Science.gov

Sample records for medical science research

  1. Research in medical education: balancing service and science.

    PubMed

    Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

    2007-02-01

    Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education. PMID:17033879

  2. Trend of knowledge production of research centers in the field of medical sciences in iran.

    PubMed

    Falahat, K; Eftekhari, Mb; Habibi, E; Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M; Mojarrab, Sh

    2013-01-01

    Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science). Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country. PMID:23865017

  3. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Benjamin E; Goldenberg, Neil M; Fairn, Gregory D; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Slutsky, Arthur S; Lee, Warren L

    2016-02-01

    Explosive growth in our understanding of genomics and molecular biology have fueled calls for the pursuit of personalized medicine, the notion of harnessing biologic variability to provide patient-specific care. This vision will necessitate a deep understanding of the underlying pathophysiology in each patient. Medical journals play a pivotal role in the education of trainees and clinicians, yet we suspected that the amount of basic science in the top medical journals has been in decline. We conducted an automated search strategy in PubMed to identify basic science articles and calculated the proportion of articles dealing with basic science in the highest impact journals for 8 different medical specialties from 1994 to 2013. We observed a steep decline (40-60%) in such articles over time in almost all of the journals examined. This rapid decline in basic science from medical journals is likely to affect practitioners' understanding of and interest in the basic mechanisms of disease and therapy. In this Life Sciences Forum, we discuss why this decline may be occurring and what it means for the future of science and medicine.-Steinberg, B. E., Goldenberg, N. M., Fairn, G. D., Kuebler, W. M., Slutsky, A. S., Lee, W. L. Is basic science disappearing from medicine? The decline of biomedical research in the medical literature. PMID:26467794

  4. Interconnections of basic science research and product development in medical device design.

    PubMed

    Privitera, Mary Beth; Design, M; Johnson, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between basic science research and product design/development are intertwined. This paper explores the definition of basic science and design as it relates to medical device development. It is intended to serve as a reference for both researchers and device developers to assist in trans-disciplinary collaborative efforts in improving patient care as each are of equal importance. The definition of a medical device is broad and varied. This paper is aimed towards those devices which interact with tissue and are rooted in the tenets of science. Both the scientific method and the design process are compared with similarities and opposites identified. The paper concludes identifying fundamental principles of medical device development and highlights the importance of both entities. PMID:19964135

  5. Barriers to Research Activities from the Perspective of the Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Fateme, Zarmehr; Khorasgani, Zahra Ghazavi; Kazempour, Zahra; Imani, Sona Taebi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Necessity to establish a coherent and targeted research context in order to development of any country is increasingly important. But the basic step in creating an effective research context would be enrichment motivation of researchers especially students and resolve barriers of research. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine barriers of research activities from the perspective of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is research. Data was collected with author made questionnaire. The study sample consisted of students from Isfahan medical university and sample size based on Krejcie and Morgan table was 357. Sampling was Stratified Random. The validity of questionnaire confirmed by Library and information professionals and reliability based on Cronbach’s Alpha was 0.933, respectively. The type of descriptive statistics was (percentage, frequency and mean) and inferential statistics (T-test, ANOVA, one-Sample Statistics) and SPSS software was used. Findings: Results showed that the mean of barriers to research activities among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was 3.89 ± 0. 483. The highest mean was related to density of students’ curriculum (4.22± 0.968) and lowest mean related to lack of access to appropriate library resources. Also, the mean of research activities ’s barriers, according to aspects showed that the mean in individual barriers level (4.06±0.635) was more than other aspects: social and cultural aspects (4.01± 0.661), economical aspect (4.04± 0.787) and organizational barriers (3.78±0.503). The lowest mean was related to organizational barriers. Also there is no difference between mean of research activities’ barriers of student of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences with regarded of gender, level of education and college. Conclusion: According to results of this research, although, the main barriers between students was individual barriers such as: lack of sufficient familiarity with research methods, insufficient experience in research and lack of familiarity with the terms of the articles in publication, but other aspects like economic, cultural, social and organizational was in bad condition too. Therefore it is suggested that workshops related to research methodologies is executed, like proposal writing, writing articles in university especially for students and administrators support student’s research activities, effectively. PMID:26236082

  6. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Martyn; Hogle, Linda

    2015-12-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with 'enhancement'; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with 'normal' function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with-and further develop-existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to-and be benefitted by-research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates. PMID:26260624

  7. Enhancement, ethics and society: towards an empirical research agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences

    PubMed Central

    Hogle, Linda

    2015-01-01

    For some time now, bioethicists have paid close attention to issues associated with ‘enhancement’; specifically, the appropriate use and regulation of substances and artefacts understood by some to improve the functioning of human bodies beyond that associated with ‘normal’ function. Medical humanities scholars (aside from philosophers and lawyers) and social scientists have not been frequent participants in debates around enhancement, but could shine a bright light on the range of dilemmas and opportunities techniques of enhancement are purported to introduce. In this paper, we argue that empirical research into the notion and practice of enhancement is necessary and timely. Such work could fruitfully engage with—and further develop—existing conceptual repertoires within the medical humanities and social sciences in ways that would afford benefit to scholars in those disciplines. We maintain that empirical engagements could also provide important resources to bioethicists seeking to regulate new enhancements in ways that are sensitive to societal context and cultural difference. To this end, we outline an empirical agenda for the medical humanities and social sciences around enhancement, emphasising especially how science and technology studies could bring benefits to—and be benefitted by—research in this area. We also use the example of (pharmaceutical) cognitive enhancement to show how empirical studies of actual and likely enhancement practices can nuance resonant bioethical debates. PMID:26260624

  8. Research self-efficacy among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-Rizi, Hasan; Najafi, Nayere Sadat Soleimanzade; Kazempour, Zahra; Taheri, Behjat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research self-efficacy if the people's judgment of their abilities in order to organize and conduct meaningful research in different formats. The aim of this study is to determinate the rate of research self-efficacy among students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on Research Self-efficacy Scale. Materials and Methods: The method of this study is an applied survey method. Statistical population is all students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and the sample size was calculated to be 361 samples based on Krejcie and Morgan table. Random sampling method was used with equal number of samples from every department. Data collection tool is Salehi et al. questionnaire (with 7 dimensions) with Likert scale (5 grades). Its validity and reliability were confirmed by Psychology and Research Method experts and Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.84) respectively. Data gathering method was direct visit to each department. The data was then analyzed using t-test and one-tailed ANOVA using SPSS 16 software. Results: The finding showed that among research self-efficiency dimensions research ethics dimension had the highest and quality research dimension had the lowest means. Furthermore comparing the research self-efficacy scores with demographic characteristics suggests that there is no significant difference between total score of research self-efficacy of different departments, genders or educational degrees (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Since the score of most of the research self-efficacy dimensions were, lower than average, holding periodical workshops, inclusion of necessary courses in the educational plan, forcing student to perform research activity such as writing articles in lower educational levels and improvement of research culture for students with the help of experienced professors are some of practical solutions, which can lead to increasing the motivation of the students for conducting efficient research. PMID:25883996

  9. Advancing science diplomacy: Indonesia and the US Naval Medical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Smith, Frank L

    2014-12-01

    Science diplomacy supposedly builds international cooperation through scientific and technical exchange. In practice, however, there are important but often overlooked instances where it might create conflict instead--as with accusations of espionage surrounding the US Naval Medical Research Unit 2 (NAMRU-2) in Indonesia. Did American science diplomacy backfire in Indonesia and, if so, why? Most literature fails to anticipate this possibility, let alone explain it, since science diplomacy is rarely subject to critical analysis. Rather than shun politics or, similarly, simply blame the demise of NAMRU-2 on the military or avian influenza, I consider both the successes and failures of this research unit in the context of Indonesia's transition to democracy and America's legacy from the Cold War. Based on this history, I propose that the effects of science diplomacy depend on strategic communication and exchange, as well as elite influence and material incentives. Therefore, by challenging the conventional wisdom about science diplomacy, NAMRU-2 can help advance the theory and practice of this potentially useful tool of statecraft. PMID:25608440

  10. Is It Science? A Study of the Attitudes of Medical Trainees and Physicians toward Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goguen, Jeannette; Knight, Melanie; Tiberius, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation.…

  11. A 5-year scientometric analysis of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Yazdani, Kamran; Rahimi-Movaghar, Afarin; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Ghalichi, Leila; Khalili, Malahat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Since Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) has the oldest and highest number of research centers among all Iranian medical universities, this study was conducted to evaluate scientific output of research centers affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) using scientometric indices and the affecting factors. Moreover, a number of scientometric indicators were introduced. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate a 5-year scientific performance of research centers of TUMS. Data were collected through questionnaires, annual evaluation reports of the Ministry of Health, and also from Scopus database. We used appropriate measures of central tendency and variation for descriptive analyses. Moreover, uni-and multi-variable linear regression were used to evaluate the effect of independent factors on the scientific output of the centers. Results: The medians of the numbers of papers and books during a 5-year period were 150.5 and 2.5 respectively. The median of the "articles per researcher" was 19.1. Based on multiple linear regression, younger age centers (p=0.001), having a separate budget line (p=0.016), and number of research personnel (p<0.001) had a direct significant correlation with the number of articles while real properties had a reverse significant correlation with it (p=0.004). Conclusion: The results can help policy makers and research managers to allocate sufficient resources to improve current situation of the centers. Newly adopted and effective scientometric indices are is suggested to be used to evaluate scientific outputs and functions of these centers. PMID:26157724

  12. Clinical and Translational Research Capacity Building Needs in Minority Medical and Health Science Hispanic Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M

    2014-01-01

    A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: “Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions,” with the competency “Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis.” These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities. PMID:24841800

  13. Clinical and translational research capacity building needs in minority medical and health science Hispanic institutions.

    PubMed

    Estapé-Garrastazu, Estela S; Noboa-Ramos, Carlamarie; De Jesús-Ojeda, Lizbelle; De Pedro-Serbiá, Zulmarie; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Camacho-Feliciano, Delia M

    2014-10-01

    A preliminary needs assessment was conducted among faculty and students of three minority medical and health science institutions comprising the Puerto Rico Clinical and Translational Research Consortium (PRCTRC). The Web-based survey was focused on evaluating the training interests in the clinical and translational research core areas and competencies developed by the National Institutes of Health-Clinical and Translational Sciences Award. The survey was the result of a team effort of three PRCTRC key function's leaderships: Multidisciplinary Training and Career Development, Tracking and Evaluation and Community Research and Engagement. The questionnaire included 45 items distributed across five content areas including demographics, research training needs, training activities coordination and knowledge about the services offered by the PRCTRC. Analysis of research needs includes a sample distribution according to professor, assistant/associate professor and graduate students. The thematic area with highest response rate among the three groups was: "Identify major clinical/public health problems and relevant translational research questions," with the competency "Identify basic and preclinical studies that are potential testable clinical research hypothesis." These preliminary results will guide the training and professional development of the new generation of clinical and translational researchers needed to eliminate health disparities. PMID:24841800

  14. Study on Research Anxiety Among Faculty Members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Zarmehr, Fateme; Bahrami, Susan; Ghazavi-Khorasgani, Zahra; Kazempour, Zahra; Shahrzadi, Leila

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: One of the most common anxieties in higher education is research anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the research anxiety level among the faculty members of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS). Methods: this was survey- analytical study. The stratified random sampling method was used and a sample of 212 people was selected. For data collection was used a questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive and analytical (T Test, ANOVA and LSD) statistics. Findings: The average anxiety research in IUMS was about 3.27 ±0.536. Among factors, highest scores in descending order are related to lack of timely payment of fees (3.97±0.961), the long approval process of proposals and research project reporting (3.86.±0.99) and lack of research efficiency on the part of faculty (3.70±1.00). The lowest scores were related to having insufficient funds to conduct research (2.67±1.08), another’s understanding of inability for researching (2.84±1.192), and unfriendly behavior from journals and research center staffs (2.89±0.802). Conclusion: The mean level of research anxiety among faculty members of IUMS was found higher than average. So it’s essential that authorities pay greater attention to the factors that cause research anxiety. PMID:25685076

  15. Virtual microscopy in medical research: Open European Nephrology Science Center (OpEN.SC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Thomas; Beil, Michael; Schmidt, Danilo; Dietel, Manfred; Lindemann, Gabriela

    2007-03-01

    The amount and heterogeneity of data in biomedical research, notably in transnational research, requires new methods for the collection, presentation and analysis of information. Important data from laboratory experiments as well as patient trials are available as images. Thus, the integration and processing of image data represent a crucial component of information systems in biomedical research. The Charité Medical School in Berlin has established a new information service center for kidney diseases and transplantation (Open European Nephrology Science Centre - OpEN.SC) together with the German Research Agency (DFG). The aims of this project are (i) to improve the availability of raw data, (ii) to establish an infrastructure for clinical trials, (iii) to monitor the occurrence of rare disease patterns and (iv) to establish a quality assurance system. Major diagnostic procedures in medicine are based on the processing and analysis of image data. In diagnostic pathology, the availability of automated slide scanners provide the opportunity to digitize entire microscopic slides. The processing, presentation and analysis of these image data are called virtual microscopy. The integration of this new technology into the OpEN.SC system and the link to other heterogeneous data of individual patients represent a major technological challenge. Thus, new ways in communication between clinical and scientific partners have to be established and will be promoted by the project. The technological basis of the repository are web services for a scalable and adaptable system. HL7 and DICOM are considered the main medical standards of communication.

  16. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to…

  17. An International Basic Science and Clinical Research Summer Program for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N.; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; AlKukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2012-01-01

    An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to

  18. Predicting People's Intention to Donate Their Body to Medical Science and Research.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Maree F; White, Katherine M

    2015-01-01

    Predictors of people's intention to register with a body bequest program for donating their deceased body to medical science and research were examined using standard theory of planned behavior (TPB) predictors (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control) and adding moral norm, altruism, and knowledge. Australian students (N = 221) at a university with a recently established body bequest program completed measures of the TPB's underlying beliefs (behavioral, normative, and control beliefs) and standard and extended TPB predictors, with a sub-sample reporting their registration-related behavior 2 months later. The standard TPB accounted for 43.6%, and the extended predictors an additional 15.1% of variance in intention. The significant predictors were attitude, subjective norm, and moral norm, partially supporting an extended TPB in understanding people's body donation intentions. Further, important underlying beliefs can inform strategies to target prospective donors. PMID:25559925

  19. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research.

    PubMed

    Mychaskiw, George

    2011-01-01

    Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic".-Arthur C. Clarke. PMID:22146602

  20. Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology "Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic". -Arthur C. Clarke PMID:22146602

  1. Research design and statistical methods in Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences (PJMS)

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Sohail; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Rafiq, M.; Khan, Ajmal

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article compares the study design and statistical methods used in 2005, 2010 and 2015 of Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences (PJMS). Methods: Only original articles of PJMS were considered for the analysis. The articles were carefully reviewed for statistical methods and designs, and then recorded accordingly. The frequency of each statistical method and research design was estimated and compared with previous years. Results: A total of 429 articles were evaluated (n=74 in 2005, n=179 in 2010, n=176 in 2015) in which 171 (40%) were cross-sectional and 116 (27%) were prospective study designs. A verity of statistical methods were found in the analysis. The most frequent methods include: descriptive statistics (n=315, 73.4%), chi-square/Fisher’s exact tests (n=205, 47.8%) and student t-test (n=186, 43.4%). There was a significant increase in the use of statistical methods over time period: t-test, chi-square/Fisher’s exact test, logistic regression, epidemiological statistics, and non-parametric tests. Conclusion: This study shows that a diverse variety of statistical methods have been used in the research articles of PJMS and frequency improved from 2005 to 2015. However, descriptive statistics was the most frequent method of statistical analysis in the published articles while cross-sectional study design was common study design.

  2. Research priorities in medical education at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences:categories and subcategories in the Iranian context

    PubMed Central

    NABEIEI, PARISA; AMINI, MITRA; GHANAVATI, SHIRIN; MARHAMATI, SAADAT

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Research in education is a globally significant issue without a long history. Due to the importance of the issue in Health System Development programs, this study intended to determine research priorities in medical education, considering their details and functions. By determining barriers existing in research in education progress, it is tried to make research priorities more functional by recommending acceptable strategies. Methods This is a qualitative-descriptive study in two descriptive phases. The goal of these phases was to determine research priorities subcategories in medical education by Nominal Group Technique (NGT) and two rounds of Delphi method. Through the first phase, subcategories of research priorities were determined, using Nominal Group Technique under medical education experts’ supervision. Through two rounds of Delphi, a questionnaire was constructed based on the subcategories. Eventually, research priorities were determined based on their highest score (scores more than 7 out of 10). Results In the first phase (NGT), 35 priorities in 5 major fields of medical education were presented. In the second phase, priorities were scored, using Delphi method. Medical Ethics and professionalism gained the highest scores (7.63±1.26) and educational evaluation the lowest (7.28±1.52). In this stage, 7 items were omitted but 2 of them were added again after experts’ revision in the third round of Delphi. Conclusion According to the results of the present study and based on previous studies, it really seems that the fields of “Learning and Teaching Approaches” and “Medical Ethics and Professionalism” were more important. Because of financial and resource limitations in our country and the importance of research priorities, it is recommended to frequently study “research priorities determination program” at universities. PMID:26793723

  3. National Institute of General Medical Sciences

    MedlinePlus

    ... Over Navigation Links National Institute of General Medical Sciences Site Map Staff Search My Order Search the ... NIGMS Website Research Funding Research Training News & Meetings Science Education About NIGMS Feature Slides View All Slides ...

