knowledge in the field. An increasing number of articles dealing with the epidemiology and transmission of vector-borne pathogens have been published in MVE, reflecting rapid changes in vector distribution, pathogen transmission and host-arthropod interactions. This article represents a gaze into the crystal ball in which we identify areas of increasing interest, discuss the main changes that have occurred in the epidemiology of parasitic arthropods since the first issue of MVE, and predict the principal scientific topics that might arise in the next 25 years for scientists working in medical and veterinary entomology. PMID:25171603

  10. The Costs of Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prusak, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    Acquiring knowledge-genuinely learning something new-requires the consent and commitment of the person you're trying to learn from. In contrast to information, which can usually be effectively transmitted in a document or diagram, knowledge comes from explaining, clarifying, questioning, and sometimes actually working together. Getting this kind of attention and commitment often involves some form of negotiation, since even the most generous person's time and energy are limited. Few experts sit around waiting to share their knowledge with strangers or casual acquaintances. In reasonably collaborative enterprises- I think NASA is one-this sort of negotiation isn't too onerous. People want to help each other and share what they know, so the "cost" of acquiring knowledge is relatively low. In many organizations (and many communities and countries), however, there are considerable costs associated with this activity, and many situations in which negotiations fail. The greatest knowledge cost is in and adopting knowledge to one's own use. Sometimes this means formally organizing what one learns in writing. Sometimes it means just taking time to reflect on someone else's thoughts and experiences-thinking about knowledge that is not exactly what you need but can lead you to develop ideas that will be useful. A long, discursive conversation, with all the back-and-forth that defines conversation, can be a mechanism of knowledge exchange. I have seen many participants at NASA APPEL Masters Forums talking, reflecting, and thinking-adapting what they are hearing to their own needs. Knowledge transfer is not a simple proposition. An enormous amount of information flows through the world every day, but knowledge is local, contextual, and "stickyn-that is, it takes real effort to move it from one place to another. There is no way around this. To really learn a subject, you have to work at it, you have to pay your "knowledge dues." So while, thanks to advances in technology

  11. Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podgorsak, Ervin B.

    This book summarizes the radiation physics knowledge that professionals working in medical physics need to master for efficient and safe dealings with ionizing radiation. It contains eight chapters, each chapter covering a specific group of subjects related to radiation physics and is intended as a textbook for a course in radiation physics in medical-physics graduate programs. However, the book may also be of interest to the large number of professionals, not only medical physicists, who in their daily occupations deal with various aspects of medical physics and find a need to improve their understanding of radiation physics.

  12. Innovating the practice of medical speciality training.

    PubMed

    Fokkema, Joanne P I

    2016-02-01

    Educational innovations are being introduced into medical speciality training. But how do people who participate in medical speciality training (residents, consultants, programme directors) deal with these innovations? And what effects do educational innovations have according to these people?By addressing these questions, this thesis contributes to the knowledge about the challenging process of innovating medical speciality training. PMID:26754312

  13. Medical marijuana: Legal and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Louise

    2015-10-16

    Nearly half of the United States has legalized medical marijuana. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in six states can authorize patients for medical marijuana use. Knowledge of legal and regulatory aspects of medical marijuana laws will protect an APRN's license and the public. PMID:26383024

  14. Denying Medical Students' Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    USA Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Medical educators nationwide are questioning the process that leads to the denial of the emotional side of medicine by its practitioners. Emotional dilemmas are often verbally suppressed by most students, but they surface in many ways, such as depression, insomnia, loss of appetite, and anxiety. (RM)

  15. Medical dosimetry in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turák, O.; Osvay, M.; Ballay, L.

    2012-09-01

    Radiation exposure of medical staff during cardiological and radiological procedures was investigated. The exposure of medical staff is directly connected to patient exposure. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of doses on uncovered part of body of medical staff using LiF thermoluminescent (TL) dosimeters in seven locations. Individual Kodak film dosimeters (as authorized dosimetry system) were used for the assessment of medical staff's effective dose. Results achieved on dose distribution measurements confirm that wearing only one film badge under the lead apron does not provide enough information on the personal dose. The value of estimated annual doses on eye lens and extremities (fingers) were in good correlation with international publications.

