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Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Medical and Health Sciences Division Research Report, 1979-1980.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Medical and Health Sciences Division conducts research programs relevant to neoplastic, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and cardiovascular diseases. Basic biological science, nuclear medicine, and epidemiology provide an integrated approach to solving bi...

1980-01-01

2

Social science research on medical technology: Utility and limitations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Policies could be better devised and better implemented if greater use were made of the social sciences. However, the social sciences have quite often not produced knowledge adequate to permit resolution of pressing social problems. An example of both of these statements is found in the area of policies toward medical technology. Medical technology has become a major public policy

H. David Banta

1983-01-01

3

Research in Medical Education: Balancing Service and Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since the latter part of the 1990’s, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning\\u000a the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for\\u000a the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with “influential figures” from the community. The\\u000a results were analyzed using

Mathieu Albert; Brian Hodges; Glenn Regehr

2007-01-01

4

[Historian and physician as researchers of the history of medical sciences].  

PubMed

It can be observed that recently the historiography of medical sciences has anew searched for its own identity and its place among other medical and historical sciences. On the one hand, the researchers in this field are not physicians exclusively any longer but more and more frequently the representatives of other medical professions and professional historians, as well. On the other hand, the major direction of interest to the history of medical sciences, i.e. cultivating the traditions of medical professions and molding the attitudes of environments related with them is not sufficient in the long run. The variety of extra source knowledge, shared in the community of researches, diverse research approaches, hierarchy of problems worth studying and, finally scientific traditions individual research groups derive from have produced a significant ferment in the medical environments. At last disputes have been held, although quite often unofficially during various scientific meetings, on professional qualification of a historian of medical sciences and sometimes on the scope of his or her discipline. The author analyzes in detail the divergence in the features of individual study approaches for both groups and their consequences. The author's standpoint is that it is necessary to be aware of the diverse study approaches and hierarchy of problem eligible for studying to break the distinction and create interdisciplinary units. This will allow an interparadigmatic dialog, a professional division of work and search for the area of common interest, while retaining methodological autonomic features. PMID:11625428

Jeszke, J

1997-01-01

5

Implications Of Results From Cognitive Science Research For Medical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent results from the cognitive sciences provide insights into the neurobiological basis of memory formation and learning. Learning involves three steps: acquisition of information (physical encoding in the brain), its retention, and the ability to retrieve the information when needed. The re- sults also support the concept of multiple intelligences identified by Gardner and Kolb's Experiential Learning Cycle theory of

Andy C. Reese

1998-01-01

6

An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.  

PubMed

An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century. PMID:22383409

Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

2012-03-01

7

Is Qualitative Research Second Class Science? A Quantitative Longitudinal Examination of Qualitative Research in Medical Journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundQualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication.DesignA quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general

Kerem Shuval; Karen Harker; Bahman Roudsari; Nora E. Groce; Britain Mills; Zoveen Siddiqi; Aviv Shachak; Lise Lotte Gluud

2011-01-01

8

Is Qualitative Research Second Class Science? A Quantitative Longitudinal Examination of Qualitative Research in Medical Journals  

PubMed Central

Background Qualitative research appears to be gaining acceptability in medical journals. Yet, little is actually known about the proportion of qualitative research and factors affecting its publication. This study describes the proportion of qualitative research over a 10 year period and correlates associated with its publication. Design A quantitative longitudinal examination of the proportion of original qualitative research in 67 journals of general medicine during a 10 year period (1998–2007). The proportion of qualitative research was determined by dividing original qualitative studies published (numerator) by all original research articles published (denominator). We used a generalized estimating equations approach to assess the longitudinal association between the proportion of qualitative studies and independent variables (i.e. journals' country of publication and impact factor; editorial/methodological papers discussing qualitative research; and specific journal guidelines pertaining to qualitative research). Findings A 2.9% absolute increase and 3.4-fold relative increase in qualitative research publications occurred over a 10 year period (1.2% in 1998 vs. 4.1% in 2007). The proportion of original qualitative research was independently and significantly associated with the publication of editorial/methodological papers in the journal (b?=?3.688, P?=?0.012); and with qualitative research specifically mentioned in guidelines for authors (b?=?6.847, P<0.001). Additionally, a higher proportion of qualitative research was associated only with journals published in the UK in comparison to other countries, yet with borderline statistical significance (b?=?1.776, P?=?0.075). The journals' impact factor was not associated with the publication of qualitative research. Conclusions Despite an increase in the proportion of qualitative research in medical journals over a 10 year period, the proportion remains low. Journals' policies pertaining to qualitative research, as expressed by the appearance of specific guidelines and editorials/methodological papers on the subject, are independently associated with the publication of original qualitative research; irrespective of the journals' impact factor.

Shuval, Kerem; Harker, Karen; Roudsari, Bahman; Groce, Nora E.; Mills, Britain; Siddiqi, Zoveen; Shachak, Aviv

2011-01-01

9

Medical Natural Sciences: a new academic program to train biomedical researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Here we describe the academic program Medical Natural Sciences that was started as a bachelor program in 2001 by several departments\\u000a of VU University Amsterdam and the VU University Medical Center in Amsterdam. In this program students receive training in\\u000a exact sciences (physics, chemistry and mathematics) in a strong medical context, combined with basic courses in biomedical\\u000a sciences and a

J. P. Dekker; J. H. Meijer

2009-01-01

10

1974 Results, 1975 Plan for Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Medicine of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Report on 1974 research of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Medicine of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts in Zagreb; Project plan for 1975 of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Medicine of the Yugoslav...

1976-01-01

11

An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

2012-01-01

12

Is it science? A study of the attitudes of medical trainees and physicians toward qualitative and quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the\\u000a causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels\\u000a of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation. After completing a questionnaire,\\u000a participants were interviewed using a semi-structured procedure. Transcriptions

Jeannette Goguen; Melanie Knight; Richard Tiberius

2008-01-01

13

Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology.  

PubMed

Over the last 50 years, diagnostic imaging has grown from a state of infancy to a high level of maturity. Many new imaging modalities have been developed. However, modern medical imaging includes not only image production but also image processing, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), image recording and storage, and image transmission, most of which are included in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The content of this paper includes a short review of research and development in medical imaging science and technology, which covers (a) diagnostic imaging in the 1950s, (b) the importance of image quality and diagnostic performance, (c) MTF, Wiener spectrum, NEQ and DQE, (d) ROC analysis, (e) analogue imaging systems, (f) digital imaging systems, (g) image processing, (h) computer-aided diagnosis, (i) PACS, (j) 3D imaging and (k) future directions. Although some of the modalities are already very sophisticated, further improvements will be made in image quality for MRI, ultrasound and molecular imaging. The infrastructure of PACS is likely to be improved further in terms of its reliability, speed and capacity. However, CAD is currently still in its infancy, and is likely to be a subject of research for a long time. PMID:16790920

Doi, Kunio

2006-06-20

14

Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research  

PubMed Central

Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic". -Arthur C. Clarke

2011-01-01

15

Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007*  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship. Methodology: Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991–2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time. Results: Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n?=?174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n?=?298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n?=?332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n?=?264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n?=?130) of studies identified a funding source. Conclusion: This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians.

Gore, Sally A.; Nordberg, Judith M.; Palmer, Lisa A.

2009-01-01

16

Research Activities in Application of Physics and Engineering to Medical Science and Problems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Activities are reported in the form of short articles. The fields of interest dealt with are: development of aids and appliances for the bodily handicapped, cardiovascular physics, brain research, cybernetics, physiological signal processing, medical inst...

B. Vaneijnsbergen F. L. Lopesdasilva

1976-01-01

17

The reincarnation of a biomedical researcher: from bench science to medical education.  

PubMed

After 33 years as a biomedical research scientist, I embarked on a new career in medical education. The transformation was awkward, difficult and exciting. Although I had assumed that previous experience in research and scholarship would stand me in good stead, such was hardly the case. I had to learn to navigate a strange new literature, replete with terms that I did not understand, and to deal with concepts that challenged my physico-chemical mindset. As I learned, I found myself discovering a field rich in essential questions, controversial hypotheses, and important potential applications. With my newly acquired knowledge and skills, I began to reflect on my own educational endeavors. I identified a number of outstanding issues and I designed studies to address them. What made these investigations particularly significant for me was their applicability. Although medical education is an exciting and meaningful career path, because of its low profile in most medical schools, few faculty are aware of the academic opportunities that it affords. PMID:18278657

Brawer, James R

2008-02-01

18

Fraud, misconduct or normal science in medical research--an empirical study of demarcation.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study and describe how a group of senior researchers and a group of postgraduate students perceived the so-called "grey zone" between normal scientific practice and obvious misconduct. DESIGN: A questionnaire concerning various practices including dishonesty and obvious misconduct. The answers were obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). The central (two quarters) of the VAS were designated as a grey zone. SETTING: A Swedish medical faculty. SURVEY SAMPLE: 30 senior researchers and 30 postgraduate students. RESULTS: Twenty of the senior researchers and 25 of the postgraduate students answered the questionnaire. In five cases out of 14 the senior researchers' median was found to be clearly within the interval of the grey zone, compared with three cases for the postgraduate students. Three examples of experienced misconduct were provided. Compared with postgraduate students, established researchers do not call for more research ethical guidelines and restrictions. CONCLUSION: Although the results indicate that consensus exists regarding certain obvious types of misconduct the response pattern also indicates that there is no general consensus on several procedures.

Lynoe, N; Jacobsson, L; Lundgren, E

1999-01-01

19

Towards a translational medical research ecosystem  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we introduce a novel design for a translational medical research ecosystem. Translational medical research is an emerging field of work, which aims to bridge the gap between basic medical science research and clinical research\\/patient care. We analyze the key challenges of digital ecosystems for translational research, based on real world scenarios posed by the Lab for Translational

Matthew Smith; Marian Harbach; Andrew Lewis; Susanne Mertins; Lyn Griffiths

2011-01-01

20

Health sciences librarians' research on medical students' use of information for their studies at the medical school, University of Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

This study reports the findings of research undertaken by health sciences librarians at the University of Queensland Library into how medical students use information for their studies, particularly resources and services provided by the Library. The methods utilized were an online survey and focus groups. Results indicated that students favor print resources over electronic, value accessing resources on a one-stop basis, and prefer training to be delivered flexibly. The implication of these results for future resource selection, service provision, and instructional design and delivery is discussed. PMID:21534114

Lasserre, Kaye E; Foxlee, Nicola; Kruesi, Lisa; Walters, Julie

2011-01-01

21

Center for Medical and Materials Science Research with Free Electron Lasers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of this program was to develop an integrated laboratory dedicated to the exploration of the medical applications and materials of free-electron lasers with the capability to: (a) develop and apply advanced FEL and medical technologies and te...

J. M. Madey

1994-01-01

22

REVIEW: Diagnostic imaging over the last 50 years: research and development in medical imaging science and technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the last 50 years, diagnostic imaging has grown from a state of infancy to a high level of maturity. Many new imaging modalities have been developed. However, modern medical imaging includes not only image production but also image processing, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD), image recording and storage, and image transmission, most of which are included in a picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The content of this paper includes a short review of research and development in medical imaging science and technology, which covers (a) diagnostic imaging in the 1950s, (b) the importance of image quality and diagnostic performance, (c) MTF, Wiener spectrum, NEQ and DQE, (d) ROC analysis, (e) analogue imaging systems, (f) digital imaging systems, (g) image processing, (h) computer-aided diagnosis, (i) PACS, (j) 3D imaging and (k) future directions. Although some of the modalities are already very sophisticated, further improvements will be made in image quality for MRI, ultrasound and molecular imaging. The infrastructure of PACS is likely to be improved further in terms of its reliability, speed and capacity. However, CAD is currently still in its infancy, and is likely to be a subject of research for a long time.

Doi, Kunio

2006-07-01

23

Understanding Medical Research  

MedlinePLUS

... you hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study ... when reading or listening to reports of new medical findings. Some questions that can help you evaluate ...

24

78 FR 63231 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis...Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862,...

2013-10-23

25

Clinical science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical science research incorporates the fields of clinical investigation and health services research. With a focus on the use of either human specimens or subjects, clinical investigation research projects translate knowledge gained from basic science research based on animal models for disease. The goal of clinical investigation is to develop new prevention, intervention, and therapeutic approaches to improve patient clinical

Frederick L. Grover; A. Laurie Shroyer

2000-01-01

26

The Impact of Centers and Institutes on Faculty Life: Findings from a Study of Life Sciences Faculty at Research-Intensive Universities’ Medical Schools  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports on the impact of organized research centers on professional effort, productivity, and perceptions of\\u000a work satisfaction for life sciences faculty members at research intensive universities’ medical schools in the U.S. Results\\u000a indicate that senior center-affiliated faculty members taught less but worked more total hours than peers not affiliated with\\u000a centers. Senior affiliated faculty members were more productive

Sarah A. Bunton; William T. Mallon

2007-01-01

27

Introduction to Medical Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

During 1970, medical researchers developed means for detecting hidden heart attacks, discovered why ex-smokers get fat, created a biologically active gene and made a lysosome. Physiologists continued to debate the structure of membranes, and cigarettes we...

S. W. Joseph

1971-01-01

28

Science education research program  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A deadline for receipt of research proposals on science literacy and science, technology, and society has been set by the National Science Foundation's Research in Science and Education (RISE) program. March 9 is the target date set by NSF to insure that proposals are considered for the RISE fiscal 1981 budget, which is expected to total $6 million.RISE'S purpose is to examine the science literacy of the U.S. public and to determine the publics needs. Although schools have been responsible for teaching science, only 50% of the American public receive formal science instruction after 15 years of age, according to NSF. Those who do not receive formal training must rely on a combination of electronic and print media, museums, and public agencies for science information.

29

Library and information science practitioners and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a continuing need for more and better research in the field of library and information science (LIS). However, many LIS practitioners are not heavily involved in research. To add to our knowledge of practitioners’ involvement in research, 1,444 questionnaires were sent to members of the American Library Association, the American Society for Information Science and Technology, the Medical

Ronald R. Powell; Lynda M. Baker; Joseph J. Mika

2002-01-01

30

Teaching Science through Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the pages of magazine, the online version of our education column in BioScience provides educators with updates in science education, examples of successful initiatives to transform biology teaching, and new ways of improving student understanding. This column describes the Research Experiences for Undergraduate program at the Institute for Ecosystem Studies.

Cathy Lundmark (American Institute of Biological Sciences;)

2002-01-01

31

Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that…

Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

2006-01-01

32

Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students…

Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

2006-01-01

33

Science Mentoring Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has created a website that provides access to their research on science mentoring. The goal of the site is to "provide guidelines and resources for developing high quality research and evaluation studies for science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) career and workforce mentoring. " On the site's homepage, visitors can find links to research on these guidelines, resources for STEM mentoring, and announcements about upcoming awards and funding opportunities. Visitors interested in designing STEM research and evaluation studies should definitely check out the "Research" tab near the top of the page. The first suggestion provided is to review the literature, and they include links to the suggested readings, such as "Mentoring Report" and "Mentoring: Lessons Learned and Research Questions". Links are also provided for the additional steps suggested for designing a study, which may be of interest to those in the field of psychometrics and related fields.

34

Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson's strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program's point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include

Tetyana Antimirova

2006-01-01

35

Human Sciences Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Human Sciences Research Council provides news and research in South African social sciences, including economics, social analysis, education, and governance. The site posts weekly media releases on contemporary topics; recent working papers; and "published findings" on such topics as Children's Rights in South Africa, Human Rights and Democratization, and pending social legislation. (A search engine is provided for these materials, but wasn't accessible when we visited.) The site also gives some annotated links to prime databases for further research on South Africa. Note: the site's book-length publications generally must be ordered online.

36

Science and Psychical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

I WOULD like to thank Mr. Campbell Swinton for his letter criticising my article on ``Science and Psychical Research'' in NATURE for July 31 last. With what he says on the subject of spiritualism I agree almost entirely; but I had hoped that my article drew a clear distinction between spiritualism and psychical research. Unfortunately, the two are evidently confounded

R. J. Tillyard

1926-01-01

37

Research in Science & Mathematics Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication examines science and mathematics educational research in India and the question of whether science and mathematics education in that country has been an instrument of social change. Seven areas of research are included: (1) science education; (2) mathematics education; (3) science curriculum; (4) methods of teaching science; (5)…

Wanchoo, V. N., Ed.; Raina, T. N., Ed.

38

National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Science Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of General Medical Sciences' (NIGMS) Science Education website brings together award-winning booklets on topics like cell biology and genetics, their in-house magazine, interactive games, and a scientific image gallery for those who hold science close to their heart. First-time visitors will notice that there are two primary areas here: "Publications" and "School Resources". The "Publications" area includes "Findings" (their in-house magazine) and the very helpful "Biomedical Beat" news digest. This digest is published monthly, and it contains research news and educational updates from the NIGMS. The "School Resources" area includes interactive games that deal with Nobel Prize winners and proteins, along with suggestions on how to most effectively use the resources here with different grade levels.

39

Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science  

SciTech Connect

Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

Ahle, Larry [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-414, PO Box 808 Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

2007-10-26

40

Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science  

SciTech Connect

Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

Ahle, L E

2007-09-17

41

Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

Ahle, Larry

2007-10-01

42

Medical Countermeasures Initiative and Regulatory Science  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise ... Advanced development core services partnerships ... 2. Advance MCM Regulatory Science ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

43

The ethics and science of medicating children.  

PubMed

Prescriptions for psychiatric drugs to children and adolescents have skyrocketed in the past 10 years. This article presents evidence that the superior effectiveness of stimulants and antidepressants is largely a presumption based on an empirical house of cards, driven by an industry that has no conscience about the implications of its ever growing, and disturbingly younger, list of consumers. Recognizing that most mental health professionals do not have the time, and sometimes feel ill-equipped to explore the controversy regarding pharmacological treatment of children, this article discusses the four fatal flaws of drug studies to enable critical examination of research addressing the drugging of children. The four flaws are illustrated by the Emslie studies of Prozac and children, which offer not only a strident example of marketing masquerading as science, but also, given the recent FDA approval of Prozac for children, a brutal reminder of the danger inherent in not knowing how to distinguish science from science fiction. The authors argue that an ethical path requires the challenge of the automatic medical response to medicate children, with an accompanying demand for untainted science and balanced information to inform critical decisions by child caretakers. PMID:15706694

Sparks, Jacqueline A; Duncan, Barry L

2004-01-01

44

Japanese medical students' interest in basic sciences: a questionnaire survey of a medical school in Japan.  

PubMed

The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using ?(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent. PMID:23337622

Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

2013-01-01

45

Education and training in regulatory science for medical device development.  

PubMed

Regulatory science can be defined as the science aimed at the optimal introduction into society of new products of science, such as discovered substances and new scientific tools and technologies as well as knowledge and information. In addition to engineering researches that create novel medical devices, scientific methods for evaluating efficacy, safety and quality of medical devices are necessary to enable rational and scientific evaluation of the device in device approval process. Engineers and medical doctors involving research and development of novel medical devices are required to have basic knowledge on medical device safety standard, medical device regulation, and relevant methodologies. In Japan, several graduate schools in Japan have started educational programs on regulatory sciences in collaboration of Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA), Japan. In 2012, program for researches for development of evaluation guidelines for novel medical device products started where personnel exchanges between academic researches institutes and PMDA. Example of these programs will be introduced in the presentation and its impact on improvement of medical device research and development process will be discussed. PMID:24110397

Sakuma, Ichiro

2013-07-01

46

Democratizing Science Through Social Science Research Partnerships  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science and technology, as rational approaches to problem solving, are driving forces in the promotion of democracy at home and abroad. Science based decision-making is increasingly global as countries share technology, research results, and engage in joint studies on common problems. The widening rift between global wealth and poverty diminishes for many the opportunity for exposure to science, technology and

Jean J. Schensul

2002-01-01

47

Nanoscale Science Research Centers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This presentation, given by Dr. S. Tom Picraux, focuses on the integration of nanotechnology into science and everyday life. The given definition of this process is stated as "combining diverse nanomaterials together into composite structures across length scales into nanosystems to discover, understand, and design material with novel properties and performance." The site also addresses the different nanotechnological research centers located throughout the United States and how they play a pivotal role in the future of the technology.

Picraux, S. T.

2008-10-23

48

[Research training is inadequate among future medical doctors].  

PubMed

This questionnaire survey investigated interest and activity in pregraduate research among 643 medical students at the Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences at the University of Copenhagen. We find, that although the students show great interest and motivation for research, very few have actual research experience. The students described suboptimal research training, lack of tutoring and facilitation as well as of career counselling. Also, conditions for pregraduate research activities are unequal among the faculties of health sciences in Denmark. PMID:23095651

Binderup, Marie Louise Mølgaard; Ete, Neval Ete; Ovesen, Christian; Madsen, Maiken Merete; Andersen, Julie Bjerglund; Aabye, Martine Grosos

2012-10-22

49

State of the Science on Safe Medication Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to develop research priorities and clinical care and policy recommendations addressing the state of the art and science of safe medication administration. The objectives were to: (1) describe the state of the science in safe m...

D. J. Mason J. H. Barnsteiner K. Burke M. C. Alexander V. Rich

2005-01-01

50

Medical Sciences Division Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education report for 1992  

SciTech Connect

Research programs from the medical science division of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) are briefly described in the following areas: Biochemistry, cytogenetics, microbiology, center for epidemiologic research, radiation medicine, radiation internal dose information center, center for human reliability studies, facility safety, occupational medicine, and radiation emergency assistance center/training site.

Not Available

1992-12-31

51

Science writers' reactions to a medical "breakthrough" story.  

PubMed

In numerous incidences, the news coverage of medical research has incited unjustified optimism or fear. The medical literature provides an archive of the scientific community's condemnation of these misleading reports, but little is known about how they are judged by newsmakers. This study explored science writers' reactions to a controversial New York Times story that inflated the hopes of thousands of cancer patients. More than 60 science writers in the US, Canada, and Great Britain participated in a 12-day email discussion triggered by the Times article. We analyzed 255 of these email postings and coded (1) positive and negative critiques of the Times story, (2) references to the article's repercussions including the creation of false hope, (3) attributions of responsibility for the resulting public misunderstanding, and (4) suggestions to improve the public's comprehension of medical research news. The participating science writers generally responded negatively to the controversial article: 83% of the critiques were unfavorable. In addition, the science writers in the sample were cognizant and concerned about the impact of their work on the public, and accepted the largest share of the responsibility for the false hope created by the news coverage of medical research. Finally, the suggestions offered by respondents to improve the public's understanding of medical research news were similar to those proposed by the scientific community. Thus, some commonality exists between how scientists and science writers believe the news coverage of medical research could be improved. PMID:12113443

Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Yukimura, Darcie

2002-06-01

52

Science writers’ reactions to a medical “breakthrough” story  

Microsoft Academic Search

In numerous incidences, the news coverage of medical research has incited unjustified optimism or fear. The medical literature provides an archive of the scientific community's condemnation of these misleading reports, but little is known about how they are judged by newsmakers. This study explored science writers’ reactions to a controversial New York Times story that inflated the hopes of thousands

Crystale Purvis Cooper; Darcie Yukimura

2002-01-01

53

Science Anxiety: Research and Action  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Science anxiety has been shown to seriously impede student learning. This chapter will describe research done on science anxiety and will explain specific actions that college science teachers can take to build the confidence of their students. This free selection includes the Table of Contents, Preface, Endorsement of the Society for College Science Teachers, and Introduction.

Mallow, Jeffry V.

2006-01-01

54

[Men as a medical role. A blind spot in science].  

PubMed

While historians of science have demonstrated that in the late eighteenth century the emergence of the human sciences went along with the sexualization and medicalization of women, they paid almost no attention to the development of a medical knowledge on male (in)fertility. This paper argues that in the early twentieth century, the scientific investigation of the male role in reproduction was due to the rise of eugenics and the racial sciences. In order to illustrate this relation, I will discuss how in the context of the Nazi population and racial policy new research outcomes in the field of male (in)fertiliy research were achieved. More generally, I want to show that the transformation of man into a reproductive being and an object of medical knowledge is not only relevant for the history of reproductive medicine, but also for the history of the human sciences in the twentieth century. PMID:17992859

Vienne, Florence

2006-01-01

55

Medical Research for All Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... improvements to the health and well being of all Americans. Starting on page 10, our special section ...

56

Social Science Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1923 (and last reviewed by the Scout Report on November 3, 1998), the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) is an independent non-profit organization with ongoing research projects on every continent, most of which are designed to encourage innovation and to help social scientists engage broader constituencies. Some of the council's key interests include children and armed conflict, economic growth, international migration, and global security and cooperation. From the website, visitors can learn about the most recent project initiatives, which include the initiative on HIV / AIDS, social transformation and emergencies, and humanitarian action. Along with these recent initiatives, visitors may also read about the 30 thematic programs, which are organized into five broad program areas. Graduate students coming to the site will want to definitely take a look at the many fellowship and dissertation funding opportunities offered by the SSRC. Visitors may also browse through the SSRC quarterly publication, Items & Issues, which features essays, roundtables, and other writings by participants in SSRC-sponsored programs.

57

Social Science Research Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), this site allows users to freely access thousands of abstracts and full-text research papers. The core of the site is the SSRN Electronic Library, which contains an Abstract Database with over 15,600 entries and an Electronic Paper Collection, which currently contains over 4,200 full-text papers. Users can search title, abstract, and author fields, or browse the journals, which are grouped under the five respective Research Networks that form the SSRN: Accounting, Economics, Latin American, Financial, and Legal Scholarship. Within each journal entry, users may select from several display options to narrow their results and available full-text documents are indicated by a special symbol. Information on each of the five networks, including conference and job announcements, as well as information on subscribing and a list of site licenses, is accessible via a menu panel on the left side of the main page. According to SSEP, access to the abstracts and full-text papers will remain free of charge to all users until "the next revision to the web site this winter."

58

[Will medical research face a recruitment problem?].  

PubMed

Prognoses show that Norwegian medical research will experience a recruitment crisis at the end of this century and approaching the year 2010. Two different prognostic models have been used to estimate the demand for recruitment. The first is based on no growth in the number of research personnel, while the second is based upon a 2% annual growth in personnel. This latter alternative shows that there may be a great demand for research trainee positions within the medical sciences in the higher education sector, especially from the mid 1990s. Today (1991) we have around 550 research trainees. By the year 2000 there will be an additional demand for 100 recruitment positions, and a further 300 positions by the year 2010. In the no growth alternative, the future demand will be lower than the 1991 level for the period 1992 to 2010. For various reasons it will be difficult to fill the demand for research personnel. First, it is necessary to consider the public education policy: From 1981 until today the number of students studying medicine and dentistry has declined. This means that a larger proportion of students must be recruited to research if today's level of medical research education is to be maintained or increased. Second, which disciplines should do medical research? Today many research trainees in medicine are not doctors, and will not be able to fill future research positions at clinics. These are some of the results of a recent study on recruitment to Norwegian medical research, carried out by the Institute for Studies in Research and Higher Education. PMID:1557739

Skodvin, O J

1992-02-20

59

FORENSIC SCIENCE: WHY NO RESEARCH?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ground-breaking report on forensic science by the National Academy of Sciences—Strengthening Forensic Science in the United States: A Path Forward—raised numerous issues. One dominant theme that runs throughout the Report is the failure of some forensic science disciplines to comport with fundamental scientific principles—in particular, to support claims with empirical research. This essay attempts to answer the “why” question:

Paul C. Giannelli

2010-01-01

60

Opportunities in Social Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunities for social science research change with developments in policy and social science, conservation biology,\\u000a and ecological theory; population dynamics, quantitative methods, laws and current management or governance practices; industry\\u000a operating procedures, social values, institutional change, and funding. This paper identifies opportunities for future social\\u000a science research, and economics in particular, due to developments in economic theory and the

Dale Squires

61

Earth System Science Research Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Science Research Course is a unique class implemented by Frederick County Public Schools. The course (ESSR) was designed in conjunction with NASA Education Specialists and is supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Students in this course have the opportunity to use data from cutting edge earth science experiments while researching their own topics and answering

J. P. Leck

2005-01-01

62

Valuing computer science education research?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper critically enquires into the value systems which rule the activities of teaching and research. This critique is intended to demonstrate the application of critical enquiry in Computer Science Education Research and therefore uses critical theory as a method of analysis. A framework of Research as a Discourse is applied to explore how the notions of research as opposed

Tony Clear

2006-01-01

63

Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research  

SciTech Connect

The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

NONE

1998-02-01

64

Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences12  

PubMed Central

The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ?1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences” was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities.

Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A.

2010-01-01

65

Disabled picket Medical Research Council.  

PubMed

The Handicap Division of the Society for the Protection of the Unborn Child (SPUC) organized picketing of Britain's Medical Research Council to protest against trials of multivitamin supplementation for high-risk pregnant women to prevent development of spina bifida in the fetus. The trials have been condemned by many researchers, some doctors, and by SPUC as unnecessary, unethical, and insulting to the handicapped. PMID:11644170

1984-09-01

66

Considering a Career in Medical Research  

MedlinePLUS

... ideas and information important to medical schools and teaching hospitals. Read Academic Medicine Considering a Career in Medical Research It is an exciting time to pursue a career in medical research. The ...

67

Transition of Research into Medical Practice.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This slide presentation reviews the process of transforming medical research into practical medicine for astronauts and for every day people. Several examples of medical practices that started in space medical research and then were proved useful in other...

J. D. Polk K. A. Johnson-Throop

2010-01-01

68

Accelerator science in medical physics  

PubMed Central

The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future.

Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

2011-01-01

69

Science fiction\\/science fact: medical genetics in news stories  

Microsoft Academic Search

News media coverage of biotechnology issues offers a rich source of fictional portrayals, with stories drawing strongly on popular imagery and metaphors in descriptions of the powers and dangers of biotechnology. This article examines how science fiction metaphors, imagery and motifs surface in British newspaper (broadsheet and tabloid) coverage of medical genetic issues, focusing on press reporting of two recent

Alan Petersen; Alison Anderson; Stuart Allan

2005-01-01

70

Partners in Science Research Grant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The M.J. Murdock Trust offers a 15,000 Research Grant for High School Science Teachers to partner with a Researcher for two summers of research. Over 400 of these grants have been awarded in the 5 Northwest States since 1990. A supplemental grant to the high school may follow upon accepted application. The purpose of these grants is to promote scientific

Leonard C. Chuck Smith

2010-01-01

71

A current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship  

PubMed Central

Objective: The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship. Narrative: The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow. Summary: Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as “boundary spanners,” incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery.

Perry, Gerald J.; Roderer, Nancy K.; Assar, Soraya

2005-01-01

72

The Past and Present of Information Retrieval in Medical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a lecture at the 15th anniversary of JICST Kyushu Branch. In Medical Science there are many fields of study classified by the difference of approach. Each field is related closely, and to make a study of a field the knowledges of other fields are also needed. Such characteristic of medical study has been the problem on research of medical literature. Online information retrieval such as JOIS has changed the retrieval much easier, however some difficulties by the characteristic still remain. Importance of training specialist in information retrieval, construction of specialized databases, making databases easier to use and so on are suggested.

Yamamoto, Torao

73

[The flagship of the national naval medical science (on the 80th anniversary of establishment of the 1st Central Research Institute of the Defense Ministry of Russian Federation)].  

PubMed

The article is devoted to the 80th anniversary of the formation of the naval medical science subunit, which is the part of the 1st Central Research Institute of the Defense Ministry of Russian Federation. In the 30th years of XX century, a group of naval doctors formulated the main directions of preventive naval medicine. For eight decades, several generations of medical scientists have developed and ensured implementation of regulatory requirements for habitability and ergonomics of Navy ships. At the present stage, this work focuses on promising directions of the development of the domestic military shipbuilding and the use of advanced and innovative biomedical technologies. PMID:23808207

Chumakov, Vl V; Arkhipov, A V; Borodavko, V K; Vasil'kov, A M; Groshilin, S M; Ivanov, A O; Smurov, A V

2013-02-01

74

Governing controversial science: Lessons from stem cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in genomic science and biotechnology are creating new governance challenges concerning funding, oversight, and regulation of the underlying science and its applications. Among forms of genomics and biotechnology, human stem cell research has been one of the most controversial. It holds great promise for the development of medical therapies, but the link between human reproduction and research on embryonic

Michael Mintrom; Rebecca Bollard

2009-01-01

75

Advanced information technology support for life sciences research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The revolution in life sciences research brought about by the sequencing of the human genome creates new challenges for scientists and new opportunities for computing support organizations. This may involve significant shifts in computing support strategies, particularly as regards interacting with life sciences researchers who maintain a medical practice. This paper describes Indiana University's experience in a large-scale initiative in

Craig A. Stewart; David Hart; Anurag Shankar; Eric A. Wernert; Richard Repasky; Mary Papakhian; Andrew D. Arenson; Gerry Bernbom

2003-01-01

76

Structural equation modeling in medical research: a primer  

PubMed Central

Background Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a set of statistical techniques used to measure and analyze the relationships of observed and latent variables. Similar but more powerful than regression analyses, it examines linear causal relationships among variables, while simultaneously accounting for measurement error. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate SEM to medical and health sciences researchers and exemplify their application. Findings To facilitate its use we provide a series of steps for applying SEM to research problems. We then present three examples of how SEM has been utilized in medical and health sciences research. Conclusion When many considerations are given to research planning, SEM can provide a new perspective on analyzing data and potential for advancing research in medical and health sciences.

2010-01-01

77

Journal of Research in Science and Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage for the Journal of Research in Science and Teaching, the official journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. The site publishes reports for science education researchers and practitioners on such issues as science teaching and learning and science education policy.

Wiley

78

Science & Research (Biologics)  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... In this Web section you will find information on some of the research programs conducted by CBER scientists and their published scientific articles. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/scienceresearch

79

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Medical Sciences Division report for 1994  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary mission of the Medical Sciences Division is (1) to conduct basic and applied biomedical research on human health related to energy systems, (2) to provide technical assistance and training in occupational and environmental medicine, and (3) to make related biomedical applications available to others through technology transfer. As can be gleaned from this report, the strengths and capabilities

F. Snyder; S. Poston; J. Engle

1995-01-01

80

Current research in computer science (Research Session)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is a feature session at ACM 72. At this session prominent and active people working in the area of computer science, its applications, or its supporting disciplines will state what they are doing, its importance to mankind, and its applications and prospects. The speakers will report on work in the following broad areas: artificial intelligence, industrial research, computer architecture,

John J. Donovan

1972-01-01

81

A Design Science Research Roadmap  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes and synthesizes from previous design science (DS) methodological literature a structured and detailed\\u000a DS Roadmap for the conduct of DS research. The Roadmap is a general guide for researchers to carry out DS research by suggesting\\u000a reasonably detailed activities. Though highly tentative, it is believed the Roadmap usefully inter-relates many otherwise\\u000a seemingly disparate, overlapping or conflicting concepts.

Ahmad Alturki; Guy G. Gable; Wasana Bandara

2011-01-01

82

[Institutional liability and medical research].  

PubMed

On December 14, 2011 an addition to Article 100 of the General Health Law was published in the Federation Official Journal. The added section VII states that: "It is the responsibility of the Health Care Institution to provide medical care to the subject that is injured, if this is directly related to the investigation, without prejudice to the legally appropriate compensation", thus establishing the institution's liability in an precise way when it authorizes research. This is a relevant situation of Fundamental Rights. We will present the spirit of the ordinary legislator from the Law initiative to its enactment. PMID:23999640

Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Vázquez-Guerrero, Arturo; Lara-Lona, Elia; Ayala-García, Marco Antonio

83

[Educational program in the Medical Science Course, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences].  

PubMed

The aim of education in the Medical Laboratory Science course, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences, is to bring up train students who have Kitasato spirit, for careers in laboratory medicine of hospital or scientific staff of medical companies or as researchers. General and enlightening education concerning "Kitasato spirit" and professional education composed of major subjects was carried out in the first and during the 2nd and two third of 3rd grade, respectively. Medical practice and research training were alternatively carried out for 6 months between November of the 3rd year and November of the 4th year, in order to gain practical experience. Two problem-based learning (PBL) tutorial courses, "Infectious Diseases Course" and "Team Medical Care--Interprofessional Collaborations" were also carried out at the end of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th years, respectively, in order to convert a memory to knowledge. Team medical care course enrolls 1000 students at the School of Allied Health Sciences, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy and Kitasato College Applied Clinical Dietetics Course, is now one of special courses available at our university. This attempt is thought to result in a way of thinking that recognizes the importance of co-operation as a team member and personal contributions to actual team medical care. PMID:18709993

Kitasato, Hidero; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Ohbu, Makoto; Obata, Fumiya; Ogawa, Zensuke; Sato, Yuichi; Hattori, Manabu; Saito-Taki, Tatsuo; Hara, Kazuya; Okano, Tetsuroh; Kubo, Makoto; Maruyama, Hiroko; Tsuchiya, Benio; Okazaki, Toshio; Ishii, Naohito; Nishimura, Yukari; Takada, Nobukazu; Abe, Michiko; Hachimura, Kazuo; Tanigawa, Kozo; Katagiri, Masato

2008-07-01

84

Databases and political science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, librarians have not produced a study comparing databases that are appropriate for political science research. This study compares the coverage, content, and retrieval methods for nine databases. The study uses sampling to evaluate search results for six topics, providing relevancy percentages for each database. The article also reviews the types of documents cited in these samples, and provides

Thomas Schaffer

2001-01-01

85

Research Ideas for Science Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book was developed for use in India and is adapted from "Ideas for Science Investigations" by Victor M. Showalter and Irwin L. Slesnick. It is a source book of ideas for student research projects. Three model projects are described, illustrating different approaches taken by three students to the investigation of the rise of sap in plants.…

Goyal, K. C.; Swami, Piyush

86

Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson’s strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program’s point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include physics, calculus, biology, chemistry, and introduction to computing. In addition to the foundation courses, the first-year studies include an orientation course that supports the students in making a successful transition to university studies. The courses beyond the first year include such topics as radiation therapy, image analysis, medical diagnostics and computer modeling techniques. In the final year the students will undertake an independent, faculty-supervised thesis project in an area of personal research interest. Co-op and industrial internship options are available. Our program promotes natural interaction between physics, life sciences, mathematics and computing. The flexibility built into our curriculum will open a variety of career options for our graduates.

Antimirova, Tetyana

2006-12-01

87

Science education research interests of elementary teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Science education researchers have always sought to improve the quality of our nation's schools. One way of doing this is to make research findings on the teaching of science available to teachers. Perhaps an even more effective way is to plan research studies with teachers' interests in mind. The purpose of this study was to determine the science education research

Dorothy Gabel; K. V. Samuel; Stanley Helgeson; Saundra McGuire; Joseph Novak; John Butzow

1987-01-01

88

Science Concept Learning: Needed Lines of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six research areas are suggested and discussed as guidelines for the study of science concept learning. These areas are: (1) definition of a science concept, (2) a taxonomy of science concepts, (3) concept analysis, (4) diagnosis of science concept learning, (5) models for assessing science concept attainment, and (6) status assessment. The need…

Voelker, Alan M.

89

Innovating from big science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing scientific knowledge demands technological breakthroughs beyond industrial innovation activity. Using this as a\\u000a basic motivation for R&D collaboration between industry and big science, the paper reports a systematic approach to exploit\\u000a the technological treasures embedded in experimental basic research. Based on a systematic technology breakdown and mapping\\u000a of each technological trajectory with possible application areas, the method enables one

Ari-Pekka Hameri

1997-01-01

90

Medical Research Center's (NMRC) Malaria Vaccine ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Enter Search terms. Vaccines, Blood & Biologics. ... Medical Research Center's (NMRC) Malaria Vaccine Development Program. -. Presentation. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/newsevents/workshopsmeetingsconferences

91

IBM Research: Computer Science and Software Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IBM's Almaden Research Center is located in the Silicon Valley and conducts research in the areas of: Computer science software, computer science storage systems, science and technology, services research and WebFountain. The different websites review the research programs and provide some background information. For example, the Computer Science Software & Services department provides an overview of the theory behind its work, describing various algorithms, models, and resources used. The Science and Technology Center provides overviews of several disciplines, including Nanoscale Sciences, Exploratory Technology, and Quantum Information.

92

Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students' motivation for research and (d) obtain students' personal views on doing research. Methods Undergraduate medical students (N=317) completed a research skills questionnaire developed by the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning in Applied Undergraduate Research Skills (CETL-AURS) at Reading University. The questionnaire assessed students' transferable skills, research-specific skills (e.g., study design, data collection and data analysis), research experience and attitude and motivation towards doing research. Results The majority of students are motivated to pursue research. Graduate entrants and male students appear to be the most confident regarding their research skills competencies. Although all students recognise the role of research in medical practice, many are unaware of the medical research activities or successes within their university. Of those who report no interest in a career incorporating research, a common perception was that researchers are isolated from patients and clinical practice. Discussion Students have a narrow definition of research and what it entails. An explanation for why research competence does not align more closely with research motivation is derived from students' lack of understanding of the concept of translational research, as well as a lack of awareness of the research activity being undertaken by their teachers and mentors. We plan to address this with specific research awareness initiatives.

Burgoyne, Louise N.; O'Flynn, Siun; Boylan, Geraldine B.

2010-01-01

93

Research priorities in medical education: A national study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. RESULTS: The most important research priorities included faculty members’ development methods, faculty members’ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members’ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities.

Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

2012-01-01

94

Medical Education and Research: The Foundations of Quality Health Care  

PubMed Central

In May 1964 the Royal Commission on Health Services declared that “health research is essential to health progress”. However, since that time the means of providing adequate health care have received far less attention than have methods of payment for physicians' services. Because medical education and research is the source from which all other health benefits flow, urgent attention must be paid to the adequate support of teacher-scientists, as set forth in the Woods, Gordon (Gundy) report. It is the numbers and quality of these men and women, more than any other factor, that will determine the shape of medical science and, hence, medical practice in Canada in the future. Expensive as it is, Canadian medicine and Canadian medical scientists must have generous support if medical care in this country is to be of high quality.

Mustard, J. F.; Laidlaw, J. C.; Godden, J. O.

1966-01-01

95

Soviet Medical Research in Antarctica.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Peculiarities of the course of reparative processes in Antarctica; Changes in the cardiovascular system in personnel of high-altitude stations and participants in sled-tractor expeditions; Experience of medical services at the transcontinental s...

G. A. Barashkov I. V. Shastin N. V. Bystrov

1969-01-01

96

Global Forensic Science Collaboration: Standards and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on a presentation (Lucas 2011) by the author at a session organized by the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) at the International Association of Forensic Sciences Meeting in Funchal, Madeira, Portugal, on September 16, 2011. The title of the session was “Global Research: The Forensic Science Edge.” The “global” nature of AAFS, forensic science, and

Douglas M. Lucas

2011-01-01

97

Earth Sciences Research Opportunities at the National Science Foundation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the U.S. National Science Foundation's Division of Earth Sciences (NSF EAR) facing a number of challenges and opportunities—including helping to meet a growing need for basic research in a number of Earth science disciplines and seeing significant budget growth over the past several years—a panel of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) has begun a study entitled “New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation.” The study, funded by NSF, begins nearly 10 years after NRC's 2001 influential report entitled “Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Sciences” (BROES), which helped to guide EAR, a division within NSF's Directorate of Geosciences (GEO). NRC's Board on Earth Sciences and Resources set up an ad hoc committee to direct this new study.

Showstack, Randy

2010-06-01

98

How "Scientific" Is Science Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research articles published in the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" in 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, and in 2005 were surveyed to discover the extent to which they were theory driven. Carey and Smith's theory of the development of science epistemologies was used to frame the study. Specifically their theory posits that science

Lawson, Anton E.

2010-01-01

99

How "Scientific" Is Science Education Research?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research articles published in the "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" in 1965, 1975, 1985, 1995, and in 2005 were surveyed to discover the extent to which they were theory driven. Carey and Smith's theory of the development of science epistemologies was used to frame the study. Specifically their theory posits that science

Lawson, Anton E.

2010-01-01

100

Neuroinformatics Research for Vision Science: NRV project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NRV project (Neuroinformatics Research for Vision Science) is the first project in Japan started in 1999 under the Science and Technology Agency of Japan, aimed at building the foundation of neuroinformatics research. Because of the wealth of data on the visual system, the NRV project will use vision research to promote experimental, theoretical and technical research as a pilot

Shiro Usui

2003-01-01

101

Prescriptions for medical research. I--Management within the Medical Research Council.  

PubMed Central

In their submission to the government in advance of the white paper on science policy in the United Kingdom the Medical Research Council commends the MRC's own approach to managing directly funded research. But a series of semi-structured interviews with the directors of some of the MRC's units suggests a gap between the MRC's model of managed research and the reality. Although such units are theoretically managed from MRC head office (and units are charged an overhead for this), in practice each unit runs its own affairs. Between major reviews average contact time with the head office contact person is seven hours a year. The first paper argues that a purchaser-provider split would recognise the benefits of decentralisation and allow units to bid for research funds from several sources, the successful ones guaranteeing their survival through a rolling series of research programmes. The second paper criticises the MRC's cumbersome peer review system. Reliance on outside experts atrophies the scientific skills of head office staff and builds delays into decision making. A purchaser-provider model would allow the head office scientific staff to act like commercial research and development managers, commissioning research, and using the outcome, rather than peer review, as a criterion for continued funding.

Gillett, R; Harrow, J

1993-01-01

102

The behavioral sciences in medical education: A view from psychology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Argues that a number of unsolved issues confront the behavioral sciences in medical education and that the most pressing problem is the type of core basic science curriculum that should be provided. The behavioral sciences often seem to fail in their teaching mission because they do not provide that information which can be \\

Murray Wexler

1976-01-01

103

Research Opportunities in Corrosion Science and Engineering.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The field of corrosion science and engineering is on the threshold of important advances. To better comprehend corrosion and its effects, researchers have embraced emerging advances across many fields of science and technology to gain understanding of the...

2011-01-01

104

Advances in Translational Medical Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We provide hope by promoting innovative research, recognizing untapped opportunities, creating partnerships, and guarding the public trust. Vision Find and fund the best research to eradicate diseases and support the warfighter for the benefit of the Amer...

M. Kaime

2011-01-01

105

C-20A Environmental Science Research Aircraft  

NASA Website

NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center operates a C-20A, a military version of the Gulfstream III business jet, as an environmental science research aircraft for a variety of geophysical research missions.

106

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

2006-01-11

107

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

108

150 Years of Medical Information Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traces the history of the National Library of Medicine with emphasis on research and development activities in biomedical communications and information science. Highlights include the areas of bibliographic control, library automation, information retrieval, knowledge management systems, and educational technologies. (CLB)|

Siegel, Elliot R.

1987-01-01

109

Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PSRD is a Website dedicated to providing the discoveries made in planetary and space sciences through NASA-funded research. The NASA Cosmochemistry Program and the University of Hawaii sponsor this Website. Interesting aspects of the site are the Current Contents and Archive sections. Articles in the current contents section, which are accompanied by images, cover topics of current interest -- presently a conference on the origins and history of the Earth and Moon, and the composition of chondrules, spherical objects found in meteorites. Each article links to additional resources, and the section also offers a list of general links. The Archive section organizes previous Current Contents articles by topics such as Mercury, Earth, Moon, Mars, Mars Life Issues, The Jupiter System, Meteorites, Comets, and Origins. The Website also provides a searchable (by keyword) database and links to related resources.

110

Research of medical gases in Poland  

PubMed Central

Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter.

2013-01-01

111

Educational Research and the Science of Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper argues that educational research has not created a science of education in the sense of amassing the body of knowledge, skills, and values that, once acquired, would certify a candidate as a professional teacher. Educational research has not developed a science of education due to: the rigid boundaries between disciplines, the masculinization of research and the feminization of

David Elkind

1999-01-01

112

Teaching Primary Science: How Research Helps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The very first edition of "Primary Science Review" included an article entitled "Teaching primary science--how research can help" (Harlen, 1986), which announced that a section of the journal would be for reports of research and particularly for teachers reporting their classroom research. The intervening 24 years have seen momentous change in…

Harlen, Wynne

2010-01-01

113

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the design options and procedures that accompany this methodological choice. Discussions

Vicki L. Plano Clark; Catherine A. Huddleston-Casas; Susan L. Churchill; Denise ONeil Green; Amanda L. Garrett

2008-01-01

114

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

2008-01-01

115

Teaching Primary Science: How Research Helps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The very first edition of "Primary Science Review" included an article entitled "Teaching primary science--how research can help" (Harlen, 1986), which announced that a section of the journal would be for reports of research and particularly for teachers reporting their classroom research. The intervening 24 years have seen momentous change in…

Harlen, Wynne

2010-01-01

116

78 FR 38997 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel...National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

2013-06-28

117

78 FR 37557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel...National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

2013-06-21

118

78 FR 39741 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel...National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

2013-07-02

119

77 FR 62245 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel...National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group;...

2012-10-12

120

78 FR 13362 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Program...National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

2013-02-27

121

77 FR 76059 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting Pursuant...of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The meeting will...Committee: National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. Date:...

2012-12-26

122

Medical Schools, Clinical Research, and Ethical Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent discussion of the ethical problems of biomedical human experimentation has drawn attention to the responsibility of the medical schools for training new clinical investigators and for safeguarding the rights and welfare of the subjects of clinical research conducted in the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals. (Author)

Makarushka, Julia L.; Lally, John J.

1974-01-01

123

Snake oil and venoms for medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in

H. D. Wolpert

2011-01-01

124

Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible…

Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

2010-01-01

125

Proof and Policy from Medical Research Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

When judging the benefits and harms of health care and predicting patient prognosis, clinicians, researchers, and others must consider many types of evidence. Medical research evidence is part of the required knowledge base, and practitioners of evidence-based medicine must attempt to integrate the best available clinical evidence from systematic research with health professionals' expertise and patients' rights to be informed

Cynthia D. Mulrow; Kathleen N. Lohr

2001-01-01

126

Research Agenda for Computer Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the nature and scope of computer science education (CSE) research. We first distinguish CSE research from other forms of educational research, outlining its aims and identity as a research discipline. In examining the state of the art of CSE research, we attempt to categorise past research studies into general themes, reflecting the diverse contributions to CSE made

Christian Holmboe; Linda McIver; Carlisle George

2001-01-01

127

Research facility access & science education  

SciTech Connect

As Congress voted to terminate the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory in October of 1993, the Department of Energy was encouraged to maximize the benefits to the nation of approximately $2 billion which had already been expended to date on its evolution. Having been recruited to Texas from other intellectually challenging enclaves around the world, many regional scientists, especially physicists, of course, also began to look for viable ways to preserve some of the potentially short-lived gains made by Texas higher education in anticipation of {open_quotes}the SSC era.{close_quotes} In fact, by November, 1993, approximately 150 physicists and engineers from thirteen Texas universities and the SSC itself, had gathered on the SMU campus to discuss possible re-uses of the SSC assets. Participants at that meeting drew up a petition addressed to the state and federal governments requesting the creation of a joint Texas Facility for Science Education and Research. The idea was to create a facility, open to universities and industry alike, which would preserve the research and development infrastructure and continue the educational mission of the SSC.

Rosen, S.P. [Univ. of Texas, Arlington, TX (United States); Teplitz, V.L. [Southern Methodist Univ., Dallas, TX (United States). Physics Dept.

1994-10-01

128

Fraud and deceit in medical research  

PubMed Central

Publication of medical research is the cornerstone for the propagation and dissemination of medical knowledge, culminating in significant effects on the health of the world's population. However, instances of individuals and institutions subverting the ethos of honesty and integrity on which medical research is built in order to advance personal ambitions have been well documented. Many definitions to describe this unethical behavior have been postulated, although the most descriptive is the “FFP” (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) model put forward by the United States’ Office of Research Integrity. Research misconduct has many ramifications of which the world's media are all too keen to demonstrate. Many high-profile cases the world over have demonstrated this lack of ethics when performing medical research. Many esteemed professionals and highly regarded world institutions have succumbed to the ambitions of a few, who for personal gains, have behaved unethically in pursuit of their own ideals. Although institutions have been set up to directly confront these issues, it would appear that a lot more is still required on the part of journals and their editors to combat this behavioral pattern. Individuals starting out at very junior positions in medical research ought to be taught the basics of medical research ethics so that populations are not failed by the very people they are turning to for assistance at times of need. This article provides a review of many of the issues of research misconduct and allows the reader to reflect and think through their own experiences of research. This hopefully will allow individuals to start asking questions on, what is an often, a poorly discussed topic in medical research.

Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, Marios

2012-01-01

129

Developing a Research Agenda in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science Summit reinforced a question upon which many of us in science education are focused: How can we, the science education community of researchers, practitioners, and consumers, lead policy? We include a brief review of the No Child Left Behind Act and its implications for teachers, and elaborate about one ongoing and growing effort to…

Simmons, Patricia E.; Brunkhorst, Herb; Lunetta, Vincent; Penick, John; Peterson, Jodi; Pietrucha, Barbara; Staver, John

2005-01-01

130

Research on Library Science in Poland.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The controversy regarding library science as a separate branch of science in Poland is reviewed. In People's Poland, work in the field of library science has adopted the features of collective research. This is due to the unprecedented increase in the number of libraries, book collections and readers as well as changes in the methods of examining…

Kolodziejska, Jadwiga

131

The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

132

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Medical Sciences Division report for 1994  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission of the Medical Sciences Division is (1) to conduct basic and applied biomedical research on human health related to energy systems, (2) to provide technical assistance and training in occupational and environmental medicine, and (3) to make related biomedical applications available to others through technology transfer. As can be gleaned from this report, the strengths and capabilities of their staff in carrying out this mission are closely aligned with the four core competencies of ORISE: (1) occupational and environmental health, (2) environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, (3) education and training, and (4) enabling research. Brief descriptions of the various scientific and technical programs and their progress, as well as the staff responsible for the accomplishments made during 1994, are presented in this report. Research programs include the following: biochemistry; cytogenetics; Center for Epidemiologic Research; Center for Human Reliability Studies; occupational medicine; Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site; and Radiation Internal Dose Information Center.

Snyder, F.; Poston, S.; Engle, J. [eds.

1995-08-01

133

Applied Science and Research Applications: Recent Research Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report contains abstracts of new technical reports and other documents resulting from research supported by the directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications of the National Science Foundation. Research reports from current programs include work in the areas of public policy and regulation; public service delivery and urban…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications.

134

Research in epidemiology and community health in the medical curriculum: students' opinions of the Nottingham experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical students in Nottingham all complete an honours Bachelor of Medical Sciences course in one department including a research project. The honours programme in community health is described, with results from a survey of the 122 graduates since the medical school started. The 98 (80%) responses showed high levels of satisfaction and gain from the programme, the great majority regarding

J M Elwood; J C Pearson; R J Madeley; R F Logan; M W Beaver; P A Gillies; J Little; A Langham

1986-01-01

135

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funds research and training in the UK in engineering and the physical sciences. Viewing public engagement as important for stimulating interest in research, inspiring future generations of researchers and, "helping the research base evolve in tune with the changing needs of a more informed society," the EPSRC also promotes public awareness of science and engineering, providing a good deal of resources and links online. Research reports and briefs from some of the collaborating institutions' work on a wide range of research projects in engineering, the physical sciences and mathematics are all available in the Publications section. Other sections describe activities for young people and teachers, and research opportunities for graduate students.

136

Fire Social Science Research: Selected Highlights.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forest Service Research and Development has a long-standing component of social fire science that since 2000 has expanded significantly. Much of this new work focuses on research that will increase understanding of the social and economic issues connected...