  4. Trends in health sciences library and information science research: an analysis of research publications in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association from 1991 to 2007*

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Sally A.; Nordberg, Judith M.; Palmer, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study analyzed trends in research activity as represented in the published research in the leading peer-reviewed professional journal for health sciences librarianship. Methodology: Research articles were identified from the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association and Journal of the Medical Library Association (1991–2007). Using content analysis and bibliometric techniques, data were collected for each article on the (1) subject, (2) research method, (3) analytical technique used, (4) number of authors, (5) number of citations, (6) first author affiliation, and (7) funding source. The results were compared to a previous study, covering the period 1966 to 1990, to identify changes over time. Results: Of the 930 articles examined, 474 (51%) were identified as research articles. Survey (n = 174, 37.1%) was the most common methodology employed, quantitative descriptive statistics (n = 298, 63.5%) the most used analytical technique, and applied topics (n = 332, 70%) the most common type of subject studied. The majority of first authors were associated with an academic health sciences library (n = 264, 55.7%). Only 27.4% (n = 130) of studies identified a funding source. Conclusion: This study's findings demonstrate that progress is being made in health sciences librarianship research. There is, however, room for improvement in terms of research methodologies used, proportion of applied versus theoretical research, and elimination of barriers to conducting research for practicing librarians. PMID:19626146

  5. Space Station medical sciences concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A. (Editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Current life sciences concepts relating to Space Station are presented including the following: research, extravehicular activity, biobehavioral considerations, medical care, maintenance of dental health, maintaining health through physical conditioning and countermeasures, protection from radiation, atmospheric contamination control, atmospheric composition, noise pollution, food supply and service, clothing and furnishings, and educational program possibilities. Information on the current status of Soviet Space Stations is contained.

  6. The reincarnation of a biomedical researcher: from bench science to medical education.

    PubMed

    Brawer, James R

    2008-02-01

    After 33 years as a biomedical research scientist, I embarked on a new career in medical education. The transformation was awkward, difficult and exciting. Although I had assumed that previous experience in research and scholarship would stand me in good stead, such was hardly the case. I had to learn to navigate a strange new literature, replete with terms that I did not understand, and to deal with concepts that challenged my physico-chemical mindset. As I learned, I found myself discovering a field rich in essential questions, controversial hypotheses, and important potential applications. With my newly acquired knowledge and skills, I began to reflect on my own educational endeavors. I identified a number of outstanding issues and I designed studies to address them. What made these investigations particularly significant for me was their applicability. Although medical education is an exciting and meaningful career path, because of its low profile in most medical schools, few faculty are aware of the academic opportunities that it affords. PMID:18278657

  7. Health sciences librarians' research on medical students' use of information for their studies at the medical school, University of Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Lasserre, Kaye E; Foxlee, Nicola; Kruesi, Lisa; Walters, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the findings of research undertaken by health sciences librarians at the University of Queensland Library into how medical students use information for their studies, particularly resources and services provided by the Library. The methods utilized were an online survey and focus groups. Results indicated that students favor print resources over electronic, value accessing resources on a one-stop basis, and prefer training to be delivered flexibly. The implication of these results for future resource selection, service provision, and instructional design and delivery is discussed. PMID:21534114

  8. Scientometric analysis: A technical need for medical science researchers either as authors or as peer reviewers

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    The nature of performing a scientific research is a process that has several different components which consist of identifying the key research question(s), choices of scientific approach for the study and data collection, data analysis, and finally reporting on results. Generally, peer review is a series of procedures in the evaluation of a creative work or performance by other people, who work in the same or related field, with the aim of maintaining and improving the quality of work or performance in that field. The assessment of the achievement of every scientist, and thus indirectly determining his reputation in the scientific community of these publications, especially journals, is done through the so-called impact factor index. The impact factor predicts or estimates that how many annual citations article may receive after its publication. Evaluation of scientific productivity and assessment of the published articles of researchers and scientists can be made through the so-called H-index. The quality of published results of scientific work largely depends on knowledge sources that are used in the preparation, which means that it should be considered to serve the purpose and the very relevance of the information used. Scientometrics as a field of science covers all aforementioned issues, and scientometric analysis is obligatory for quality assessment of the scientific validity of published articles and other type of publications. PMID:26985429

  9. Scientometric analysis: A technical need for medical science researchers either as authors or as peer reviewers.

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    The nature of performing a scientific research is a process that has several different components which consist of identifying the key research question(s), choices of scientific approach for the study and data collection, data analysis, and finally reporting on results. Generally, peer review is a series of procedures in the evaluation of a creative work or performance by other people, who work in the same or related field, with the aim of maintaining and improving the quality of work or performance in that field. The assessment of the achievement of every scientist, and thus indirectly determining his reputation in the scientific community of these publications, especially journals, is done through the so-called impact factor index. The impact factor predicts or estimates that how many annual citations article may receive after its publication. Evaluation of scientific productivity and assessment of the published articles of researchers and scientists can be made through the so-called H-index. The quality of published results of scientific work largely depends on knowledge sources that are used in the preparation, which means that it should be considered to serve the purpose and the very relevance of the information used. Scientometrics as a field of science covers all aforementioned issues, and scientometric analysis is obligatory for quality assessment of the scientific validity of published articles and other type of publications. PMID:26985429

  10. Understanding Medical Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study seem to disagree with the results of another study. It's important to be critical when reading or listening to reports of new medical findings. ...

  11. [Takeki Kudoh's Research on Modern Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism in Colonial Korea (Chosŏn)].

    PubMed

    Ch'oi, Jae-Mok; Kim, Jeŏng-Gon

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews Kudoh Takeki's activity critically during the colonial Korea period, regarding his research on Medical Science and Japanized Confucianism. He managed 'The Seoul Gynecological Hospital'for approximately 35 years in the Chosŏn period as a Japanese resident with Chosŏn status. He published medical knowledge about obstetrics through more than 280 articles, and attempted to improve the hygiene and health of 'Korean Women'. He tried to complete his will toward 'One Unity of Chosŏn and Japan'by terminating the Chosŏn culture 'gene'as an intention. The purpose would enlighten Chosŏn by Japanese blessing. This paper aims to confirm his intention by two aspect of analysis by 'Medical Science'as an occupation and 'Confucianism'and the background of his thought. The content of Kudoh Takeki's research in Chosŏn regarding Medical Science-Confucianism is described as below. First, the purpose and mission of Kudoh Takeki regarding Chosŏn was analyzed. The papers revealed the Kudoh Takeki mentioned only the 'HusbandMurders of Corean Women', which was defined by Kudoh Takeki as 'A Special Crime of Corea'. This paper examined his intensions. Second, writings by Kudoh Takeki were listed to verify the 'medical'field and 'non-medical'field according to the subject. No list of contents was found for his more than 280 articles or essays in magazines/newspapers/ publications, and these papers only described the Kudoh paper "A Special Crime of Corea"and studied the separate book publication by Kudoh THE GYNAECOLOGICAL RESEARCH OF HUSBANDMURDERS OF COREAN WOMEN, A SPECIAL CRIME OF COREA. Third, the genealogy of Confucianism of Kudoh Takeki was analyzed as his background of mental·thought by his hometown and the school he graduated from. The people from Kumamoto and Seiseiko school who were influenced by 'Yi Toegye'of Chosŏn Confucianism were more active than general Japanese. Fourth, the practical activity of Kudoh Takeki in Chosŏn was described. The paper revealed that his brother Tadaske and Shigeo also stayed in Chosŏn to act as an important assistants for the Colonial Chosŏn Government-general. Kudoh was an important man in Japanese society in Chosŏn, acting as a member of 「Group of Same Origin」 and 'Chosŏn Association of great Asia'which was an important organization assisting Colonial Chosŏn Government-general and was a representative position in Seoul district of Bukmichang-jeong(now Bukchang-dong) Fifth, Kudoh Takeki's precise activity to terminate Chosŏn cultural 'gene'and lead to enlightenment was analyzed by an examination of his Medical Science as an occupation and Confucianism as a background of his thought. Even he attempted to enlighten the brutal Chosŏn people in cultural aspects but it was only a tool to assist the colonial policy of Japan by emphasizing 'Kyoikuchokugo(Imperial Rescript on Education)'to implant the Kodo-Seishin(Imperial Spirit). Analyzing the relationship of Kumamoto Practical Party with Yi Toegye, the intention of a deep connection toward 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'by colonial policy was revealed. In conclusion, the paper revealed the Japanese modernization frame to complete 'One Unity of Japan and Chosŏn'and 'Make people to obey the Japan Emperor'by enlightening the dark Chosŏn and merging them with Japan as Kudoh intended. PMID:26819437

  12. The Impact of Centers and Institutes on Faculty Life: Findings from a Study of Life Sciences Faculty at Research-Intensive Universities' Medical Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunton, Sarah A.; Mallon, William T.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports on the impact of organized research centers on professional effort, productivity, and perceptions of work satisfaction for life sciences faculty members at research intensive universities' medical schools in the U.S. Results indicate that senior center-affiliated faculty members taught less but worked more total hours than…

  13. [Documentary basis for research on the transfer of Islamic medical science to the European West].

    PubMed

    Kujundzić, E

    1997-01-01

    The last decades of the twentieth century are witness of increased interest in the study of scientific heritage in the Islamic world. The already established opinion of Islamic science as only intermediary between classical Greece and Latin West is seriously challenged. The reason for this are original sources from which the historians of our century have extracted solid evidence of high level of originality achieved by Muslim scientists in the past. Through their work in Bagdad, Buhara, Samarkand, Reyy, Kairo, Maraga, Damascus, Kordova they have shown that Islamic sciences including medicine had theoretical and practical answers to the problems characteristic of their times. Throughout its History Bosnia and Herzegovina itself has been exposed to various cultural influences from the West as well as from the Islamic East. When we try to study the history of medicine and health profession generally, we have to take into account the early Arabic sources of which short survey is given in this paper. With this in mind, one can make one preliminary conclusion at least; Islamic medicine has reached respectable level of practical and theoretical achievements while the volume of books and number of people engaged in its practice produced series of biographies and bibliographies as clear proof of its growth and level it has attained. PMID:9324577

  14. Obstacles to undertaking research and their effect on research output: a survey of faculty members' views at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Z; Sabbaghian, Z; Salehi, A; Sedghpour, B S

    2012-11-01

    To improve the quality of research, it is necessary to understand the obstacles to undertaking research. This study aimed to identify: I) internal obstacles to research as considered by faculty members at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences; ii) differences between their viewpoints by gender and professional variables; and iii) the effect of these obstacles on research activity. Six types of obstacle were considered: financial, facility-related, occupational, managerial-organizational, scientific and personal. The study sample consisted of 240 participants selected from all 550 faculty members of the University. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaire; the response rate was 91%. All 6 types of obstacle were considered to affect research activities by most of the respondents, with 90% identifying financial obstacles. There were significant differences by gender, scientific rank, field of study, and holding executive responsibilities but not for durations of work experience. Despite these numerous obstacles to conducting research, respondents did not think their research output was affected. PMID:23301377

  15. Study of co-authorship network of papers in the Journal of Research in Medical Sciences using social network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zare-Farashbandi, Firoozeh; Geraei, Ehsan; Siamaki, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Background: Co-authorship is one of the most tangible forms of research collaboration. A co-authorship network is a social network in which the authors through participation in one or more publication through an indirect path have linked to each other. The present research using the social network analysis studied co-authorship network of 681 articles published in Journal of Research in Medical Sciences (JRMS) during 2008-2012. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out with the scientometrics approach and using co-authorship network analysis of authors. The topology of the co-authorship network of 681 published articles in JRMS between 2008 and 2012 was analyzed using macro-level metrics indicators of network analysis such as density, clustering coefficient, components and mean distance. In addition, in order to evaluate the performance of each authors and countries in the network, the micro-level indicators such as degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality as well as productivity index were used. The UCINET and NetDraw softwares were used to draw and analyze the co-authorship network of the papers. Results: The assessment of the authors productivity in this journal showed that the first ranks were belonged to only five authors, respectively. Furthermore, analysis of the co-authorship of the authors in the network demonstrated that in the betweenness centrality index, three authors of them had the good position in the network. They can be considered as the network leaders able to control the flow of information in the network compared with the other members based on the shortest paths. On the other hand, the key role of the network according to the productivity and centrality indexes was belonged to Iran, Malaysia and United States of America. Conclusion: Co-authorship network of JRMS has the characteristics of a small world network. In addition, the theory of 6° separation is valid in this network was also true. PMID:24672564

  16. HTLV-I Infection Twenty-Year Research in Neurology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Shoeibi, Ali; Etemadi, Mohammdmahdi; Moghaddam Ahmadi, Amir; Amini, Mona; Boostani, Reza

    2013-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 belong to the Oncorna group of retroviridae, a large family of viruses, grouped initially by pathogenic features, but later revised on the basis of genome structure and nucleotide sequence. HTLV-I was the first discovered human retrovirus to be associated with a malignancy in 1980. The malignancy, first described by Uchiyama and co-workers in southwestern Japan, was named Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) and characterized with cutaneous and respiratory involvement, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and various metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalcemia. The HTLV-I has been known to be endemic to certain parts of Iran like the province of Khorasan in the northeast since 1990, with a 2.3% prevalence rate of infection. The main manifestations of HTLV-I infection are neurologic and hematologic (such as ATL) disorders, but it has also other manifestations such as uveitis, arthritis, dermatitis, vitiligo and lymphocytic alveolitis. Its main neurologic manifestation is a chronic progressive myelopathy that is referred to HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) in Japan and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (TSP) in Caribbean. But other disorders such as peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, myopathy, peripheral facial paresis, and so on have been reported too. In this review we wish to give some brief information on the different aspects (including epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathology, clinical findings, and treatment) of HTLV-I infection according to our twenty-year researches. The department of neurology of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences has been a pioneer in researches on HTLV-I in the last twenty years. PMID:24470862

  17. 76 FR 64954 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group Biomedical Research... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

  18. 77 FR 31862 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group Biomedical Research..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  19. Medical Sciences Division report for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This year`s Medical Sciences Division (MSD) Report is organized to show how programs in our division contribute to the core competencies of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). ORISE`s core competencies in education and training, environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, occupational and environmental health, and enabling research support the overall mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  20. Evidence-based medicine at the intersection of research interests between academic health sciences librarians and medical educators: a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Dorsch, Josephine L.; Perry, Gerald (Jerry)

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: In 2008, the Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries established an Education Research Task Force (ERTF) to plan research addressing research priorities outlined in key Association of American Medical Colleges reports. ERTF members conducted a literature review to describe the state of collaborative research at the intersection of medical education and health sciences librarianship. Analysis of initial results revealed instruction in evidence-based medicine (EBM) was a shared interest and is thus the focus of this review. Methods: Searches on EBM teaching programs were conducted, and results were posted to a shared online citation management service. Individual articles were assessed and assigned metadata describing subject matter, scope, and format. Results: Article analysis identified key themes. Most papers were descriptive narratives of curricular development. Evaluation studies were also prominent and often based on student satisfaction or self-reported competency. A smaller number of controlled studies provide evidence of impacts of librarian involvement in EBM instruction. Conclusions: Scholarship of EBM instruction is of common interest between medical educators and health sciences librarians. Coauthorship between the groups and distribution of literature points to a productive collaboration. An emerging literature of controlled studies measuring the impact of cross-disciplinary efforts signals continued progress in the arena of EBM instruction. PMID:23133324

  1. Medical School Research Pipeline: Medical Student Research Experience in Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balon, Richard; Heninger, George; Belitsky, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The authors discuss the importance of introducing research training in psychiatry and neurosciences to medical students. Methods: A review of existing models of research training in psychiatry with focus on those providing research training to medical students is presented. Results: Two research-training models for medical students that

  2. Research support in an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Cheek, Fern M

    2010-01-01

    In 2003, the Prior Health Sciences Library (Prior Library) at The Ohio State University (OSU) explored the possibility of providing specialized support to biomedical, nursing, and allied health researchers by adding a research librarian position. The decision came about after the Medical Library Association (MLA) investigated how libraries could provide enhanced support to medical researchers. This article describes how the research librarian position was developed and how it continues to evolve. PMID:20391163

  3. 78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  4. 76 FR 66367 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  5. 76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit... medical specialties within the general areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research....

  6. Medical Research System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Based on Johnson Space Flight Center's development of a rotating bioreactor cell culture apparatus for Space Shuttle medical research, Johnson Space Flight Center engineers who worked on the original project formed a company called Synthecon, with the intention of commercializing the bioreactor technology. Synthecon grows three dimensional tissues in the bioreactor. These are superior to previous two-dimensional tissue samples in the study of human cell growth. A refined version of the Johnson Space Center technology, Synthecon's Rotary Cell Culture System includes a cell culture chamber that rotates around a horizontal axis. The cells establish an orbit that approximates free fall through the liquid medium in the chamber. The technology has significant applications for cancer research and treatment as well as AIDS research.