  16. The Role of Medical Museums in Contemporary Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marreez, Yehia M. A-H.; Willems, Luuk N. A.; Wells, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    From the early 19th century until the most recent two decades, open-space and satellite museums featuring anatomy and pathology collections (collectively referred to as "medical museums") had leading roles in medical education. However, many factors have caused these roles to diminish dramatically in recent years. Chief among these are the great…

  17. More New Medication Approvals.

    PubMed

    Turkoski, Beatrice B

    2016-01-01

    In the past year, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved many new drugs for treating a wide variety of patient health problems. In a previous article, examples of approvals for the early part of last year were addressed. In this article, selected new FDA approvals through January 2016 are discussed. Nurses who are knowledgeable and informed about these new drugs will be able to answer patients' questions, clarify misunderstandings, and reduce the potential for medication misadventures. PMID:27441881

  18. Outlook for medical lasers '95

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arons, Irving J.

    1995-05-01

    Today's presentation discusses where the medical laser market is today; what the near-term future looks like; some of the specialties/applications that will lead the way; and a brief discussion of future trends.

  19. Critical Thinking: Inert Information, Activated Ignorance, and Activated Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Richard; Elder, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Suggests that there are three ways of taking in information: internalizing inert information, forming activated ignorance, or achieving activated knowledge. Explains that only activated knowledge leads the learner, by implication, to more knowledge, and that seeking the logic of things can lead to discovery of activated knowledge. (NB)

  20. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified. PMID:27222734

  1. Space Technology for Medical Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1982

    1982-01-01

    A line of biomedical devices based on aerospace expertise leads a sampling of spinoffs in the field of medicine. These include a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)-developed computer program used by the Centers for Disease Control, medical products research, crawling aid, portable medical system, and human tissue stimulator.…

  2. Guidelines for Medical Office Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, Molly F.; Daughtry, Miriam

    The manual provides guidelines for the development and implementation of programs for medical office assistants. A procedural outline for the development of two curricula have been included: one for a one-year (four quarters) program offering a diploma in medical assisting; and the other for a two-year (six quarters) program leading to an…

  3. Medical health and medication use in elderly dental patients.

    PubMed

    Jainkittivong, Aree; Aneksuk, Vilaiwan; Langlais, Robert P

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information on the medical conditions and medications used among elderly Thai dental patients and to investigate the relationship between the findings in relation to age and sex. The information regarding medical conditions and medication use was obtained from interviews of 510 dental patients aged 60 years and older. The incidence of medical conditions was 82.5%; women had a significantly higher incidence of medical conditions (86.5%) than men (76.5%). The incidence of medical conditions did not differ among the three age groups. Overall, cardiovascular disease was the leading problem (33.7%) with hypertension being the major component (26.1%). The prevalent problems were bone/joint disorders (32.4%), allergies (18.2%), diabetes mellitus (14.5%), and eye and ear problems (14.3%). In our sample, 65.5% reported taking medications, with an average of 1.5 drug groups per person. The average number of medications taken increased as age increased. Women took medications more frequently than men (70% vs. 58.5%). The four most prevalent drugs were cardiovascular agents (32%), endocrinologic drugs (14.5%), nutritional therapeutics (12.9%), and drugs acting on the musculoskeletal system (11.4%). The present study supports the findings of previous reports in that the presence of medical conditions is high in the elderly and the incidence of medication use increases with advancing age. PMID:14973558

  4. Knowledge Translation in Audiology

    PubMed Central

    Kothari, Anita; Bagatto, Marlene P.; Seewald, Richard; Miller, Linda T.; Scollie, Susan D.

    2011-01-01

    The impetus for evidence-based practice (EBP) has grown out of widespread concern with the quality, effectiveness (including cost-effectiveness), and efficiency of medical care received by the public. Although initially focused on medicine, EBP principles have been adopted by many of the health care professions and are often represented in practice through the development and use of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs). Audiology has been working on incorporating EBP principles into its mandate for professional practice since the mid-1990s. Despite widespread efforts to implement EBP and guidelines into audiology practice, gaps still exist between the best evidence based on research and what is being done in clinical practice. A collaborative dynamic and iterative integrated knowledge translation (KT) framework rather than a researcher-driven hierarchical approach to EBP and the development of CPGs has been shown to reduce the knowledge-to-clinical action gaps. This article provides a brief overview of EBP and CPGs, including a discussion of the barriers to implementing CPGs into clinical practice. It then offers a discussion of how an integrated KT process combined with a community of practice (CoP) might facilitate the development and dissemination of evidence for clinical audiology practice. Finally, a project that uses the knowledge-to-action (KTA) framework for the development of outcome measures in pediatric audiology is introduced. PMID:22194314

  5. Cardiac Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diovan) What the Medication Does Rather than lowering levels of angiotensin II (as ACE inhibitors do) angiotensin II receptor blockers prevent this chemical from having any effects on the heart and blood vessels. This keeps blood pressure from rising. Reason for Medication Used to treat or improve ...