A. Gonzalez-Caban A. Watson E. Mercer R. W. Haynes S. McCaffrey

2007-01-01

137

Attitudes and Views of Medical Students toward Science and Pseudoscience  

Microsoft Academic Search

San Marcos National University. Lima-Peru. Abstract: Objectives: To know opinions, attitudes and interest of medical students toward science and pseudoscience. Design: A questionnaire was administered to 124 medical students of the San Marcos University in Lima, Peru. Results: 173 students were surveyed. The response rate was 72%. Eighty-three percent (100\\/121) of respondents said that science is the best source of

Adolfo Peña; Ofelia Paco

2004-01-01

138

The ICPSR and Social Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), a unit within the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, is the world's largest social science data archive. The data sets in the ICPRS database give the social sciences librarian/subject specialist an opportunity of providing value-added…

Johnson, Wendell G.

2008-01-01

139

Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article features recent research in science teaching and learning. It presents three current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…

Allen, Deborah

2012-01-01

140

Scientific Production of Medical Sciences Universities in North of Iran  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction The study of the scientific evidence citation production by famous databases of the world is one of the important indicators to evaluate and rank the universities. The study at investigating the scientific production of Northern Iran Medical Sciences Universities in Scopus from 2005 through 2010. Method This survey used scientometrics technique. The samples under studies were the scientific products of four northern Iran Medical universities. Results Viewpoints quantity of the Scientific Products Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences stands first and of Babol University of Medical Sciences ranks the end, but from the viewpoints of quality of scientific products of considering the H-Index and the number of cited papers the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences is a head from the other universities under study. From the viewpoints of subject of the papers, the highest scientific products belonged to the faculty of Pharmacy affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medial Sciences, but the three other universities for the genetics and biochemistry. Conclusion Results showed that the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences as compared to the other understudies universities ranks higher for the number of articles, cited articles, number of hard work authors and H-Index of Scopus database from 2005 through 2010.

Siamian, Hasan; Firooz, Mousa Yamin; Vahedi, Mohammad; Aligolbandi, Kobra

2013-01-01

141

Grounded Theory in Medical Education Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The grounded theory method provides a systematic way to generate theoretical constructs or concepts that illuminate psychosocial processes common to individual who have a similar expe- rience of the phenomenon under investigation. There has been an increase in the number of pub- lished research reports that use the grounded theory method. However, there has been less medical education research, which

Mohsen Tavakol; Sima Torabi; Ali Akbar Zeinaloo

2006-01-01

142

The modern scientific physician: 2. Medical science versus scientific medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

harply contrasting with the Aesculapian god-physi- cian, his Hippocratic contemporary was learned, wise, modest and humane. 1 These qualities defining the Hippocratic ideal remain unquestioned for today's pur- poses just the same, but realizing them has become more challenging upon the advent of medical science. Learned- ness is strained in attempting to apprehend the concept of science; modesty is brought

Olli S. Miettinen

2001-01-01

143

Does Undergraduate Student Research Constitute Scholarship? Drawing on the Experiences of One Medical Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While undergraduate research has been part of the learning culture in some disciplines for many years, it is only more recently that it is being included into mainstream medical curricula. Undergraduate medical students at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, have several opportunities to undertake research

McLean, Michelle; Howarth, F. Christopher

2008-01-01

144

Basic and Applied Science Research at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, or LANSCE, is an accelerator-based national user facility for research in basic and applied science using four experimental areas. LANSCE has two areas that provide neutrons generated by the 800-MeV proton beam striking tungsten target systems. A third area uses the proton beam for radiography. The fourth area uses 100 MeV protons to produce medical radioisotopes. This paper describes the four LANSCE experimental areas, gives nuclear science highlights of the past operating period, and discusses plans for the future.

Lisowski, Paul W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS H848, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

2005-05-24

145

History of Medical Sciences in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice and study of medicine in Persia has a long and prolific history. The ancient Iranian medicine was combined by different medical traditions from Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China and Greece for more than 4000 years and merged to form what became the nucleus and foundation of medical practice in the European countries in the 13th century. The Iranian academic

Jalal Pourahmad

2008-01-01

146

Computing Life: National Institute of General Medical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers are embedded in much of what we do, whether it's a form of instant communication or the navigation of city streets via a GPS unit. Computers have also proved to be extremely useful to scientific researchers, a fact not lost on the people at the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). The NIGMS has created this virtual online booklet titled "Computing Life" in order to inform young people about the various scientific and medical careers that are open to them and to educate people more generally about the role of computers in scientific inquiry and discovery. The homepage features a set of "Featured Topics" that contains video clips of researchers talking about their work, interactive games, and role-playing exercises. These intriguing topics include "Movie Mania", "The Next Top Protein Model", and "Made Possible By"". In the "Web Extras" area, visitors can watch short films (including a simulation of potential pandemic flu in the United States), listen and watch interviews, and take a crack at a crossword puzzle. Visitors who get hooked on the site may wish to sign up to receive updates via their RSS feed.

147

Library and Information Science Practitioners and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the need for research in the field of library and information science and describes results of questionnaires sent to library association members that investigated how many practitioners read at least one research journal, how many read research-based articles, how many apply research results to professional practices, and how many…

Powell, Ronald R.; Baker, Lynda M.; Mika, Joseph J.

2002-01-01

148

Toward a Science of Transdisciplinary Action Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a conceptual framework for establishing a science of transdisciplinary action research. Lewin's (1951) concept of action research highlights the scientific and societal value of translating psychological research into community problem-solving strategies. Implicit in Lewin's formulation is the importance of achieving effective collaboration among behavioral researchers, community members and policy makers. The present analysis builds on Lewin's analysis

Daniel Stokols

2006-01-01

149

Instrumentation opportunities for ocean science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Progress in ocean research is inextricably linked to advances in instrumentation and technology. Modern ocean science research increasingly deals with the dynamic physical, chemical, and biological processes within the oceans and how these processes interact over long time and spatial scales. This type of research requires strong links between scientists conducting the research and others developing the instruments and technology.

1993-01-01

150

Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.  

PubMed

Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010-2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees' tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations. PMID:23908760

Dargahi, Hossein

2012-10-21

151

Science, Design, and Design Science: Seeking Clarity to Move Design Science Research Forward in Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the fundamental nature of science, design, hence design science and design research, with a view to determining a conceptualisation of design science that is useful in the discipline of information systems (IS). After reviewing several notions of design, the paper recommends a conceptualisation that involves a broad practice-based view of design, an inclusive conceptualisation of design science,

Judy McKay; Peter Marshall

152

Community science, philosophy of science, and the practice of research.  

PubMed

Embedded in community science are implicit theories on the nature of reality (ontology), the justification of knowledge claims (epistemology), and how knowledge is constructed (methodology). These implicit theories influence the conceptualization and practice of research, and open up or constrain its possibilities. The purpose of this paper is to make some of these theories explicit, trace their intellectual history, and propose a shift in the way research in the social and behavioral sciences, and community science in particular, is conceptualized and practiced. After describing the influence and decline of logical empiricism, the underlying philosophical framework for science for the past century, I summarize contemporary views in the philosophy of science that are alternatives to logical empiricism. These include contextualism, normative naturalism, and scientific realism, and propose that a modified version of contextualism, known as perspectivism, affords the philosophical framework for an emerging community science. I then discuss the implications of perspectivism for community science in the form of four propositions to guide the practice of research. PMID:15909796

Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

2005-06-01

153

Biology and medical research at the exascale.  

SciTech Connect

Advances in computational hardware and algorithms that have transformed areas of physics and engineering have recently brought similar benefits to biology and biomedical research. Biological sciences are undergoing a revolution. High-performance computing has accelerated the transition from hypothesis-driven to design-driven research at all scales, and computational simulation of biological systems is now driving the direction of biological experimentation and the generation of insights.

Wolf, L.; Pieper, G. W. (CLS-CI); ( MCS)

2010-01-01

154

Nursing research and the human sciences.  

PubMed

Nursing has long been associated with the natural sciences. However, more recently some nurses have begun to identify it as a human science. The epistemological and ontological bases then shift, with clear implications for the research approaches that are regarded as the most useful. This column offers a discussion of the worldviews represented in contemporary nursing knowledge, focusing particularly on the newer paradigm that includes the view of nursing as a human science, and the place of qualitative and quantitative research. Neither the human sciences nor the natural sciences are seen as providing a sufficient base for all nursing knowledge. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are viewed as potentially useful strategies given the nature of the phenomenon to be explored. Parallels to current discussions of worldviews and research methods in transpersonal psychology are identified. PMID:11873465

Malinski, Violet M

2002-01-01

155

Overview of Medical Data Management Solutions for Research Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical imaging research deals with large, heterogeneous and fragmented amounts of medical images. The need for secure, federated and functional medical image databases is very strong within these research communities. This paper provides an overview of the different projects concerned with building medical image databases for medical imaging research. It also discusses the characteristics and requirements of this community and

Sorina Camarasu-Pop; Frederic Cervenansky; Yonny Cardenas; Jean-Yves Nief; Hugues Benoit-Cattin

2010-01-01

156

Limitation of medical research in German law.  

PubMed

In Germany, pharmaceutical trials and the testing of medical devices is regulated by statute. Any other kind of medical experimentation is handled according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Medical experimentation has to be reviewed by an ethics committee before the start and there has to be an elaborate research protocol, which provides for the protection of the experimental subject. In case of an accident, there is compulsory accident insurance as far as pharmaceutical trials and the testing of medical devices are concerned. The third party accident insurance just covers material loss, there is no provision paying and suffering. The sum paid by the insurance company is set off against damages for negligence. There is no strict liability for medical experimentation, but the German courts are expected to set very high standards for medical care in experimentation. The data protection and medical confidentiality have been lessened because of the European law that requires the experimental subject to give his consent to the inspection of the data or the file and if he takes part in the experimentation, that his data and some of his cells might be with the pharmaceutical company forever. In general, the German law seems to be adequate to the protection of experimental subjects. PMID:16628874

Deutsch, Erwin

157

Social Science Research Serving Rural America.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of articles provides an overview of some of the recent social science research projects performed by state agricultural experiment stations. The examples highlight social science's contribution to problem-solving in rural business, industry, farming, communities, government, education, and families. The following programs are…

Miron, Mary, Ed.

158

Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This feature is designed to point "CBE-Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. This themed issue focuses on recent studies of concepts and…

Allen, Deborah

2013-01-01

159

National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Graduate Research Fellowship Program (GRFP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) is to support the vitality of the human resource base of science, mathematics, and engineering in the United States and to reinforce its diversity. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) manages the GRFP application and review processes under contract to NSF.

Jeffrey Johnson

2002-01-01

160

Research frontiers in the physical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically

J. M. T. Thompson

2002-01-01

161

Hispanic Behavioral Science Research: Recommendations for Future Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article briefly presents the major developments in Hispanic behavioral science research over the past decade and provides recommendations for future research. Some of the major research-related developments have emanated largely from three research centers dedicated to the study of Hispanic mental health, a national organization of service providers, and a minority mental health fellowship program. Numerous individuals from various

Amado M. Padilla; Kathryn J. Lindholm

1984-01-01

162

Shifting Paradigms of Research in Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical educators debate which models of scientific research should be applied to problems in academic medicine. The reigning model was derived from the first scientific revolution of Newtonian physics. The emerging model is grounded in the second scientific revolution of Einstein's quantum physics. (Author/MSE)

Irby, David M.; Edwards, Janine C. Ed.

1990-01-01

163

Analysis of serial measurements in medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In medical research data are often collected serially on subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is often inadequate in two ways: it may fail to settle clinically relevant questions and it may be statistically invalid. A commonly used method which compares groups at a series of time points, possibly with t tests, is flawed on both counts. There may,

J. N. S. Matthews; D. G. Altman; M. J. Campbell; P. Royston

1990-01-01

164

Magnetic manipulation instrumentation for medical physics research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The noncontact magnetic manipulation of probe masses within the body is an area of research that has received substantial attention from the medical physics community, especially during the past three decades. The therapeutic and diagnostic possibilities arising from such technology include site-specific drug delivery within the central nervous system, advancement of techniques for navigation and selective catheterization of vessels within

G. T. Gillies; R. C. Ritter; W. C. Broaddus; M. S. Grady; M. A. Howard; R. G. McNeil

1994-01-01

165

Medical Amnesty Policies: Research is Needed  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article explores the issues surrounding medical amnesty policies in higher education beginning with the background of such policies, a summary of the current debate regarding the policies, and a discussion of research related to helping behaviors among college students. Due to the negative consequences of alcohol misuse, many student affairs…

Oster-Aaland, Laura; Eighmy, Myron A.

2008-01-01

166

Deceit and fraud in medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Deceit and fraud in medical research is a serious problem for the credibility of published literature. Although estimating its prevalence is difficult, reported incidences are alarming. The spectrum of the problem ranges from what may seem as rather innocuous gift authorship to wholesale fabrication of data. Potential factors which may have promoted fraud and deceit include financial gain, personal fame,

Usman Jaffer; Alan E. P. Cameron

2006-01-01

167

Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

Gralla, Edward J.

1976-01-01

168

Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

Gralla, Edward J.

1976-01-01

169

The place of behavioral science in medical education and practice.  

PubMed

Medicine and medical practice have undergone dramatic changes in the recent past. Technological advances have exceeded the norms of social thought (e.g., frozen embryos, surrogate motherhood, assisted suicide, and the right to die), and there has been a loss of professional control of the provision of medical services because of an inability to control the costs of technology and the patterns of practice. These and related changes find the profession of medicine, including medical education, without the necessary theory and content to adapt. The author explains why this situation makes it more necessary than ever to develop and upgrade the teaching of behavioral sciences in the medical curriculum, even though these disciplines' breadth and comparative lack of definition create special problems for the teaching and learning of behavioral concepts and their application to medical practice. The behavioral sciences are needed in medicine because their role is not that of a technologically defined knowledge area but rather that of a process or functional area that mediates between the patient as a person and the delivery of medical care. The author presents concepts, a diagram, and teaching examples that explain the characteristics of behavioral sciences and illustrate the necessity for including them in the curriculum. He concludes by urging the leaders of academic medicine to find practical ways to transmit an awareness of behavioral sciences' crucial role in patient care so that tomorrow's physicians can function more fully in the complex arena of clinical reality. PMID:7575917

Bolman, W M

1995-10-01

170

Science Education Research and Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Well-designed and thoughtful approaches to practitioner research can bring about very positive impacts to improve teaching and learning in science classrooms. Readers of highly-rated research also need to appreciate and understand research design, literature critique, appropriate data collection, methods of analysis, theoretical frameworks,…

Oversby, John; McGregor, Deb; Woodhouse, Fiona

2013-01-01

171

The future of naval ocean science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine

John A. Orcutt; Kenneth Brink

1993-01-01

172

Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

Drost, Ellen A.

2011-01-01

173

IBM Almaden's user sciences & experience research lab  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IBM research division is roughly 3,000 people strong, located at 8 sites worldwide. This paper outlines the history and work of the User Sciences & Experience Research (USER) lab at IBM's Almaden Research Center in Silicon Valley. The USER lab has long been the focus for a number of pivotal developments in input devices for IBM personal computers. More

Daniel M. Russell; Steve B. Cousins

2004-01-01

174

FDA Foods Program Science and Research Steering ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. FDA Foods Program Science and Research Steering Committee (SRSC) ... Page 7. Foods and Veterinary Medicine Program Strategic Plan ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

175

Science Research Management (Selected Articles).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Problems of organization and administration in factory scientific research, The amalgamation of higher school scientific research and the academic functioning of schools, and An effective measure for promoting the reform of scientific re...

W. Zhi-liang R. Ting-shu Q. Wei-ming

1986-01-01

176

Towards effective evaluation and reform in medical education: a cognitive and learning sciences perspective.  

PubMed

Health professions education is dealing with major transformations in light of the changing nature of the health care delivery system, including the use of technology for "just in time" delivery of care, evidence-based practice, personalized medical care and learning, as health professionals strive to integrate biomedical advances and clinical practice. This has forced the medical education community to reassess the current teaching and learning practices and more importantly, the evaluation of the medical education process. There have been recent advances in cognitive and learning sciences theories, some of which can inform medical educators about best teaching and learning practices and their impact on the evaluation process. An understanding of these theories provides a sound rationale for choosing specific instructional strategies and choosing evaluation measures that assess the curricular objectives. The review begins with an overview of evaluation and assessment in education, followed by an overview of major theories from the cognitive and learning sciences. Next, the role of cognitive and learning sciences theories in informing the process of medical education evaluation is discussed, including its impact on student learning, performance and professional competence, as well as recommendations for reform of medical curricula based on such theories. The paper continues with the elaboration of current trends in health sciences education, particularly medical education, and available evidence for the impact on student learning and performance as well as areas where more research is needed. PMID:18214707

Patel, Vimla L; Yoskowitz, Nicole A; Arocha, Jose F

2008-01-24

177

The "Science of HRD Research": Reshaping HRD Research through Scientometrics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We explore opportunities for assessing and advancing Human Resource Development (HRD) research through an integrative literature review of scientometric theories and methods. Known as the "science of science," scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative study of scholarly communications, disciplinary structure and assessment and measurement…

Wang, Greg G.; Gilley, Jerry W.; Sun, Judy Y.

2012-01-01

178

Supervising Swedish nursing research: conflicts experienced between medical and nursing research.  

PubMed

There still seems to be a limited understanding among practitioners of traditional quantitative medical research about the specific characteristics of different qualitative approaches which, due to the nature of the specific nursing care related problems studied, are often used in nursing research. It is of importance for all representatives of nursing and caring sciences to continue with ongoing efforts to establish a solid, widely accepted academic basis for clinical nursing research. Availability of adequate tutor and scientific supervisor competence is crucial for the progress of high-quality nursing research. The importance of the nursing and caring sciences in the successful development of evidence-based clinical practice is becoming widely acknowledged. Therefore, it is expected that in the future more and more responsible health care providers will realise the importance for the whole nursing care environment of encouraging such research. PMID:10410041

Haljamäe, H

179

Socioeconomic Benefits of Earth Science Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

of our ability to predict future weather and climate trends. Improved predictions have an acknowledged economic value. However, because of the complex nature of the transition from basic science to applied use of weather and climate information, estimating the value of this information remains a daunting task. Further, a number of external factors undermine the ability of information consumers to realize the full potential value of projected future improvements in weather and climate predictions. socioeconomic benefits of Earth science research for anticipating, responding to, and recovering from the effects of natural disasters, especially hurricanes, flooding, and fires. It also examines the contribution of Earth science research to applications for responding to global climate variations, such as El Niño and the Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The paper further suggests ways in which to improve the economic value of investments in Earth science research.

Hertzfeld, Henry

180

[The returns to society from medical research].  

PubMed

Medical research can benefit society in many ways and through a multiplicity of inter-connected pathways. Some of these pathways involve the commercial sector directly, through the invention, trial and marketing of new drugs, vaccines, medical devices and equipment, which can improve patient diagnosis and treatment. These inventions are usually protected by patents. Biomedical patents often cite scientific articles, usually basic research rather than clinical observations. However, disease prevention may provide greater returns, and is typically accomplished through public health measures (e.g., vaccination, health services, provision of clean water) and wiser lifestyle choices by the population (e.g., not smoking, taking more exercise, practising safe sex, and eating a healthy diet). The reduction of environmental pollution has also played a major role in the increase in life expectancy. All these measures are ideally informed by sound research, and are brought about by government policy and influenced by public opinion. The latter is strongly affected by the mass media, which play an increasing role in connecting readers, listeners and viewers with medical research enterprise. Hopes of a cure for a disease are frequently offered, but commentators usually warn that much more research is needed first. New bibliometric techniques allow some of these interconnected pathways to be traced and analyzed, mainly through news stories or other documents citing research articles. For example, clinical guidelines rely on scientific evidence, including clinical trials, and even government policy documents sometimes cite research findings, although not often enough. Thus the socioeconomic effect of biomedical research can be evaluated in new ways that may provide a fairer view of its utility and impact than do conventional methods of citation analysis. PMID:19631822

Lewison, Grant

2008-12-01

181

The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)|

Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

1983-01-01

182

Substance Use among Students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences in Iran in 2005-2006  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population pattern in Guilan province represents a dramatic increase in youth population. Regard- ing high prevalence of substance use among them, its destructive effects and consequences and paucity of previous related studies, this research was performed to determine the prevalence of substance use among students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS). We conducted a cross-sectional study in a repre-

Homa Zarrabi; Kiomars Najafi; Moosa Kafi; Maryam Shirazi

183

The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

1983-01-01

184

75 FR 63843 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Minority Biomedical Research Neuro Grant Applications. Date: November 12, 2010. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-10-18

185

75 FR 65363 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Minority Biomedical Research Neuro Grant Applications. Date: December 6, 2010. Time: 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-10-22

186

75 FR 43180 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Research Centers in Trauma, Burn, and Peri-Operative Injury (P50). Date: August 17, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-07-23

187

77 FR 33477 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Trauma, Burn and Peri-Operative Injury Research Centers. Date: June 26, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review...

2012-06-06

188

Repositioning social science in natural hazards research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The classical view of social science held by the scientific natural hazards community is that social science is needed in two possible ways: (1) to help with the communication of understanding of natural hazards, grounded in an assumed knowledge deficit or the ‘deficit model' in which it is ‘the public that are assumed to be "deficient", while science is "sufficient" ' (Sturgis and Allum, 2004); or (2) to develop the policy changes needed to address the implications of natural hazards research for human populations. In both of these, social science becomes bolted on to natural hazards research, rather than fully integrated through the research process. In this paper, and using the example of flood risk management, I will show that these two approaches are fundamentally flawed, requiring a radical reformulation of the relationship between natural science and social science, grounded in new interdisciplinary ways of working. My argument has two directions. The first will demonstrate why the reformulation is needed, based upon changing societal expectations over entitlement to scientific knowledge (e.g. Freedom of Information), as well as new emphases on digital dissemination and access to scientists and scientific findings. Taken together, I will present evidence that these drivers are enabling those who live with natural hazards to become much more involved in challenging the assumptions and methods of hazards researchers. Natural hazards research is now subject to much more vociferous scrutiny. The second direction will illustrate how we have responded to this by developing new interdisciplinary ways of doing natural hazards research in which social science methods and public involvement are embedded throughout the research process, from the beginning, during project formulation and framing, through to the end, during delivery of solutions. Rather than public involvement becoming a hindrance to delivering better flood risk management, I will show that the integration of both conventional scientific knowledge with lay or vernacular knowledge, throughout the research process, produces risk management solutions that are more sustainable and more realistic than those that have been attempted before.

Lane, S. N.

2009-04-01

189

Health Science Libraries of National, State, and Local Medical Organizations  

PubMed Central

This second survey of medical society-sponsored libraries has been expanded to include national association libraries in allied medical fields, as well as special libraries which do not fall into categories established for the MLA survey of health science libraries. A total of fifty-eight libraries in this subset have been identified, and selected characteristics have been measured. Observations are made concerning methodology, user population, and services.

1967-01-01

190

[Scientific-medical research in the US Armed Forces (Report 2)].  

PubMed

The present article is the second part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first part has been published in the previous issue of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs. The following units are successively presented: the Defense Medical Research and Development Program, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Center for the Study of Traumatic Stress, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute. The particular research programs conducting in the above mentioned institutions are presented. PMID:23301293

Agapitov, A A; Ale?nikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassi?, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

2012-11-01

191

A Call for Outcomes Research in Medical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary goal of medical education is to produce physicians who deliver high-quality health care. Recent calls for greater accountability in medical education and the development of outcomes research methodologies should encourage a new research effort to examine the effects of medical training upon clinical outcomes. The authors offer a research agenda that links medical educa- tion and quality of

Frederick M. Chen; Howard Bauchner; Helen Burstin

2004-01-01

192

Materials Research Science & Engineering Centers: Highlights  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Science Foundation funds 26 Materials Research Science & Engineering Centers (MRSEC) and website highlights research conducted at the MRSECs at universities across the United States. The featured projects have been "selected with care and pride by the director of each MRSEC" and "represent samples of exemplary research at the Centers." Some examples include Cornell University's work on Ultra-Small Memory Devices for Silicon Electronics and the University of Pennsylvania's work on Nematic Nanotube Gels. Links are provided to individual MRSEC websites where visitors can further explore each group's work.

193

Chain and network science: A research framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this first article of the Journal on Chain and Network Science the base-line is set for a discussion on contents and scope of chain and network theory. Chain and network research is clustered into four main 'streams': Network theory, social capital theory, supply chain management and business economics and organizational theory. Furthermore a research agenda is formulated. The article

Jacques H. Trienekens; George Beers

2001-01-01

194

Environmental Research Puts Science into Action  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such…

Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul

2007-01-01

195

Basic Science Right, Not Basic Science Lite: Medical Education at a Crossroad  

Microsoft Academic Search

This perspective is a counterpoint to Dr. Brass’ article, Basic biomedical sciences and the future of medical education: implications for internal medicine. The authors review development of the US medical education system as an introduction to a discussion of Dr. Brass’ perspectives.\\u000a The authors agree that sound scientific foundations and skill in critical thinking are important and that effective educational

Ruth-Marie E. Fincher; Paul M. Wallach; W. Scott Richardson

2009-01-01

196

Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007.…

Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

2010-01-01

197

Research on and in Medical Education  

PubMed Central

Dr. George Lister of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center delivered the Lee E. Farr Lecture on Student Research Day on May 9, 2011. This day focused on the dissertation work of Yale School of Medicine MD students, whose research opportunities for prospective physicians were recently examined and critiqued by Yale’s Committee to Promote Student Interest in Careers as Physician Scientists. Lister’s talk served to highlight the importance of communication between the laboratory and the clinic in optimizing diagnostics and treatments, effectively affirming the validity of the Committee’s objectives.

Panter, Michaela S.

2011-01-01

198

Citizen Science: Contributions to Astronomy Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The contributions of everyday individuals to significant research has grown dramatically beyond the early days of classical birdwatching and endeavors of amateurs of the 19th century. Now people who are casually interested in science can participate directly in research covering diverse scientific fields. Regarding astronomy, volunteers, either as individuals or as networks of people, are involved in a variety of types of studies. Citizen Science is intuitive, engaging, yet necessarily robust in its adoption of scientific principles and methods. Herein, we discuss Citizen Science, focusing on fully participatory projects such as Zooniverse (by several of the authors CL, AS, LF, SB), with mention of other programs. In particular, we make the case that citizen science (CS) can be an important aspect of the scientific data analysis pipelines provided to scientists by observatories.

Christian, Carol; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon; Fortson, Lucy; Bamford, Steven

2012-08-01

199

Exercising privacy rights in medical science.  

PubMed

Privacy laws are intended to preserve human well-being and improve medical outcomes. We used the Sportstats website, a repository of competitive athletic data, to test how easily these laws can be circumvented. We designed a haphazard, unrepresentative case-series analysis and applied unscientific methods based on an Internet connection and idle time. We found it both feasible and titillating to breach anonymity, stockpile personal information and generate misquotations. We extended our methods to snoop on celebrities, link to outside databases and uncover refusal to participate. Throughout our study, we evaded capture and public humiliation despite violating these 6 privacy fundamentals. We suggest that the legitimate principle of safeguarding personal privacy is undermined by the natural human tendency toward showing off. PMID:18056619

Hillmer, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A

2007-12-01

200

[Delphi application in medical science teaching].  

PubMed

Teaching constitutes part of a psychiatrist's work. The essential determinants of best practice in psychiatric education as well as proven teaching methods are still lacking. The authors have presented the application of the Delphi technique to under- and postgraduate teaching programmes in diverse fields of medical knowledge. The Delphi method is based on systematic and anonymous refinement of expert opinion on defined scientific issues. The conventional approach of the method relies on questionnaires filled in by chosen experts in at least 3 or 4 rounds. Answers are assessed quantitatively and qualitatively during subsequent rounds in order to refine and specify opinions and--when expected--to achieve consensus. Innovative methods of the Delphi analysis have been presented. Patients' and physicians' opinions as well as electronic methods have been applied in curricula development. Both the positive experience of practical Delphi method application and methodological flexibility might be useful in construction of modern teaching programmes in psychiatry. PMID:19445359

Adamowski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Patryk; Cia?kowska, Magdalena; Kiejna, Andrzej

201

Science Learning Environments and Action Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A learning environment survey can be easily used in your science classroom to evaluate new instructional approaches, to spark enthusiasm, and to produce evidence showing that you are indeed becoming a reflective practitioner. Intellectual professional development should go beyond attending conferences and inservice training. This article will describe how you can successfully implement CLEAR (Classroom Learning Environment Action Research) as a strategy for improving your science teaching practice.