  7. The Hyper-Commons: how open science prizes can expand and level the medical research playing field.

    PubMed

    Hynek, Paul

    2008-12-01

    The largest industry in America is increasingly incapable of serving its customers. Over-fencing of the information commons has led to unaffordable medicine, for want of which millions of Americans and people around the world go without lifesaving treatments. Eliminating patent distribution exclusivity altogether, however, is not feasible, given the entrenched nature of the health-care industry. This paper proposes a program of voluntary Open Science Prizes that would draw large numbers of new players, who would in turn produce much new medical innovation, provide academic priority recognition, and develop a growing body of patent-beating prior art that would serve as public domain firewalls on a new supranational Hyper-Commons. PMID:19119862

  8. Research Component - Natural Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Donald

    The research component in the natural sciences does not have to be changed. Ninety-three percent of the students surveyed by Ann Heiss for her book "The Challenge to the Graduate Schools" felt that the research component of the natural sciences contributed to their scientific development, and 85 percent felt that it was intellectually stimulating.

  9. Ethics in Medical Research and Publication

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Hodzic, Ajla; Mulic, Smaila

    2014-01-01

    To present the basic principles and standards of Ethics in medical research and publishing, as well as the need for continuing education in the principles and ethics in science and publication in biomedicine. An analysis of relevant materials and documents, sources from the published literature. Investing in education of researches and potential researches, already in the level of medical schools. Educating them on research ethics, what constitutes research misconduct and the seriousness of it repercussion is essential for finding a solution to this problem and ensuring careers are constructed on honesty and integrity. PMID:25317288

  10. Antarctica: a review of recent medical research.

    PubMed

    Olson, James J

    2002-10-01

    This article reviews recent developments and areas of research in Antarctic medical science. Nineteen nations are part of the Antarctic treaty and undertake research programmes in Antarctica. Medical science is a small but important part of these programmes. Areas that have been studied include aspects of cold physiology, ultraviolet light effects, endocrine changes (including polar T3 syndrome), alterations in immune function, chronobiology, psychology, microbiology, epidemiology and telemedicine. Antarctica has been recognized as the closest thing on Earth to a testing ground for aspects of space exploration and as such has been termed a space analogue. PMID:12368074

  11. A Course in Medical Research Study Design and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linskey, Mark E.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A course to familiarize medical students with the principles of good medical research study design and analysis focuses on three types of studies: clinical trials, laboratory science, and epidemiology and biostatistics. (MSE)

  12. Medical Products Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Ventrex Laboratories, Inc. develops, manufactures and markets a line of medical diagnostic assays based on biochemical techniques, in particular immunochemical techniques. Their products are sold worldwide to hospitals and medical laboratories for use in testing blood samples and other biological fluids. Analysis of a patient's body fluids, compared with normal values, aids a physician in confirming or otherwise diagnosing a suspected disease condition. NERAC's rapid information retrieval has provided Ventrex invaluable up-to-date information, and has permitted large scale savings. NERAC's service was particularly important in the development of a new product in the company's Ventre/Sep line, which is used in radioimmunoassays.

  13. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L E

    2007-09-17

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  14. Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, Larry

    2007-10-26

    Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

  15. The effective factors on library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Sajad, Maryam Sadat; Rahmani, Sedigheh; Bahrami, Susan; Papi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The efficient use of libraries can be an important factor in determining the educational quality of Universities. Therefore, investigation and identification of factors affecting library anxiety becomes increasingly necessary. The purpose of this research is to determine the factors effecting library anxiety of students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Materials and Methods: This was an applied survey research using Bostick's Library Anxiety questionnaire as data gathering tool. The statistical population consisted of all students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (15011 students) with the sample size of 375 using stratified random sampling. The validity of data gathering tool was confirmed by experts in the library and information science and its reliability was determined by Cronbach's alpha (r = 0.92). Descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA) were used for data analysis using SPSS 18 software. Results: Findings showed that the mean of library anxiety score was 2.68 and 2.66 for students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences respectively which is above average (2.5). Furthermore, age and gender had no meaningful effect on the library anxiety of students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, but gender had a meaningful effect on library anxiety of students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences while age had no such effect. Conclusion: The results showed that the mean of factors effecting library anxiety in students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences is higher than average and therefore not satisfactory and only factors relating to feeling comfortable in the library is lower than average and somewhat satisfactory. PMID:25250358

  16. Evaluation of Scientific Outputs of Kashan University of Medical Sciences in Scopus Citation Database based on Scopus, ResearchGate, and Mendeley Scientometric Measures

    PubMed Central

    Batooli, Zahra; Ravandi, Somaye Nadi; Bidgoli, Mohammad Sabahi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction It is essential to evaluate the impact of scientific publications through citation analysis in citation indexes. In addition, scientometric measures of social media also should be assessed. These measures include how many times the publications were read, viewed, and downloaded. The present study aimed to assess the scientific output of scholars at Kashan University of Medical Sciences by the end of March 2014 based on scientometric measures of Scopus, ResearchGate, and Mendeley. Methods A survey method was used to study the articles published in Scopus journals by scholars at Kashan University of Medical Sciences by the end of March 2014. The required data were collected from Scopus, ResearchGate, and Mendeley. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Also, the Spearman correlation was used between the number of views of articles in ResearchGate with citation number of the articles in Scopus and reading frequency of the articles in Mendeley with citation number in Scopus were examined using the Spearman correlation in SPSS 16. Results Five-hundred and thirty-three articles were indexed in the Scopus Citation Database by the end of March 2014. Collectively, those articles were cited 1,315 times. The articles were covered by ResearchGate (74%) more than Mendeley (44%). In addition, 98% of the articles indexed in ResearchGate and 92% of the articles indexed in Mendeley were viewed at least once. The results showed that there was a positive correlation between the number of views of the articles in ResearchGate and Mendeley and the number of citations of the articles in Scopus. Conclusion Coverage and the number of visitors were higher in ResearchGate than in Mendeley. The increase in the number of views of articles in ResearchGate and Mendeley also increased the number of citations of the papers. Social networks, such as ResearchGate and Mendeley, also can be used as tools for the evaluation of academics and scholars based on the scientific research they have conducted. PMID:27054017

  17. Japanese medical students' interest in basic sciences: a questionnaire survey of a medical school in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

    2013-01-01

    The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using χ(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent. PMID:23337622

  18. St George's University's Medical Student Research Institute: A Novel, Virtual Programme for Medical Research Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlain, RS; Klaassen, Z; Meadows, MC; Weitzman, S; Loukas, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Medical student research involvement has evolved to be a core component of medical education and is becoming increasingly vital to success in the United States residency match. We sought to develop a research website allowing students and research faculty to collaborate and complete projects online. Methods: The Medical Student Research Institute (MSRI) was developed by the St George's University School of Medicine in 2009 to encourage, support, facilitate and centralize medical student research. Results: There are 63 active students in the MSRI (22 students in basic science and 41 students in clinical rotations). The mean GPA for basic science student members was 3.81 ± 0.27 and was 3.80 ± 0.20 for clinical student members. The mean United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 score was 241.6 ± 17.5. Since 2009, MSRI students have published 87 manuscripts in 33 different journals and have presented at 14 different national and international conferences. Conclusion: A web-based MSRI provides a virtual, entirely online resource for coordinating remote research collaboration between medical students and faculty whose opportunities would be otherwise limited. Initial experiences with the programme have been positive and the framework and concept of the MSRI provides a platform for university and medical schools to provide research opportunities to students who may not have face-to-face access to research faculty. PMID:25303200

  19. Five Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Decades of Discovery: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Past Issues / Summer 2012 Table of Contents It ... anniversary of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS), known to many as NIH's "basic research ...

  20. Medical Research for All Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... improvements to the health and well being of all Americans. Starting on page 10, our special section ...

  1. Teaching Science through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…

  2. 76 FR 30370 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  3. 76 FR 30373 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting... personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  4. Medical Applications of Non-Medical Research: Applications Derived from BES-Supported Research and Research at BES Facilities

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1998-07-01

    This publication contains stories that illustrate how the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES) research and major user facilities have impacted the medical sciences in the selected topical areas of disease diagnosis, treatment (including drug development, radiation therapy, and surgery), understanding, and prevention.

  5. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Various graduate research activities in the field of computer science are reported. Among the topics discussed are: (1) failure probabilities in multi-version software; (2) Gaussian Elimination on parallel computers; (3) three dimensional Poisson solvers on parallel/vector computers; (4) automated task decomposition for multiple robot arms; (5) multi-color incomplete cholesky conjugate gradient methods on the Cyber 205; and (6) parallel implementation of iterative methods for solving linear equations.

  6. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Synopses are given for NASA supported work in computer science at the University of Virginia. Some areas of research include: error seeding as a testing method; knowledge representation for engineering design; analysis of faults in a multi-version software experiment; implementation of a parallel programming environment; two computer graphics systems for visualization of pressure distribution and convective density particles; task decomposition for multiple robot arms; vectorized incomplete conjugate gradient; and iterative methods for solving linear equations on the Flex/32.

  7. Medical Sciences Division Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education report for 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Research programs from the medical science division of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) are briefly described in the following areas: Biochemistry, cytogenetics, microbiology, center for epidemiologic research, radiation medicine, radiation internal dose information center, center for human reliability studies, facility safety, occupational medicine, and radiation emergency assistance center/training site.

  8. Medical Informatics Education & Research in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Chouvarda, I.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives This paper aims to present an overview of the medical informatics landscape in Greece, to describe the Greek ehealth background and to highlight the main education and research axes in medical informatics, along with activities, achievements and pitfalls. Methods With respect to research and education, formal and informal sources were investigated and information was collected and presented in a qualitative manner, including also quantitative indicators when possible. Results Greece has adopted and applied medical informatics education in various ways, including undergraduate courses in health sciences schools as well as multidisciplinary postgraduate courses. There is a continuous research effort, and large participation in EU-wide initiatives, in all the spectrum of medical informatics research, with notable scientific contributions, although technology maturation is not without barriers. Wide-scale deployment of eHealth is anticipated in the healthcare system in the near future. While ePrescription deployment has been an important step, ICT for integrated care and telehealth have a lot of room for further deployment. Conclusions Greece is a valuable contributor in the European medical informatics arena, and has the potential to offer more as long as the barriers of research and innovation fragmentation are addressed and alleviated. PMID:26123910

  9. Emotional Intelligence in Medical Laboratory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Travis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In

  10. Emotional Intelligence in Medical Laboratory Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Travis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In…

  11. 76 FR 35901 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, P50 (Research... General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3AN18B, Bethesda, MD...

  12. [Introduction to the "Guidelines of Medical Ethics" of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences].

    PubMed

    Gsell, O

    1980-11-01

    The guidelines of medical ethic are recommendations of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences to the medical doctors to overcome the difficulties of medicine and modern technics and social problems. In an introduction the duties of the physician and his behaviour in the hippocratic mind are exposed, without asking for an oath. The recommendations give I. essential rules of international health organisations and II. Medical-ethic guidelines regarding different questions: 1. research examinations on men 2. euthanasia 3. transplantation 4. artificial insemination 5. sterilisation, especially the operative sterilisation of mentally handicapped persons, without acceptation of the so-called forced sterilisation 6. medical-ethical committees. The newly founded medical-ethical commission of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences and its organisation with physicians and laymen is explained. Its different functions are: a) answers to inquiries of international or national organisations and of individual persons b) formulation of principal ideas for medical-ethical questions, which will arise also in the future, not only on research, but also on diagnostic, therapeutic or prophylactic problems. These medical-ethical guidelines are formulated in few words to help the medical doctor for a quick consultation. They give a legal ethic. The Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences considers this as one of her tasks: to guard and to guard and to advance ethical devices in medicine. PMID:7470696

  13. [Men as a medical role. A blind spot in science].

    PubMed

    Vienne, Florence

    2006-01-01

    While historians of science have demonstrated that in the late eighteenth century the emergence of the human sciences went along with the sexualization and medicalization of women, they paid almost no attention to the development of a medical knowledge on male (in)fertility. This paper argues that in the early twentieth century, the scientific investigation of the male role in reproduction was due to the rise of eugenics and the racial sciences. In order to illustrate this relation, I will discuss how in the context of the Nazi population and racial policy new research outcomes in the field of male (in)fertiliy research were achieved. More generally, I want to show that the transformation of man into a reproductive being and an object of medical knowledge is not only relevant for the history of reproductive medicine, but also for the history of the human sciences in the twentieth century. PMID:17992859

  14. Where medical science and human behaviour meet.

    PubMed Central

    Rees, J.

    1995-01-01

    Although we may be wrong about the details, we should try to imagine what the future holds for hospital consultants. The days of the independent consultant in the same post for 30 years are over, and there will be a change from "the" consultant to a few tiers of senior staff. Patients will increasingly demand to see specialists, so more specialists will be needed. As patients and their advocates become better informed the traditional rationing of clinical care to patients in Britain, such as restricting access to specialists, cannot continue. There is a current trend for evidence based health care, but the idea that each element of medical practice can be dictated by systematic evidence based research will prove to be nave--such research informs practice rather than dictates it. Science will continue to act as the guide to medical practice but specialists will not be turned into a set of logical operators running programs designed by health planners. Images p851-a p852-a PMID:7711626

  15. Spacelab Life Sciences Research Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank; Young, Laurence R.; Seddon, Rhea; Ross, Muriel; Baldwin, Kenneth; Frey, Mary Anne; Hughes, Rod

    2000-01-01

    This document describes some of the life sciences research that was conducted on Spacelab missions. Dr. Larry Young, Director of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, provides an overview of the Life Sciences Spacelabs.

  16. Measurement science and manufacturing science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, D. Howard

    1987-01-01

    The research program of Semiconductor Research Corp. is managed as three overlapping areas: Manufacturing Sciences, Design Sciences and Microstructure Sciences. A total of 40 universities are participating in the performance of over 200 research tasks. The goals and direction of Manufacturing Sciences research became more clearly focused through the efforts of the Manufacturing Sciences Committee of the SRC Technical Advisory Board (TAB). The mission of the SRC Manufacturing Research is the quantification, control, and understanding of semiconductor manufacturing process necessary to achieve a predictable and profitable product output in the competitive environment of the next decade. The 1994 integrated circuit factory must demonstrate a three level hierarchy of control: (1) operation control, (2) process control, and (3) process design. These levels of control are briefly discussed.

  17. Anatomy research under the knife of medical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W. M. S.; Archana, R.; Prathibha, K. M.; Johnson, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    There is increased awareness and anxiety in conducting research for publication and at the same time ignorance about getting Ethical Committee clearance at least in Anatomy Departments among Basic Medical Sciences. While people are actively presenting papers, collect data, Indian Council for Medical Research guidelines does not cover aspects pertaining to Anatomy oriented research activities. This review article is an eye opener for fraternity in the medical field, especially in anatomy. PMID:26015746

  18. 77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium. The symposium is intended to provide a forum for the exchange of ideas for medical...

  19. 78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science... Administration (FDA) is announcing the following meeting: 2013 Medical Countermeasures initiative (MCMi... medical countermeasure development, highlight work on regulatory science as it applies to the...

  20. Ghosts in the machine: publication planning in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2009-04-01

    Publication of pharmaceutical company-sponsored research in medical journals, and its presentation at conferences and meetings, is mostly governed by 'publication plans' that extract the maximum amount of scientific and commercial value out of data and analyses through carefully constructed and placed papers. Clinical research is typically performed by contract research organizations, analyzed by company statisticians, written up by independent medical writers, approved and edited by academic researchers who then serve as authors, and the whole process organized and shepherded through to journal publication by publication planners. This paper reports on a conference of an international association of publication planners. It describes and analyzes their work in an ecological framework that relates it to marketing departments of pharmaceutical companies, medical journals and publishers, academic authors, and potential audiences. The medical research described here forms a new kind of corporate science, designed to look like traditional academic work, but performed largely to market products. PMID:19831220

  1. Accelerator science in medical physics

    PubMed Central

    Peach, K; Wilson, P; Jones, B

    2011-01-01

    The use of cyclotrons and synchrotrons to accelerate charged particles in hospital settings for the purpose of cancer therapy is increasing. Consequently, there is a growing demand from medical physicists, radiographers, physicians and oncologists for articles that explain the basic physical concepts of these technologies. There are unique advantages and disadvantages to all methods of acceleration. Several promising alternative methods of accelerating particles also have to be considered since they will become increasingly available with time; however, there are still many technical problems with these that require solving. This article serves as an introduction to this complex area of physics, and will be of benefit to those engaged in cancer therapy, or who intend to acquire such technologies in the future. PMID:22374548

  2. [Medical science during the Great Patriotic War].