  6. Attitudes towards and Knowledge of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Andrew; Hiday, Virginia Aldige'

    Most research on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been medical and most social science research on AIDS has been concerned with social factors in its spread and with social-psychological effects of contracting AIDS. This study was conducted to examine public attitudes toward, and public knowledge about AIDS. Knowledge about AIDS was…

  7. Knowledge, Power, and Freud's Clark Conference Lectures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Martha; Makay, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Examines Freud's Clark Conference Lectures in which he offers a case in point of the intersection among knowledge, power, and discourse. Argues that Freud's rhetorical action constituted the "new" knowledge of psychoanalysis, while simultaneously forging relationships between the scientific and medical communities that endowed the psychoanalyst…

  8. Knowledge and Curriculum in Veterinary Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Although medical curricula are perceived as scientifically based, much discipline-based material is used as procedural knowledge. Educators must ensure that students have both enough certainty to be effective diagnosticians and enough doubt to question assumptions about the nature of scientific knowledge. (Contains 60 references.) (SK)

  9. The structure of surface texture knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wang; Scott, Paul J.; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2005-01-01

    This research aims to create an intelligent knowledge-based system for engineering and bio-medical engineering surface texture, which will provide expert knowledge of surface texture to link surface function, specification of micro- and nano-geometry through manufacture, and verification. The intelligent knowledge base should be capable of incorporating knowledge from multiple sources (standards, books, experts, etc), adding new knowledge from these sources and still remain a coherent reliable system. A new data model based on category theory will be adopted to construct this system.

  10. [Requirements for leading surgeons from the viewpoint of hospital administration authorities].

    PubMed

    Richter, A; Menger, M; Pföhler, W

    2010-08-01

    A private hospital company has the same criteria for leading surgeons as all other healthcare providers. The main criteria are medical competency and good manners with patients and medical staff. Economical knowledge is also very important but does not necessarily include a special qualification in business administration, such as MBA. The head of a surgical department must be able to include current developments in health policy into the work. He should also be able to analyze his own situation and make corrections if possible and discuss the current economical situation in a constructive and trustworthy manner with the management. The head of a surgical department is responsible for the quality of medical and surgical education of his staff. PMID:20628861

  11. Nursing faculties’ knowledge and attitude on evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    Mehrdad, Neda; Joolaee, Soodabeh; Joulaee, Azadeh; Bahrani, Naser

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence-based practice (EBP) is one of the main professional competencies for health care professionals and a priority for medicine and nursing curriculum as well. EBP leads to improve effective and efficient care and patient outcomes. Nurse educators have responsibility to teach the future nurses, and an opportunity to promote patient outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe nurse educators’ knowledge and attitude on EBP. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive study conducted in nursing faculties of two major universities of medical sciences affiliated to Ministry of Health and Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran. Data were gathered using a three-section questionnaire. Content and face validity was further enhanced by submitting it to nursing research and education experts. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 11 software. Results: According the results, nursing faculties’ knowledge of EBP was mainly moderate (47.1%). Significant statistical relationship was found between the level of knowledge with education and teaching experience in different nursing programs. Nurses generally held positive attitudes toward EBP (88.6%) and there was no statistical significant relationship with demographic variables. Conclusion: Nursing educators are in a position to influence nursing research in clinical practice in the future. Therefore, it is critical to achieve implementation of EBP and be a change agent for a paradigm shift toward EBP. PMID:23922597

  12. The knowledge workstation: an electronic environment for knowledge management.

    PubMed Central

    Lucier, R E; Matheson, N W; Butter, K A; Reynolds, R E

    1988-01-01

    This paper focuses on the creation of the IAIMS workstation in the context of the outcomes of a year-long IAIMS strategic planning process at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (JHMI). These outcomes include a long-term institutional vision for a functional knowledge management environment, a JHMI IAIMS model, a strategic plan, and two model prototypes. The functional requirements and specific implementation strategies for the IAIMS workstation, the prototype for managing the knowledge base of the published biomedical literature, are discussed in detail. PMID:3416102

  13. Lead-acid cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hradcovsky, R.J.; Kozak, O.R.

    1980-12-09

    A lead-acid storage battery is described that has a lead negative electrode, a lead dioxide positive electrode and a sulfuric acid electrolyte having an organic catalyst dissolved therein which prevents dissolution of the electrodes into lead sulfate whereby in the course of discharge, the lead dioxide is reduced to lead oxide and the lead is oxidized.