Martin-Dunlop, Catherine

2006-09-01

202

Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

open-access articles and,for the abstracts of articles not freely available. To draw,attention to a range,of knowledge,about science education,and,highlight well-studied topics in science teach- ing and learning, Current Insights will alternate between featuring,a variety of current,literature and,a number,of articles on,a particular,theme. The theme,of this issue is “doing science,” specifically, whether, how, and in what ways engaging in research influences the attitudes,

Erin Dolan

2009-01-01

203

Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application  

PubMed Central

Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment.

Deserno (ne Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (ne Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

204

Computer Science Research Institute 2004 Annual Report of Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) at Sandia National Laboratories brings together researchers from universities and the national laboratories to solve problems in computer science, computational science and mathematics and to provide new capa...

D. E. Womble B. J. DeLap D. R. Ceballos

2006-01-01

205

Computer Science Research Institute 2001 Annual Report of Activities.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) at Sandia National Laboratories brings together researchers from universities and the national laboratories to solve problems in computer science, computational science and mathematics and to provide new capa...

D. E. Womble B. J. DeLap D. R. Ceballos

2002-01-01

206

Research and Applications Needs in Flood Hydrology Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Committee on Hydrologic Science (COHS) is a standing committee organized and overseen by the National Research Councils (NRC) Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) that addresses research and educational opportunities in the hydrologic sciences. C...

L. J. Helsabeck W. S. Logan

2009-01-01

207

Complexity science: core concepts and applications for medical practice.  

PubMed

Complexity science is a useful construct for physicians trying to cope with the escalating sophistication of health care and pressure to control costs. The science of complexity suggests that outcomes are not always linear or predictable. Physicians need to learn to expect unpredictability, respect autonomy and creativity, and be flexible in responding to emerging patterns and opportunities. Assessing and managing complexity in the health care environment involves understanding why medical practice is a complex adaptive system and how to work within such a system to achieve the best outcomes. The goal of this article is to help physicians understand the basic concepts of complexity science and how they might be applied to medical practice. PMID:18368882

Patel, Ashok M; Sundt, Thoralf M; Varkey, Prathibha

2008-02-01

208

ALA Guide to Medical & Health Sciences Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This resource provides an annotated list of print and electronic biomedical and health-related reference sources, including Internet resources and digital image collections. Readers will find relevant research, clinical, and consumer health information resources. The emphasis is on resources within the United States, with a few representative…

ALA Editions, 2011

2011-01-01

209

ALA Guide to Medical & Health Sciences Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource provides an annotated list of print and electronic biomedical and health-related reference sources, including Internet resources and digital image collections. Readers will find relevant research, clinical, and consumer health information resources. The emphasis is on resources within the United States, with a few representative…

ALA Editions, 2011

2011-01-01

210

Science versus Basic Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One goal of basic research in education is to identify the variables of effective instruction. As this pursuit has been conceived, however, its theoretical problems make it unlikely that the effort will provide a clear picture of instructional variables, their interactions, or the kind of teacher training that is implied by instructional variables.

Engelmann, Siegfried

2008-01-01

211

Medical modernization, scientific research fields and the epistemic politics of health social movements.  

PubMed

As health social movements (HSMs) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professions increasingly mount challenges to the authority of medical knowledge, the tendency for the medical research community and medical profession to dismiss such epistemic challenges (termed here 'paternalistic progressivism') and the corresponding response from challengers that medicine is corrupt (termed here 'medical devolution') has given way to a process of incorporation of challenges under the rubric of evidence-based research (termed here the epistemic dimension of 'medical modernization'). Under conditions of medical modernization the distinction between lay/alternative knowledge and scientific knowledge, upon which the epistemic authority of medicine rested, is submerged in a more complex field of competing scientific networks and research programmes. Furthermore, the older policy of transmitting science to an illiterate public and suppressing dissidents is replaced by an emerging system of the 'public shaping of science', in which there is both greater agency of social movement/lay advocacy organisations and greater recognition of the legitimacy of that agency. Indirect and direct forms of the public shaping of science are discussed, as are emergent problems of co-optation. Understanding the emergent epistemic politics that are characterised here as medical modernization requires an ongoing theoretical integration of medical sociology and the sociology of science. PMID:15383037

Hess, David J

2004-09-01

212

Regulation of financial conflicts of interest in medical practice and medical research: a damaging solution in search of a problem.  

PubMed

The free market, which includes most practicing physicians, publicly supported biomedical researchers, and private drug and device companies, has succeeded spectacularly in delivering new medical technologies to the public. Increased interactions between doctors (physicians and biomedical researchers), epitomized by the founding of the biotechnology revolution, have and can continue to accelerate this delivery. A powerful anti-commercial advocacy movement that has blossomed over the past 20 years threatens this momentum. This movement has succeeded in inverting reality by demonizing the market and by promoting distorted and damaging views of professionalism and of science. Most ominously, it has imposed onerous and counterproductive regulations on medical education and translational research. PMID:17259676

Stossel, Thomas P

2007-01-01

213

Comparative Effectiveness Research: Medical Practice, Payments, and Politics: the Need to Retain Standards of Medical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative effectiveness research (CER), once only the scientific interest of clinical and health services researchers who compared medical treaments, now has tumbled into the public arena. ( 1 ) Facing the need for drastic improvement in our nation’s healthcare delivery, Congress and the Obama Administration are looking to CER to improve and broaden the use of treatments in a cost-effective

Harry P. Selker

2009-01-01

214

"Bimodal" medical schools: excelling in research and primary care.  

PubMed

The authors studied four "bimodal" medical schools--those ranked in the top 20% by the Association of American Medical Colleges both in production of primary care physicians and in receiving research grants from the National Institutes of Health. A descriptive, anthropologic method was used to describe the cultures of these schools and to determine common factors in their success. The four schools are at the University of Washington, the University of North Carolina, the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of California, San Diego. These common factors ranged from characteristics of the schools to characteristics of their external environments. All four are part of large, state-supported universities. They are relatively new schools in areas of the country that have blossomed in biotechnology, aerospace, and computer industries. The schools' missions, admission committees, and educational programs reflect their dual role: to meet the health care needs of their states and to advance basic science knowledge in medicine. Each state has a strong Academy of Family Practice, and the medical schools have been in the forefront of residency training in this specialty. Federal- and state-funded Area Health Education Centers and private foundations have provided seed money for educational programs in community and rural settings that attract medical students to primary care. Research-intensive medical schools can encourage students to enter primary care specialties if they have strong primary care leaders and programs and if they support medical education programs outside the academic, tertiary-care center. A culture of mutual respect and commitment to community service is also essential to achieving this bimodal success. PMID:9125980

Osborn, E H; O'Neil, E H

1996-09-01

215

New Paradigms in Translational Science Research in Cancer Biomarkers  

PubMed Central

Despite significant investments in basic science by the US National Institutes of Health, there is a concern that the return on this investment has been limited in terms of clinical utility. In the field of biomarkers, translational research is used to bridge the gap between the results of basic research that identify biomolecules involved in or the consequence of carcinogenesis and their incorporation into medical application. The cultural separation between different scientific disciplines often makes it difficult to establish the multidisciplinary and multi-skilled teams that are necessary for successful translational research. The field of biomarker research requires extensive interactions between academic researchers and industrial developers, and clinicians are needed to help shape the research direction that can only be addressed by multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. In this article, we provide our perspective on the relatively slow pace of cancer biomarker translation, especially those for early detection and screening.

Wagner, Paul D.; Srivastava, Sudhir

2012-01-01

216

National Science Foundation: Education-Research Overview  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Science Foundation (NSF) works on a number of outreach programs designed to improve the quality of science education. This website provides information and materials on this work by offering visitors classroom resources, reports on recent studies, and other materials. First-time visitors can click on the "Education Discoveries" to learn about how the NSF's research has been applied to molecular genetics, cyber security enhancements, and the migration of red-tailed hawks. Visitors should also click on the "Virtual Science Project" tab to learn more about the Maryland Virtual High School Earthquake Project, which is an attempt to bring the same problem solving and technology rich approaches used in private industry into the classroom. Moving on, the "Educational Classroom Resources" include links to science education websites that have been vetted by NSF staff members.

217

Review of physical sciences research, 1979 - 1990 (Gas Research Institute)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To meet the expectations and needs of the gas industry and its customers, basic research management techniques were developed that are appropriate for GRI's unique mission oriented research program. These techniques differ from those used in private industry and government. These techniques are described focussing on how GRI selects appropriate research topics, builds consensus for the Physical Sciences research program, and maintains an emphasis on providing useful results. Each of GRI's 37 active research topics are reviewed, describing their goals, results, and future plans. The reviews are presented in three groups: Physics, Chemistry, and Combustion, and each group begins with a summary of recent important results. Useful results of Physical Sciences Research are described throughout, but a comprehensive record of results is not presented.

1991-07-01

218

Senator Arlen Specter: Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Cover Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Senator Arlen Specter: Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma Past Issues / Summer 2008 ... been a long-time supporter and proponent of medical research. Recently, he underwent his second round of ...

219

Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science  

PubMed Central

Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal.

Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

2011-01-01

220

Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy: Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Duke Institute for Genome Sciences & Policy (IGSP) is "dedicated to the study of life through scientific inquiry involving interdisciplinary research in genome sciences and policy." The Research section of the IGSP website links to descriptions of several focus areas such as Breast Cancer Genomics, Public Genomics & Intellectual Property, and Environmental Genomics. The site also links to information about the seven IGSP Centers including the Center for Models of Human Disease; the Center for Genome Ethics, Law, & Policy; The Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology; and more. Lists of recent research publications by primary author are available as well. In addition, site visitors will find information about a variety of IGSP resources including Sequence Data, Business & Funding Data, Research Software, and, in the near future, a Pharmacogenetics Database.

221

Chemistry and materials science research report  

SciTech Connect

Basic and applied research in the Chemistry and Materials Science Department is carried out under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (referred to as Chemistry Research Resource, or CRR) and the departmental Institutional Research and Development program. These activities tend to have longer-term goals than those funded directly by Laboratory programs. The report is divided into three sections describing activities in seven areas, the individual CRR projects, and the departmental IR D projects. Areas are: high-temperature superconductors; tritium; high explosives; advanced characterization; interfaces; adhesion and bonding; advanced synthesis and processing; plutonium and actinides.

Not Available

1988-11-16

222

Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research  

SciTech Connect

The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

Thomlinson, W.

1995-12-31

223

Legal research topics within services sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents a study to define some of the most important legal topics that need to be in- cluded in the Services Sciences' research agenda. To analyze what sort of legal challenges the forthcoming services will have, an example of advanced service framework, MobiLife Service Framework, is presented. The framework high- lights especially challenges in privacy and data protection

Olli Pitkänen

2006-01-01

224

The Social Sciences and Manpower Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The materials presented developed out of a summer manpower research institute which had three general goals: To bring together established as well as promising scholars in the social sciences in a one-week symposium for the purpose of promoting more manpo...

N. A. Palomba E. B. Jakubauskas

1969-01-01

225

Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This feature is designed to point readers of this journal to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be accessible at the indicated URL…

Dolan, Erin

2010-01-01

226

COSEE New England Ocean Science Researcher Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you an ocean science researcher who would you like assistance engaging in educational outreach and achieving broader impacts? This site will help you connect with educators in order to build meaningful educational collaborations. The website includes resources, ideas, and tools for researchers to become effectively involved in education and outreach. The site also features information on upcoming workshops and activities that will foster effect programs.

227

Mathematics education research embracing arts and sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a young field in its own right (unlike the ancient discipline of mathematics), mathematics education research has been\\u000a eclectic in drawing upon the established knowledge bases and methodologies of other fields. Psychology served as an early\\u000a model for a paradigm that valorized psychometric research, largely based in the theoretical frameworks of cognitive science.\\u000a More recently, with the recognition of

Norma Presmeg

2009-01-01

228

Study habits and attitude of medical students of basic sciences.  

PubMed

Study habits and attitude for learning of Basic Medical Sciences amongst 133 students of first and second year MBBS course were analyzed (through questionnaires). The study revealed that the most of the students desired to be physicians to serve the patient/society. They preferred to learn more through self study (48.0%) and lecture classes (43.0%), less through group discussion (8.0%) and PBL (1.0%). Only 5.0% use to surf the internet regularly for their study matter and 79.0% students had never consulted any medical journals. PMID:17899965

Dhungel, Kshitiz Upadhyay; Prajapati, Rajesh; Pramanik, Tapas; Ghosh, Arijit; Roychowdhury, Paresh

2007-06-01

229

Twelve Theses on Design Science Research in Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This essay discusses 12 theses for guiding design science research. They are aimed at strengthening the design science orientation\\u000a of Information Systems, clarifying future discourses on design science research aspects of the discipline, and giving some\\u000a further guidelines for design science research in Information Systems.

Juhani Iivari

230

Physical Sciences Research Priorities and Plans in OBPR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents viewgraphs of physical sciences research priorities and plans at the Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference; 2) Beneficial Characteristics of the Space Environment; 3) Windows of Opportunity for Research Derived from Microgravity; 4) Physical Sciences Research Program; 5) Fundamental Research: Space-based Results and

Eugene Trinh

2002-01-01

231

Economic and Social Science Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With its prestigious record of research and service to the broader public sector, the Economic and Social Science Research Council (ESRC) is the UK's prime research funding and training agency that actively addresses both economic and social concerns. As the website notes, the council seeks "to provide high quality research on issues of importance to business, the public sector, and government." From the homepage, visitors can read extensive information about the Council's seven thematic research priorities (which include social stability and exclusion and lifecourse), along with reading about funding opportunities and available postdoctoral research positions with one of the research centres. As with most research organizations, the selection of publications here is quite good, and includes annual reports, transcripts of lectures given on behalf of the Council, best practice guides, and several special reports, such as Britain Towards 2010 and Fit and Fifty?. Finally, the news area of the site contains the archives and current edition of _The Edge_, a magazine about social science research funded by ESRC.

232

Office of Science Education: LifeWorks: Explore Health and Medical Science Careers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institutes of Health Office of Science Education presents LifeWorks, an online guide to exploring careers in the health and medical sciences. LifeWorks offers a number of features such as Career Finder -- a searchable database of over 100 career descriptions. Details include required education and average salary. The site also features interviews with people working in the health and medical fields. While no formal lesson plans are provided, LifeWorks should be a useful resource for students who may be interested in pursuing health-related careers.

233

Visionlearning: Research Methods: The Practice of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional module introduces four types of research methods: experimentation, description, comparison, and modeling. It was developed to help learners understand that the classic definition of the "scientific method" does not capture the dynamic nature of science investigation. As learners explore each methodology, they develop an understanding of why scientists use multiple methods to gather data and develop hypotheses. It is appropriate for introductory physics or chemistry courses. This resource is part of Visionlearning, an award-winning set of classroom-tested modules for science education.

Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne

2010-10-01

234

Nuclear Medical Science Officers: Army Health Physicists Serving and Defending Their Country Around the Globe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )

Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel

2010-02-01

235

Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

1999-10-11

236

Corporate Disguises in Medical Science: Dodging the Interest Repertoire  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Roughly 40% of the sizeable medical research and literature on recently approved drugs is "ghost managed" by the pharmaceutical industry and its agents. Research is performed and articles are written by companies and their agents, though apparently independent academics serve as authors on the publications. Similarly, the industry hires academic…

Sismondo, Sergio

2011-01-01

237

Medical student perceptions of a behavioural and social science curriculum  

PubMed Central

Background In 2006, Oregon Health & Science University began implementing changes to better integrate mental health and social science into the curriculum by addressing the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 2004 recommendation for the inclusion of six behavioural and social science (BSS) domains: health policy and economics, patient behaviour, physician–patient interaction, mind–body interactions, physician role and behaviour, and social and cultural issues. Methods We conducted three focus groups with a purposive sample of 23 fourth-year medical students who were exposed to 4 years of the new curriculum. Students were asked to reflect upon the adequacy of their BSS training specifically as it related to the six IOM domains. The 90-minute focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed. Results Students felt the MS1 and MS2 years of the curriculum presented a strong didactic orientation to behavioural and social science precepts. However, they reported that these principles were not well integrated into clinical care during the second two years. Students identified three opportunities to further the inclusion of BSS in their clinical training: presentation of BSS concepts prior to relevant clinical exposure, consistent BSS skills mentoring in the clinical setting, and improving cultural congruence between aspects of BSS and biomedicine. Conclusions Students exposed to the revised BSS curriculum tend to value its principles; however, modelling and practical training in the application of these principles during the second two years of medical school are needed to reinforce this learning and demonstrate methods of integrating BSS principles into practice.

2011-01-01

238

Reading Habits and Attitude Toward Medical Humanities of Basic Science Students in a Medical College in Western Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal, admits students from Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, and other countries to the undergraduate medical course. Purposes: The present study sought to describe and explore reading habits of medical students during the first three semesters and obtain their views regarding inclusion of medical humanities in the course. Methods: The authors introduced a

P. Ravi Shankar; Arun K. Dubey; P. Mishra; Dinesh K. Upadhyay

2008-01-01

239

Mass Media Release of Medical Research Results  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Disclosure of medical research results to the public creates tension between lay medical reporters and the medical profession. OBJECTIVE To explore the early effect of media attention on the risks associated with short-acting calcium channel blockers (CCBs) for treating hypertension after publication at a national meeting and following publication. DESIGN Time-series analysis of prescription claims data. SETTING AND DATA SOURCE National third-party pharmaceutical benefits manager. PATIENTS Employed or retired persons and their families, 18 years of age or older, receiving prescription benefits from 1 of 4 national companies that contracted with the pharmaceutical benefits manager exclusively for prescription drug coverage. MEASUREMENTS Prescription claims for antihypertensive drugs by fill date converted to a percentage of all cardiovascular drug claims. Data were grouped into weekly intervals before and immediately after the national release of negative information about CCBs on March 10, 1995 and following publication of the results on August 23, 1995. RESULTS The most prevalent antihypertensive drugs were diuretics (21% of cardiovascular prescription claims) and calcium channel blockers (19%). A 10% decline in prescriptions filled for CCBs occurred 4 weeks following the intense media attention. Only prescriptions for long-acting calcium channel blockers declined. Alpha-1-blocker prescriptions increased by approximately the same amount that prescriptions for CCBs declined, suggesting substitution of one drug for the other. Changes in diuretic or ?-blocker prescriptions filled were not statistically significant. No immediate change in other cardiovascular drug classes occurred following journal publication. CONCLUSIONS Intense media publicity regarding a controversial study measurably and unpredictably changed prescription claims.

Brunt, Margaret E; Murray, Michael D; Hui, Siu L; Kesterson, Joseph; Perkins, Anthony J; Tierney, William M

2003-01-01

240

Planning Medical Center Facilities for Education, Research, and Public Service.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Architectural, administrative, and educational aspects of the design of medical centers are explored. Based on the historical evolution of health care as a university responsibility, academic health science centers are expected to foster the team approach...

G. T. Harrell

1974-01-01

241

The Role of Public Policy in K-12 Science Education. Research in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of this volume of "Research in Science Education" is to examine the relationship between science education policy and practice and the special role that science education researchers play in influencing policy. It has been suggested that the science education research community is isolated from the political process, pays little…

DeBoer, George E., Ed.

2011-01-01

242

Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAO facilities will be used in support of ``Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education" (TLRBSE), a new Teacher Retention and Renewal program that will be funded through the National Science Foundation's Directorate for Education and Human Resources. The goal of TLRBSE is to provide professional development for secondary teachers of mathematics and science in an effort to support novice teachers beginning their careers as well as to motivate and retain experienced teachers. Within the context of astronomy, TLRBSE will develop master teachers who will mentor a second tier of novice teachers in the exemplary method of research-based science education, a proven effective teaching method which models the process of inquiry and exploration used by scientists. Participants will be trained through a combination of in-residence workshops at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the National Solar Observatory, a distance-learning program during the academic year, interaction at professional meetings and mentor support from teacher leaders and professional astronomers. A total of 360 teachers will participate in the program over five years.

Rector, T. A.; Jacoby, S. H.; Lockwood, J. F.; McCarthy, D. W.

2001-05-01

243

Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NOAO facilities will be used in support of ``Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education" (TLRBSE), a new Teacher Retention and Renewal program that will be funded through the National Science Foundation's Directorate for Education and Human Resources. The goal of TLRBSE is to provide professional development for secondary teachers of mathematics and science in an effort to support novice teachers beginning their careers as well as to motivate and retain experienced teachers. Within the context of astronomy, TLRBSE will develop master teachers who will mentor a second tier of novice teachers in the exemplary method of research-based science education, a proven effective teaching method which models the process of inquiry and exploration used by scientists. Participants will be trained through a combination of in-residence workshops at Kitt Peak National Observatory and the National Solar Observatory, a distance-learning program during the academic year, interaction at professional meetings and mentor support from teacher leaders and professional astronomers. A total of 360 teachers will participate in the program over five years.

Rector, T. A.; Jacoby, S. H.; Lockwood, J. F.; McCarthy, D. W.

2001-12-01

244

MRIdb: Medical Image Management for Biobank Research.  

PubMed

Clinical picture archiving and communications systems provide convenient, efficient access to digital medical images from multiple modalities but can prove challenging to deploy, configure and use. MRIdb is a self-contained image database, particularly suited to the storage and management of magnetic resonance imaging data sets for population phenotyping. It integrates a mature image archival system with an intuitive web-based user interface that provides visualisation and export functionality. In addition, utilities for auditing, data migration and system monitoring are included in a virtual machine image that is easily deployed with minimal configuration. The result is a freely available turnkey solution, designed to support epidemiological and imaging genetics research. It allows the management of patient data sets in a secure, scalable manner without requiring the installation of any bespoke software on end users' workstations. MRIdb is an open-source software, available for download at http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/bioinfsupport/resources/software/mridb . PMID:23619930

Woodbridge, Mark; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; O'Regan, Declan P

2013-10-01

245

ADHD--To Medicate or Not? Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|What does the research indicate are the effects of medicating or not medicating adolescents with ADHD? Many parents and health care providers are rethinking and questioning the long-term effects of medication on children. Whether or not to medicate adolescents with ADHD is a conundrum that many parents face. Some parents believe their child will…

Walker, Karen

2009-01-01

246

The Use of Focus Groups in Design Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The majority of research within information systems (IS) may be categorized into two key perspectives, natural science and design science. While natural science seeks to develop and verify theories that explain phenomena, design science attempts to solve human and organizational problems through the creation of innovative artefacts. An important aspect of design science investigations is the evaluation of the design

Marcus Gibson; David Arnott

2007-01-01

247

Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

248

The Role of Theory and Theorising in Design Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on Design Science (or Design Research) has been mixed on the inclusion, form, and role of theory and theorising in Design Science. Some authors have explicitly excluded theory development and testing from Design Science, leaving them to the Natural and Social\\/Behavioural Sciences. Others propose including theory development and testing as part of Design Science. Others propose some ideas

John R. Venable

249

Pupils' Attitudes to Science. A Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This review of research into pupils' attitudes toward science cites significant British and American studies. Research studies appear under one of nine headings: (1) Attitude measurement in science education, (2) Differences between biology and the physical sciences, (3) The difficulty of the physical sciences and its causes, (4) The early age of…

Ormerod, M. B.; Duckworth, D.

250

The Role of Research on Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research on science teaching and learning plays an important role in improving science literacy, a goal called for in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and supported by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2003). NSTA promotes a research agenda that is focused on the goal of enhancing student learning through…

National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

251

Involving College Students in Social Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Abstract: To explore early-undergraduate exposure to hands-on research opportunities, we invited students enrolled in three second-year social science courses at a community college to participate in a cross-cultural fear of crime project. Thirty-three students participated, conducting community interviews, or coding and entering data. The students completed a ten-item questionnaire to assess their experience, indicating that participation increased their understanding

William McConnell; Roger G. Albert; John P. Marton

252

Flexner revisited: the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education.  

PubMed

A central tenet of Flexner's report was the fundamental role of science in medical education. Today, there is tension between the time needed to teach an ever-expanding knowledge base in science and the time needed for increased instruction in clinical application and in the behavioral, ethical, and managerial knowledge and skills needed to prepare for clinical experiences. One result has been at least a perceived reduction in time and focus on the foundational sciences. In this context, the International Association of Medical Science Educators initiated a study to address the role and value of the basic sciences in medical education by seeking perspectives from various groups of medical educators to five questions: (1) What are the sciences that constitute the foundation for medical practice? (2) What is the value and role of the foundational sciences in medical education? (3) When and how should these foundational sciences be incorporated into the medical education curriculum? (4) What sciences should be prerequisite to entering the undergraduate medical curriculum? (5) What are examples of the best practices for incorporating the foundational sciences into the medical education curriculum? The results suggest a broad group of experts believes that an understanding of basic science content remains essential to clinical practice and that teaching should be accomplished across the entire undergraduate medical education experience and integrated with clinical applications. Learning the sciences also plays a foundational role in developing discipline and rigor in learners' thinking skills, including logical reasoning, critical appraisal, problem solving, decision making, and creativity. PMID:20107367

Finnerty, Edward P; Chauvin, Sheila; Bonaminio, Giulia; Andrews, Mark; Carroll, Robert G; Pangaro, Louis N

2010-02-01

253

Emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences.  

PubMed

Nowadays, educators pay attention to emotional intelligence which is defined as the ability to monitor and explain one's own and other's emotional experience and feelings to differentiate between them as well as applying necessary information for determining thoughts and actions. The goal of this study was to determine emotional intelligence of medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. By means of two stage cluster sampling, 98 medical residents of Tehran University of Medical Sciences were selected. Participants were asked to fill valid and reliable Persian version of Emotional Quotient inventory (EQ-i) questionnaire which had been developed due to Bar-On model. Seventy two filled-up questionnaires were returned (RR=73%). Mean EI score of all participants was 319.94 ± 32.4. Mean EI score was not significantly different between male and female also, single and married participants. EI did not differ significantly in residents in respect to their discipline. Mean responsibility subscale differ significantly between male and female participants (P=0.008). Multiple regression analysis showed that happiness subscale is a predictive factor for total EI score (B=-0.32, P=0.009). Responsibility subscale differed significantly between men and women participants and happiness subscale was a good predictor for emotional intelligence score. These factors should be considered in education of medical residents. PMID:23605604

Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa; Mohammadifar, Mehdi

2013-04-06

254

The future of naval ocean science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Ocean Studies Board (OSB) of the National Research Council reviewed the changing role of basic ocean science research in the Navy at a recent board meeting. The OSB was joined by Gerald Cann, assistant secretary of the Navy for research, development, and acquisition; Geoffrey Chesbrough, oceanographer of the Navy; Arthur Bisson, deputy assistant secretary of the Navy for antisubmarine warfare; Robert Winokur, technical director of the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy; Bruce Robinson, director of the new science directorate at the Office of Naval Research (ONR); and Paul Gaffney, commanding officer of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). The past 2-3 years have brought great changes to the Navy's mission with the dissolution of the former Soviet Union and challenges presented by conflicts in newly independent states and developing nations. The new mission was recently enunciated in a white paper, “From the Sea: A New Direction for the Naval Service,” which is signed by the secretary of the Navy, the chief of naval operations, and the commandant of the Marine Corps. It departs from previous plans by proposing a heavier emphasis on amphibious operations and makes few statements about the traditional Navy mission of sea-lane control.

Orcutt, John A.; Brink, Kenneth

255

Science Nation: Virtual Reality Fires up Research Efforts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Media Convergence Laboratory (MCL) at the University of Central Florida is a place where engineers and artists combine their know-how for video games, virtual reality and a variety of military and commercial products. But there's now a much wider array of researchers discovering the benefits of this lab's toolbox. The Forest Fire project, funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF), blends three seemingly unrelated disciplines: psychology, computer science and economics. The aim is to find out if a virtual reality presentation of wildfires might influence local residents to invest in prescribed burns and other protective efforts. Virtual reality and mixed reality (the blending of virtual content with real content) are now being used in a wide range of other scientific applications, including a growing number of medical therapies.