    PubMed

    Knopov, M Sh; Taranukha, V K

    2015-04-01

    Forms of organization of scientific work in the interests of the front were different: for example, united efforts of physicians to organize a proper work at Scientific Medical Boards directed by the Head of the Main Army Medical Department of the Red Army and the Head of the Health and Sanitary Department of the Navy, as well as Scientific and Hospital boards of the People's Commissariat of Health of the USSR. At the plenary sessions the heads of these boards considered the most important medical problems of evacuation, treatment, sanitary and disease control and also new methods of treatments of wounded, results of medical services during particular period of war, new tasks and etc. The most prominent scientists and presenters of all leading sectors of healthcare worked at these boards, that allowed developing, testing and implementing of the latest achievements of medical science. PMID:26454940

  3. Emotional intelligence in medical laboratory science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Travis

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In addition to demographic-based questions, the survey contained a list of 16 items, three skills traditionally considered important for successful work in the medical laboratory as well as 13 EI-related items. Laboratory administrators were asked to rate each item for its importance for job performance, their satisfaction with the item's demonstration among currently working medical laboratory scientists (MLS) and the amount of responsibility college-based medical laboratory science programs should assume for the development of each skill or attribute. Participants were also asked about EI training in their laboratories and were given the opportunity to express any thoughts or opinions about EI as it related to medical laboratory science. This study revealed that each EI item, as well as each of the three other items, was considered to be very or extremely important for successful job performance. Administrators conveyed that they were satisfied overall, but indicated room for improvement in all areas, especially those related to EI. Those surveyed emphasized that medical laboratory science programs should continue to carry the bulk of the responsibility for the development of technical skills and theoretical knowledge and expressed support for increased attention to EI concepts at the individual, laboratory, and program levels.

  4. The relationship between wing length, blood meal volume, and fecundity for seven colonies of Anopheles species housed at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Pantuwattana, Kanchana; Tawong, Jaruwan; Khongtak, Weeraphan; Kertmanee, Yossasin; Monkanna, Nantaporn; Klein, Terry A; Kim, Heung-Chul; McCardle, Patrick W

    2015-12-01

    Established colonies of Anopheles campestris, Anopheles cracens, Anopheles dirus, Anopheles kleini, Anopheles minimus, Anopheles sawadwongporni, and Anopheles sinensis are maintained at the Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS). Females were provided blood meals on human blood containing citrate as an anticoagulant using an artificial membrane feeder. The mean wing length, used as an estimate of body size, for each species was compared to blood-feeding duration (time), blood meal volume, and numbers of eggs oviposited. Except for An. campestris and An. cracens, there were significant interspecies differences in wing length. The mean blood meal volumes (mm(3)) of An. kleini and An. sinensis were significantly higher than the other 5 species. For all species, the ratios of unfed females weights/blood meal volumes were similar (range: 0.76-0.88), except for An. kleini (1.08) and An. cracens (0.52), that were significantly higher and lower, respectively. Adult females were allowed to feed undisturbed for 1, 3, and 5min intervals before blood feeding was interrupted. Except for An. campestris and An. sawadwongporni, the number of eggs oviposited were significantly higher for females that fed for 3min when compared to those that only fed for 1min. This information is critical to better understand the biology of colonized Anopheles spp. and their role in the transmission of malaria parasites as they relate to the relative size of adult females, mean volumes of blood of engorged females for each of the anopheline species, and the effect of blood feeding duration on specific blood meal volumes and fecundity. PMID:26433074

  5. Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C. (Editor); Mason, J. A. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

  6. A Graduate Academic Program in Medical Information Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blois, Marsden S., Jr.; Wasserman, Anthony I.

    A graduate academic program in medical information science has been established at the University of California, San Francisco, for the education of scientists capable of performing research and development in information technology in the health care setting. This interdisciplinary program, leading to a Doctor of Philosophy degree, consists of an…

  7. A Tool for Medical Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

  8. Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

  9. Fire-related medical science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, Douglas R.

    1987-01-01

    Spacecraft fire safety may be improved by the use of a fire-retardant atmosphere in occupied spaces. Low concentrations of oxygen can protect humans from fire damage by reducing the rate and spread of combustion, but care must be taken to avoid the hypoxic effects of oxygen-lean atmospheres. Crews can live and work in 11 percent oxygen if barometric pressure were adjusted to maintain the partial pressure of oxygen above 16 kPa. Eleven percent oxygen should prevent most types of fires, since 15 percent oxygen retards the combustion of paper and 13 percent oxygen extinguishes pentane flames. Test results indicate that seated humans can perform mental tasks in atmospheres containing 11.5 percent oxygen. Although this strategy of fire safety is under consideration for submarines, it could be adapted to spacecraft once operational procedures define a maximum hyperbaric pressure and fire research defines the effects of reduced oxygen concentrations on combustion in low gravity environments.

  10. The science of medical librarianship: investing in the future.

    PubMed Central

    Love, E

    1987-01-01

    Information science is changing from an applied service-oriented activity to a basic research discipline. The library profession must earn a central place in this endeavor, and must address a number of important issues. These include ownership and intellectual property rights, a stronger research component for the profession, development of quality assurance systems for health information services, and a conceptual framework for training and career development of health sciences library technicians. The future of medical librarianship as a profession depends on a lasting commitment to research, a clear vision of the profession's fundamental mission and of the library's place in society. PMID:3450341

  11. Science for All. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Students need to be competent in science because of its impact on everyday decision-making, the rapid pace of change and the increasing interdependent global economy (Lawton, 2007; U.S. Department of Education, 2000; Lederman, 1998). According to the National Research Council, "Teachers of science should develop communities of science learners…

  12. The Past and Present of Information Retrieval in Medical Sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Torao

    This is a lecture at the 15th anniversary of JICST Kyushu Branch. In Medical Science there are many fields of study classified by the difference of approach. Each field is related closely, and to make a study of a field the knowledges of other fields are also needed. Such characteristic of medical study has been the problem on research of medical literature. Online information retrieval such as JOIS has changed the retrieval much easier, however some difficulties by the characteristic still remain. Importance of training specialist in information retrieval, construction of specialized databases, making databases easier to use and so on are suggested.

  13. [The flagship of the national naval medical science (on the 80th anniversary of establishment of the 1st Central Research Institute of the Defense Ministry of Russian Federation)].

    PubMed

    Chumakov, Vl V; Arkhipov, A V; Borodavko, V K; Vasil'kov, A M; Groshilin, S M; Ivanov, A O; Smurov, A V

    2013-02-01

    The article is devoted to the 80th anniversary of the formation of the naval medical science subunit, which is the part of the 1st Central Research Institute of the Defense Ministry of Russian Federation. In the 30th years of XX century, a group of naval doctors formulated the main directions of preventive naval medicine. For eight decades, several generations of medical scientists have developed and ensured implementation of regulatory requirements for habitability and ergonomics of Navy ships. At the present stage, this work focuses on promising directions of the development of the domestic military shipbuilding and the use of advanced and innovative biomedical technologies. PMID:23808207

  14. Global informetric perspective studies on translational medical research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Translational medical research literature has increased rapidly in the last few decades and played a more and more important role during the development of medicine science. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the global performance of translational medical research during the past few decades. Methods Bibliometric, social network analysis, and visualization technologies were used for analyzing translational medical research performance from the aspects of subject categories, journals, countries, institutes, keywords, and MeSH terms. Meanwhile, the co-author, co-words and cluster analysis methods were also used to trace popular topics in translational medical research related work. Results Research output suggested a solid development in translational medical research, in terms of increasing scientific production and research collaboration. We identified the core journals, mainstream subject categories, leading countries, and institutions in translational medical research. There was an uneven distribution of publications at authorial, institutional, and national levels. The most commonly used keywords that appeared in the articles were “translational research”, “translational medicine”, “biomarkers”, “stroke”, “inflammation”, “cancer”, and “breast cancer”. Conclusions The subject categories of “Research & Experimental Medicine”, “Medical Laboratory Technology”, and “General & Internal Medicine” play a key role in translational medical research both in production and in its networks. Translational medical research and CTS, etc. are core journals of translational research. G7 countries are the leading nations for translational medical research. Some developing countries, such as P.R China, also play an important role in the communication of translational research. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, citations and high quality articles. The research trends in translational medical research involve drug design and development, pathogenesis and treatment of disease, disease model research, evidence-based research, and stem and progenitor cells. PMID:23885955

  15. Educating the Public About Research Funded by the National Institutes of Health Using a Partnership Between an Academic Medical Center and Community-based Science Museum

    PubMed Central

    Bunce, Arwen; Perrin, Nancy; Howarth, Linda C.; Griest, Susan; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William E.

    2009-01-01

    The NIH roadmap has among its goals, to promote studies designed to improve public understanding of biomedical and behavioral science, and to develop strategies for promoting collaborations between scientists and communities toward improving the publics health. Here, we report findings on the impact of a partnership between the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) designed to inform the public about health research being conducted in Oregon, which was linked to a 17-week traveling exhibition of BodyWorlds3. Measures included the publics understanding of health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and visitor experience in their interactions with OHSU experts/volunteers, which were collected using exit surveys administered verbally. Nine hundred fifty-three surveys were included in analyses. Among those who felt that health behavior change was relevant to them, 67.4% of smokers (n = 133) intended to change their smoking behavior, 58.6% (of 677) intended to change their eating habits, 60.3% (of 667) intended to change their exercise routine, and 47% (of 448) intended to change their dental care habits. Forty-six percent of these visited the OHSU research exhibits (n = 437), and responded to how the exhibit changed their understanding about and openness to participate in health research. Greater than 85% had a much improved understanding of NIH research at OHSU and >58% reported they would be willing to participate in future research studies at OHSU. In conclusion, research partnerships between academic institutions and community-based museums appear to be viable ways to inform the public about research, stimulate their interest as future participants, and possibly influence their intention to improve health behaviors. PMID:19350373

  16. Educating the public about research funded by the National Institutes of Health using a partnership between an academic medical center and community-based science museum.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; Bunce, Arwen; Perrin, Nancy; Howarth, Linda C; Griest, Susan; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William E

    2009-08-01

    The NIH roadmap has among its goals, to promote studies designed to improve public understanding of biomedical and behavioral science, and to develop strategies for promoting collaborations between scientists and communities toward improving the public's health. Here, we report findings on the impact of a partnership between the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) designed to inform the public about health research being conducted in Oregon, which was linked to a 17-week traveling exhibition of BodyWorlds3. Measures included the public's understanding of health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and visitor experience in their interactions with OHSU experts/volunteers, which were collected using exit surveys administered verbally. Nine hundred fifty-three surveys were included in analyses. Among those who felt that health behavior change was relevant to them, 67.4% of smokers (n = 133) intended to change their smoking behavior, 58.6% (of 677) intended to change their eating habits, 60.3% (of 667) intended to change their exercise routine, and 47% (of 448) intended to change their dental care habits. Forty-six percent of these visited the OHSU research exhibits (n = 437), and responded to how the exhibit changed their understanding about and openness to participate in health research. Greater than 85% had a much improved understanding of NIH research at OHSU and >58% reported they would be willing to participate in future research studies at OHSU. In conclusion, research partnerships between academic institutions and community-based museums appear to be viable ways to inform the public about research, stimulate their interest as future participants, and possibly influence their intention to improve health behaviors. PMID:19350373

  17. NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing challenge faced by NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program is to work with the scientific and engineering communities to secure the maximum return from our Nation's investments by: assuring that the best possible science emerges from the science community for microgravity investigations; ensuring the maximum scientific return from each investigation in the most timely and cost-effective manner; and enhancing the distribution of data and applications of results acquired through completed investigations to maximize their benefits.

  18. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the

  19. Interdisciplinary Science Research and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, P. J.; Hine, D.; Barnard, R. T.

    2013-01-01

    Science history shows us that interdisciplinarity is a spontaneous process that is intrinsic to, and engendered by, research activity. It is an activity that is done rather than an object to be designed and constructed. We examine three vignettes from the history of science that display the interdisciplinary process at work and consider the…

  20. Models for Science Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Rodney L.

    A review of science education research studies is presented to illustrate the necessity of building a model for research activities. Present trends in research activities are analyzed by summarizing studies, particularly beginning from the Curtis 1926 Digest to the Welch and Gallagher 1972 reviews. The only existing model is one formed through…

  1. Research in computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The research efforts of University of Virginia students under a NASA sponsored program are summarized and the status of the program is reported. The research includes: testing method evaluations for N version programming; a representation scheme for modeling three dimensional objects; fault tolerant protocols for real time local area networks; performance investigation of Cyber network; XFEM implementation; and vectorizing incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradients.

  2. Cooperative research in space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This grant covered the period from July 1989 through September 30, 1995. The research covered a number of topics in the general area of space science. Specific research topics included: (1) Solar astronomy - largely in support of the Ulysses project; (2) Space Science - largely in support of instrumentation for several NASA satellite projects; (3) Cometary astronomy; and (4) Planetary Astronomy - largely supporting the NASA Infrared Heterodyne instrument.

  3. History of neurology at All India Institute of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Madakasira Vasantha Padma; Dash, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi is considered as the apex healthcare institute of the country. The Department of Neurology was established in the 1960's and continues to be a leader in the country, in providing quality health care, in teaching, and also in conducting cutting edge research. The article traces the history of the Department of Neurology at AIIMS from its inception to the present day. PMID:26448236

  4. Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences12

    PubMed Central

    Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A.

    2010-01-01

    The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ∼1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences” was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities. PMID:19939997

  5. Research for medical photographers: photographic measurement.

    PubMed

    Young, Stephen

    2002-09-01

    Many first degrees in photography or photography-related topics lack a thorough grounding in the photographic sciences. This in turn leads to difficulties for medical photographers who graduate from these courses, when it comes to designing photographic protocols for research projects that will utilize photography as a means of data collection. The concept of the image as subject analogue is introduced and means of visualizing the subject are outlined. The considerations for undertaking photometric, photogrammetric and time-based measurements are given. The variables that need to be controlled in each modality are highlighted and a bibliography is appended so that readers can discover for themselves working examples of the techniques described. PMID:12626057

  6. Computer Literacy Among Students of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Robabi, Hassan; Arbabisarjou, Azizollah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The need for medical students to be computer literate is vital. With the rapid integration of information technology (IT) in the health care field, equipping students of medical universities withcomputer competencies to effectively use are needed. The purpose of this study was to assess computer literacy (CL) needs of medical sciences students. Methods: This is descriptive-analytic. The population of the study comprised all students at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences. 385 students from allschools (Medicine, dentistry, paramedics, health, rehabilitation, nursing and midwifery) were selected through randomized- classified sampling. For data collecting, the Lin Tung- Cheng questionnaire was used which it contained 24 items in six sections. The obtained data analyzed by SPSS 15. Results: The results showed that the 77.1% had personal computer. The total mean of students’ computer literacy around six domains was 141.9±49.5 out of 240. The most familiarity with computers was the ability to it in internet (29.0±11.4) and the lowest was familiarity and using ability of hard ware (17.5±10.6). There was a significant relationship between passing the Computer lesson (P=0.001), passing Computer course (P=0.05) and having personal computer (P=0.001) with the mean of computer literacy. Discussion: In sum, the medical sciences students’ familiarity with computer literacy was not satisfactory and they had not appropriate familiarity with computer literacy skills. The researchers suggest the officials and in-charges to plan educational program for improving computer literacy skills in medical sciences students. PMID:25946919

  7. Science fiction/science fact: medical genetics in news stories.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Alan; Anderson, Alison; Allan, Stuart

    2005-12-01

    News media coverage of biotechnology issues offers a rich source of fictional portrayals, with stories drawing strongly on popular imagery and metaphors in descriptions of the powers and dangers of biotechnology. This article examines how science fiction metaphors, imagery and motifs surface in British newspaper (broadsheet and tabloid) coverage of medical genetic issues, focusing on press reporting of two recent highly publicised news media events; namely, the Hashmi and Whitaker families' plights to use stem cells from a 'perfectly matched sibling' for the treatment of their diseased children. It is concerned in particular with the extent to which journalists' use of certain literary devices encourages preferred formulations of medical genetics, and thereby potentially shapes public deliberation about scientific developments and their consequences for society. Understanding how science fiction sustains science fact, and vice versa, and how the former is portrayed in news media, it is argued, would thus seem to be crucial in the effort to understand why people respond so strongly to biotechnologies, and what they imagine their consequences to be. PMID:16610136

  8. Center forTelehealth and Cybermedicine Research, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center: a model of a telehealth program within an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Dale C; Dion, Denise; Migliorati, Margaret; Rodriguez, Adrian; Byun, Hannah W; Effertz, Glen; Duffy, Veronica; Monge, Benjamin

    2013-05-01

    An overview of the Center for Telehealth and Cybermedicine Research at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center was presented along with several other national and international programs as part of the of a symposium-workshop on telehealth, "Sustaining and Realizing the Promise of Telemedicine," held at the University of Michigan Health System in Ann Arbor, MI, May 18-19, 2012 and hosted by the University of Michigan Telemedicine Resource Center and its Director, Rashid Bashshur. This article describes our Center, its business plan, and a view to the future. PMID:23317516

  9. Medical Research, Medical Journals and the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Relman, Arnold S.

    1989-01-01

    The editor-in-chief of the New England Journal of Medicine discusses considerations in medical research integrity and publication, including the issues of research methodology, readership interest, article selection, editing, honesty, the author's responsibility, announcements of research to the mass media, and previous publication. (MSE)

  10. Medical ethics as practiced by students, nurses and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    BAZRAFCAN, LEILA; NABEIEI, PARISA; SHOKRPOUR, NASRIN; MOADAB, NEDA

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Assuming any social role has obligations and fulfilling the related responsibilities has ethical aspects that must be addressed carefully. Each role requires extensive training, which usually takes place in university institutions. Ethics is applied in at least three academic areas, including: a) in education of students' personal growth, b) in patient care, and c) in university communion in population-based health care. Given the importance of this issue in the moral domain, this study examines the correlation among the students, nurses and teacher's opinions regarding principles of medical ethics at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study conducted in 2010. The participants of this research consisted of all medical students, nurses in public hospitals, and faculty members in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. For validity evaluation, the expert panel method and for reliability evaluation, test-retest method was used. Results: Based on the medical ethics’ scores in these three groups, there was a significant relationship between the mean scores of student-nurses and employed nurses, but there was no significant relationship between those of student-faculties. Also the mean score of the students was the highest in medical ethics. Conclusion: In this study, we presented a list of virtues and moral characteristics of medical staff and found out the method of practicing medical ethics in everyday life of students to improve the moral reasoning of teachers, nurses and students. Moreover, medical ethics, with the presentation of specific criteria for ethical behavior in various domains of human life, especially in dealing with patients, can help practice ethical values in the medical community. PMID:25587553

  11. NASA's computer science research program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.

  12. Earth science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botkin, Daniel B.

    1987-01-01

    The analysis of ground-truth data from the boreal forest plots in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, was completed. Development of statistical methods was completed for dimension analysis (equations to estimate the biomass of trees from measurements of diameter and height). The dimension-analysis equations were applied to the data obtained from ground-truth plots, to estimate the biomass. Classification and analyses of remote sensing images of the Superior National Forest were done as a test of the technique to determine forest biomass and ecological state by remote sensing. Data was archived on diskette and tape and transferred to UCSB to be used in subsequent research.