  14. Medical Education: The Hot Seat

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Ranabir; Kumar, Raman; Pal, Shrayan; Vidyasagar; Mukherji, Bijay; Debabrata, Sarbapalli

    2016-01-01

    Medical science has eventually metamorphosed from ‘Knowledge based’ to ‘Skill based’ applied social science. So, the age-old traditional courses and curriculums in Indian medical education need a overhauling with radical modifications. With a paradigm shift, we have to take into account not only the help of scientific feedback from the teachers and students but also from all the stakeholders of health care delivery system. PMID:27453838

  15. Integrated Medical Model Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, J.; Boley, L.; Foy, M.; Goodenow, D.; Griffin, D.; Keenan, A.; Kerstman, E.; Melton, S.; McGuire, K.; Saile, L.; Shah, R.; Garcia, Y.; Sirmons. B.; Walton, M.; Reyes, D.

    2015-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) Project represents one aspect of NASA's Human Research Program (HRP) to quantitatively assess medical risks to astronauts for existing operational missions as well as missions associated with future exploration and commercial space flight ventures. The IMM takes a probabilistic approach to assessing the likelihood and specific outcomes of one hundred medical conditions within the envelope of accepted space flight standards of care over a selectable range of mission capabilities. A specially developed Integrated Medical Evidence Database (iMED) maintains evidence-based, organizational knowledge across a variety of data sources. Since becoming operational in 2011, version 3.0 of the IMM, the supporting iMED, and the expertise of the IMM project team have contributed to a wide range of decision and informational processes for the space medical and human research community. This presentation provides an overview of the IMM conceptual architecture and range of application through examples of actual space flight community questions posed to the IMM project.

  16. Lead Poisoning Prevention Tips

    MedlinePlus

    ... CDC.gov . Lead Home Calendar of Events National Lead Poisoning Prevention Week Archived Materials CDC's Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program Advisory Committee (ACCLPP) Current Activities Blood ...

  17. Clinical reasoning assessment through medical expertise theories: past, present and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Boushehri, Elham; Soltani Arabshahi, Kamran; Monajemi, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Exploration into the concept of "medical expert" dates back to more than 50 years ago, yet yielding three leading theories in the area of clinical reasoning, namely, knowledge structure, hypotheticdeductive, and dual process. Each theory defines "medical expert" in a dissimilar way. Therefore, the methods of assessment through which the experts are identified have been changed during the time. In this paper, we tried to categorize and introduce some widely used tests for identification of experts within the framework of existing main theories. Implementation of the proposed categorization for providing future assessment tools is discussed. PMID:26478880

  18. UK medical selection: lottery or meritocracy?

    PubMed

    Harris, Benjamin H L; Walsh, Jason L; Lammy, Simon

    2015-02-01

    From senior school through to consultancy, a plethora of assessments shape medical careers. Multiple methods of assessment are used to discriminate between applicants. Medical selection in the UK appears to be moving increasingly towards non-knowledge-based testing at all career stages. We review the evidence for non-knowledge-based tests and discuss their perceived benefits. We raise the question: is the current use of non-knowledge-based tests within the UK at risk of undermining more robust measures of medical school and postgraduate performance? PMID:25650197

  19. Knowledge-based nursing diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Claudette; Hay, D. Robert

    1991-03-01

    Nursing diagnosis is an integral part of the nursing process and determines the interventions leading to outcomes for which the nurse is accountable. Diagnoses under the time constraints of modern nursing can benefit from a computer assist. A knowledge-based engineering approach was developed to address these problems. A number of problems were addressed during system design to make the system practical extended beyond capture of knowledge. The issues involved in implementing a professional knowledge base in a clinical setting are discussed. System functions, structure, interfaces, health care environment, and terminology and taxonomy are discussed. An integrated system concept from assessment through intervention and evaluation is outlined.

  20. On acquisition of programming knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amin, Ashok T.

    1987-01-01

    For the evolving discipline of programming, acquisition of programming knowledge is a difficult issue. Common knowledge results from the acceptance of proven techniques based on results of formal inquiries into the nature of the programming process. This is a rather slow process. In addition, the vast body of common knowledge needs to be explicated to a low enough level of details for it to be represented in the machine processable form. It is felt that this is an impediment to the progress of automatic programming. The importance of formal approaches cannot be overstated since their contributions lead to quantum leaps in the state of the art.