256

Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity Annual Report 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity annual Report 2001 summarizes work done to support the development of evidence-based medical accession standards contained in DoD Instruction 6130.4 'Criteria and Procedure Requirements for Ph...

D. W. Niebuhr Y. Li T. B. Powers M. R. Krauss

2002-01-01

257

Assessment in Basic Science Instruction: Directions for Practice and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this essay, we discuss assessment of students' understanding of the basic biomedical sciences during the basic science component of medical education. Because we strongly believe that assessment should follow from and be congruent with course and curricular goals, the first section discusses recent trends in basic science education: where it's been and where it appears to be headed. The

D. B. Swanson; S. M. Case

1997-01-01

258

Teaching behavioral sciences to medical students. Education or training?  

PubMed

Accepted paradigms in medical behavioral science education are development, conflict and defense, and disease. Teaching under these paradigms blurs distinctions between preclinical and clinical education, and between education and training--most commonly by including an introduction to clinical psychiatry in preclinical courses. Such approaches may provide students with technical skills at the expense of their developing conceptual bases for continuing self-education. We developed a first-year behavioral sciences course using the paradigm of symbolic function and language. This paradigm can organize knowledge that underlies clinical skills involved in talking with patients and establishing an effective physician-patient relationship. Believing that fostering knowledge should be the primary goal of preclinical education, we emphasized primary sources and classics. Our goal was to encourage analysis and synthesis rather than memorization; evaluating such higher taxonomic levels of education is extraordinarily difficult. PMID:619837

Steele, T E

1978-01-01

259

Undergraduate Research in the Human Sciences: Three Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Undergraduate research in the sciences has been shown by numerous studies to enhance the educational experience. The Undergraduate Research Community (URC) founded in 2001 supports several initiatives that promote research in human sciences/family and consumer sciences including an online peer-reviewed journal specifically for undergraduate work,…

Collins, Nina; Mitstifer, Dorothy I.; Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Hymon-Parker, Shirley

2009-01-01

260

Undergraduate Research in the Human Sciences: Three Models  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Undergraduate research in the sciences has been shown by numerous studies to enhance the educational experience. The Undergraduate Research Community (URC) founded in 2001 supports several initiatives that promote research in human sciences/family and consumer sciences including an online peer-reviewed journal specifically for undergraduate work,…

Collins, Nina; Mitstifer, Dorothy I.; Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Hymon-Parker, Shirley

2009-01-01

261

Maria Mayorga, Medical Researcher, 1952-present  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This biography and associated teaching material is part of a book of 20 life sciences modules designed to increase students' exposure both to female science role models and to hands-on, inquiry approach activities, as recommended by the National Science Education Standards. Modules are designed to drop easily into middle and high school life sciences curricula, not to "add on." Each module includes: a brief biography of a female science role model and hands-on, inquiry approach, and/or problem-solving life sciences activities with a multidisciplinary focus. Role models include both contemporary and historical women, women of color, and women with physical disabilities. Each activity is related to the work of the role model. Activity format includes suggestions for teachers, assessment ideas, and handouts for students.

PhD Marsha L Matyas (American Physiological Society Education)

2007-01-01

262

Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

Eiseman, Elisa

2001-03-01

263

Embedding the new discipline of service science: A service science research agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discourse for embedding the new discipline of service science. It argues for service science to be free of the paradigmatic research influences of existing disciplines and propose service science as an integrative discipline of engineering, technological and social sciences (including business and law) for the purpose of value co-creation with customers. The paper proposes a research

Irene CL Ng; Roger Maull

2009-01-01

264

Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences Striving towards Visibility  

PubMed Central

The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences has in its 25 years “Silver Jubilee” achieved another milestone of being visible to the biomedical community when it was accepted in PubMed. The journal aim to increase its readership so as to increase impact in the biomedical field amongst its Asian readers despite having a high rejection rate. This was done to maintain quality of the manuscripts published over the years. PubMed listing should enable more manuscripts to be cited as its the leading biomedical journal for the Asian community.

GHAZLI, Nur Farahin; ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

2013-01-01

265

Avicenna's contribution to the development and progress of medical sciences.  

PubMed

Avicenna was born in the village of Belkh near Bukhara in Persia. He was a very famous philosopher, wiseman and an efficient physician. He wrote more than one hundred books on all aspects and sciences known in his time i.e. philosophy, wisdom, religion, mathematics, sophism, literature, poetry and medicine. In medicine, the most celebrated of them is "Al-Qanun fil Tibb", which surpassed other similar books on medicine and considered the biggest medical encyclopaedia of his time. Those orientalists who believe in Greek medicine consider this book as the only textbook on the art of curing and recovery. PMID:11609026

El-Gammal, S Y

1994-01-01

266

Research frontiers in the physical sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically by JSTOR in the USA (see http://www.jstor.org/) and are accessible through most university libraries. This archive gives facsimile access, and search facilities, to the works of many famous scientists. In this brief editorial I give first an introduction to the special Christmas issues by young scientists, followed by an overview of the fields covered.

Thompson, J. M. T.

2002-12-01

267

What's a NAMRID (Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In January 1983 the U.S. Navy opened its first fixed, stand-alone research facility in South America. Known as the Naval Medical Research Institute Detachment(NAMRID), Lima, Peru, it is a component of the Naval Medical Research Institute, Bethesda, MD. NA...

M. E. Kilpatrick A. Barzotti-Townsend

1984-01-01

268

Summer Research Program for Science Teachers: Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Columbia University Summer Research Program for Science Teachers, provides lesson plans developed by participants. Lesson plans can be found in the areas of astrophysics, biology, chemistry, earth science, environmental science, general science, and physics. Most of the lesson plans are research-inspired and reference science standards. Currently, there are over 300 lesson plans in the database. The site also provides a search engine to search by keywords for available lesson plans.

2008-07-31

269

Information and its role in medical and pharmaceutical science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a record of the lecture at the Lecturer Meeting for Scientific and Technical Information, which was held as one of the events of Science and Technology Week in 1989. Lecturer explains how the scientific information takes part in research and how researchers make use of it, based on his own experience. He states that the information is especially important in R & D and creative research, by showing the case of studies in the chironomidmidges as an example. Referring to the researches being conducted outside of large cities, he states that online service have eliminated the regional differences in obtaining scientific information and gave researchers much more time for carring out their own research works. Finally, he expects that floppy disk will become popular as one of the information media in the future.

Sassa, Manabu

270

Ring Fenced Research: The Case of Computer-Assisted Learning in Health Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Interdisciplinary research is being promoted in many quarters as the way forward, but "research islands" still persist. Taking computer-assisted learning (CAL) within health sciences as a case in point, this paper describes a detailed study of the references to source material within papers published in general medical, specific nursing and…

Jacobs, Gabriel; Ip, Barry

2005-01-01

271

Improving research on computers in science learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although research in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) currently lacks a well-developed literature and experimental foundation, the number of papers relating to CAI at the 1985 NARST convention at French Lick Springs increased substantially over those presented at the 1984 meeting. This commentary critiques some of those papers and suggests implications for the conduct of research on computers in science learning.The spirit of inquiry and the willingness to share ideas at the 1985 NARST meeting at French Lick Springs enhanced the quality of the meeting and made possible the gathering of papers and information that are the basis for this commentary. One team of authors (Choi & Gennaro, 1985) was so generous as to provide us with software they had developed for their study. The willingness to share was impressive and can facilitate research and development.

Kracjik, Joseph S.; Simmons, Patricia E.; Lunetta, Vincent N.

272

Ethical issues and ethics reviews in social science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the ethics of social science research has not enjoyed as much scholarly attention as the ethics of biomedical research, social scientists continue to debate the relevance of research ethics and ethics review to social science research. Like social scien- tists, biomedical scientists have also objected to ethical review of biomedical research, and much has been gained from the ensuing

Douglas R Wassenaar; Nicole Mamotte

2008-01-01

273

Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society  

SciTech Connect

In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

The HEP Accelerator R& D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

2012-07-01

274

The Coming Influence of a Social Sciences Perspective on Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Although medical education changes in response to advances in biological sciences and technology, changes in public health and attitudes outside medicine may have even more impact on medical education. Medical students need a foundation in both natural and social sciences to deal with the complex interrelationships between social and physical…

Tarlov, Alvin R.

1992-01-01

275

The Coming Influence of a Social Sciences Perspective on Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although medical education changes in response to advances in biological sciences and technology, changes in public health and attitudes outside medicine may have even more impact on medical education. Medical students need a foundation in both natural and social sciences to deal with the complex interrelationships between social and physical…

Tarlov, Alvin R.

1992-01-01

276

[Sponsoring of research by the industry is not good for science].  

PubMed

The pharmaceutical industry is not basically interested in knowledge about diseases and their treatment--its main interest is selling drugs. Hence, its research may even be aimed at shifting the border between health and disease in order to produce more indications for which drugs can be prescribed. In contrast, non-industry sponsored research can be aimed at solving medical problems that really matter and problems for which other forms of treatment are indicated than medication. Therefore, industry-sponsored research is bad for medical science. PMID:16948237

Vermeulen, M

2006-08-12

277

How Does Iranian's Legal System Protect Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity in Medical Research?  

PubMed

The astonishing advance of medical science in recent decades has had endless advantages for humans, including improved level of health, prevention of disease and advances in treatment. These advances depend to a great extent on conducting continuous research. However, besides its enormous advantages, the sole interest of medical science undermines the principles of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity, in both positive and negative approaches. The positive approach refers to the people who participate in research and practice, while the negative approach refers to people who are deprived of research and practice. The authors of this work, based on legal or moral grounds try to analyse the tension between the principle of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity and the interest of medical science. Undoubtedly, in applying scientific knowledge and medical practice human vulnerability should be taken into account. In this regard, especially vulnerable individuals and groups should be protected and the personal integrity of such individuals respected. In the light of the merits of Islamic law, this paper is designed to examine the significance of the principles of human vulnerability and personal integrity in medical research by studying the international documents as formalised by UNESCO in order to explore the place of these principles in the Iranian legal system. PMID:23408269

Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

2011-04-01

278

In search of the soul in science: medical ethics' appropriation of philosophy of science in the 1970s.  

PubMed

This paper examines the deployment of science studies within the field of medical ethics. For a short time, the discourse of medical ethics became a fertile ground for a dialogue between philosophically minded bioethicists and the philosophers of science who responded to Thomas Kuhn's challenge. In their discussion of the validity of Kuhn's work, these bioethicists suggested a distinct interpretation of Kuhn, emphasizing the elements in his account that had been independently developed by Michael Polanyi, and propelling a view of science that retreated from idealizations of scientific method without sacrificing philosophical realism. Appropriating Polanyi, they extended his account of science to biology and medicine. The contribution of Karl Popper to the debate on the applicability of philosophy of science to the issues of medical ethics provides the opportunity to discuss the ways in which political agendas of different epistemologies of science intertwined with questions of concern to medical ethics. PMID:19835265

Aronova, Elena

2009-01-01

279

Embracing Human Science in Counseling Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the historical antecedents to the human science movement in counseling and describes human science methods and recent counseling applications. Includes ways to evaluate human science methods and identifies several virtues that human science offers the counseling profession, such as healing the science-practice schism and affirming…

Herman, Keith C.

1997-01-01

280

New Earth Science Research Opportunities: Committee Seeks Input  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published Basic Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences, which helped define the priorities for the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Earth Sciences (EAR) over the past decade. Motivated by this report, EAR funded key components of the EarthScope initiative, established a network of Critical Zone Observatories, and expanded its post-doctoral fellowship

Mark Lange

2010-01-01

281

Research Matters...to the Science Teacher. Volume 1, 1984.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Suggestions for instructional improvement are offered for science teachers in this compilation of research summaries on specific areas of science education. This series includes the articles: (1) "Improving Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science" (discussing the relationship between teachers and students conceptions of science and…

Howe, Ann, Ed.

282

The (human) science of medical virtual learning environments.  

PubMed

The uptake of virtual simulation technologies in both military and civilian surgical contexts has been both slow and patchy. The failure of the virtual reality community in the 1990s and early 2000s to deliver affordable and accessible training systems stems not only from an obsessive quest to develop the 'ultimate' in so-called 'immersive' hardware solutions, from head-mounted displays to large-scale projection theatres, but also from a comprehensive lack of attention to the needs of the end users. While many still perceive the science of simulation to be defined by technological advances, such as computing power, specialized graphics hardware, advanced interactive controllers, displays and so on, the true science underpinning simulation--the science that helps to guarantee the transfer of skills from the simulated to the real--is that of human factors, a well-established discipline that focuses on the abilities and limitations of the end user when designing interactive systems, as opposed to the more commercially explicit components of technology. Based on three surgical simulation case studies, the importance of a human factors approach to the design of appropriate simulation content and interactive hardware for medical simulation is illustrated. The studies demonstrate that it is unnecessary to pursue real-world fidelity in all instances in order to achieve psychological fidelity--the degree to which the simulated tasks reproduce and foster knowledge, skills and behaviours that can be reliably transferred to real-world training applications. PMID:21149363

Stone, Robert J

2011-01-27

283

The (human) science of medical virtual learning environments  

PubMed Central

The uptake of virtual simulation technologies in both military and civilian surgical contexts has been both slow and patchy. The failure of the virtual reality community in the 1990s and early 2000s to deliver affordable and accessible training systems stems not only from an obsessive quest to develop the ‘ultimate’ in so-called ‘immersive’ hardware solutions, from head-mounted displays to large-scale projection theatres, but also from a comprehensive lack of attention to the needs of the end users. While many still perceive the science of simulation to be defined by technological advances, such as computing power, specialized graphics hardware, advanced interactive controllers, displays and so on, the true science underpinning simulation—the science that helps to guarantee the transfer of skills from the simulated to the real—is that of human factors, a well-established discipline that focuses on the abilities and limitations of the end user when designing interactive systems, as opposed to the more commercially explicit components of technology. Based on three surgical simulation case studies, the importance of a human factors approach to the design of appropriate simulation content and interactive hardware for medical simulation is illustrated. The studies demonstrate that it is unnecessary to pursue real-world fidelity in all instances in order to achieve psychological fidelity—the degree to which the simulated tasks reproduce and foster knowledge, skills and behaviours that can be reliably transferred to real-world training applications.

Stone, Robert J.

2011-01-01

284

American medical research expedition to Everest.  

PubMed

The primary objective of the American Medical Research Expedition to Everest was to obtain information on human physiology at the highest possible altitude, including the Everest summit. An important data point was the barometric pressure on the summit, because this determines the inspired P(O(2)). The first measurement ever taken was 253.0 mmHg. Because modeling studies had shown that extreme hyperventilation was essential to reach these great altitudes, 34 alveolar gas samples were collected above an altitude of 8000 m, including 4 on the summit. These showed that hyperventilation reduced the alveolar P(CO(2)) to between 7 and 8 mmHg in one climber. An important finding was that alveolar P(O(2)) was defended at a value of about 35 mmHg by the increasing hyperventilation as the climbers ascended higher. Venous blood samples collected on two summiters gave a mean base excess of -7.2 meq.L(-1). Using the alveolar P(CO(2)) value, this gave an arterial pH of over 7.7, indicating an extreme degree of respiratory alkalosis. While climbing at an altitude of 8300 m, one summiter showed a respiratory frequency of 86 breaths.min(-1) and tidal volume of 1.26 L, indicating very rapid shallow breathing. Maximal oxygen consumption for the summit was derived by having well-acclimatized subjects exercise maximally at an altitude of 6300 m while breathing 14% oxygen. The V(O(2)) was just over 1 L.min(-1), which is sufficient to explain how exceptional humans can reach the summit without supplementary oxygen. In addition to the measurements at altitudes over 8000 m, data were obtained at two camps at 5400- and 6300-m altitude. These gave information on the control of ventilation, periodic breathing, blood physiology, cerebral function, and metabolism. PMID:20586594

West, John B

2010-01-01

285

Research To Reality: A Model for Community Based Medical Nutrition Therapy an a Comprehensive Early Intervention Program for Medically at Risk Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Arkansas Medical Sciences Department of Pediatrics at Arkansas Children's Hospital participated in a national research project from 1984-89 that focused on low birthweight premature babies. Results of the research revealed significantly higher IQ scores in children receiving intervention. In 1989, the KIDS FIRST program was developed to continue that model of care.Located in 12 sites throughout Arkansas,

V. M. Baker; A. Vance

1998-01-01

286

An Intelligent Management System for Evaluating Science Research Projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proposed in this paper is an intelligent management system for evaluating science research projects based on fuzzy neural networks with genetic algorithms. This system was planned, designed and tested em- ploying theories and approaches of software engineering. This system was then applied to evaluate science research projects of the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province, People's Republic of China. The

Zhi-Yu Chen; Shi-Quan Chen; Jin-Pei Wu

2005-01-01

287

Entering the Community of Practitioners: A Science Research Workshop Model  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes the Science Research Workshop Program (SRW) and discusses how it provides students a legitimate science experience. SRW, which is funded by the National Science Foundation, is an apprenticeship-style program in which students write proposals requesting resources to research an original question. The program creates a…

Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory; Pazos, Pilar

2010-01-01

288

Utilization of social science research knowledge in Canada  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses three questions: What is the extent of the use of social science research in Canada? Are there differences between the social sciences disciplines regarding extent of use? What are the determinants of utilization of social science research knowledge in Canada? The paper develops and tests an empirical model that derives its dependent and independent variables from prior

Réjean Landry; Nabil Amara; Moktar Lamari

2001-01-01

289

Diversifying Science: Underrepresented Student Experiences in Structured Research Programs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Targeting four institutions with structured science research programs for undergraduates, this study focuses on how underrepresented students experience science. Several key themes emerged from focus group discussions: learning to become research scientists, experiences with the culture of science, and views on racial and social stigma.…

Hurtado, Sylvia; Cabrera, Nolan L.; Lin, Monica H.; Arellano, Lucy; Espinosa, Lorelle L.

2009-01-01

290

Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 28 essays in this collection provide an overview of research in library/information science (LIS), present a practical context of such research, and consider related issues and concerns. The essays are: (1) "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS" (Peter Hernon); (2) "Guides to Conducting Research in Library and Information Science" (Ronald R.…

McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Hernon, Peter, Ed.

291

Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 28 essays in this collection provide an overview of research in library/information science (LIS), present a practical context of such research, and consider related issues and concerns. The essays are: (1) "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS" (Peter Hernon); (2) "Guides to Conducting Research in Library and Information Science" (Ronald R.…

McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Hernon, Peter, Ed.

292

Education and research in medical optronics in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First we present here the main post-graduate courses proposed in France both for physicians and engineers in medical optronics. After we explain which medical domains are concerned by this teaching, essentially computer assisted surgery, telemedicine and functional exploration. Then we show the main research axes in these fields, in which new jobs have to be invented and new educational approaches have to be prepared in order to satisfy the demand coming both from hospitals (mainly referent hospitals) and from industry (essentially medical imaging and instrumentation companies). Finally we will conclude that medical optronics is an important step in an entire chain of acquisition and processing of medical data, capable to create the medical knowledge a surgeon or a physician needs for diagnosis or therapy purposes. Optimizing the teaching of medical optronics needs a complete integration from acquiring to modeling the medical reality. This tendency to give a holistic education in medical imaging and instrumentation is called `Model driven Acquisition' learning.

Demongeot, Jacques; Fleute, M.; Herve, T.; Lavallee, Stephane

2000-06-01

293

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

294

Open Science Project in White Dwarf Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will propose a new way of advancing white dwarf research. Open science is a method of doing research that lets everyone who has something to say about the subject take part in the problem solving process. Already now, the amount of information we gather from observations, theory and modeling is too vast for any one individual to comprehend and turn into knowledge. And the amount of information just keeps growing in the future. A platform that promotes sharing of thoughts and ideas allows us to pool our collective knowledge of white dwarfs and get a clear picture of our research field. It will also make it possible for researchers in fields closely related to ours (AGB stars, planetary nebulae etc.) to join the scientific discourse. In the first stage this project would allow us to summarize what we know and what we don't, and what we should search for next. Later, it could grow into a large collaboration that would have the impact to, for example, suggest instrument requirements for future telescopes to satisfy the needs of the white dwarf community, or propose large surveys. A simple implementation would be a wiki page for collecting knowledge combined with a forum for more extensive discussions. These would be simple and cheap to maintain. A large community effort on the whole would be needed for the project to succeed, but individual workload should stay at a low level.

Vornanen, T.

2013-01-01

295

Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the ZFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt...

H. T. Powell E. M. Campbell W. J. Hogan C. D. Orth

2001-01-01

296

Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist

Larry D. Yore; Gay L. Bisanz; Brian M. Hand

2003-01-01

297

The Impact of the Behavioral Sciences on the Collecting Policy of Medical School Libraries *  

PubMed Central

The scope of medical science has broadened to embrace subject areas in the behavioral and social sciences. Medical school curricula have responded to this trend, and the response is inevitably making itself felt in the medical school library. One medical school library's efforts to identify significant library materials in this area are presented as an example of a technique and as an indication of an order of magnitude. A master list of appropriate journal titles is appended.

MacKenzie, Ruth C.; Bloomquist, Harold

1964-01-01

298

Diversifying Science: Underrepresented Student Experiences in Structured Research Programs  

PubMed Central

Targeting four institutions with structured science research programs for undergraduates, this study focuses on how underrepresented students experience science. Several key themes emerged from focus group discussions: learning to become research scientists, experiences with the culture of science, and views on racial and social stigma. Participants spoke of essential factors for becoming a scientist, but their experiences also raised complex issues about the role of race and social stigma in scientific training. Students experienced the collaborative and empowering culture of science, exhibited strong science identities and high self-efficacy, while developing directed career goals as a result of “doing science” in these programs.

Cabrera, Nolan L.; Lin, Monica H.; Arellano, Lucy; Espinosa, Lorelle L.

2013-01-01

299

Occupational Practices and the Making of Health News: A National Survey of U.S. Health and Medical Science Journalists  

Microsoft Academic Search

News media coverage of health topics can frame and heighten the salience of health-related issues, thus influencing the public's beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. Through their routine coverage of scientific developments, news media are a critical intermediary in translating research for the public, patients, practitioners, and policymakers. Until now, little was known about how health and medical science reporters and editors

K. Viswanath; Kelly D. Blake; Helen I. Meissner; Nicole Gottlieb Saiontz; Corey Mull; Carol S. Freeman; Bradford Hesse; Robert T. Croyle

2008-01-01

300

Molecular proxies in soil science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All organisms contain unique combinations of organic compounds and as such, each may provide a unique input of organic matter into soils during the lifetime of the organism and after its demise. Under normal environmental conditions, a large proportion of this organic matter is rapidly degraded. However, in most cases a proportion of more persistent components remain extant within the soil. When organic molecules persist, either wholly or as a recognizable transformation product, they can serve as molecular proxies (or biomarkers) for identifying previous inputs of organic matter and various biogeochemical processes stimulated by such inputs. Furthermore, such biomarkers may serve as an aid to reconstructions of paleo-vegetation and -climate and/or archaeological activities/land-use. At the same time the input differentiation and biogeochemical transformation of organic molecules helps elucidate past and present environmental conditions and shed light on carbon cycling in soils. The last decades have seen a rapidly increasing application of molecular proxies in soil science in the identified areas; amongst others because of the availability of increasingly sophisticated analytical tools. Compound specific determination of 13C and 14C signatures as well as new computational methods to unravel mixed biomarker signals into their most likely sources of origin are examples of such tools. In this presentation, important recent developments in the application of molecular proxies in soil science research will be highlighted.

Jansen, B.

2012-04-01

301

Research Objectives 1965: Physical Sciences, Engineering Sciences, Environmental Sciences, Life Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Aerospace Research (OAR), as the prime research agency of the United States Air Force, conducts research within its own laboratories and, through its grants' and contracts' program, sponsors scientific research among the leading scientists o...

1965-01-01

302

Undergraduate Science Research: A Comparison of Influences and Experiences between Premed and Non-Premed Students  

PubMed Central

Most students participating in science undergraduate research (UR) plan to attend either medical school or graduate school. This study examines possible differences between premed and non–premed students in their influences to do research and expectations of research. Questionnaire responses from 55 premed students and 80 non–premed students were analyzed. No differences existed in the expectations of research between the two groups, but attitudes toward science and intrinsic motivation to learn more about science were significantly higher for non–premed students. Follow-up interviews with 11 of the students, including a case study with one premed student, provided explanation for the observed differences. Premed students, while not motivated to learn more about science, were motivated to help people, which is why most of them are pursuing medicine. They viewed research as a way to help them become doctors and to rule out the possibility of research as a career. Non–premed students participated in research to learn more about a specific science topic and gain experience that may be helpful in graduate school research. The difference in the reasons students want to do UR may be used to tailor UR experiences for students planning to go to graduate school or medical school.

Pacifici, Lara Brongo; Thomson, Norman

2011-01-01

303

Science in the Preschool Classroom: A Programmatic Research Agenda to Improve Science Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This article focuses on preschool science, an important but under-researched school readiness domain. There is considerable activity surrounding quality science in early childhood classroom practices, including state standards, curricula with science activities, and an extensive literature on potential best practices. However,…

Greenfield, Daryl B.; Jirout, Jamie; Dominguez, Ximena; Greenberg, Ariela; Maier, Michelle; Fuccillo, Janna

2009-01-01

304

Earthworks: Promoting authentic classroom science through Earth System Science research in the Rocky Mountains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earthworks is week-long teacher professional development workshop in the Rocky Mountains designed to help secondary science teachers create Earth System Science research projects that can effectively be transferred to their students. Participants work closely with scientists who specialize in geology, ecology, meteorology, biology, chemistry and aquatic sciences as they develop and conduct their own small-group research projects. Through fieldwork, observations,

S. Buhr; G. F. Healy

2003-01-01

305

Medical Professors See Threat in Corporate Influence on Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At a recent American Association of University Professors conference, professors and researchers discussed the growing influence of corporations on academic research in medicine, including increased medical school reliance on corporate funding, requirements for research confidentiality, the potential for conflict of interest in research, and the…

Mangan, Katherine S.

1999-01-01

306

From history of science to science education: Presenting a research model  

Microsoft Academic Search

History of science has been presented by a number of researchers as a useful tool in science education research, especially concerning research on students' ideas and\\/or the ways to deal with those ideas in the classroom. Therefore, a research model was designed. The model is focused on recording students' ideas and encouraging those ideas that are in agreement with the

Fanny Seroglou

307

Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses  

PubMed Central

The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians’ ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians’ ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain–Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74–79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians’ inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians’ experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians’ inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan

2012-01-01

308

Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses.  

PubMed

The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians' ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians' ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain-Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74-79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians' inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians' experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians' inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. PMID:22189568

Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan; Merkies, Ingemar Sergio José

2011-12-20

309

Science and Engineering Research Semester (SERS) for undergraduate students  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE), through the Science and Energy Research Semester (SERS), provides unique research opportunities for upper-level undergraduate students at six national laboratories, which have established Science Education Centers. At each Science Education Center, SERS participants have the opportunity to become involved in hands-on'' research working with scientific teams engaged in long-range investigations and using advanced facilities/equipment. SERS research opportunities are available in biomedicine, chemistry, materials science, engineering, physics, environmental science, geoscience, mathematics, computer science, artificial intelligence, energy systems, and waste technology. SERS participates follow a program with three basic elements: (1) participation in ongoing national energy-related research; (2) training and experience in the operation of sophisticated, state-of-the-art equipment and instruments; and (3) seminars, workshops, and coursework designed to supplement the laboratory research experience.