  13. Enhancing participant safety through electronically-generated medication order sets in a clinical research environment: A medical informatics initiative

    PubMed Central

    Formea, Christine M.; Picha, Andrew F.; Griffin, Monica G.; Schaller, Jane A.; Lee, Mary R.

    2010-01-01

    While clinical medicine is often well-supported by health system information technology infrastructure, clinical research may need to create strategies to use clinical medicine informational technology tools. The authors describe a medication safety initiative that was carried out in a National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA)-sponsored clinical research environment. A Web-based, medical informatics application was designed and implemented which allowed research groups to build protocol-specific, electronic medication templates that were subsequently used to create participant-specific medication order sets for conductance of clinical research activities in the CTSA-sponsored clinical research environment. The medical informatics initiative eliminated typewritten or handwritten medication orders, created research protocol-specific templates meeting institutional order-writing requirements, and formalized a rigorous review and approval process. Enhancing safety in medication ordering and prescribing practices in a clinical research environment provided the background for multi-disciplinary cooperation in medical informatics. PMID:21167008

  14. Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics Program at Ryerson University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antimirova, Tetyana

    2006-12-01

    A new Bachelor of Science in Medical Physics program at Ryerson University, Toronto, Ontario was launched in Fall 2006. The program builds on Ryerson’s strong existing capabilities in biomedical physics research. The program’s point of entry is the common first year during which all students in Biology, Chemistry, Contemporary Science and Medical Physics programs complete the foundation courses that include physics, calculus, biology, chemistry, and introduction to computing. In addition to the foundation courses, the first-year studies include an orientation course that supports the students in making a successful transition to university studies. The courses beyond the first year include such topics as radiation therapy, image analysis, medical diagnostics and computer modeling techniques. In the final year the students will undertake an independent, faculty-supervised thesis project in an area of personal research interest. Co-op and industrial internship options are available. Our program promotes natural interaction between physics, life sciences, mathematics and computing. The flexibility built into our curriculum will open a variety of career options for our graduates.

  15. Transition of Research into Medical Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the process of transforming medical research into practical medicine for astronauts and for every day people. Several examples of medical practices that started in space medical research and then were proved useful in other settings: Actigraphy, bone density scanning, the use of Potassium Citrate as a countermeasure used to lessen the risk of kidney stone formation, and ultrasound uses in remote and telemedicine,

  16. Ethics and the ethnography of medical research in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Molyneux, Sassy; Geissler, P. Wenzel

    2008-01-01

    The ethics of medical research have grown as an area of expertise and debate in recent years, with two broad approaches emerging in relation to transnational research: (1) the refinement of guidelines and strengthening of review, processes primarily to protect the right of individual research participants and strengthen interpersonal relations at the micro-level; and (2) considering more centrally, as crucial ethical concerns, the wider interests of whole populations, the functioning of research institutions, the processes of collaboration, and the ethics of inequitable international relations. We see the two areas of debate and action as complementary, and believe that social science conducted in and around transnational medical research environments can bring these two perspectives together in a more ‘situated ethics’ of research. To explore this idea for medical research in Africa, we organized a conference in December 2005 in Kilifi, Kenya. In this introduction we outline the two emerging approaches to medical ethics, summarise each of seven papers selected from the conference for inclusion in this special issue on ethics and ethnography, and finally highlight two areas of lively debate at the conference itself: the appropriateness and value of ethics guidelines and review boards for medical research; and the ethical review of social science research. Together, the papers and debates point to the importance of focusing on the ethics of relationships and on justice in both biomedicine and social science research, and on giving greater voice and visibility to the field staff who often play a crucial and under-supported role in ‘doing ethics’ in the field. They also point to the potential value of social science research on the range of relationships operating at different levels and time scales in medical research, including those surrounding community engagement activities, and the role and functioning of ethics review boards. We conclude by highlighting the ethical priority of capacity strengthening in medical research, social science and research ethics in Africa to ensure that local and national priorities and concerns are considered at both the micro and macro levels. PMID:18455856

  17. Twitter and Health Science Research.

    PubMed

    Finfgeld-Connett, Deborah

    2015-10-01

    Twitter is a communication platform that can be used to conduct health science research, but a full understanding of its use remains unclear. The purpose of this narrative literature review was to examine how Twitter is currently being used to conduct research in the health sciences and to consider how it might be used in the future. A time-limited search of the health-related research was conducted, which resulted in 31 peer-reviewed articles for review. Information relating to how Twitter is being used to conduct research was extracted and categorized, and an explanatory narrative was developed. To date, Twitter is largely being used to conduct large-scale studies, but this research is complicated by challenges relating to collecting and analyzing big data. Conversely, the use of Twitter to conduct small-scale investigations appears to be relatively unexplored. PMID:25542190

  18. Medicine and medical sciences in Africa.

    PubMed

    Gathiram, Prem; Hänninen, Osmo

    2014-06-01

    The year 2014 is an important year because it will mark the 25th Anniversary of the founding of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS) and initial talks to launch the International Society for Pathophysiology (ISP). Both these organizations had a foothold in Finland and both occurred during the IUPS Centennial Celebration Congress in 1989. The congress was hosted by the Finnish Physiological Society in Helsinki, Finland in July 1989. For both organizations, Prof OsmoHänninen was instrumental in the launching and inauguration of AAPS and also to initiate the creation of ISP. In order to celebrate the 25th Anniversaries of both organizations it was decided to hold the ISP2014 congress on the African soil. Hence in 2004, at the 4th international congress of AAPS held in Morocco, Wail Benjeloun.the then secretary general of AAPS, submitted successfully a bid to host ISP2014 in Morocco. Following the inauguration of AAPS in Helsinki, the 1st Congress of AAPS was held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1992 where the Constitution of AAPS was drawn up. The Constitution was adopted at the 2nd congress of AAPS in Durban, South Africa in 1997. Following this congress, the next congress, as scheduled, was held in Pretoria, South Africa in 2000. The last congress (6th) of AAPS was held on 1-5 September 2012 in Ismailia, Egypt. This was an historical congress because of many reasons and amongst these was the appointment of Anthony B. Ebeigbe, Department of Physiology, University of Benin, Nigeria as its first Editor-in-Chief of its official journal, the Journal of the African association of Physiological Sciences (JAAPS). He successfully published the first issue in June 2013, as mandated in Ismailia. The World's medicine has its initial root in Africa and in fact it was in Memphis, Egypt as early as 2700 BC. During the Ptulomaic period the seat of medicine was in Alexandria, Egypt and Medical knowledge then spread to the Greeks 330 BC. Many western medical scientists acknowledge learning medicine and anatomy form the Egyptian experts. The University of Al Karaouine, in Fez, Morocco, Africa is considered the oldest continuously operating university in the world and has been a center of learning for more than 1,000 years. Medicine in Africa has been acknowledged by many authoritarians to be well developed, long before its development in Greece and other European Countries. Almost every African country has medical and medical sciences societies and associations. According the WHO, African journals online (AJOL) as the worlds largest collection of peer-reviewed journals. It is also believed that Africa will play a major role in Sciences in the future, and in fact one of the Worlds leading palaeo-anthropologist was a South African. PMID:24290618

  19. Research priorities in medical education: A national study

    PubMed Central

    Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. RESULTS: The most important research priorities included faculty members’ development methods, faculty members’ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members’ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities. PMID:23248661

  20. Perceptions of Medical Sciences Students Towards Probiotics

    PubMed Central

    Payahoo, Laleh; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohamad

    2012-01-01

    Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge of people particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic products is important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of medical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different faculty majors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the one was about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge as well as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoring of 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable and good, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the students across different gender, major and degree groups. Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD) of knowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low, 48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and their health effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use of efficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial. PMID:24688923

  1. Research Support for Science Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blandford, Barbara; Dutton, Diane

    This survey of the Higher Education Panel of the American Council on Education, conducted during September and October 1971, concerned the split of research funds between young and senior faculty at institutions granting Ph.D.'s in science and engineering. Each institution was asked, first, to indicate which departments, in a list of 17 selected…

  2. Innovative methods for making behavioral science relevant to medical education.

    PubMed

    Wedding, Danny

    2008-06-01

    Thousands of psychologists teach in U.S. medical schools, and these psychologists are responsible for ensuring that the medical students they train are aware of the ways in which research findings from the behavioral and social sciences can enhance the practice of medicine. In addition, it is imperative that physicians appreciate the limits of their own ability to treat psychological and psychiatric problems and know when to refer to mental health professionals. This brief article is based on a talk given by the author at the 2007 American Psychological Association (APA) convention after receiving the Association of Psychologists in Academic Health Centers (APAHC) Ivan Mensh Award for Distinguished Achievement in Teaching. The paper draws on the personal experiences of the author after three decades spent teaching behavioral science to medical students, and it introduces readers to the reasoning behind many of the decisions made in planning and developing each of the author's four editions of the medical school text Behavior and Medicine. PMID:19104972

  3. NCI and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Sign Statement of Intent

    Cancer.gov

    Today the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Cancer Institute/Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CICAMS) signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal

  4. 75 FR 71134 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and...

  5. 75 FR 12242 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of..., Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological...

  6. Medical technology advances from space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1972-01-01

    Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

  7. Research of medical gases in Poland

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Research of medical gases is well established in Poland and has been marked with the foundation of several professional societies. Numerous academic centers including those dealing with hyperbaric and diving medicine conduct studies of medical gases, in vast majority supported with intramural funds. In general, Polish research of medical gases is very much clinical in nature, covering new applications and safety of medical gases in medicine; on the other hand there are several academic centers pursuing preclinical studies, and elaborating basic theories of gas physiology and mathematical modeling of gas exchange. What dominates is research dealing with oxygen and ozone as well as studies of anesthetic gases and their applications. Finally, several research directions involving noble gas, hydrogen and hydrogen sulfide for cell protection, only begin to gain recognition of basic scientists and clinicians. However, further developments require more monetary spending on research and clinical testing as well as formation of new collective bodies for coordinating efforts in this matter. PMID:23916016

  8. Computer Science Research at Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voigt, S. J. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held at Langley Research Center, November 2-5, 1981, to highlight ongoing computer science research at Langley and to identify additional areas of research based upon the computer user requirements. A panel discussion was held in each of nine application areas, and these are summarized in the proceedings. Slides presented by the invited speakers are also included. A survey of scientific, business, data reduction, and microprocessor computer users helped identify areas of focus for the workshop. Several areas of computer science which are of most concern to the Langley computer users were identified during the workshop discussions. These include graphics, distributed processing, programmer support systems and tools, database management, and numerical methods.

  9. Medical Schools, Clinical Research, and Ethical Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarushka, Julia L.; Lally, John J.

    1974-01-01

    Recent discussion of the ethical problems of biomedical human experimentation has drawn attention to the responsibility of the medical schools for training new clinical investigators and for safeguarding the rights and welfare of the subjects of clinical research conducted in the medical schools and their affiliated hospitals. (Author)

  10. Reflections on Experimental Research in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, David A.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    As medical education research advances, it is important that education researchers employ rigorous methods for conducting and reporting their investigations. In this article we discuss several important yet oft neglected issues in designing experimental research in education. First, randomization controls for only a subset of possible confounders.…

  11. Developing a Community Based Pre-College Medical Science Collaborative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shagam, Janet Yagoda

    Designed to assist secondary and post-secondary educators develop community interactive science programs, this manual describes steps undertaken at New Mexico's Albuquerque Technical Vocational Institute to develop pre-college medical science programs that encourage local high school students to consider the college's medical technology program.…

  12. Fraud and deceit in medical research

    PubMed Central

    Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, Marios

    2012-01-01

    Publication of medical research is the cornerstone for the propagation and dissemination of medical knowledge, culminating in significant effects on the health of the world's population. However, instances of individuals and institutions subverting the ethos of honesty and integrity on which medical research is built in order to advance personal ambitions have been well documented. Many definitions to describe this unethical behavior have been postulated, although the most descriptive is the “FFP” (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) model put forward by the United States’ Office of Research Integrity. Research misconduct has many ramifications of which the world's media are all too keen to demonstrate. Many high-profile cases the world over have demonstrated this lack of ethics when performing medical research. Many esteemed professionals and highly regarded world institutions have succumbed to the ambitions of a few, who for personal gains, have behaved unethically in pursuit of their own ideals. Although institutions have been set up to directly confront these issues, it would appear that a lot more is still required on the part of journals and their editors to combat this behavioral pattern. Individuals starting out at very junior positions in medical research ought to be taught the basics of medical research ethics so that populations are not failed by the very people they are turning to for assistance at times of need. This article provides a review of many of the issues of research misconduct and allows the reader to reflect and think through their own experiences of research. This hopefully will allow individuals to start asking questions on, what is an often, a poorly discussed topic in medical research. PMID:23833585

  13. The Culture of Translational Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Kotarba, Joseph A.; Wooten, Kevin; Freeman, Jean; Brasier, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    We apply a symbolic interactionist framework and a qualitative methodology to the examination of the everyday reality of translational science research (TSR). This is a growing scientific movement that aims to facilitate the efficient application of basic research to clinical service design and delivery. We describe the emerging culture of translational research at a mid-size medical center that received a Clinical and Translational Science Award from the National Institutes of Health. The stories related by scientists, clinicians, and students in interviews indicate that they make sense of the emerging inter- and cross-disciplinary, team-oriented culture of TSR through the refinement and redefinition of the significant symbols that inform their work while they attempt to master translational research by addressing the dilemmas it produces for them and their work. We see the strength, currency, adaptability, and energy of the core self-definition of “scientist” to be significant in shaping the emerging culture of translational research. We conclude by celebrating the value of interpretive ethnography for evaluation research. PMID:25685253

  14. 150 Years of Medical Information Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Elliot R.

    1987-01-01

    Traces the history of the National Library of Medicine with emphasis on research and development activities in biomedical communications and information science. Highlights include the areas of bibliographic control, library automation, information retrieval, knowledge management systems, and educational technologies. (CLB)

  15. Medical Laboratory Science: An International Comparison for Credentials Evaluators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Solveig M.; Karlsson, Britta

    Information is presented to help medical technology schools abroad evaluate their credentials in comparison to U.S. requirements. After defining the subfields of medical technology, also called medical laboratory science, a summary is provided of the educational requirements, the professional titles, and the certification recognition of medical…

  16. Medical Students’ Research – Facilitators and Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, B; Holla, Ramesh; Kumar, Nithin; Rekha, T; Mithra, Prasanna; Kulkarni, Vaman; Reshmi, B

    2014-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate research in medicine is important to expose and encourage the students towards the newer advances and research practices. The present study was taken up in a medical institute to assess the perception of the medical faculty about research undertaken by the medical undergraduates, and identifying the barriers faced by them in training undergraduate students for research. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire on perceptions, barriers and limitations towards undergraduate research was distributed to 105 participants included in the study. The responses of the participants were collected on a five point Likert scale and analysed using spss version 11.5. Results: There was a strong agreement among the faculty about students’ interest in carrying out research (95.1%), and that they had gained knowledge to design, conduct, present and publish their research from the projects undertaken by them (90.2%). Among the barriers for training undergraduate research, time consumption was perceived as a barrier by the participating medical teachers (37.7%) followed by lack of motivation and commitment among students (19.7%). Time constraint was the commonest reason for the faculty in not guiding undergraduate research (39.0%). A larger proportion of medical teachers suggested that incentives for students and teachers (62.7%) and frequent workshops for students related to undergraduate research (61.8%) are likely to encourage the students and teachers and thus, improve the scenario. Conclusion: It is suggested to address certain important issues like reducing the workload of faculty engaged in undergraduate research, and conducting frequent research methodology workshops for the under graduate students to improvise the standards of undergraduate research. PMID:25654016

  17. The Underrepresented in Graduate Medical Education and Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Pinn, Vivian W.