Not Available

1990-12-01

310

Science Literacy and Research: Making Connections Using Kepler Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of and future plans for education-related components related to educator participation in the NASA/IPAC 2011 Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) are presented. NITARP engages both formal and informal educators in conducting authentic science research utilizing publicly available Kepler Mission data sets under the direction of scientists. This team's research entailed the analysis of stellar light curves, comparing periodicity and temperature from a sample of 250 known variable stars, to determine their characteristics using light curves, power spectra, and phased-plot diagrams. Participating educators shared their research experiences with students, educators, and the public in a variety of ways. Additionally, students were directly involved in the research project, providing additional insights into how science research is conducted. Education activities related to the science research are presented. This program provides educators, students, and the public at large, insight into the world of authentic science research while providing avenues to support science education. Linking the learning of science to the doing of science promotes true science literacy of students and the public. An understanding of the nature of science is vital to promoting the science literacy of civilization.

DeVeau, Stacy; Blackwell, J.; Edwards, D.; Ciardi, D.; Howell, S.

2012-01-01

311

Experimental studies in air medical research.  

PubMed

This article is the 18th in a multipart series designed to assist readers, particularly novices, in the area of clinical research. This article is focused on the process of developing a new research project. It provides tools to help those involved in beginning their own research projects. PMID:22225555

Youngquist, Scott T; Gee, Chris

312

Integrating Ethics in Science into a Summer Undergraduate Research Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe the development, implementation, and assessment of an Ethics in Science program as a component of a summer undergraduate research site. The goals and course content of the program overlap with those outlined in the proposed Office of Research Integrity Public Health Service Policy on Instruction in the Responsible Conduct of Research (RCR). The Ethics in Science program provides

Amy M. Shachter

2003-01-01

313

Research Ethics in Social Sciences: The Severina's Story Documentary  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Brazil, social science research ethics is a field still under construction and subject to intense dispute. The aim of this paper is to discuss how accepted principles of biomedical research ethics can be incorporated into the ethical review of social sciences, particularly open interviews, ethnographic research, and participant observation. The paper uses a case study—the ethnographic documentary Severina's Story—as

Debora Diniz

2008-01-01

314

RELEVANCE OF ANIMAL SCIENCE RESEARCH: AN INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Animal science research benefits producers and consumers alike by improving livestock productivity and efficiency. Unfortunately, the need for research is less obvious when supplies of meat and milk are abundant. This abundance, however, is a phenomenon of developed regions. For most developing regions there is major continuing need for relevant animal science research, a substantial portion of which may be

H. A. Fitzhugh

315

Holism versus Reductionism in Modern Social Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since an early stage in most of thetechnical sciences, and during the last fewdecades in many of the social sciences,reductionistic research has become a mainstream typeof empirical research. This research, to becharacterised methodologically in this article, hasproven to be very successful in buildinga body of abstract and generalisable theoreticalknowledge, for reasons that are made clearin this article. However, does reductionism

Piet J. M. Verschuren

2001-01-01

316

Microwave radiometer sensor technology research for Earth science measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

A research program has been initiated at NASA Langley Research Center to investigate the critical technologies for developing advanced microwave radiometers suitable for Earth science observations. A significant objective of this research is to enable microwave measurements with adequate spatial resolutions for a number of Earth science parameters, such as sea ice, precipitation, soil moisture, sea surface temperature, and wind

Richard F. Harrington; Marion C. Bailey; Bruce M. Kendall; Lyle C. Schroeder; Roland W. Lawrence; Thomas G. Campbell

1993-01-01

317

Globalization of Science and Engineering Research. A Companion to Science and Engineering Indicators, 2010.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Science and Engineering Indicators 2010 provides clear evidence that science and engineering (S&E) research is becoming an increasingly international endeavor. S&E activities are occurring and intensifying in more regions and economies, largely in respons...

2011-01-01

318

Evaluation of the medical student research programme in Norwegian medical schools. A survey of students and supervisors  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Medical Student Research Programme is a national education and grant scheme for medical students who wish to carry out research in parallel with their studies. The purpose of the programme is to increase recruitment of people with a standard medical degree to medical research. The Research Programme was established in 2002 and underwent a thorough evaluation during the

Steinar Hunskaar; Jarle Breivik; Maje Siebke; Karin Tømmerås; Kristian Figenschau; John-Bjarne Hansen

2009-01-01

319

Spaces of speech and places of performance: an outline of a geography of science approach to embryonic stem cell research and diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we develop a geography of science framework to examine the social, scientific and medical dimensions of human embryonic stem cell research. We outline David Livingstone's approach to geographies of science as “sites of speech and locations of locution” to explore the spatial shaping of science and the scientific shaping of space. Drawing upon our ongoing research on

Steven P. Wainwright; Clare Williams

2008-01-01

320

[The role of behavioral sciences in the Hungarian and international medical education: overview and possibilities].  

PubMed

The unilateral bio-medical approach cannot be effective in the prevention and effective treatment of chronic disorders of great epidemiological significance, because the behavioural risk factors are strongly influenced by psychosocial factors too. After the change of the political system in Hungary the most important step in curriculum development was establishing the institutes of behavioural sciences. However, the share of behavioural sciences nowhere exceeds 3% of the curriculum. Yet it has an important role in bridging the gap between the natural and social sciences. Built on the firm basis of natural sciences, the behavioural sciences complement this foundation with aspects of social sciences which emphasize the psychological needs of the patients as well as the psychosocial determinants of health and diseases. The most significant field of behavioural sciences is medical psychology but according to the latest reports on medical education development communication, medical sociology, medical anthropology and bioethics have become increasingly important disciplines in developing medical competence. These fields are organized into an integrated process, arching over the six years of medical training. The present paper gives an overview of the situation and perspectives of teaching behavioural sciences at medical universities. PMID:11883172

Kopp, M; Pikó, B

2001-12-01

321

A Preliminary Statement on Research in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research work in science education is a special area of scholarship within the scientific enterprise. The scientific enterprise ranks with the arts and religion as one of the major areas of human endeavor. Science education can be classified within science, albeit it stands as a poor cousin when compared with physics, biology and other fields. The…

Novak, Joseph D.

2003-01-01

322

Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

2011-01-01

323

Goals for Long-Range Research in Information Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to discuss the research goals of information science (IS), both its logical and its specific nature must be determined. Peircean logical analysis shows that IS may be classified in three parts: pure science, applied science, and technology. The d...

C. Pearson

1975-01-01

324

Fall 1978 Directory - Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This directory of the Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS), National Research Council, reflects the status of all committees, their membership, Corresponding Societies, and ALS staff as of October, 1978. Organization charts illustrate the relationship between the Assembly of Life Sciences and the general structure of the National Academy of Sciences,…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

325

Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

2011-01-01

326

Bridging the Gap: The Role of Research in Science Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching in K-12 science classrooms across the country does not accurately model the real processes of science. To fill this gap, programs that integrate science education and research are imperative. Teachers Experiencing Antarctica and the Arctic (TEA) is a program sponsored and supported by many groups including NSF, the Division of Elementary, Secondary, and Informal Education (ESIE), and the American

M. L. Adams; P. J. Michael

2001-01-01

327

A Preliminary Statement on Research in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research work in science education is a special area of scholarship within the scientific enterprise. The scientific enterprise ranks with the arts and religion as one of the major areas of human endeavor. Science education can be classified within science, albeit it stands as a poor cousin when compared with physics, biology and other fields.…

Novak, Joseph D.

2003-01-01

328

Fall 1978 Directory - Assembly of Life Sciences, National Research Council.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This directory of the Assembly of Life Sciences (ALS), National Research Council, reflects the status of all committees, their membership, Corresponding Societies, and ALS staff as of October, 1978. Organization charts illustrate the relationship between the Assembly of Life Sciences and the general structure of the National Academy of Sciences,…

National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

329

Medical electronics — A challenging research and industry frontier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The demand on high-quality and low-cost healthcare and medical diagnoses\\/treatment has been rapidly increased as the aging society is coming. Medical electronics becomes an exciting research frontier of future electronics industry where intelligent instrument\\/clinical devices which treat intractable neurological disorders or chronic diseases, advanced biomimetic devices\\/systems, artificial organs, etc. are developed with heterogeneous integration of technologies. Medical electronics is an

2011-01-01

330

The French Academy of Sciences as a patron of the medical sciences in the early nineteenth century.  

PubMed

In the wake of the French Revolution, the newly founded First Class of the Institute in Paris was able to make major contributions, not only to science but also to medicine. Unfortunately, the latter has hardly been appreciated. These medical contributions may be summarized as being: (1) through the interests of two of its sections, (2) through patronage and, in particular, its exceptional encouragement of one young man, François Magendie, (3) through the Montyon legacy, (4) through its implicit recognition of pharmacy and pharmacology. Special attention is given to the relationship of the official body of science with Magendie, the founder of experimental physiology, through a detailed study of the minutes of the meetings of the First Class (renamed the Academy of Sciences after 1816). Whereas one might have expected medical institutions to have played a significant part in the development of the medical sciences, it was the Academy of Sciences which played a leading role. PMID:19831262

Crosland, Maurice

2009-04-01

331

Genetic Research: Mining for Medical Treasures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. "Knock-out" mice, in which specific genes have been inactivated, have been tremendously useful in helping researchers understand the genetic basis of disease. Moreover, "knock out" mice also serve as animal models for human diseases, allowing researchers to develop treatments and diagnostic tests for genetic diseases.

Cathryn M. Delude (The Writing Group)

2010-07-12

332

Improving a playcentre science programme through action research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attitudes to science develop early in life. In early childhood, the almost exclusively female staff members lack confidence in the area of science, and are therefore unable to develop an adequate science program for their children. In an action research project involving one third of the adults staffing a playcentre, during one term, the science programme in the centre was considerably improved, on measures of dialogues with the children, and of planning activities specifically for science. The staff members, mothers in the playcentre, reported increased confidence in talking with children about science topics, and a significant change in their interaction patterns both with their own families and with other children in the playcentre science programme. The action research method was found to be particularly helpful in supporting the group of parents in improving their centre's science program.

Jordan, Barbara

1992-12-01

333

Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

2010-01-01

334

Ethics and the ethnography of medical research in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethics of medical research have grown as an area of expertise and debate in recent years, with two broad approaches emerging in relation to transnational research: (1) the refinement of guidelines and strengthening of review, processes primarily to protect the right of individual research participants and strengthen interpersonal relations at the micro-level; and (2) considering more centrally, as crucial

Sassy Molyneux; P. Wenzel Geissler

2008-01-01

335

U.S. Defense dollars for computer science plunge [computer science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on how the US Defense Department has been slowly reducing its annual budget for computer science research in favor of near-term projects with a strictly military focus. While researchers can seek funding from the National Science Foundation (NSF), their grants tend to be smaller than compared to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), which appears to

J. Kumagai

2006-01-01

336

Medical student research: a program of self-education.  

PubMed

Student participation in research has traditionally been part of the academic program in American medical schools. A survey of student research in 115 U.S. medical schools showed that 74 percent had M.D./Ph.D. programs but that only about 0.6 percent of the students participated in them. Eighty percent had research programs not directed toward a Ph.D.; and although these involved only 6 percent of the students, the enthusiasm of the students for their research experience was very high. The University of Florida has long fostered medical student research. A survey of 1969--1978 participants in the Florida programs yielded a 74 percent endorsement of research as an important, positive educational experience, and nearly all agreed that a research option should be part of the medical school curriculum. Since research provides the students with an intellectually challenging, self-learning experience that they endorse enthusiastically and since there is small student participation, it seems timely to reassess the role of student research in the medical school curriculum. PMID:7299797

Fisher, W R

1981-11-01

337

Computing Curricula: Teaching Theory of Science to Computer Science Students (Science Education \\/ Curriculum, Research and Development)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal Science for the existing Theory of Science (Popper, Carnap, Kuhn, Chalmers) is Physics. Not many modern Sciences conform to that ideal, however. Philosophy of Science (Theory of Science) as it is today is not of much help when trying to understand e.g. Computer Science. There is an urgent need to broaden the Theory of Science perspective in order

Gordana DODIG-CRNKOVIC; Ivica CRNKOVIC

338

International student exchange and the medical curriculum: evaluation of a medical sciences translational physiology course in Brazil.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to conduct a short-term international course on translational physiology for medical students from Wright State University and the University of Iowa. The goals were to 1) provide students with an exposure to the academic, cultural, and medical environments in Brazil; 2) promote awareness of the global medical community; and 3) provide an academic course focused on translational physiology. An evaluation of the students was conducted to determine whether such a short-term course might be useful in the medical curriculum. The 2-wk course was held in the summer of 2005 at the University of São Paulo School of Medicine in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, for 23 American students. The program included presentations of basic and clinical topics, meetings with medical students, and clinical presentations. The program finished with student attendance at a scientific meeting sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Hypertension. Student surveys evaluated issues related to perceived treatment, Brazilian medical school environment, culture and personal attributes, and career aspirations. The international Medical Sciences Translational Physiology course for medical students provided a brief, but intense, experience. It gave students a picture of the medical environment in Brazil and an appreciation for the differences and similarities in cultures. Most students reported that it was a positive experience that would be beneficial to their careers. In conclusion, a short-term international course provides an efficient means for medical students to experience aspects of global medical science. PMID:16912146

Morris, Mariana; Jones, T David; Rocha, Maria Jose Alves; Fazan, Rubens; Chapleau, Mark W; Salgado, Helio C; Johnson, Alan Kim; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Michelini, Lisete C; Goldstein, David L

2006-09-01

339

Medical Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues / Spring 2012 Table of Contents Newspapers, radio, television, and the Internet are full of health news ... about a new result of medical research on television or read about it in the paper. Perhaps ...

340

Naval Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory Bibliography, 1981-1986.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report lists citations of all unclassified research reports, special reports, monographs, journal articles, and proceedings that were published by the Naval Aerospace Medical Reserch Laboratory during calendar years 1981 through 1986. Requests for nu...

K. S. Mayer

1987-01-01

341

Then & Now: Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Then & Now Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... which afflict tens of millions of Americans of all ages. William Howard Taft—Then & Now Taft's Condition ...

342

The ethics of conducting graduate medical education research on residents.  

PubMed

The field of graduate medical education (GME) research is attracting increased attention and broader participation. The authors review the special ethical and methodological considerations pertaining to medical education research. Because residents are at once a convenient and captive study population, a risk of coercion exists, making the provision of consent important. The role of the institutional review board (IRB) is often difficult to discern because GME activities can have multiple simultaneous purposes, educational activities may go forward with or without a research component, and the subjects of educational research studies are not patients. The authors provide a road map for researchers with regard to research oversight by the IRB and also address issues related to research quality. The matters of whether educational research studies should have educational value for the study subject and whether to use individual information obtained when residents participate as research subjects are explored. PMID:23425981

Keune, Jason D; Brunsvold, Melissa E; Hohmann, Elizabeth; Korndorffer, James R; Weinstein, Debra F; Smink, Douglas S

2013-04-01

343

International Research at ARI: The European Science Coordination Office.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This special report discusses the history, work,and accomplishments of the Army Research Institute's European Science Coordination Office. Publications, reports, and typical scientific presentations stemming from its international research program are lis...

M. Kaplan M. S. Katz

1991-01-01

344

Science Advisory Board Review of the Forest Effects Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Science Advisory Board review document of the Forest Effects Research Program lays out the rationale, scope, and approach for implementing a joint research program sponsored by the US Environmental Protection Agency and the US Forest Service to invest...

A. Fege A. M. Bartuska E. B. Cowling J. E. Barnard R. L. Bradow

1985-01-01

345

Environmental Sciences Division: Summaries of research in FY 1996.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes the Fiscal Year 1996 activities and products of the Environmental Sciences Division, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, Office of Energy Research. The report is organized into four main sections. The introduction iden...

1997-01-01

346

Research and Publication Patterns in Library and Information Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and publication patterns of thirty-four topranking researchers in library and information science (LIS) in Africa were surveyed. The researchers produced 294 papers during the 1990–1995 period which were considered for this study. The findings reveal that majority of the researchers were from universities and were based mainly in Nigeria and South Africa. The principal research centres, however, were

L. O. Aina; N. P. Mooko

1999-01-01

347

Political Science Research on China: Making the Most of Diversity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims at stimulating debate on the future development of political science research in and on China by bringing\\u000a into clearer view the diversity of social science research in the West. It argues that far from monolithic, political science\\u000a is itself engaged in a broad controversy on common goals and shared standards. Secondly, addressing international students\\u000a of Chinese politics

Björn Alpermann

2009-01-01

348

Behavioral and Social Science Research: A National Resource. Part I.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The value, significance, and social utility of basic research in the behavioral and social sciences are examined. Following an introduction in chapter 1, there are 4 major chapters. Chapter 2 discusses how the research terrain has been divided among the disciplines of psychology, sociology, anthropology, economics, political science, geography,…

Adams, Robert McC., Ed.; And Others

349

Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future  

SciTech Connect

We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants.

Powell, H T; Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Orth, C D

2001-04-10

350

Information Science Research Agenda in Slovakia: History and Emerging Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents research and education in library and information science in Slovakia as an example of the history, present state, and future of information science research and collaboration in central European countries. Highlights include: the professional experience in the region since 1990, structural changes, examples of these changes, recent…

Steinerova, Jela

2003-01-01

351

Handbook of Research Design in Mathematics and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book attempts to clarify the nature of principles that govern the effective use of merging new research designs in mathematics and science education. A primary goal is to describe several of the most important types of research design that have been pioneered recently by mathematics and science educators, have distinctive characteristics…

Kelly, Anthony E., Ed.; Lesh, Richard A., Ed.

352

Field-Based Research Experience in Earth Science Teacher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the pilot of a field-based research experience in earth science teacher education designed to produce well-prepared, scientifically and technologically literate earth science teachers through a teaching- and research-oriented partnership between in-service teachers and a university scientist-educator. Indicates that the pilot program…

O'Neal, Michael L.

2003-01-01

353

Critique and Fiction: Doing Science Right in Rural Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This essay explains the relevance of fiction to the practice of rural education research, in so doing engaging questions about the nature and purposes of research and, therefore, of science itself. Although many may assume science and fiction (in this account, novels) harbor contrary purposes and devices, this essay argues that, to the contrary,…

Howley, Craig

2009-01-01

354

Devices development and techniques research for space life sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development process and the status quo of the devices and techniques for space life science in China and the main research results in this field achieved by Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics SITP CAS are reviewed concisely in this paper On the base of analyzing the requirements of devices and techniques for supporting space life science experiments and researches

A. Zhang; B. Liu; C. Zheng

2006-01-01

355

Professor Barry Fraser's Contributions to Science Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, I endeavour to convey the depth of Barry Fraser's contributions to science education research, including his tireless endeavours to promote and advance research, especially the field of learning environments, the realisation of his vision to create one of the largest doctoral programs in science and mathematics education in the…

Aldridge, Jill M.

2011-01-01

356

Summaries of FY 1988 Research in the Chemical Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary book is published annually to provide information on research supported by the Department of Energy's Division of Chemical Sciences, which is one of six Divisions of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. These ...

1988-01-01

357

Handbook of Research Design in Mathematics and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book attempts to clarify the nature of principles that govern the effective use of merging new research designs in mathematics and science education. A primary goal is to describe several of the most important types of research design that have been pioneered recently by mathematics and science educators, have distinctive characteristics when…

Kelly, Anthony E., Ed.; Lesh, Richard A., Ed.

358

Science and mechatronics-aided research for teachers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Science and Mechatronics Aided Research for Teachers (SMART) program which provides teachers with training and workshops. The SMART program is funded by the National Science Foundation's (NSF's) Division of Engineering Education and Centers under its Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program. It aims to enrich precollege education by providing teachers from the New York metropolitan region

V. Kapila; Sang-Hoon Lee

2004-01-01

359

Use of sequential medical trials in rehabilitation research.  

PubMed

Although randomized, clinical trial designs represent the pinnacle of research excellence, they are often difficult to implement in natural or clinical settings. An alternative approach to analysis of data collected during rehabilitation research is the sequential medical trial design. In a sequential medical trial, subjects are serially recruited and the results are continuously analyzed. The use of preconstructed sequential charts remove the need for clinicians to perform complicated statistical analyses and allow an immediate visual indication of the direction the results are taking. Benefits of sequential medical trials are as follows: as soon as enough data are collected to show treatment preference, the trial is stopped; a trial that is showing no beneficial or even harmful effects can be quickly terminated; fewer subjects are needed (without loss of statistical power); features such as randomization, blinding, and cross-over designs can be included; the design suits the serial nature of rehabilitation practice. Limitations to sequential medical trials are that in simple designs extraneous factors cannot be controlled for and that multiple dependent variables are difficult to assess. This article discusses the theory behind the sequential medical trial design and outlines how to plan a sequential medical trial, recruit subjects, construct and use a simple sequential chart, and analyze and interpret the results. Examples of sequential medical trials used in rehabilitation research are presented. It is hoped that this article will increase the exposure of this useful design and result in greater use of sequential medical trials by rehabilitation professionals. PMID:9923437

Tooth, L

360

Perceptions of models in life science research and implications for science education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models are important tools used by research scientists to explore the development, design, and communication of their ideas. Since models are vital to scientists, science educators believe that children should learn science by building and testing their own models. If students can construct and use models like scientists then they can gain a more authentic science experience. The purpose of

Austin Manning Hitt II

2004-01-01

361

Science IDEAS: A Research-Based K-5 Interdisciplinary Instructional Model Linking Science and Literacy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Science IDEAS is an evidence-based model that reflects interdisciplinary research findings that support the integration of literacy (e.g., reading comprehension) within science instruction in grades K-5. Presented is a framework for planning integrated science and literacy instruction in which six elements (hands-on investigations, reading,…

Romance, Nancy R.; Vitale, Michael R.

2012-01-01

362

Alzheimer's Disease: Research Advances and Medical Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's disease was the eighth-leading cause of death in 2001. There is no cure and no effective treatment. Alzheimer's disease presents policy- makers with several challenges, including the level of funding and direction of fed- erally funded research, as well as the cost pressures on Medicare and Medicaid of long-term care. These challenges will increase in intensity as demographic changes,

Erica Seiguer; Mary Mahon

2005-01-01

363

Writing the Original Medical Research Paper  

Microsoft Academic Search

An original article is generally considered a cornerstone of modern research. It is a detailed written presentation of novel and original data that undergo peer review. The current paper describes in detail how to draw up an original article effectively, using strategies such as modern information technology and a rational sequence of writing title page, materials and methods, figures and

Thomas Andersen Schmidt; Jan Bech; Keld Kjeldsen

2005-01-01

364

Training Synergies Between Medical Informatics and Health Services Research  

PubMed Central

Stanford's two decades of success in linking medical informatics and health services research in both training and investigational activities reflects advantageous geography and history as well as natural synergies in the two areas. Health services research and medical informatics at Stanford have long shared a quantitative, analytic orientation, along with linked administration, curriculum, and clinical activities. Both the medical informatics and the health services research curricula draw on diverse course offerings throughout the university, and both the training and research overlap in such areas as outcomes research, large database analysis, and decision analysis/decision support. The Stanford experience suggests that successful integration of programs in medical informatics and health services research requires areas of overlapping or synergistic interest and activity among the involved faculty and, hence, in time, among the students. This is enhanced by a mixture of casual and structured contact among students from both disciplines, including social interactions. The challenges to integration are how to overcome any geographic separation that may exist in a given institution; the proper management of relationships with those sub-areas of medical informatics that have less overlap with health services research; and the need to determine how best to exploit opportunities for collaboration that naturally occur.

Shortliffe, Edward H.; Garber, Alan M.

2002-01-01

365

Reconfigurable Platform for Content Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The College of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at the National Taiwan University has identied the area of content science for media-rich life, broadly con- strued, as one of core areas for the college's future direc- tions. One major aspect of this project is to develop the en- abling technology for reconfigurable platforms for multime- dia applications. Specifically, the goal

Chi-sheng Shih; Chia-lin Yang; Mong-kai Ku; Tei-wei Kuo; Shao-yi Chien; Yao-wen Chang; Liang-gee Chen

2005-01-01

366

Construction management research at the interface of design and explanatory science  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this study is to characterize construction management research at the interface of explanatory science and design science. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The dual nature of construction management research is analyzed by relating this field of research to natural science, design science and its interface. Research at the interface of explanatory science and design science is characterized by

Hans Voordijk

2011-01-01

367

Using databases in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 77.  

PubMed

This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to the use of databases in medical education research. It is intended for those who are contemplating conducting research in medical education but are new to the field. The Guide is structured around the process of planning your research so that data collection, management and analysis are appropriate for the research question. Throughout we consider contextual possibilities and constraints to educational research using databases, such as the resources available, and provide concrete examples of medical education research to illustrate many points. The first section of the Guide explains the difference between different types of data and classifying data, and addresses the rationale for research using databases in medical education. We explain the difference between qualitative research and qualitative data, the difference between categorical and quantitative data, and the difference types of data which fall into these categories. The Guide reviews the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative and quantitative research. The next section is structured around how to work with quantitative and qualitative databases and provides guidance on the many practicalities of setting up a database. This includes how to organise your database, including anonymising data and coding, as well as preparing and describing your data so it is ready for analysis. The critical matter of the ethics of using databases in medical educational research, including using routinely collected data versus data collected for research purposes, and issues of confidentiality, is discussed. Core to the Guide is drawing out the similarities and differences in working with different types of data and different types of databases. Future AMEE Guides in the research series will address statistical analysis of data in more detail. PMID:23621147

Cleland, Jennifer; Scott, Neil; Harrild, Kirsten; Moffat, Mandy

2013-04-22

368

Meeting global health challenges through operational research and management science  

PubMed Central

Abstract This paper considers how operational research and management science can improve the design of health systems and the delivery of health care, particularly in low-resource settings. It identifies some gaps in the way operational research is typically used in global health and proposes steps to bridge them. It then outlines some analytical tools of operational research and management science and illustrates how their use can inform some typical design and delivery challenges in global health. The paper concludes by considering factors that will increase and improve the contribution of operational research and management science to global health.

2011-01-01

369

[Emerging problems of medical ethics in Russia: medical practice and research].  

PubMed

The problem of maintenance of integrity of medical profession is rarely discussed in Russia. Meanwhile the following pressing challenges emerge within the medical community in this country: tolerant attitude to violations of ethical principles and falsification in research, incompetence and deceit in practical work, wide penetration of alternative medicine and witchery into everyday medical practice, involvement of physicians in advertising and marketing of drugs, even direct selling of them by medical doctors. Medical community should urgently respond to these challenges and develop mechanisms of internal control. This can be accomplished within the framework of associations of physicians and medical professional groups. Without solution of the above problems Russian medicine would never occupy appropriate high position in the society. PMID:12494154

Vlasov, V V

2002-01-01

370

Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy - among them are critical listening and reading of various sources, multi-media presentations and representations, effective debate and argument, quality explanation and the role of information and communication technologies/environments.

Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

2003-06-01

371

Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX): A Fundamental Science Research Mission Advancing Technologies that Enable MEO Spaceflight.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Air Force Research Laboratory has developed the Demonstration and Science Experiments (DSX) to research technologies needed to significantly advance the capability to operate spacecraft in the harsh radiation environment of medium-earth orbits (MEO). ...

A. Adler B. Dichter G. Ginet J. Schoenberg M. Xapsos

2006-01-01

372

Research Trend of Physical Skill Science --Towards Elucidation of Physical Skill--  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Physical skills and language skills are both fundamental intelligent abilities of human being. In this paper, we focus our attention to such sophisticated physical skills as playing sports and playing instruments and introduce research activities aiming at elucidating and verbalizing them. This research area has been launched recently. We introduce approaches from physical modeling, measurements and data analysis, cognitive science and human interface. We also discuss such issues as skill acquisition and its support systems. Furthermore, we consider a fundamental issue of individual differences occurring in every application of skill elucidation. Finally we introduce several attempts of skill elucidation in the fields of dancing, manufacturing, playing string instruments, sports science and medical care.

Furukawa, Koichi; Ueno, Ken; Ozaki, Tomonobu; Kamisato, Shihoko; Kawamoto, Ryuji; Shibuya, Koji; Shiratori, Naruhiko; Suwa, Masaki; Soga, Masato; Taki, Hirokazu; Fujinami, Tsutomu; Hori, Satoshi; Motomura, Yoichi; Morita, Souhei

373

78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...The Food and Drug Administration...initiative (MCMi) Regulatory Science Symposium. The...

2013-04-05

374

77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration...Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration...The Food and Drug Administration...Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium. The...

2012-04-11

375

Radiation dosimetry at the BNL Medical Research Reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medical Research Reactor, BMRR, at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, BNL, is a three megawatt, 3 MW, heterogeneous, tank-type, light water cooled and moderated, graphite reflected reactor, which was designed for biomedical studies, and became operational in 1959. It provides thermal and epithermal neutron beams suitable for research studies such as radiation therapy of various types of tumors. At the

N. E. Holden; R. N. Reciniello; D. D. Greenberg; J. P. Hu

1998-01-01

376

Gender-sensitive reporting in medical research  

PubMed Central

Sex and gender differences influence the health and wellbeing of men and women. Although studies have drawn attention to observed differences between women and men across diseases, remarkably little research has been pursued to systematically investigate these underlying sex differences. Women continue to be underrepresented in clinical trials, and even in studies in which both men and women participate, systematic analysis of data to identify potential sex-based differences is lacking. Standards for reporting of clinical trials have been established to ensure provision of complete, transparent and critical information. An important step in addressing the gender imbalance would be inclusion of a gender perspective in the next Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guideline revision. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, as a set of well-recognized and widely used guidelines for authors and biomedical journals, should similarly emphasize the ethical obligation of authors to present data analyzed by gender as a matter of routine. Journal editors are also promoters of ethical research and adequate standards of reporting, and requirements for inclusion of gender analyses should be integrated into editorial policies as a matter of urgency.

2012-01-01

377

Advancing Intervention Science through Effectiveness Research: A Global Perspective  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Effectiveness research is maturing as a field within intervention and prevention science. Effectiveness research involves the implementation and evaluation of the effectiveness of the dissemination of evidence-based interventions in everyday circumstances (i.e., type 2 translational research). Effectiveness research is characterized…

Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Adamson, Lena; Kumpfer, Karol L.; Eichas, Kyle

2012-01-01

378

Large-Scale Science Education Intervention Research We Can Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article develops an argument that the type of intervention research most useful for improving science teaching and learning and leading to scalable interventions includes both research to develop and gather evidence of the efficacy of innovations and a different kind of research, "design-based implementation research" (DBIR). DBIR in…

Penuel, William R.; Fishman, Barry J.

2012-01-01

379

Research ethics and computer science: an unconsummated marriage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ethical conduct of research is a cornerstone of modern scientiflc research. Computer science and the discipline's technological artifacts touch nearly every aspect of modern life, and computer scientists must conduct and report their research in an ethical manner. This paper examines a small selection of potential ethical dilemmas researchers in this discipline face, and discusses how ethical concerns may

David R. Wright

2006-01-01

380

Priors & prejudice : using existing knowledge in social science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers in the social sciences usually start their research with the formulation of research goals and questions, which, together with studying the existing literature, lead to the formulation of hypotheses. Next, data is collected using experiments or questionnaires and is subsequently analyzed. Finally, conclusions are drawn based on the research findings. Although this procedure is a logical one, more scientific

F. van Wesel

2011-01-01

381

Drugs, sex and social science: Social science research and health policy in Australia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social science health research in Australia has undergone considerable expansion through government sponsorship of projects that complement or address issues related directly to policy and program concerns. In examining the rationale for supporting social science research, and the difficulties that social scientists often face in return in presenting their work in ways that might optimize funding, the paper first explores

Lenore Manderson

1994-01-01

382

What Constitutes High-Quality Discussion in Science? Research from the Perspectives on Science Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Perspectives on Science (POS) is a unique research-based post-16 course that addresses the history, philosophy and ethical aspects of science. Our central research question was to what extent is POS successful in promoting high-quality discussion in class and what factors influence this. Through questionnaires, interviews and observations of…

Levinson, Ralph; Hand, Michael; Amos, Ruth

2012-01-01

383

What Constitutes High-Quality Discussion in Science? Research from the Perspectives on Science Course  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Perspectives on Science (POS) is a unique research-based post-16 course that addresses the history, philosophy and ethical aspects of science. Our central research question was to what extent is POS successful in promoting high-quality discussion in class and what factors influence this. Through questionnaires, interviews and observations of…

Levinson, Ralph; Hand, Michael; Amos, Ruth

2012-01-01

384

Authentic Science Research in Elementary School After-School Science Clubs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper we report on teachers' and students' participation in authentic science research in out of school time science clubs at elementary schools. In the program four to five teachers worked alongside practicing scientists as part of their research groups. Each teacher facilitated a club with 10-15 students who, by extension, were members…

Feldman, Allan; Pirog, Kelly

2011-01-01

385

Regulating Human Participants Protection in Medical Research and the Accreditation of Medical Research Ethics Committees in the Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The review system on research with human participants in the Netherlands is characterised as a decentralised controlled and\\u000a integrated peer review system. It consists of an independent governmental body, the Central Committee on Research Involving\\u000a Human Subjects (or Central Committee), which regulates the review of research proposals by accredited Medical Research Ethics\\u000a Committees (MRECs). The legal basis was founded in

Marcel J. H. Kenter

2009-01-01

386

System of Research Methods in Soil Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The concept of the soil-forming process and its different aspects (microprocesses and specific and general macroprocesses) are considered in this work. Principal methods of soil science-comparative-geographical, comparative-analytical, station method and ...

A. A. Rode

1974-01-01

387

Social sciences for food and health research.  

PubMed

Healthier eating is a global challenge for chronic disease control. Food and Health Research in Europe (FAHRE) surveyed research structures and programmes in 32 countries, and reviewed research needs and gaps across nine themes. Food processing and safety research, nutrition and molecular research, and disease-based clinical research are strong; but research is weak on determinants of disease and healthier eating through policies and changing behaviours. Biomedical and commercial research for patents contrast with social research for the public interest. More funding and capacity support should go to social research in the food and health sector. PMID:23475806

McCarthy, Mark

2013-03-09

388

Does India perform medical research in areas where it is most needed?  

PubMed

This paper attempts to map medical research in India and answer an important policy question by literature analysis. I match the disease pattern on the basis of mortality and morbidity statistics with journals used by Indian medical researchers to publish their work as shown by the Science Citation Index (SCI). The former reflects the needs while the latter reflects the areas in which research is being done. The limited statistics available from both the Government of India and the World Health Organization point to diarrhoeal diseases, diseases of children, respiratory diseases, circulatory system diseases, infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis as the major medical problems faced by India. The journals used often by Indian medical researchers to publish their work, as seen from the SCI (1981-85), show that in terms of number of publications, they are mainly active in general medicine, pharmacology, tropical medicine, neurosciences, radiology, oncology and pathology. In terms of the share of the world's literature in different subfields, India is second only to USA in andrology, third in tropical medicine after the USA and the UK, tenth in hygiene and public health, and eleventh in general and internal medicine, and radiology and nuclear medicine. Overall, India's share in the medical journal literature is not only much less than that of many other countries, both advanced and middle level, but also much less than that of India's share of the literature in physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering. Data on the observed citation impact of Indian research in different subfields of medicine show that the work done in India in general is not integrated well into international research. India could be much more purposive in her research priorities and probably should invest much more in medical research. PMID:9557519

Arunachalam, S

389

The protection of the person in medical research in Germany.  

PubMed

Because of its history Germany has many rules concerning the protection of persons in medical research. In fact Germany was the first state to issue a directive regulating medical experimentation with human beings in the year 1900. The ten principles of Nuremberg originated out of the medical case. Germany adheres to the Revised Declaration of Helsinki of the World Medical Association and will probably sign the European convention on biomedicine. The pharmaceutical act contains elaborate provisions for the protection of the patient or proband, e.g. informed consent, risk-benefit ratio, no experimentation on prisoners, approval of a local ethics committee. Moreover in pharmaceutical trials there has to be third party accident insurance for the experimental subject. There is no strict liability for medical experimentation, but the standard of care is high. In general the German law seems to be adequate for the protection of experimental subjects. PMID:10436740

Deutsch, E

1999-01-01

390

Institutional Research Productivity in Science Education for the 1990s: Top 30 Rankings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to identify the major science education programs in the United States, where the science education researchers published their research. This research is the first study of the scholarly productivity of science education programs at domestic institutions of higher education. Each issue of the eight research journals ( Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Science

Lloyd H. Barrow; John Settlage; Paul J. Germann

2008-01-01

391

Research Paper: Profiling Characteristics of Internet Medical Information Users  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe Internet's potential to bolster health promotion and disease prevention efforts has attracted considerable attention. Existing research leaves two things unclear, however: the prevalence of online health and medical information seeking and the distinguishing characteristics of individuals who seek that information.DesignThis study seeks to clarify and extend the knowledge base concerning health and medical information use online by profiling adults

James B. Weaver III; Darren Mays; Gregg Lindner; Dogan Eroglu; Frederick Fridinger; Jay M. Bernhardt

2009-01-01

392

CDER Science and Research Programs Infographic  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... Gaps and Questions that underlay medical product development – such as questions from drug application reviewers, post-market observations, or ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/scienceresearch

393

Research in the chemical sciences: Summaries of FY 1994  

SciTech Connect

This summary book is published annually on research supported by DOE`s Division of Chemical Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. Research in photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations and analysis, heavy element chemistry, chemical engineering sciences, and advanced batteries is arranged according to national laboratories, offsite institutions, and small businesses. Goal is to add to the knowledge base on which existing and future efficient and safe energy technologies can evolve. The special facilities used in DOE laboratories are described. Indexes are provided (topics, institution, investigator).

Not Available

1994-12-01

394

The science commons in health research: structure, function, and value  

Microsoft Academic Search

The “science commons,” knowledge that is widely accessible at low or no cost, is a uniquely important input to scientific\\u000a advance and cumulative technological innovation. It is primarily, although not exclusively, funded by government and nonprofit\\u000a sources. Much of it is produced at academic research centers, although some academic science is proprietary and some privately\\u000a funded R&D enters the science

Robert Cook-Deegan

2007-01-01

395

Summaries of FY 1993 research in the chemical sciences  

SciTech Connect

The summaries in photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations and analysis, heavy element chemistry, chemical engineering sciences, and advanced battery technology are arranged according to national laboratories and offsite institutions. Small business innovation research projects are also listed. Special facilities supported wholly or partly by the Division of Chemical Sciences are described. Indexes are provided for selected topics of general interest, institutions, and investigators.

Not Available

1993-08-01

396

Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

Raudenbush, Stephen

397

Research briefing on contemporary problems in plasma science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview is presented of the broad perspective of all plasma science. Detailed discussions are given of scientific opportunities in various subdisciplines of plasma science. The first subdiscipline to be discussed is the area where the contemporary applications of plasma science are the most widespread, low temperature plasma science. Opportunities for new research and technology development that have emerged as byproducts of research in magnetic and inertial fusion are then highlighted. Then follows a discussion of new opportunities in ultrafast plasma science opened up by recent developments in laser and particle beam technology. Next, research that uses smaller scale facilities is discussed, first discussing non-neutral plasmas, and then the area of basic plasma experiments. Discussions of analytic theory and computational plasma physics and of space and astrophysical plasma physics are then presented.

398

Learning from Action Research About Science Teacher Preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An extended action research experience in the second year of induction proved valuable to her in learning how to modify her teaching to reach her goal, using evidence of student learning as her guide. This article closes with reflections on the value of extended action research within science teacher preparation, particularly early in one's career, and explores the promise for ongoing practice-based professional development throughout a teacher's career.

Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.

2011-12-01

399

Learning from Action Research About Science Teacher Preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An extended action research experience in the second year of induction proved valuable to her in learning how to modify her teaching to reach her goal, using evidence of student learning as her guide. This article closes with reflections on the value of extended action research within science teacher preparation, particularly early in one's career, and explores the promise for ongoing practice-based professional development throughout a teacher's career.

Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.

2012-02-01

400

Science and Engineering Research Facilities: 2001  

NSF Publications Database

... Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities 2001 Detailed Statistical Tables Hypertext Format ... 2001 Portable Document Format (.pdf) Scientific and Engineering Research Facilities: 2001 This ...

401

Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983  

SciTech Connect

This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

Barr, S.H. (ed.)

1984-08-01

402

Sharing science with the public at a national research center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing consensus that improving science education and public science literacy requires the focused efforts of a wide spectrum of specialists, including scientists, provides the opportunity for national research centers to develop programs that seek to uniquely bring their science to educators and the public. At the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder, Colorado, we have developed a multifaceted program for science education and outreach designed to bring our science to these audiences in a way that builds on our specialized expertise. Education and outreach activities at NCAR include numerous opportunities to engage with the public in informal settings. Our exhibit and tour program offers topically focused interactive activities and opportunities to learn about the science underway at the laboratory. We also hold an annual festival for children and families and lectures for the public through which science principles and content are communicated by hands-on activities, dramatic demonstrations, and rich visual media. Our web sites provide extensive resources including interactives and activities that enable students, educators, and the public to learn on their own about our science. Central to all of these informal science activities is the participation of lab scientists and staff, whose personal enthusiasm and science expertise enriches all aspects of the program for the public.

Johnson, R.; Foster, S.; Carbone, L.; Henderson, S.; Munoz, R.; Ward, D.

2003-04-01

403

Measuring and Maximising Research Impact in Applied Social Science Research Settings. Good Practice Guide  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This guide describes the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) approach to measuring impact using examples from its own case studies, as well as showing how to maximise the impact of applied social science research. Applied social science research needs to demonstrate that it is relevant and useful both to public policy and…

Stanwick, John; Hargreaves, Jo

2012-01-01

404

75 FR 71712 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Initial Scientific Peer Review and Merit Evaluation of Grant Applications for NIGMS MIDAS Initiative. Date: December 14, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-11-24

405

Descriptor and citation retrieval in the Medical Behavioral Sciences literature: Retrieval overlaps and novelty distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Search results for nine topics in the Medical Behavioral Sciences are reanalyzed to compare the overall perfor- mance of descriptor and citation search strategies in identifying relevant and novel documents. Overlap per- centages between an aggregate \\

Katherine W. McCain

1989-01-01

406

Teaching Research Integrity and Bioethics to Science Undergraduates  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Undergraduate students in the Department of Biomedical Sciences at the University of South Alabama, Mobile, are required to take a course entitled "Issues in Biomedical Sciences," designed to increase students' awareness about bioethical questions and issues concerning research integrity. This paper describes the main features of this course and…

Turrens, Julio F.

2005-01-01

407

Review of Research: Teacher Questioning Behavior in Science Classrooms.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Selected for this review are dissertations and other research reports related to science teacher questioning behavior, with particular emphasis on those studies designed to help teachers change their questioning behavior. Summarizing the section on observational studies (N=11), the author concludes that science teachers appear to function…

Blosser, Patricia E.

408

Remembering research: memory and methodology in the social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article examines the conceptualisation and use of memory in the social sciences, both as a methodological tool and as an object of research. The article situates memory as a vast potential resource for the social sciences in the exploration of relations between public and private life, agency and power, and the past, present and future. It goes on to

Emily Keightley

2010-01-01

409

Scottish Schools Science Equipment Research Centre Bulletin No. 55.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Instructions for the construction of the following apparatus for the secondary school science laboratory are included in this issue of the Scottish Schools Science Equipment Research Centre Bulletin: a cheap water purifier using an expendable deionizer can; a simple amplifier suitable for detecting or displaying D. C. currents of 1 microamp or…

1972

410

What Successful Science Teachers Do: 75 Research-Based Strategies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The experience and science expertise of these award-winning authors makes this easy-to-use guide a teacher's treasure trove. This latest edition to the popular What Successful Teachers Do series describes 75 research-based strategies and outlines best practices for inquiry-oriented science. Each strategy includes a brief description of the…

Glasgow, Neal A.; Cheyne, Michele; Yerrick, Randy K.

2010-01-01

411

Social Science Research in School Desegregation Cases: A Critical Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Because educational equity is a developing area, courts have little precedent to guide rulings. Extra-legal evidence may help in deciding what the law is. Social science evidence is also invited by the courts because educational equity law is purportedly an instrument of social change. The sophistication of social science research, as well as the…

Rossell, Christine H.

412

Creature Features: A Beginner's Guide to Student Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet was prepared for use at workshops conducted by the Junior Academy of the New York Academy of Sciences and the New York Biology Teachers Association, as well as for use in the high school classroom and laboratory as an aid to both teachers and students. Its purpose is to help the beginning science research student in selecting and…

Plass, Richard M.

413

A Student's Guide to Conducting Social Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide describes activities, methods, and materials which can be used in conducting a beginning-level social-science research project. Designed for secondary and college students as a laboratory component of a social studies or social science course, it provides ideas for firsthand experience in the methods used by social scientists for their…

Bunker, Barbara Benedict; And Others

414

Framework for Empirical Research on Science Teaching and Learning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In view of the research on education—and subject-related education in particular—that has been conducted in recent years, it would seem useful to describe the current state and future trends of research on science teaching and learning. In the present article, research findings are described, the deficits of science education are analyzed, and medium- and long-term research goals are specified from the perspective of an interdisciplinary cooperative effort between specialists in the fields of empirical educational research; the psychology of learning and instruction; and biology, chemistry, and physics education.

Fischer, Hans Ernst; Klemm, Klaus; Leutner, Detlev; Sumfleth, Elke; Tiemann, Rüdiger; Wirth, Joachim

2005-12-01

415

[Perspective technologies and researches in the areaof medical laboratory diagnostics].  

PubMed

The main principles of organisation of medical laboratory diagnostics are efficiency of analysis, mobility of laboratory services and quality of researches. These goals can be achieved by the use of portative laboratory analizers, by automation and computerization of the laboratorial service, by development and adoption of new laboratory technologies, integrating different methods and types of research. It is necessary to pay attention to the problem of NPT and indication of pathogenic germs. Priority areas of medical laboratory diagnostics development are: development and use of portative laboratory analyzers; development of chemical, that help to speed up and cheapen researches, improve effectiveness of laboratory diagnostics of infections and indications of pathogenic and other germ; development of new, more sensitive, specific, but simple methods of laboratory analysis; development of complex methods and types of researches, further implementation of methods and researches with different principles of action; development and implementation of new methods of NPT results recording; automation and computerization of the laboratorial diagnostics. PMID:24000640

2013-06-01

416

Medical Ethics, Bioethics and Research Ethics Education Perspectives in South East Europe in Graduate Medical Education.  

PubMed

Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144

Mijaljica, Goran

2013-02-23

417

Use of electronic medical records in oncology outcomes research  

PubMed Central

Oncology outcomes research could benefit from the use of an oncology-specific electronic medical record (EMR) network. The benefits and challenges of using EMR in general health research have been investigated; however, the utility of EMR for oncology outcomes research has not been explored. Compared to current available oncology databases and registries, an oncology-specific EMR could provide comprehensive and accurate information on clinical diagnoses, personal and medical histories, planned and actual treatment regimens, and post-treatment outcomes, to address research questions from patients, policy makers, the pharmaceutical industry, and clinicians/researchers. Specific challenges related to structural (eg, interoperability, data format/entry), clinical (eg, maintenance and continuity of records, variety of coding schemes), and research-related (eg, missing data, generalizability, privacy) issues must be addressed when building an oncology-specific EMR system. Researchers should engage with medical professional groups to guide development of EMR systems that would ultimately help improve the quality of cancer care through oncology outcomes research.

Kanas, Gena; Morimoto, Libby; Mowat, Fionna; O'Malley, Cynthia; Fryzek, Jon; Nordyke, Robert

2010-01-01

418

Science of learning is learning of science: why we need a dialectical approach to science education research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Research on learning science in informal settings and the formal (sometimes experimental) study of learning in classrooms or psychological laboratories tend to be separate domains, even drawing on different theories and methods. These differences make it difficult to compare knowing and learning observed in one paradigm/context with those observed in the other. Even more interestingly, the scientists studying science learning rarely consider their own learning in relation to the phenomena they study. A dialectical, reflexive approach to learning, however, would theorize the movement of an educational science (its learning and development) as a special and general case—subject matter and method—of the phenomenon of learning (in/of) science. In the dialectical approach to the study of science learning, therefore, subject matter, method, and theory fall together. This allows for a perspective in which not only disparate fields of study—school science learning and learning in everyday life—are integrated but also where the progress in the science of science learning coincides with its topic. Following the articulation of a contradictory situation on comparing learning in different settings, I describe the dialectical approach. As a way of providing a concrete example, I then trace the historical movement of my own research group as it simultaneously and alternately studied science learning in formal and informal settings. I conclude by recommending cultural-historical, dialectical approaches to learning and interaction analysis as a context for fruitful interdisciplinary research on science learning within and across different settings.

Roth, Wolff-Michael

2012-06-01

419

Facilitating patient learning during medical rehabilitation: a research agenda.  

PubMed

Although patient learning is widely acknowledged to be an integral part of many medical rehabilitation practices, it has been the subject of little systematic research. A workshop conducted August 18 to 19, 1997, was organized by the National Center for Medical Rehabilitation Research (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health) and several co-sponsoring organizations to formulate recommendations concerning learning-oriented rehabilitation practices. The recommendations and their supporting rationale are summarized in the topic areas of motor learning and control, cognitive learning, recovery of functioning, generalization and transfer of training, and applications for patients with strokes, traumatic brain injury, amputations, and infants and children. PMID:9862546

Fuhrer, M J; Keith, R A

420

Conflicts of interest in medical science: peer usage, peer review and `CoI consultancy'  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the perception has grown that conflicts of interest are having a detrimental effect on medical science as it influences health policy and clinical practice, leading medical journals to enforce self-declaration of potential biases in the attempt to counteract or compensate for the problem.Conflict of interest (CoI) declarations have traditionally been considered inappropriate in pure science since its

Bruce G Charlton

2004-01-01

421

Authentic Science Research in Elementary School After-School Science Clubs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we report on teachers’ and students’ participation in authentic science research in out of school time science\\u000a clubs at elementary schools. In the program four to five teachers worked alongside practicing scientists as part of their\\u000a research groups. Each teacher facilitated a club with 10–15 students who, by extension, were members of the scientists’ research\\u000a groups. Over

Allan Feldman; Kelly Pirog

2011-01-01

422

Scottish Schools Science Equipment Research Centre.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This newsletter is composed of brief notes in the various areas of science. Biology Notes include hazards of tasting Phenylthiocarbamide in laboratory experiments, the use of Albustic and Clinistix test papers for protein and glucose determinations, the measurement of the respiratory quotient, and the construction of a simple respirometer.…

1972

423

Police Science Program Survey: Research Note.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A study, involving two independent surveys and a transcript analysis, was conducted to determine the background characteristics, attitudes, and needs of students enrolled in police science programs at Moraine Valley Community College (MVCC). The first survey, which focused on personal characteristics and course enrollment data, was distributed in…

Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver. National Origin Desegregation Project (LAU).

424

Socioeconomic Benefits of Earth Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

of our ability to predict future weather and climate trends. Improved predictions have an acknowledged economic value. However, because of the complex nature of the transition from basic science to applied use of weather and climate information, estimating the value of this information remains a daunting task. Further, a number of external factors undermine the ability of information consumers to

Henry Hertzfeld

2002-01-01

425

Evaluating Measurement Tools in Science Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this paper I explore how Margaret Beier, Lesley Miller, and Shu Wang make claims for the validity and reliability of the instrument they developed to explore the construct of "possible selves" as described in their manuscript, "Science Games and the Development of Scientific Possible Selves."|

Hayward, Elizabeth O.

2012-01-01

426

Systematic Reviews of Research in Science Education: Rigour or Rigidity?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper explores the role of systematic reviews of research literature and considers what they have to offer research in science education. The origins of systematic reviews are described, together with the reasons why they are currently attracting considerable attention in the research literature. An overview is presented of the key features…

Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hogarth, Sylvia; Campbell, Bob

2005-01-01

427

Research Dissemination in Creative Arts, Humanities and the Social Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An ethnographic case study of issues related to research performance and promotion of research was conducted within the Creative and Performing Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences (AHSS) disciplines of a regional university. The purpose of the study was to explore a variety of ways in which the research work of those disciplines could be made…

Bazeley, Pat

2006-01-01

428

A Methodological Review of Computer Science Education Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Methodological reviews have been used successfully to identify research trends and improve research practice in a variety of academic fields. Although there have been three methodological reviews of the emerging field of computer science education research, they lacked reliability or generalizability. Therefore, because of the capacity for a…

Randolph, Justus; Julnes, George; Sutinen, Erkki; Lehman, Steve

2008-01-01

429

Multiple Paradigms and the Infancy of Science Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The position that field organizing paradigms need not be agreed upon by science education researchers to provide meaningful research is defended. Research needs identified by the author include: constructing adequate operational definitions; making raw data available; cross standardization of measuring instruments; and encouraging PhD candidates…

Lamb, William G.

1976-01-01

430

Managing Research Is Both an Art and a Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper presents a model for effective research management. Since research demands time, manpower and money it is imperative that we do it right to achieve success and at the same time avoid encumbrances and pitfalls. Managing research is both an art and a science. (Contains 1 table.)|

Khoon, Koh Aik; Radiman, Shahidan; Daud, Abdul Razak; Shukor, R. Abd; Talib, Ibrahim Abu; Puaad, Ahmad; Samat, Supian

2011-01-01

431

Undergraduate Research Experience in Ocean and Marine Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Report contains highlights from the summer 2005 Undergraduate Research Experience in Ocean and Marine Science Program. Along the Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States, there are different subpopulations, or stocks of bottlenose dolphins. The bottlenose ...

L. Hayden

2005-01-01

432

Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education: A Research Agenda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents an agenda for research in mathematics, science, and technology education that will contribute to understanding the causes of and ameliorating current deficiencies in these areas. It makes recommendations in four broad categories: resea...

1985-01-01

433

Development of a Science Research Program for Special Needs Students  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Originally designed for students in the top 20 percent of the class who had a strong interest in science, the Science Research Program in Woodbridge Township was expanded to include special needs students and others who had not previously demonstrated success and/or interest in science. New techniques to prepare, engage, and motivate special needs students in performing original research were developed and field-tested. A cooperative learning system where experienced research students acted as project mentors for the new special needs population was utilized. The program was extended to additional instructors by a teacher-training workshop for both science and special education teachers wishing to incorporate student-facilitated original research into their classrooms.

Danch, J. M.

2005-12-01

434

Summary of Research 2000, Department of Computer Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains project summaries of the research projects in the Department of Computer Science. A list of recent publications is also included, which consists of conference presentations and publications, books, contributions to books, published jo...

D. Boger N. C. Rowe

2001-01-01

435

Changing Educational Needs of Psychologists: Do We Need More Medical Knowledge, Basic Science and More Psychological Science?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Psychologists of the 21st century must be highly skilled and versatile to function effectively in academic health centers\\u000a (AHCs). Thus, the current paper focuses on the training psychologists receive to prepare them for their diverse roles in AHCs.\\u000a The paper is framed around the question: Do we need more medical knowledge, basic science and more psychological science? posed to the

Cynthia D. Belar

2008-01-01

436

[Invitation to be basic medical research doctors; current status and efforts at Kurume University School of Medicine].  