    1984-01-01

    There is a perception that the career options open to medical school graduates who are members of minority groups are restricted. This perception relates especially to those postgraduate medical training programs that have not traditionally encouraged or had significant minority participation. Data were therefore sought to determine whether this perception was well founded. Recent reports show the strikingly low numbers of minorities on medical school faculties and in administrative positions in spite of efforts to fill such positions. Information on the specialties of practicing minority physicians is limited, but accurate figures are available on the participation of minorities in various specialty postgraduate training programs. For instance, during recent years, 50 to 60 percent of all black residents have been trained in internal medicine, pediatrics, general surgery, and obstetrics and gynecology. Further studies are needed to document or disprove the conception that minority physicians have less access than other physicians to certain careers in the delivery of health care and education. In the interim, efforts should be continued to encourage minority physicians not only to seek preparation for community primary care practice, but also for professional participation in academic careers of other specialties (and subspecialties), in biomedical and clinical research, and in health care administration. The ability to enter these diverse careers is most often determined by the opportunities available at the time of completion of medical school education. Therefore, those involved in graduate medical education should address the challenge of providing opportunities for the proportionate representation of minorities in all aspects of medical care and medical education. PMID:6492178

  18. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

  19. Basic science research in urology training.

    PubMed

    Eberli, D; Atala, A

    2009-04-01

    The role of basic science exposure during urology training is a timely topic that is relevant to urologic health and to the training of new physician scientists. Today, researchers are needed for the advancement of this specialty, and involvement in basic research will foster understanding of basic scientific concepts and the development of critical thinking skills, which will, in turn, improve clinical performance. If research education is not included in urology training, future urologists may not be as likely to contribute to scientific discoveries.Currently, only a minority of urologists in training are currently exposed to significant research experience. In addition, the number of physician-scientists in urology has been decreasing over the last two decades, as fewer physicians are willing to undertake a career in academics and perform basic research. However, to ensure that the field of urology is driving forward and bringing novel techniques to patients, it is clear that more research-trained urologists are needed. In this article we will analyse the current status of basic research in urology training and discuss the importance of and obstacles to successful addition of research into the medical training curricula. Further, we will highlight different opportunities for trainees to obtain significant research exposure in urology. PMID:19672351

  20. Research and Evaluation in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Helena A.; Collins, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of medical education is continuously evolving, as are the needs of the learner. The appropriate use of research and evaluation is key when assessing the need for change and instituting one's innovative endeavours. This paper demonstrates how research seeks to generate new knowledge, whereas evaluation uses information acquired from…

  1. [Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].

    PubMed

    Ruyter, K W

    1997-12-10

    50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students. PMID:9456583

  2. Remote Sensing Information Science Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

  3. Certain aspects of medical research and its support.

    PubMed

    Wyngaarden, J B

    1987-01-01

    The origins of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) are linked with European science. Few Americans had participated in the advances in bacteriology led by Koch and Pasteur when a laboratory from which the NIH eventually developed was established in New York in 1887, but its first director patterned this laboratory after ones already established in Germany, France, and England. The era of modern biomedical research in the United States began during World War II with the cooperation of government and nongovernment (mostly academic) research laboratories. Today, the philosophical foundation underlying all research-supporting programs of the NIH is that a close connection exists between improved medical care and research and that any expansion of medical facilities must be accompanied by an expansion of medical training and research. In addition, government grants should not interfere with the freedom and integrity of academic institutions and should allow scientists complete independence in determining the nature, scope, and methodology of their investigations. Discoveries in genetics in the 1950's and 1960's heralded an era of science in which it was necessary to address major questions with immediate relevance to human health. Impelled by pressure from the public, the scientific community, and the Congress, the NIH participates in formulating safety guidelines regarding potential applications of biotechnology. The annual increase in funds appropriated by Congress to the NIH attests to a high level of public commitment to the support of biomedical research and underlines the degree of accountability to which the NIH is subject. PMID:3317743

  4. Qualitative research methods for medical educators.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Janice L; Balmer, Dorene F; Giardino, Angelo P

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a primer for qualitative research in medical education. Our aim is to equip readers with a basic understanding of qualitative research and prepare them to judge the goodness of fit between qualitative research and their own research questions. We provide an overview of the reasons for choosing a qualitative research approach and potential benefits of using these methods for systematic investigation. We discuss developing qualitative research questions, grounding research in a philosophical framework, and applying rigorous methods of data collection, sampling, and analysis. We also address methods to establish the trustworthiness of a qualitative study and introduce the reader to ethical concerns that warrant special attention when planning qualitative research. We conclude with a worksheet that readers may use for designing a qualitative study. Medical educators ask many questions that carefully designed qualitative research would address effectively. Careful attention to the design of qualitative studies will help to ensure credible answers that will illuminate many of the issues, challenges, and quandaries that arise while doing the work of medical education. PMID:21783450

  5. Decline of clinical research in academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Meador, Kimford J

    2015-09-29

    Marked changes in US medical school funding began in the 1960s with progressively increasing revenues from clinical services. The growth of clinical revenues slowed in the mid-1990s, creating a funding crisis for US academic health care centers, who responded by having their faculty increase their clinical duties at the expense of research activities. Surveys document the resultant stresses on the academic clinician researcher. The NIH provides greater funding for basic and translational research than for clinical research, and the new Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute is inadequately funded to address the scope of needed clinical research. An increasing portion of clinical research is funded by industry, which leaves many important clinical issues unaddressed. There is an inadequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a lack of external support for clinical research. The impact on the academic environment in university medical centers is especially severe on young faculty, who have a shrinking potential to achieve successful academic careers. National health care research funding policies should encourage the right balance of life-science investigations. Medical universities need to improve and highlight education on clinical research for students, residents, fellows, and young faculty. Medical universities also need to provide appropriate incentives for clinical research. Without training to ensure an adequate supply of skilled clinical researchers and a method to adequately fund clinical research, discoveries from basic and translational research cannot be clinically tested and affect patient care. Thus, many clinical problems will continue to be evaluated and treated with inadequate or even absent evidence-based knowledge. PMID:26156509

  6. Vocabulary Learning Strategies of Medical Students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddigh, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the use of vocabulary learning strategies among medical students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) in Iran as an EFL context. A questionnaire was administered to 120 medical students (53 males, 67 females) to identify; 1) the effective types of vocabulary learning strategies used by the learners and 2)…

  7. 20% Research & Design Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spear, Beth A.

    2015-04-01

    A project allowing employees to use 15 % of their time on independent projects was established at 3M in the 1950's. The result of this project included products like post it notes and masking tape. Google allows its employees to use 20% of their time on independently pursued projects. The company values creativity and innovation. Employees are allowed to explore projects of interest to them one day out of the week, 20 % of their work week. Products like AdSense, Gmail, Google Transit, Google News, and Google Talk are the result of this 20 % program. My school is implementing the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) as part of our regularly scheduled curriculum review. These new standards focus on the process of learning by doing and designing. The NGSS are very hands on and active. The new standards emphasize learning how to define, understand and solve problems in science and technology. In today's society everyone needs to be familiar with science and technology. This project allows students to develop and practice skills to help them be more comfortable and confident with science and technology while exploring something of interest to them. This project includes three major parts: research, design, and presentation. Students will spend approximately 2-4 weeks defining a project proposal and educating themselves by researching a science and technology topic that is of interest to them. In the next phase, 2-4 weeks, students design a product or plan to collect data for something related to their topic. The time spent on research and design will be dependant on the topic students select. Projects should be ambitious enough to encompass about six weeks. Lastly a presentation or demonstration incorporating the research and design of the project is created, peer reviewed and presented to the class. There are some problems anticipated or already experienced with this project. It is difficult for all students to choose a unique topic when you have large class sizes. Some students find it painful to design something independently as they are used to being told what to do. Assessing the projects, which include a wide degree of ambition established within the proposal, can be challenging. Implementation of this project requires the loss of approximately 20 % of class time. This can be a challenge when class time is already at a premium. However; the benefits of this project outweigh the loss of instructional time. This project is student centered and allows each student to pursue a topic of interest to them. This ability to choose their own topic allows students to explore with very few boundaries to confine their imagination. The project allows students to propose an ambitious project. The option for failure with the design portion of the project allows them to learn that failure is not always negative and can provide many learning opportunities, much like real world situations. This project is aligned with the NGSS encouraging creativity and innovation through unique, authentic investigations in science and technology.

  8. Ethics in exercise science research.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Roy J

    2002-01-01

    Ethical evaluation is a vital but sometimes neglected component of research policy in the exercise sciences. This article reviews some issues in human research, with particular reference to studies undertaken by the exercise scientist. The typical composition and functions of the research review committee are examined in the context of individual and institutional ethical norms. In multicentre trials, there are often problems in coordinating ethical approval between institutions. On-going monitoring of research may have value in the detection of fraud. A reduction in the secrecy of committee proceedings would allow a closer auditing of the research review process. Authors need to give more thought to developing appropriate research questions. Scarce resources may be wasted because of inappropriate study design or an inadequate statistical analysis of the results. The costs of any proposed investigation must be weighed carefully against possible benefits. Confidentiality is particularly important when collecting data at the worksite or over the internet. Informed consent should be based on a full disclosure of risks; the participant should be competent to understand the nature and magnitude of these risks, and undue pressure to participate in an experiment must be avoided. The opposition to placebo trials expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki requires careful consideration of the use of control groups, since regular exercise is known to benefit health. If research is conducted in under-developed societies, the standards of treatment of the participants should match those expected in developed societies. The publication of findings must be fair and well balanced; examples of fraud and misconduct continue to be reported. Some journals apparently still publish papers, even if they have not received an initial institutional review. Editors should restore meaning to the word 'author', avoid the bias to a publication of 'positive' results, limit the impact of commercial sponsorship on reporting and curtail the current trend to redundant presentations and publications. Development of academic courses in research ethics may help to avoid some of these abuses. PMID:11839080

  9. 76 FR 64957 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

  10. 76 FR 64955 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Phase III... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

  11. 76 FR 12980 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; K99 Grant..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building,...

  12. 75 FR 65363 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-10-22

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  13. 76 FR 15988 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  14. 76 FR 44598 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of... Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences,...

  15. 75 FR 7488 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Biomedical... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher...

  16. 78 FR 39741 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-07-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; SCORE Grant... Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room...

  17. 78 FR 11658 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel..., National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 1 Democracy Plaza,...

  18. 75 FR 13557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-03-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Eureka Meeting... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  19. 75 FR 63843 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

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  20. 75 FR 56117 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2010-09-15

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  1. 75 FR 42757 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of... Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences,...

  2. 78 FR 66372 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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    2013-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; MIDAS..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  3. 76 FR 43334 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

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    2011-07-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of.... Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  4. 78 FR 13362 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Program Projects... Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences,...

  5. 75 FR 42759 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, R-13 Conference... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher...

  6. 75 FR 35077 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Biomedical..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  7. 78 FR 66367 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group; Training and... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  8. 75 FR 35075 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Minority Programs... Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room...

  9. 76 FR 4927 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel... Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

  10. 77 FR 15783 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Review of Program... Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences,...

  11. 77 FR 9677 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group; Minority Programs... Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health,...

  12. 77 FR 35989 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group; Minority Programs... Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health,...

  13. 76 FR 32980 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of... Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, 45 Center...

  14. 76 FR 71351 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of MARC..., Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes...

  15. Medical education practice-based research networks: Facilitating collaborative research

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Alan; Young, Robin; Hicks, Patricia J.; APPD LEARN, For

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Research networks formalize and institutionalize multi-site collaborations by establishing an infrastructure that enables network members to participate in research, propose new studies, and exploit study data to move the field forward. Although practice-based clinical research networks are now widespread, medical education research networks are rapidly emerging. Aims: In this article, we offer a definition of the medical education practice-based research network, a brief description of networks in existence in July 2014 and their features, and a more detailed case study of the emergence and early growth of one such network, the Association of Pediatric Program Directors Longitudinal Educational Assessment Research Network (APPD LEARN). Methods: We searched for extant networks through peer-reviewed literature and the world-wide web. Results: We identified 15 research networks in medical education founded since 2002 with membership ranging from 8 to 120 programs. Most focus on graduate medical education in primary care or emergency medicine specialties. Conclusions: We offer four recommendations for the further development and spread of medical education research networks: increasing faculty development, obtaining central resources, studying networks themselves, and developing networks of networks. PMID:25319404

  16. 75 FR 55805 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Biomedical Research and Research Training Review Subcommittee A. Date: November 4-5, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5...

  17. 76 FR 11801 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology... Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics... Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96, Special Minority...

  18. 76 FR 10038 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, PSI Biology... Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and... and Developmental Biology Research; 93.88, Minority Access to Research Careers; 93.96,...

  19. Action Research in Science Education. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Allan; Capobianco, Brenda

    This digest provides an introduction to action research in science education and includes examples of how action research has been used to improve teaching and learning, as well as suggested resources for those seeking to incorporate action research into their own teaching or research. Action research is defined and is examined in science

  20. Fraud and deceit in published medical research.

    PubMed

    Lohsiriwat, Varut; Lohsiriwat, Supatra

    2007-10-01

    Medical research casts a great impact on health of the entire human population so it must be conducted and publicized without dishonesty or bias. Any misrepresentation can have extremely serious consequences for patients and clinical practice. Unfortunately, fraud and deceit have increasingly been detected and have become a problem in today's research. They are falsification, fabrication, plagiarism, and deliberate use of inappropriate statistical analysis. It is sometimes difficult to differentiate fraud from incompetence, errors, bias, and misunderstanding. Many fraudulent articles are still undercover. The question is how to detect and prevent the fraud and deceit in medical research. In addition, the system of handling research misconduct is still lacking. Critical audit and inspection are required to diagnose it. There is no standard guideline to treat fraud. Prevention is the best way of treatment. This relies on research institutions, editors of journals, citing authors, and, most of all the researchers who must adhere strictly to medical professionalism, which is solely based on honesty and ethics to self-regulate and conduct only ethical and genuine research. PMID:18041448

  1. Reporting research in medical journals and newspapers.

    PubMed Central

    Entwistle, V.

    1995-01-01

    Newspapers are important sources of information about medical advances for many lay people and can influence those working in the health service. Medical journalists on newspapers routinely use general medical journals to obtain information on research. The Lancet and BMJ are both examined carefully by broadsheet journalists in Britain each week. These papers published an average of 1.25 stories from these journals every Friday. The stories focused on serious diseases, topical health problems, and new treatments rather than social problems. The newspaper stories were based on the full research article and not the journals' press releases, although the press releases were valued as early information. Journalists relied heavily on the peer review processes of the journals in ensuring accuracy. PMID:7719187

  2. Shifting Paradigms of Research in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, David M.; Edwards, Janine C. Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Medical educators debate which models of scientific research should be applied to problems in academic medicine. The reigning model was derived from the first scientific revolution of Newtonian physics. The emerging model is grounded in the second scientific revolution of Einstein's quantum physics. (Author/MSE)

  3. Medical Amnesty Policies: Research is Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Eighmy, Myron A.

    2008-01-01

    This article explores the issues surrounding medical amnesty policies in higher education beginning with the background of such policies, a summary of the current debate regarding the policies, and a discussion of research related to helping behaviors among college students. Due to the negative consequences of alcohol misuse, many student affairs

  4. Emergency Medical Services: Research Methodology. Research Proceedings Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Health Services Research and Development (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    The thirteen papers included here were presented at a conference on the importance of systematic research in evaluating the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) system and administrative functions. The first paper spells out the roles and responsibilities EMS administrators incur when they make a commitment to participate in a research project. An…

  5. Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Medical Sciences Division report for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, F.; Poston, S.; Engle, J.

    1995-08-01

    The primary mission of the Medical Sciences Division is (1) to conduct basic and applied biomedical research on human health related to energy systems, (2) to provide technical assistance and training in occupational and environmental medicine, and (3) to make related biomedical applications available to others through technology transfer. As can be gleaned from this report, the strengths and capabilities of their staff in carrying out this mission are closely aligned with the four core competencies of ORISE: (1) occupational and environmental health, (2) environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, (3) education and training, and (4) enabling research. Brief descriptions of the various scientific and technical programs and their progress, as well as the staff responsible for the accomplishments made during 1994, are presented in this report. Research programs include the following: biochemistry; cytogenetics; Center for Epidemiologic Research; Center for Human Reliability Studies; occupational medicine; Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site; and Radiation Internal Dose Information Center.

  6. Biology and medical research at the exascale.

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, L.; Pieper, G. W.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in computational hardware and algorithms that have transformed areas of physics and engineering have recently brought similar benefits to biology and biomedical research. Biological sciences are undergoing a revolution. High-performance computing has accelerated the transition from hypothesis-driven to design-driven research at all scales, and computational simulation of biological systems is now driving the direction of biological experimentation and the generation of insights.

  7. Does Undergraduate Student Research Constitute Scholarship? Drawing on the Experiences of One Medical Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle; Howarth, F. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    While undergraduate research has been part of the learning culture in some disciplines for many years, it is only more recently that it is being included into mainstream medical curricula. Undergraduate medical students at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, have several opportunities to undertake research

  8. Research facility access & science education

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, S.P.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1994-10-01

    As Congress voted to terminate the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory in October of 1993, the Department of Energy was encouraged to maximize the benefits to the nation of approximately $2 billion which had already been expended to date on its evolution. Having been recruited to Texas from other intellectually challenging enclaves around the world, many regional scientists, especially physicists, of course, also began to look for viable ways to preserve some of the potentially short-lived gains made by Texas higher education in anticipation of {open_quotes}the SSC era.{close_quotes} In fact, by November, 1993, approximately 150 physicists and engineers from thirteen Texas universities and the SSC itself, had gathered on the SMU campus to discuss possible re-uses of the SSC assets. Participants at that meeting drew up a petition addressed to the state and federal governments requesting the creation of a joint Texas Facility for Science Education and Research. The idea was to create a facility, open to universities and industry alike, which would preserve the research and development infrastructure and continue the educational mission of the SSC.