PubMed

Many medical students are interested in basic medical researches. However, to make a decision to get into the research position throughout the life is not easy. In Kurume University, although shortage of clinicians, partly due to the atmosphere that senior doctors consider experiences of basic research is favorable as well as a re-evaluation of PhD degree, staffs and PhD students with MD or DDS are not very rare in the departments of basic medical sciences including the anatomy department. Some, not many though, MDs once lead clinical experience return to basic research in order to solve problems they encountered at clinical scenes or for enthusiasms for spirit of further inquiry for life sciences. Those might be lead by the push of senior doctors or through "admission course for medical sciences" and "laboratory experience training" in the initial curriculum of the medical course. Open spaces where students and researchers can enjoy free scientific talking are hopefully expected to facilitate establishing students' incentive to participate in basic studies. PMID:23600318

Nakamura, Kei-ichiro; Kimura, Iori; Fujita, Kazuaki; Takano, Yoko; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Ohta, Keisuke; Yamaki, Kouichi

2013-03-01

437

A comparison of personality attributes of science teachers and medical technologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate students who major in science make diverse career choices. Two such career choices are medical technologists and science teachers. One possible reason for science majors selecting different career choices might be attributed to varied personality dimensions. The purpose of this study was to identify a set of personality attributes that distinguish practicing medical technologists from practicing science teachers. The subjects of this study consisted of 83 medical technologists and 57 science teachers. Eysenck Personality (EPI) was utilized to investigate the personality attributes of subjects in terms of Eysenck's personality variable of Extroversion-Introversion and Neuroticism-Stability. Vocational Preference Inventory was utilized to investigate the vocational personality profile of subjects in terms of Holland's classification of occupations and work environment. Data with EPI revealed that there was no significant difference between medical technologists and science teachers with respect to Eysenck's personality variable of extroversion. However, there was found a significant difference between the two groups with respect to Eysenck's personality variable of neuroticism. Data with VPI revealed that there was no significant difference between medical technologists and science teachers with respect to Eysenck's personality variable of extroversion. Both the groups were characterized by the personality profile of IAS (Intellectual-Artistic-Social). This profile was different from that required earlier in literature.

Kazi, M. U.; Piper, Martha K.

438

Editorial: Discipline-Based Research in College Science Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

We are, all of us, devoted to our scieneces. For college science faculty this devotion to our respective disciplines extends in part to teaching. We share a common characteristic: we have extensive training and experience in the methods of science and in our own disciplines, particularly. In recent years these methods have been turned, by scientists intensely interested in teaching their own area of science, on the challenge of teaching. This effort hs been described as discipline-based research in learning and teaching science.

Dykstra Jr., Dewey I.

2006-09-01

439

Clinical research ethics in Irish healthcare: diversity, dynamism and medicalization.  

PubMed

Gaining ethical clearance to conduct a study is an important aspect of all research involving humans but can be time-consuming and daunting for novice researchers. This article stems from a larger ethnographic study that examined research capacity building in Irish nursing and midwifery. Data were collected over a 28-month time frame from a purposive sample of 16 nurse or midwife research fellows who were funded to undertake full-time PhDs. Gaining ethical clearance for their studies was reported as an early 'rite of passage' in the category of 'labouring the doctorate'. This article penetrates the complexities in Irish clinical research ethics by describing the practices these nurse and midwife researchers encountered and the experiences they had. The key issue of representation that occurred in the context of 'medicalized' research ethics is further explored including its meaning for nursing or midwifery research. PMID:22691601

Condell, Sarah L; Begley, Cecily

2012-06-12

440

Social Science Research and Policymaking: Meta-Analysis and Paradox  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this article is to explore some of the non-obvious characteristics of the social science research-social policy (SSRSP) paradigm. We examine some of the underlying as- sumptions of the readily accepted claim that social science research can lead to the creation of rational social policy. We begin by using the framework of meta-analysis as one of the most

Steven I. Miller; Marcel Fredericks; Frank J. Perino

441

Basic research in computer science and software engineering at SKLCS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The State Key Laboratory of Computer Science (SKLCS) is committed to basic research in computer science and software engineering.\\u000a The research topics of the laboratory include: concurrency theory, theory and algorithms for real-time systems, formal specifications\\u000a based on context-free grammars, semantics of programming languages, model checking, automated reasoning, logic programming,\\u000a software testing, software process improvement, middleware technology, parallel algorithms and

Jian Zhang; Wenhui Zhang; Naijun Zhan; Yidong Shen; Haiming Chen; Yunquan Zhang; Yongji Wang; Enhua Wu; Hongan Wang; Xueyang Zhu

2008-01-01

442

Research briefs of the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center  

SciTech Connect

As Sandia National Laboratories and the Physical and Chemical Sciences Center develop an increasingly diverse set of customers, research partners, and Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADA`s) with industry, there is a need for providing more concise information describing their technical achievements and capabilities. This publication, Research Briefs, is designed to inform the present and potential partners in research and technology advancement. Their research emphasizes semiconductor physics, electronic materials, surface physics and chemistry, plasma and chemical processing sciences, lasers and optics, vision science, ion-solid interactions and defect physics, and advanced materials physics. The specific programs they pursue are driven by the research goals which are greatly influenced by interactions with the government and industrial customers.

Vook, F.L.; Smith, W.L. [eds.

1993-12-31

443

A Galaxy for Science and Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During his visit to ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal, the European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Poto?nik, participated in an observing sequence and took images of a beautiful spiral galaxy. ESO PR Photo 43/07 ESO PR Photo 49/07 Twisted Spiral Galaxy NGC 134 The visit took place on 27 October and the Commissioner observed with one of the FORS instruments on Antu, the first 8.2-m Unit Telescope of the VLT. "Two hours bus ride from the nearest town, Antofagasta, in the middle of nowhere and at 2 600 m altitude, rises a state of the art astronomical observatory at which scientists from across Europe venture to exploit some of the most advanced technologies and sophisticated techniques available within astronomy. One of the facilities is the VLT, the Very Large Telescope, with which, together with the other telescopes, scientists can study objects at the far edge of the Universe," wrote Poto?nik on his blog. Known until now as a simple number in a catalogue, NGC 134, the 'Island in the Universe' that was observed by the Commissioner is replete with remarkable attributes, and the VLT has clapped its eyes on them. Just like our own Galaxy, NGC 134 is a barred spiral with its spiral arms loosely wrapped around a bright, bar-shaped central region. One feature that stands out is its warped disc. While a galaxy's disc is often pictured as a flat structure of gas and stars surrounding the galaxy's centre, a warped disc is a structure that, when viewed sideways, resembles a bent record album left out too long in the burning Sun. Warps are actually not atypical. More than half of the spiral galaxies do show warps one way or another, and our own Milky Way also has a small warp. Many theories exist to explain warps. One possibility is that warps are the aftermath of interactions or collisions between galaxies. These can also produce tails of material being pulled out from the galaxy. The VLT image reveals that NGC 134 also appears to have a tail of gas stripped from the top edge of the disc. So did NGC 134 have a striking encounter with another galaxy in the past? Or is some other galaxy out there exerting a gravitational pull on it? This is a riddle astronomers need to solve. The superb VLT image also shows that the galaxy has its fair share of ionised hydrogen regions (HII regions) lounging along its spiral arms. Seen in the image as red features, these are glowing clouds of hot gas in which stars are forming. The galaxy also shows prominent dark lanes of dust across the disc, obscuring part of the galaxy's starlight. Studying galaxies like NGC 134 is an excellent way to learn more about our own Galaxy. NGC 134 was discovered by Sir John Herschel at the Cape of Good Hope and is located in the Sculptor southern constellation. The galaxy is located about 60 million light-years away - when the light that was captured by the VLT originally left the galaxy, a dramatic episode of mass extinction had led to the disappearance of dinosaurs on Earth, paving the way for the appearance of mammals and later specifically of humans, who have built unique high-tech installations in the Atacama desert to satisfy their curiosity about the workings of the Universe. Still, NGC 134 is not very far away, by cosmological standards. It is the dominant member of a small group of galaxies that belongs to the Virgo or Local Supercluster and is one of the 200 brightest galaxies in our skies.

2007-11-01

444

[Conflict of interest in medical practice and research].  

PubMed

In recent years, medical professionals are in charge with multiple roles. They have to work as an educator, researcher, and administrator, as well as medical practitioner. In addition, they experience a conflict between the primary responsibilities that each role requires of them. A conflict of interest (COI) is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgment or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest. It occurs when an individual or organization is involved in multiple interests, one of which could possibly corrupt the motivation for an act in the other. The COI should be managed appropriately to preserve the value of public trust, scientific objectivity, and the benefit and safety of patients. Primary interest of medical professionals refers to the principal goals of the medical profession, such as the health and safety of patients, and the integrity of research. Secondary interest includes not only financial gain but also such motives as the desire for professional advancement and the wish to do favors for family and friends, but COI rules usually focus on financial relationships because they are relatively more objective, fungible, and quantifiable. This article will briefly review the COI in medical practice and research, discuss about what is COI, why we should manage it, and how we can manage it. PMID:23018535

Youn, Young Hoon; Lee, Ilhak

2012-09-25

445

From Everyday Science to Science Education: How Science and Technology Studies Inspired Curriculum Design and Classroom Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article illustrates how teachers designed new science learningenvironments and studied teaching and learning within these environments based on their readings of research in science and technology studies conducted from a social-constructivist perspective. Examples of students‘ science-related activities are drawn from a data corpus which includes several hundred hours of videotaped laboratory activities, audiotaped interviews, and student-produced artifacts collected over

Wolff-Michael Roth

1997-01-01

446

In-Depth Science Research Experiences for Teens: The AMNH-ITEST High School Science Research Program. Summative Evaluation Report  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In January 2005, the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) was awarded a three-year ITEST grant (Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers) through the National Science Foundation (award #04-23417). This "AMNH-ITEST High School Science Research Program" aimed to target 120 urban high school youth, grades 10-12, from the five…

Smith, Anita

2008-01-01

447

Study of Sleep Habits and Sleep Problems Among Medical Students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences Loni, Western Maharashtra, India  

PubMed Central

Background: Good quality sleep and adequate amount of sleep are important in order to have better cognitive performance and avoid health problems and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to describe sleep habits and sleep problems in a population of undergraduates, interns and postgraduate students of Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India. Subject and Methods: Sleep habits and problems were investigated using a convenience sample of students from Pravara Institute of Medical Sciences (Deemed University), Loni, Maharashtra, India. The study was carried out during Oct. to Dec. 2011 with population consisted of total 150 medical students. A self-administered questionnaire developed based on Epworth Daytime Sleepiness Scale and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0. Results: In this study, out of 150 medical students, 26/150 (17.3%) students had abnormal levels of daytime sleepiness while 20/150 (13.3%) were border line. Sleep quality in females was better than the male. Conclusion: Disorders related to poor sleep qualities are significant problems among medical students in our institution. Caffeine and alcohol ingestion affected sleep and there was high level of daytime sleepiness. Sleep difficulties resulted in irritability and affected lifestyle and interpersonal relationships.

Giri, PA; Baviskar, MP; Phalke, DB

2013-01-01

448

Recent application of quantification II in Japanese medical research.  

PubMed Central

Hayashi's Quantification II is a method of multivariate discrimination analysis to manipulate attribute data as predictor variables. It is very useful in the medical research field for estimation, diagnosis, prognosis, evaluation of epidemiological factors, and other problems based on multiplicity of attribute data. In Japan, this method is so well known that most of the computer program packages include the Hayashi Quantification, but it seems to be yet unfamiliar with the method for researchers outside Japan. In view of this situation, we introduced 19 selected articles of recent applications of the Quantification II in Japanese medical research. In reviewing these papers, special mention is made to clarify how the researchers were satisfied with findings provided by the method. At the same time, some recommendations are made about terminology and program packages. Also a brief discussion of the background of the quantification methods is given with special reference to the Behaviormetric Society of Japan.

Suzuki, T; Kudo, A

1979-01-01

449

School Desegregation and Social Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the effects of school desegregation, once quite common in psychology and related fields, has declined considerably since the mid-1980s. Factors contributing to changes in the quantity and focus of such research since the Brown v. Board of Education (1954) decision are discussed, with an emphasis on those related to the decline of this research in the last 2

Janet Ward Schofield; Leslie R. M. Hausmann

2004-01-01

450

Evaluating the Quality of Education at Dentistry School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Background: Educational evaluation is a process which deals with data collection and assessment of academic activities’ progress. In this research, educational evaluation of Dentistry School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, which trains students in undergraduate and residency courses, was studied. Methods: This descriptive study was done with a model of educational evaluation in ten steps and 13 fields including purposes and mission objectives, management and organization, academic board members, students, human resources and support, educational, research, health and treatment spaces, educational, diagnostic, research and laboratory tools, educational, research, health and treatment programs and courses, process of teaching and learning, evaluation and assessment, alumni, and patients satisfaction. Data were collected using observation, interviews, questionnaires, and checklists. Results: Results of the study were mainly qualitative and in some cases quantitative, based on defined optimal situation. The total mean of qualitative results of educational evaluation of dentistry school in all 13 fields was 55.98% which is relatively desirable. In the case of quantitative ones, results of some fields such as treatment quality of patients and education and learning of the students were relatively desirable (61.32% and 60.16% respectively). Conclusion: According to the results, educational goals and missions, educational and research facilities and spaces which were identified as the weakest areas need to be considered and paid more serious attention.

Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Monzavi, Abbas; Yassini, Esmaeil

2011-01-01

451

Computational Science Research in Support of Petascale Electromagnetic Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Computational science research components were vital parts of the SciDAC-1 accelerator project and are continuing to play a critical role in newly-funded SciDAC-2 accelerator project, the Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation (ComPASS). Recent advances and achievements in the area of computational science research in support of petascale electromagnetic modeling for accelerator design analysis are presented, which include shape determination of superconducting RF cavities, mesh-based multilevel preconditioner in solving highly-indefinite linear systems, moving window using h- or p- refinement for time-domain short-range wakefield calculations, and improved scalable application I/O.

Lee, L.-Q.; Akcelik, V; Ge, L; Chen, S; Schussman, G; Candel, A; Li, Z; Xiao, L; Kabel, A; Uplenchwar, R; Ng, C; Ko, K; /SLAC

2008-06-20

452

A Podiatric Medical Residency Program in an Academic Health Science Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The podiatric medical residency program in the Health Science Center at San Antonio provides an intensive exposure for the newly graduated podiatrist to practice in a multidisciplinary environment. Residents become more familiar with general medical and surgical diseases and disorders as well as podiatric pathology. (LBH)

Bogy, Louis T.; And Others

1977-01-01

453

Emergency Medical Science (T-139). Curriculum Models, Guidelines, and Outcome-Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for use by curriculum planners in Emergency Medical Science (EMS) programs throughout the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS), and by evaluators in their reviews of existing programs, this manual provides a model set of guidelines for the education and training of the Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic (EMT-P) in…

Lovin, Barbara Keelor

454

Zinc Deficiency in First Year Female Students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Zinc deficiency is an important health problem in developing countries. The aim of this study was diagnosis of zinc deficiency among young female students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Materials and methods: This cross sectional study evaluated 420 medical and paramedical students of Tehran University in 2005. All of them were female and in the first year of

Fedyeh Haghollahi; Fatemeh Ramezanzadeh; Mansoureh Norouzi; Mamak Shariat; Atossa Mahdavi; Abbas Rahimi Foroshani; Fatemeh Shahsavari; Maryam Chamari

455

Tech Trek: Science research on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Young students often get frustrated when trying to find useful information on the Internet for school purposes and end up jumping from one point of interest to another, keeping little focus on the task at hand. To help students achieve success in their searches, teachers should direct them toward proven search engines and other online resources. This article describes a selection of recommended online resources for use in the science classroom.

Christmann, Edwin P.; Lucking, Robert A.

2003-02-01

456

Market Research: Post Study, Medical Equipment, Republic of Korea.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The market research was undertaken to study the present and potential US share of the market in Korea for medical equipment; to examine growth trends in Korean end-user industries over the next few years; to identify specific product categories that offer...

1976-01-01

457

Medical Image Processing, Analysis & Visualization in Clinical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging has become an essential component in many fields of medical and laboratory research and clinical practice. Biologists study cells and generate 3D confocal microscopy data sets; virologists generate 3D reconstructions of viruses from micrographs; radiologists identify and quantify tumors from MRI and CT scans; and neuroscientists detect regional metabolic brain activity from PET and functional MRI scans. Analysis of

Matthew J. Mcauliffe; Francois M. Lalonde; Delia Mcgarry; William Gandler; Karl Csaky; Benes L. Trus

2001-01-01

458

Emergency Medical Services. Project Report Phase I with Research Findings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of emergency medical services (EMS), established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train paramedics. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I;…

Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.

459

Retreat from Nuremberg: can we prevent unethical medical research?  

PubMed

The prosecution of doctors guilty of appalling human rights abuses at Nuremberg was achieved on the mistaken premise that the research community already had a code of conduct which, if applied, would have made such abuses impossible. In fact, not only was there no such code but when the 'Nuremberg Code' was published after the trial it continued to be ignored by many doctors for some thirty years afterwards. Indeed its central principle of informed consent has itself been eroded by subsequent international agreements on the ethics of medical research. This review shows that the mechanisms for approval of medical research which have now been promulgated in England and Wales, in practice, are applied on a very variable basis. Research in vulnerable groups unable to give fully informed consent such as children, prisoners and the incompetent elderly require the application of more rigorous standards of ethical control than those currently in operation. The use of vulnerable populations in the developing world and the application of international standards to them is also considered. A number of suggestions for improvements in current procedures in all these areas are put forward. The proposals for the United Kingdom would meet the requirements of the European Convention on bioethical research and the recent government consultation paper on medical treatment and research in incompetent adults. PMID:10557112

Horner, J S

1999-09-01

460

Web science and information exchange in the medical web  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amount of social media data dealing with medical and health issues increased significantly in the last couple of years. Medical social media data now provides a new source of information within information gaining contexts. Facts, experiences, opinions or information on behavior can be found in the Medicine 2.0 or Health 2.0 and could support a broad range of applications.

Kerstin Denecke; Peter Dolog

2011-01-01

461

Annual Progress Report on the Research Program of the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases on Medical Defense against Biological Agents for Fiscal Year 1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A report of progress on the research program of the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases on Medical Defense Against Biological Agents (U) for Fiscal Year 1981 is presented. (Author)

C. L. Bailey R. F. Berendt J. L. Brown D. L. Bunner P. G. Canonico

1981-01-01

462

The Visibility of Information Science and Library Science Research in Bibliometric Mapping of the LIS Field  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The relation between information science and library science has been debated for decades, and even attempts at utilizing methods generally acknowledged as robust for the purpose of mapping research fields have yielded results with large variations. Therefore, a set of citation analyses was performed, comparing the results of analyses on…

Astrom, Fredrik

2010-01-01

463

International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2007-2008  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents changes and modifications for 2007-2008 to the "International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs." It is written to guide fair directors, teachers, scientists, parents, and adult volunteers as they pursue their work of encouraging students to explore and investigate their…

Science Service, 2007

2007-01-01

464

International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs, 2006-2007  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This publication presents changes and modifications for 2006-2007 to the "International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science and Engineering Fairs." It is written to guide fair directors, teachers, scientists, parents, and adult volunteers as they pursue their work of encouraging students to explore and investigate their…

Science Service, 2006

2006-01-01

465

International Rules for Precollege Science Research: Guidelines for Science Fairs. June 1995-May 1996.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents the international rules for precollege science research. Sections include: (1) Quick Rules Reference; (2) Highlights for 1995-96; (3) International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) Category Descriptions; (4) Display and Safety Regulations; (5) Eligibility; (6) Requirements; (7) Limitations; (8) Continuation of Projects;…

Science Service, Inc., Washington, DC.

466

What Research Says to the Science Teacher, Volume 3. Science Education Information Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented in this document are the results of the five focus groups involved in Project Synthesis, a research study designed to synthesize and interpret the information found in the three National Science Foundation-funded status studies (the literature review, the national survey, and the case studies "The Status of Pre-College Science,…

Harms, Norris C., Ed.; Yager, Robert E., Ed.

467

76 FR 30373 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96, Special Minority...

2011-05-25

468

CIRES: Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) introduces its collaborative research and education program in the diverse field of earth system sciences. At this expansive website, students and educators can discover the Institute's numerous projects in the areas of climate system variability, geodynamics, planetary metabolism, and regional processes. CIRES discusses its five centers, which incorporate scientists with shared interests from within CIRES as well as from other departments at the University of Colorado and outside of the University. Students can learn about the graduate research fellowship program, the innovative research program, and other outreach initiatives. The website presents CIRES's latest news, research findings, and its seminar series about the relationship among policy, politics, and science in the White House.

2007-06-22

469

Community research in other contexts: learning from sustainability science.  

PubMed

In health research, community based participatory research (CBPR) has seen remarkable growth as an approach that overcomes many of the ethical concerns raised by traditional approaches. A community of CBPR scholars is now sharing ideas and devising new approaches to collaborative research. Yet, this is occurring in isolation from similar efforts using different nomenclature and occurring outside of health research areas. There is much to be gained by bringing these parallel discussions together. In sustainability science, for example, scholars are struggling with the question of how stakeholders and scientists can coproduce knowledge that offers useful solutions to complex and urgent environmental problems. Like CBPR in health, sustainability science is denigrated for perceived lack of rigor because of its applied problem focus and lack of positivist approach. Approaches to knowledge creation in sustainability science involve "new" ideas such as wicked problems and agent-based modeling, which would be equally applicable to CBPR. Interestingly, sustainability research is motivated less by recognition of the corrosive effects of the inequality of power than from frustration at how limited the impact of research has been, a perspective that might be useful in CBPR, particularly in conjunction with the use of some borrowed tools of sustainability science such as wicked problem analysis and agent-based modeling. Importantly, the example of sustainability science has the potential to keep CBPR from entering into a new orthodoxy of how research should be done. PMID:21133782

Silka, Linda

2010-12-01

470

Herzl's Altneuland: Zionist utopia, medical science and public health.  

PubMed

In this article we explore how the vision uniting Zionism, science, medicine and public health is depicted in Herzl's novel Altneuland (Old-New Land). Altneuland, which belongs to the genre of fin-de-siècle utopian novels, presents a modernistic vision of progress, integrating science with a humanistic society of equals. The remedy for the "psychopathology of the Jew" was believed by many Zionists to be a return to Palestine, and the establishment there of a healthy national Jewish home. Yet, Herzl's utopia, as depicted in Altneuland, is homogeneous, not allowing for other voices to be expressed, such as those of women and Arabs. Moreover, the belief that science and technology could solve social problems did not take into account the tensions that they would create in the society and environment. This vision of science and society, with its inherent tensions, will continue to inform the Zionist discourse of our present day. PMID:17153576

Davidovitch, Nadav; Seidelman, Rhona

471

Some Behavioral Science Research in Romania.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the research program of the Institute of Psychology, Bucharest. Also, comments on professional psychological issues in Romania: publication practices, associations, travel and study abroad. (Author)

H. W. Sinaiko

1968-01-01

472

Promoting quality for teacher action research: lessons learned from science teachers’ action research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we explore the concept of quality in teacher action research by re?examining our participation with science teachers in several different collaborative action research projects. We conducted second?order action research and generated a series reflexive conditions for promoting and ensuring quality action research. We assert that a collaborative action research group must function as both a community of

Brenda M. Capobianco; Allan Feldman

2006-01-01

473

Sri Lanka in global medical research: a scientific analysis of the Sri Lankan research output during 2000-2009  

PubMed Central

Background Scientific research is an essential component in guiding improvements in health systems. There are no studies examining the Sri Lankan medical research output at international level. The present study evaluated the Sri Lankan research performance in medicine as reflected by the research publications output between years 2000-2009. Methods This study was based on Sri Lankan medical research publication data, retrieved from the SciVerse Scopus® from January 2000 to December 2009. The process of article selection was as follows: Affiliation - 'Sri Lanka' or 'Ceylon', Publication year - 'January 2000 to December 2009' and Subject area - 'Life and Health Sciences'. The articles identified were classified according to disease, medical speciality, institutions, major international collaborators, authors and journals. Results Sri Lanka's cumulative medical publications output between years 2000-2009 was 1,740 articles published in 160 different journals. The average annual publication growth rate was 9.1%. Majority of the articles were published in 'International' (n = 950, 54.6%) journals. Most articles were descriptive studies (n = 611, 35.1%), letters (n-345, 19.8%) and case reports (n = 311, 17.9%). The articles were authored by 148 different Sri Lankan authors from 146 different institutions. The three most prolific local institutions were Universities of; Colombo (n = 547), Kelaniya (n = 246) and Peradeniya (n = 222). Eighty four countries were found to have published collaborative papers with Sri Lankan authors during the last decade. UK was the largest collaborating partner (n = 263, 15.1%). Malaria (n = 75), Diabetes Mellitus (n = 55), Dengue (n = 53), Accidental injuries (n = 42) and Lymphatic filariasis (n = 40) were the major diseases studied. The 1,740 publications were cited 9,708 times, with an average citation of 5.6 per paper. The most cited paper had 203 citations, while there were 597 publications with no citations. The Sri Lankan authors' contribution to the global medical research output during the last decade was only 0.086%. Conclusion The Sri Lankan medical research output during the last decade is only a small fraction of the global research output. There it is a necessity to setup an enabling environment for research, with a proper vision, support, funds and training. In addition, collaborations across the region need to be strengthened to face common regional health challenges.

2012-01-01

474

Qualitative Research in Counseling Psychology: A Primer on Research Paradigms and Philosophy of Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an overview of philosophy of science and research paradigms. The philosophy of science parameters of ontology, epistemology, axiology, rhetorical structure, and methodology are discussed across the research paradigms of positivism, postpositivism, constructivism-interpretivism, and the critical-ideological perspective.…

Ponterotto, Joseph G.

2005-01-01

475

Feminist teacher research and students' visions of science: Listening as research and pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this dissertation, I bring together methodologies deriving from teacher research and feminist research to study students' visions of the content and processes of science. Through listening intently to students' talk and studying their writing, I address the following questions: (1) What can intensive listening to students tell us about students' thinking and beliefs concerning their images of science as

Elaine Virginia Howes

1997-01-01

476

Can research on science learning and instruction inform standards for science education?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We contrast the current science education reform effort with the reforms of the 1960s and suggest how the current effort could be enhanced. We identify insights from recent research that we believe can inform the reform process, in particular, to reach all science students and also impart a cohesive view of science. We propose an "alternative models" view of scientific explanation and show how this view would contribute to reforms of (1) course goals, (2) social aspects of science learning, (3) instructional practices, and (4) roles for technology.

Linn, Marcia C.; Disessa, Andy; Pea, Roy D.; Songer, Nancy B.

1994-03-01

477

Earth Stewardship Science: International Research Networks based in Africa (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The role of networking in student and early career years is critical in the development of international interdisciplinary earth system science. These networks - both peer and mentor-based - can build community, foster enthusiasm and further research applications in addition to the traditional goal of identifying and obtaining work. UNESCO has nearly 40 years of experience in building international research teams through the International Geoscience Program (IGCP) and has recently focused their attention on the status of the earth sciences in Africa. UNESCO’s Earth Science Education Initiative in Africa ran a series of regional scoping workshops around the continent in order to develop an integrated status report on the earth sciences in Africa. The results, which are globally relevant, indicate that the field is limited by the level of basic science education of incoming students and restricted laboratory facilities, but also by a lack of connectedness. This isolation relates both to the interaction between researchers within countries and around the world but also the divide between Universities and Industry and the failure of the field to communicate its relevance to the public. In a context where livelihood opportunities are the driver of study and the earth sciences provide a major source of income, practical academic ties to industry are an essential element of the attractiveness of the field to students. Actions and ideas for addressing this situation will be presented to reinforce the role of the earth sciences in improving human and environmental well-being.

Gaines, S. M.

2010-12-01

478

Research into open access science publishing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of some issues and controversies surrounding arguments for research into open access. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper begins with a brief investigation of some background on library, research into open access, questions and then considers three major public definitions of open access, types of open access journals currently available,

Joseph Welfare Irivwieri

2009-01-01

479

Culture, Rigor, and Science in Educational Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that both the Feuer, Towne, and Shavelson article on scientific culture and educational research and the recent National Research Council (NRC) report must be understood in the context of current federal discourse focused on experimentally derived causal explanations of educational program effectiveness. Notes that the NRC report risks…

Erickson, Frederick; Gutierrez, Kris

2002-01-01

480

Balancing Computational Science and Computer Science Research on a Terascale Computing Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The design and deployment of Virginia Tech’s terascale computing cluster is described. The goal of this project is to demonstrate\\u000a that world-class on-campus supercomputing is possible and affordable, and to explore the resulting benefits for an academic\\u000a community consisting of both computational scientists and computer science researchers and students. Computer science research\\u000a in high performance computing systems benefits significantly from

Calvin J. Ribbens; Srinidhi Varadarajan; Malarvizhi Chinnusamy; Gautam Swaminathan

2005-01-01