  9. Investigation of the age trends in patients with breast cancer and different sizes of tumors in Breast Cancer Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2001-2010

    PubMed Central

    Tazhibi, Mehdi; Dehkordi, Zahra Fazeli; Babazadeh, Shadi; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Rezaei, Parisa; Faghihi, Mehri

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women in the age range of 35-55 years. Each year, one or two cases of breast cancer per 1000 women are diagnosed as new cases. Despite the serious prognosis and high rate of morbidity, mortality, and pathogenicity, in the case of early diagnoses, the prognosis will be better. The aim of this study was to investigate the age trends in breast cancer patients with different sizes of tumors in Breast Cancer Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2001-2010. Materials and Methods: The information in radiotherapy and oncology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Milad Hospital from 2001 to 2010 were coded and analyzed. Frequency of patients’ age groups, tumor sizes and the year of cancer diagnosis were calculated. Correlation test was used for data analysis in statistical analysis in social science (SPSS) software version 18. Findings: Among the 3722 patients with breast cancer, the highest relative frequency distribution, respectively was observed in the age of 40-49 years (34.4%), 50-59 years (26.6%), 30-39 years (17.7%), 60-69 years (13.2%), 20-29 years (2.5%), 70 years and older (5.2%) and less than 20 years. Relative frequency distribution of tumor sizes in a variety of 5 cm (T2) was with the frequency of 59.8%, and then 26% at 5 cm (T3), 10.5% at 2 cm (T1), 3.1% at T4 and 0.6 at In-situ, respectively. Conclusion: The investigation of age trends showed that diagnosis rate of breast cancer increased from 2001 to 2004. It reached its highest value in 2006 at the age range of 30-39 years. Then, the trend has been downward, and it has continued to decline until 2010, which could be the result of the equipping screening system and recording the malignant cases. 85.8% of the examined tumors in T2 and T3 group were visible and may be disturbing. Comparing the frequency distribution of the infected population showed that the highest incidence of breast cancer diagnosis were in the age range of 40-49 years. It seems that as long as the mass has not reached an obvious palpable state, it has not been diagnosed. PMID:25013834

  10. Earth Sciences Research Opportunities at the National Science Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-06-01

    With the U.S. National Science Foundation's Division of Earth Sciences (NSF EAR) facing a number of challenges and opportunities—including helping to meet a growing need for basic research in a number of Earth science disciplines and seeing significant budget growth over the past several years—a panel of the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) has begun a study entitled “New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation.” The study, funded by NSF, begins nearly 10 years after NRC's 2001 influential report entitled “Basic Research Opportunities in Earth Sciences” (BROES), which helped to guide EAR, a division within NSF's Directorate of Geosciences (GEO). NRC's Board on Earth Sciences and Resources set up an ad hoc committee to direct this new study.

  11. [The returns to society from medical research].

    PubMed

    Lewison, Grant

    2008-12-01

    Medical research can benefit society in many ways and through a multiplicity of inter-connected pathways. Some of these pathways involve the commercial sector directly, through the invention, trial and marketing of new drugs, vaccines, medical devices and equipment, which can improve patient diagnosis and treatment. These inventions are usually protected by patents. Biomedical patents often cite scientific articles, usually basic research rather than clinical observations. However, disease prevention may provide greater returns, and is typically accomplished through public health measures (e.g., vaccination, health services, provision of clean water) and wiser lifestyle choices by the population (e.g., not smoking, taking more exercise, practising safe sex, and eating a healthy diet). The reduction of environmental pollution has also played a major role in the increase in life expectancy. All these measures are ideally informed by sound research, and are brought about by government policy and influenced by public opinion. The latter is strongly affected by the mass media, which play an increasing role in connecting readers, listeners and viewers with medical research enterprise. Hopes of a cure for a disease are frequently offered, but commentators usually warn that much more research is needed first. New bibliometric techniques allow some of these interconnected pathways to be traced and analyzed, mainly through news stories or other documents citing research articles. For example, clinical guidelines rely on scientific evidence, including clinical trials, and even government policy documents sometimes cite research findings, although not often enough. Thus the socioeconomic effect of biomedical research can be evaluated in new ways that may provide a fairer view of its utility and impact than do conventional methods of citation analysis. PMID:19631822

  12. [Alternative therapies, homeopathy and medical science].

    PubMed

    Martins e Silva, J

    1990-01-01

    This article briefly reviews the impact of regularly promoted alternative therapies within portuguese society. The origins, attractions and acceptance of alternative therapies, homeopathic included, are discussed. Recent homeopathic studies published in renowned scientific journals provoked comments and reports claiming for more objective explanations and better criticism. Accordingly, homeopathy is presently an unacceptable system with no physical basis, supported by inexplicable observations and a mixture of magic effects. Also alternatives therapies may provide an area of conflict with health and medical care, particularly in most severe diseases that require advanced resources of orthodox medicine. Improved education of the population, more qualified medical personal, and better understanding of medical problems, difficulties and progress by the media are final recommendations. PMID:2077840

  13. Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Dargahi, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010–2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees’ tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations. PMID:23908760

  14. 76 FR 10911 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research;...

  15. 75 FR 55804 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of..., Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and Developmental Biology Research;...

  16. Medical Informatics in Academic Health Science Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisse, Mark E.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of the state of medical informatics, the application of computer and information technology to biomedicine, looks at trends and concerns, including integration of traditionally distinct enterprises (clinical information systems, financial information, scholarly support activities, infrastructures); informatics career choice and…

  17. Arctic Social Sciences: Opportunities in Arctic Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arctic Research Consortium of the United States, Fairbanks, AK.

    The U.S. Congress passed the Arctic Research and Policy Act in 1984 and designated the National Science Foundation (NSF) the lead agency in implementing arctic research policy. In 1989, the parameters of arctic social science research were outlined, emphasizing three themes: human-environment interactions, community viability, and rapid social…

  18. Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

    2008-01-01

    The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

  19. Teaching Primary Science: How Research Helps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlen, Wynne

    2010-01-01

    The very first edition of "Primary Science Review" included an article entitled "Teaching primary science--how research can help" (Harlen, 1986), which announced that a section of the journal would be for reports of research and particularly for teachers reporting their classroom research. The intervening 24 years have seen momentous change in…

  20. Legal liability of physicians in medical research.

    PubMed

    Sava, H; Matlow, P T; Sole, M J

    1994-04-01

    The intent of this paper is to provide an overview, in layperson's language, of the concepts in law which may be applicable to a physician who undertakes research. The paper is divided into 2 parts. Part I deals with liability issues and standards of care. It is meant to enable the physician/researcher to recognize a potential liability situation. Part II examines insurance and related issues such as the role of the Canadian Medical Protective Association (CMPA). The paper begins with a review of 2 potential categories of liability: criminal and civil tort. Next, legal issues surrounding the consent process, which form the majority of negligence claims, are dealt with. The research process is then discussed with emphasis on the Medical Research Council of Canada Guidelines on Human Experimentation. Part II covers how research projects are funded and identifies the parties from whom insurance coverage may be sought. Information is provided from the various sources offering insurance and quasi-insurance protection with special attention on the CMPA. Each source details the circumstances necessary for its particular coverage to be triggered. Other issues addressed include those arising when research is conducted outside Canada and multiple coverage. PMID:8004852

  1. Teaching Toxicology as a Basic Medical Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gralla, Edward J.

    1976-01-01

    A 4-year effort at Yale University School of Medicine to teach toxicology as an elective basic science from the standpoint of organ-specific toxic effects is described. The objective of the successful multidisciplinary program is to prepare physicians to understand, recognize, and manage adverse effects from drugs and other environmental…

  2. Research in health sciences library and information science: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Dimitroff, A

    1992-10-01

    A content analysis of research articles published between 1966 and 1990 in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association was undertaken. Four specific questions were addressed: What subjects are of interest to health sciences librarians? Who is conducting this research? How do health sciences librarians conduct their research? Do health sciences librarians obtain funding for their research activities? Bibliometric characteristics of the research articles are described and compared to characteristics of research in library and information science as a whole in terms of subject and methodology. General findings were that most research in health sciences librarianship is conducted by librarians affiliated with academic health sciences libraries (51.8%); most deals with an applied (45.7%) or a theoretical (29.2%) topic; survey (41.0%) or observational (20.7%) research methodologies are used; descriptive quantitative analytical techniques are used (83.5%); and over 25% of research is funded. The average number of authors was 1.85, average article length was 7.25 pages, and average number of citations per article was 9.23. These findings are consistent with those reported in the general library and information science literature for the most part, although specific differences do exist in methodological and analytical areas. PMID:1422504

  3. Research in health sciences library and information science: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Dimitroff, A

    1992-01-01

    A content analysis of research articles published between 1966 and 1990 in the Bulletin of the Medical Library Association was undertaken. Four specific questions were addressed: What subjects are of interest to health sciences librarians? Who is conducting this research? How do health sciences librarians conduct their research? Do health sciences librarians obtain funding for their research activities? Bibliometric characteristics of the research articles are described and compared to characteristics of research in library and information science as a whole in terms of subject and methodology. General findings were that most research in health sciences librarianship is conducted by librarians affiliated with academic health sciences libraries (51.8%); most deals with an applied (45.7%) or a theoretical (29.2%) topic; survey (41.0%) or observational (20.7%) research methodologies are used; descriptive quantitative analytical techniques are used (83.5%); and over 25% of research is funded. The average number of authors was 1.85, average article length was 7.25 pages, and average number of citations per article was 9.23. These findings are consistent with those reported in the general library and information science literature for the most part, although specific differences do exist in methodological and analytical areas. PMID:1422504

  4. Science Education Research vs. Physics Education Research: A Structural Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akarsu, Bayram

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to introduce physics education research (PER) to researchers in other fields. Topics include discussion of differences between science education research (SER) and physics education research (PER), physics educators, research design and methodology in physics education research and current research traditions and…

  5. Research on and in medical education.

    PubMed

    Panter, Michaela S

    2011-09-01

    Dr. George Lister of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center delivered the Lee E. Farr Lecture on Student Research Day on May 9, 2011. This day focused on the dissertation work of Yale School of Medicine MD students, whose research opportunities for prospective physicians were recently examined and critiqued by Yale's Committee to Promote Student Interest in Careers as Physician Scientists. Lister's talk served to highlight the importance of communication between the laboratory and the clinic in optimizing diagnostics and treatments, effectively affirming the validity of the Committee's objectives. PMID:21966044

  6. Medical Research | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Medical Research Research Results in the News: A Users Guide Past ... scientists the most reliable results. Where was the research done? Scientists at a medical school or large ...

  7. Social science education as a component of medical training.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, S M; McCullough, H N

    1994-11-01

    The broad view of health espoused by the World Health Organization is now generally accepted by medical educators. Implicit in the new paradigm is a recognition of multiple determinants of health and of shifting divisions of professional responsibilities among providers. As a consequence, the importance of social and behavioural science education as a foundation to medical training is increasingly appreciated. At the same time medical programmes are under pressure to contend with the explosion of knowledge in basic biomedical and life sciences and with technological innovation. Curricula are being submerged in facts, causing medical schools to look for innovative teaching models that feature more flexible approaches to the diverse body of knowledge supporting professional practice. Independent learning methods are being explored and revised teaching programs are being organized around coordinating themes, such as aging, human development and environmental health. Future programmes must be designed to encourage multiprofessional approaches while fostering awareness of the important interplay between health care (both curative and preventive) and social/behavioural science. Within the curriculum students should be offered options that include sociology, child growth and development, gerontology, medical anthropology, psychology, medical geography, health economics, political science and related subthemes. More important than the inclusion of any specific discipline is the creation of an environment in which future physicians may be exposed to critical thinking across a wide range of themes that characterize the social and cultural context for medical practice. Such enquiry is also likely to drive a closer relationship between medical schools and their parent universities within which the social science expertize resides.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7801172

  8. Applying the science of learning to medical education.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Richard E

    2010-06-01

    OBJECTIVE The goal of this paper is to examine how to apply the science of learning to medical education. SCIENCE OF LEARNING The science of learning is the scientific study of how people learn. Multimedia learning - learning from words and pictures - is particularly relevant to medical education. The cognitive theory of multimedia learning is an information-processing explanation of how people learn from words and pictures. It is based on the idea that people have separate channels for processing words and pictures, that the capacity to process information in working memory is limited, and that meaningful learning requires appropriate cognitive processing during learning. SCIENCE OF INSTRUCTION The science of instruction is the scientific study of how to help people learn. Three important instructional goals are: to reduce extraneous processing (cognitive processing that does not serve an instructional objective) during learning; to manage essential processing (cognitive processing aimed at representing the essential material in working memory) during learning, and to foster generative processing (cognitive processing aimed at making sense of the material) during learning. Nine evidence-based principles for accomplishing these goals are presented. CONCLUSIONS Applying the science of learning to medical education can be a fruitful venture that improves medical instruction and cognitive theory. PMID:20604850

  9. Science Selections. Accounts of Ongoing Scientific Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kornberg, Warren, Ed.

    This publication is intended to present science teachers with an opportunity to communicate to students the idea that science is an ongoing and never-ending process. The booklet contains supplemental materials, valuable as enrichment materials. A selection of ongoing research in the biological sciences, physics and astronomy, oceanography,…

  10. Science Graduation Requirements. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muir, Mike

    2004-01-01

    According to the National Center for Education Statistics (Table 153), there are almost as many states that require a minimum of 2 credits of science for graduation (22) as there are those that require 3 credits (21). According to the "2000 High School Transcript Study," between 1990 and 2000, not only did the average number of science credits

  11. Applied Science and Research Applications: Recent Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications.

    This report contains abstracts of new technical reports and other documents resulting from research supported by the directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications of the National Science Foundation. Research reports from current programs include work in the areas of public policy and regulation; public service delivery and urban…

  12. Causes of academic failure of medical and medical sciences students in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Azari, Sheida; Baradaran, Hamid Reza; Fata, Ladan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Academic failure of medical and medical sciences students is one of the major problems of higher education centers in many countries. This study aims to collect and compare relevant researches in this field in Iran. Methods: The appropriate keywords were searched in the national and international databases, and the findings were categorized into related and non-related articles accordingly. Results: Only 22 articles were included in this systematic review. In terms of content analysis, gender, living in a dorm, employment, marital status, age, special rights in the entrance exams, the time lag between diploma and university, diploma average, learning style, being nonnative students, being a transferred student, psychological problems, occupation of the mother, salary level, diploma type, field of study, self-esteem, exam anxiety and interest on the field of study were considered as the influential factors for academic failure of the students. Conclusion: This systematic review shows that there is no definite academic failure criterion. It is also suggested Iranian researchers should pay more attention on the documentation of the higher educational strategies that have been implemented to prevent avoidable academic failure and contain physiological academic failure. PMID:26913265

  13. 75 FR 39697 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Pharmacology..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical...

  14. 75 FR 32489 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Minority Programs..., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical...

  15. Neuroscience and Brain Science Special Issue begins in the Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    ABDULLAH, Jafri Malin

    2014-01-01

    The Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences and the Orient Neuron Nexus have amalgated to publish a yearly special issue based on neuro- and brain sciences. This will hopefully improve the quality of peer-reviewed manuscripts in the field of fundamental, applied, and clinical neuroscience and brain science from Asian countries. One focus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia is to strengthen neuroscience and brain science, especially in the field of neuroinformatics. PMID:25941457

  16. Characteristics of physicians engaged in basic science: a questionnaire survey of physicians in basic science departments of a medical school in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

    2012-01-01

    The number of physicians engaged in basic science and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study aimed to determine the characteristics of physicians who are engaged in basic science in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire was distributed to all 30 physicians in the basic science departments of Juntendo University School of Medicine. Question items inquired about sex, years since graduation, years between graduation and time entering basic science, clinical experience, recommending the career to medical students, expected obstacles to students entering basic science, efforts to inspire students in research, increased number of lectures and practical training sessions on research, and career choice satisfaction. Correlations between the variables were examined using χ(2) tests. Overall, 26 physicians, including 7 female physicians, returned the questionnaire (response rate 86.7%). Most physicians were satisfied with their career choice. Medical students were deemed not to choose basic science as their future career, because they aimed to become clinicians and because they were concerned about salary. Women physicians in basic science departments were younger than men. Women physicians also considered themselves to make more efforts in inspiring medical students to be interested in research. Moreover, physicians who became basic scientists earlier in their career wanted more research-related lectures in medical education. Improving physicians' salaries in basic science is important to securing talent. In addition, basic science may be a good career path for women physicians to follow. PMID:22976453

  17. Mapping a research agenda for the science of team science

    PubMed Central

    Falk-Krzesinski, Holly J; Contractor, Noshir; Fiore, Stephen M; Hall, Kara L; Kane, Cathleen; Keyton, Joann; Klein, Julie Thompson; Spring, Bonnie; Stokols, Daniel; Trochim, William

    2012-01-01

    An increase in cross-disciplinary, collaborative team science initiatives over the last few decades has spurred interest by multiple stakeholder groups in empirical research on scientific teams, giving rise to an emergent field referred to as the science of team science (SciTS). This study employed a collaborative team science concept-mapping evaluation methodology to develop a comprehensive research agenda for the SciTS field. Its integrative mixed-methods approach combined group process with statistical analysis to derive a conceptual framework that identifies research areas of team science and their relative importance to the emerging SciTS field. The findings from this concept-mapping project constitute a lever for moving SciTS forward at theoretical, empirical, and translational levels. PMID:23223093

  18. Health Science Libraries of National, State, and Local Medical Organizations

    PubMed Central

    1967-01-01

    This second survey of medical society-sponsored libraries has been expanded to include national association libraries in allied medical fields, as well as special libraries which do not fall into categories established for the MLA survey of health science libraries. A total of fifty-eight libraries in this subset have been identified, and selected characteristics have been measured. Observations are made concerning methodology, user population, and services. PMID:6041830

  19. Regulatory science based approach in development of novel medical devices.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ichiro

    2015-08-01

    For development rational evaluation method for medical devices' safety and efficacy, regulatory science studies are important. Studies on regulatory affairs related to a medical device under development should be conducted as well as its technological development. Clinical performance of a medical device is influenced by performance of the device, medical doctors' skill, pathological condition of a patient, and so on. Thus it is sometimes difficult to demonstrate superiority of the device in terms of clinical outcome although its efficacy as a medical device is accepted. Setting of appropriate end points is required to evaluate a medical device appropriately. Risk assessment and risk management are the basis of medical device safety assurance. In case of medical device software, there are difficulties in identifying the risk due to its complexity of user environment and different design and manufacturing procedure compared with conventional hardware based medical devices. Recent technological advancement such as information and communication technologies (ICT) for medical devices and wireless network has raised new issue on risk management: cybersecurity. We have to watch closely the progress of safety standard development. PMID:26736611

  20. The ICPSR and Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendell G.

    2008-01-01

    The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR), a unit within the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, is the world's largest social science data archive. The data sets in the ICPRS database give the social sciences librarian/subject specialist an opportunity of providing value-added bibliographic…

  1. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    This article features recent research in science teaching and learning. It presents three current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…

  2. Towards effective evaluation and reform in medical education: a cognitive and learning sciences perspective.

    PubMed

    Patel, Vimla L; Yoskowitz, Nicole A; Arocha, Jose F

    2009-12-01

    Health professions education is dealing with major transformations in light of the changing nature of the health care delivery system, including the use of technology for "just in time" delivery of care, evidence-based practice, personalized medical care and learning, as health professionals strive to integrate biomedical advances and clinical practice. This has forced the medical education community to reassess the current teaching and learning practices and more importantly, the evaluation of the medical education process. There have been recent advances in cognitive and learning sciences theories, some of which can inform medical educators about best teaching and learning practices and their impact on the evaluation process. An understanding of these theories provides a sound rationale for choosing specific instructional strategies and choosing evaluation measures that assess the curricular objectives. The review begins with an overview of evaluation and assessment in education, followed by an overview of major theories from the cognitive and learning sciences. Next, the role of cognitive and learning sciences theories in informing the process of medical education evaluation is discussed, including its impact on student learning, performance and professional competence, as well as recommendations for reform of medical curricula based on such theories. The paper continues with the elaboration of current trends in health sciences education, particularly medical education, and available evidence for the impact on student learning and performance as well as areas where more research is needed. PMID:18214707

  3. Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coats, Alfred C.

    2001-01-01

    Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

  4. Development of an Asset Map of Medical Education Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiaanse, Mary E.; Russell, Eleanor L.; Crandall, Sonia J.; Lambros, Ann; Manuel, Janeen C.; Kirk, Julienne K.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical education research is gaining recognition as scholarship within academic medical centers. This survey was conducted at a medium-sized academic medical center in the United States. The purpose of the study was to learn faculty interest in research in medical education, so assets could be used to develop educational scholarship…

  5. Model Observers in Medical Imaging Research

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Park, Subok

    2013-01-01

    Model observers play an important role in the optimization and assessment of imaging devices. In this review paper, we first discuss the basic concepts of model observers, which include the mathematical foundations and psychophysical considerations in designing both optimal observers for optimizing imaging systems and anthropomorphic observers for modeling human observers. Second, we survey a few state-of-the-art computational techniques for estimating model observers and the principles of implementing these techniques. Finally, we review a few applications of model observers in medical imaging research. PMID:24312150

  6. Snake oil and venoms for medical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2011-04-01

    Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in heart disease. The blood clotting protein from the taipan snake has been shown to rapidly stop excessive bleeding. The venom from the copperhead may hold an answer to breast cancer. The Malaysian pit viper shows promise in breaking blood clots. Cobra venom may hold keys to finding cures for Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's. Rattlesnake proteins from certain species have produced blood pressure medicines. Besides snake venoms, venom from the South American dart frog, mollusks (i.e. Cone Shell Snail), lizards (i.e. Gila Monster & Komodo Dragon), some species of spiders and tarantulas, Cephalopods, mammals (i.e. Platypus & Shrews), fish (i.e. sting rays, stone fish, puffer fish, blue bottle fish & box jelly fish), intertidal marine animals (echinoderms)(i.e. Crown of Thorn Star Fish & Flower Urchin) and the Honeybee are being investigated for potential medical benefits.

  7. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1995-12-31

    The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

  8. Registers for Networked Medical Research in Germany

    PubMed Central

    Stausberg, J.; Altmann, U.; Antony, G.; Drepper, J.; Sax, U.; Schtt, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several disease specific registers are operated by members of the TMF Technology, Methods, and Infrastructure for Networked Medical Research, an umbrella organization of research networks in Germany. Objective To describe the coverage and the current state as well as financial and organizational issues of registers operated by member networks of the TMF, to identify their requirements and needs, and to recommend best practice models. Methods A survey with a self-completion questionnaire including all 55 TMF member networks was carried out in winter 2007/2008. Interviews focusing on technological issues were conducted and analyzed in summer 2009 with a convenience sample of 10 registers. Results From 55 TMF member networks, 11 provided information about 14 registers. Six registers address diseases of the circulatory system with more than 150,000 registered patients. The interviews revealed a typical setting of research registers. Research registers are an important mean to generate hypotheses for clinical research, to identify eligible patients, and to share data with clinical trials. Concerning technical solutions, we found a remarkable heterogeneity. The analysis of the most efficient registers revealed a structure with five levels as best practice model of register management: executive, operations, IT-management, software, hardware. Conclusion In the last ten years, the TMF member networks established disease specific registers in Germany mainly to support clinical research. The heterogeneity of organizational and technical solutions as well as deficits in register planning motivated the development of respective recommendations. The TMF will continue to assist the registers in quality improvement. PMID:23616850

  9. Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application

    PubMed Central

    Deserno (né Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (né Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment. PMID:24078804

  10. METABOLOMICS IN MEDICAL SCIENCES--TRENDS, CHALLENGES AND PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Dereziński, Paweł; Kokot, Zenon J

    2015-01-01

    Metabolomics is the latest of the "omic" technologies that involves comprehensive analysis of small molecule metabolites of an organism or a specific biological sample. Metabolomics provides an insight into the cell status and describes an actual health condition of organisms. Analysis of metabolome offers a unique opportunity to study the influence of genetic variation, disease, applied treatment or diet on endogenous metabolic state of organisms. There are many areas that might benefit from metabolomic research. In the article some applications of this novel "omic" technology in the field of medical sciences are presented. One of the most popular aims of metabolomic studies is biomarker discovery. Despite using the state-of-art analytical techniques along with advanced bioinformatic tools, metabolomic experiments encounter numerous difficulties and pitfalls. Challenges that researchers in the field of analysis of metabolome have to face include i.a., technical limitations, bioinformatic challenges and integration with other "omic" sciences. One of the grand challenges for studies in the field of metabolomics is to tackle the problem of data analysis, which is probably the most time consuming stage of metabolomic workflow and requires close collaboration between analysts, clinicians and experts in chemometric analysis. Implementation of metabolomics into clinical practice will be dependent on establishment of standardized protocols in analytical performance and data analysis and development of fit-for-purpose biomarker method validation. Metabolomics allows to achieve a sophisticated level of information about biological systems and opens up new perspectives in many fields of medicine, especially in oncology. Apart from its extensive cognitive significance, metabolomics manifests also a practical importance as it may lead to design of new non-invasive, sensitive and specific diagnostic techniques and development of new therapies. PMID:26647618

  11. Strategic Research Directions In Microgravity Materials Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville L.; Sanders, Gerald; Schlagheck, Ron; Semmes, Ed; Bassler, Julie; Cook, Beth

    2004-01-01

    The Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) is moving aggressively to align programs, projects, and products with the vision for space exploration. Research in advanced materials is a critical element in meeting exploration goals. Research in low gravity materials science in OBPR is being focused on top priority needs in support of exploration: 1) Space Radiation Shielding; 2) In Situ Resource Utilization; 3) In Situ Fabrication and Repair; 4) Materials Science for Spacecraft and Propulsion Systems; 5) Materials Science for Advanced Life Support Systems. Roles and responsibilities in low gravity materials research for exploration between OBPR and the Office of Exploration Systems are evolving.

  12. ALA Guide to Medical & Health Sciences Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This resource provides an annotated list of print and electronic biomedical and health-related reference sources, including Internet resources and digital image collections. Readers will find relevant research, clinical, and consumer health information resources. The emphasis is on resources within the United States, with a few representative

  13. ALA Guide to Medical & Health Sciences Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ALA Editions, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This resource provides an annotated list of print and electronic biomedical and health-related reference sources, including Internet resources and digital image collections. Readers will find relevant research, clinical, and consumer health information resources. The emphasis is on resources within the United States, with a few representative…

  14. Senator Arlen Specter: Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story: Leukemia/Lymphoma Senator Arlen Specter: Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table ... a long-time supporter and proponent of medical research. Recently, he underwent his second round of chemotherapy ...

  15. The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

  16. Dissemination of Medical Information: Organizational and Technological Issues in Health Sciences Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderer, Nancy K.

    1993-01-01

    Describes five programs that have been significant to the evolution of biomedical communications in health sciences libraries over the last twenty years: the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NNLM); Integrated Advanced Information Management Systems (IAIMS); National Research and Education Network (NREN); Unified Medical Language System…

  17. Remote Science Operation Center research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Progress in the following areas is discussed: the design, planning and operation of a remote science payload operations control center; design and planning of a data link via satellite; and the design and prototyping of an advanced workstation environment for multi-media (3-D computer aided design/computer aided engineering, voice, video, text) communications and operations.

  18. Research on College Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Mary Budd, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes 16 psychological types that result from the interaction of four mental powers described by G. G. Jung and the attitudes in which they are expressed. The relevance of psychological type to choice of careers in science and disposition to prefer theoretical or applied emphases are also discussed. (HM)

  19. Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 8: Life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The functional program element for the life sciences facilities to operate aboard manned space stations is presented. The life sciences investigations will consist of the following subjects: (1) medical research, (2) vertebrate research, (3) plant research, (4) cells and tissue research, (5) invertebrate research, (6) life support and protection, and (7) man-system integration. The equipment required to provide the desired functional capability for the research facilities is defined. The goals and objectives of each research facility are described.

  20. Study for Teaching Behavioral Sciences in Schools of Medicine, Volume III: Behavioral Science Perspectives in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Sociological Association, Washington, DC. Medical Sociology Council.

    Volume III of a study of teaching behavioral sciences in medical school presents perspectives on medical behavioral science from the viewpoints of the several behavioral disciplines (anthropology, psychology, sociology, political science, economics, behavioral biology and medical education). In addition, there is a discussion of translating…

  1. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Biological and Medical Science Libraries Section. Social Science Libraries Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…

  2. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: Educational and Science-Related Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A.

    2015-01-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer…

  3. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A guide to clinical trials. Part II: interpreting medical research.

    PubMed

    Highleyman, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Part I of this two-part article, which appeared in the Summer 2005 issue of BETA, provided an overview of the clinical trial process. Part II covers features of clinical trials and interpretation of study results. Clinical trials provide the foundation for evidence-based medicine, or medical decision-making guided by data from formal research. Medical professionals keep up with the latest information by reading peer-reviewed medical journals and attending conferences. Likewise, HIV positive people can keep abreast of the state of the art by following the medical literature and community publications like BETA. Trials offer important information about a therapy's benefits and risks in a population, but they cannot predict how well a given treatment will work for a specific person. Healthcare providers, therefore, must still rely heavily on clinical experience, intuition, and a careful evaluation of the various factors unique to each individual case--the practice of medicine remains an art as well as a science. PMID:16610119

  5. Nursing research and the human sciences.

    PubMed

    Malinski, Violet M

    2002-01-01

    Nursing has long been associated with the natural sciences. However, more recently some nurses have begun to identify it as a human science. The epistemological and ontological bases then shift, with clear implications for the research approaches that are regarded as the most useful. This column offers a discussion of the worldviews represented in contemporary nursing knowledge, focusing particularly on the newer paradigm that includes the view of nursing as a human science, and the place of qualitative and quantitative research. Neither the human sciences nor the natural sciences are seen as providing a sufficient base for all nursing knowledge. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches are viewed as potentially useful strategies given the nature of the phenomenon to be explored. Parallels to current discussions of worldviews and research methods in transpersonal psychology are identified. PMID:11873465

  6. Mass Media Release of Medical Research Results

    PubMed Central

    Brunt, Margaret E; Murray, Michael D; Hui, Siu L; Kesterson, Joseph; Perkins, Anthony J; Tierney, William M

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Disclosure of medical research results to the public creates tension between lay medical reporters and the medical profession. OBJECTIVE To explore the early effect of media attention on the risks associated with short-acting calcium channel blockers (CCBs) for treating hypertension after publication at a national meeting and following publication. DESIGN Time-series analysis of prescription claims data. SETTING AND DATA SOURCE National third-party pharmaceutical benefits manager. PATIENTS Employed or retired persons and their families, 18 years of age or older, receiving prescription benefits from 1 of 4 national companies that contracted with the pharmaceutical benefits manager exclusively for prescription drug coverage. MEASUREMENTS Prescription claims for antihypertensive drugs by fill date converted to a percentage of all cardiovascular drug claims. Data were grouped into weekly intervals before and immediately after the national release of negative information about CCBs on March 10, 1995 and following publication of the results on August 23, 1995. RESULTS The most prevalent antihypertensive drugs were diuretics (21% of cardiovascular prescription claims) and calcium channel blockers (19%). A 10% decline in prescriptions filled for CCBs occurred 4 weeks following the intense media attention. Only prescriptions for long-acting calcium channel blockers declined. Alpha-1-blocker prescriptions increased by approximately the same amount that prescriptions for CCBs declined, suggesting substitution of one drug for the other. Changes in diuretic or β-blocker prescriptions filled were not statistically significant. No immediate change in other cardiovascular drug classes occurred following journal publication. CONCLUSIONS Intense media publicity regarding a controversial study measurably and unpredictably changed prescription claims. PMID:12542582

  7. Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Thomlinson, W.

    1997-08-01

    In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to tune intense monochromatic beams over wide energy ranges clearly differentiates these sources from standard clinical and research tools. The tunable spectrum, high intrinsic collimation of the beams, polarization and intensity of the beams make possible in-vitro and in-vivo research and therapeutic programs not otherwise possible. From the beginning of research operation at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), many programs have been carrying out basic biomedical research. At first, the research was limited to in-vitro programs such as the x-ray microscope, circular dichroism, XAFS, protein crystallography, micro-tomography and fluorescence analysis. Later, as the coronary angiography program made plans to move its experimental phase from SSRL to the NSLS, it became clear that other in-vivo projects could also be carried out at the synchrotron. The development of SMERF (Synchrotron Medical Research Facility) on beamline X17 became the home not only for angiography but also for the MECT (Multiple Energy Computed Tomography) project for cerebral and vascular imaging. The high energy spectrum on X17 is necessary for the MRT (Microplanar Radiation Therapy) experiments. Experience with these programs and the existence of the Medical Programs Group at the NSLS led to the development of a program in synchrotron based mammography. A recent adaptation of the angiography hardware has made it possible to image human lungs (bronchography). Fig. 1 schematically depicts the broad range of active programs at the NSLS.

  8. The Oral History Program: III. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9803287

  9. The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9681172

  10. The Oral History Program: I. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

    1998-01-01

    The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association. PMID:9578936

  11. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This feature is designed to point "CBE - Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may…

  12. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This feature is designed to point "CBE-Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education, as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. This themed issue focuses on recent studies of concepts and…

  13. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article is designed to point "CBE-Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be…

  14. Social Science Research Serving Rural America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miron, Mary, Ed.

    This collection of articles provides an overview of some of the recent social science research projects performed by state agricultural experiment stations. The examples highlight social science's contribution to problem-solving in rural business, industry, farming, communities, government, education, and families. The following programs are…

  15. Theoretical Bases of Science Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Ronald; And Others

    This symposium examines the science education research enterprise from multiple theoretical perspectives. The first paper, "Contextual Constructivism; The Impact of Culture on the Learning and Teaching of Science (William Cobern), focuses on broad issues of culture and how constructivism is affected by the context of culture. Culturally based…

  16. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    This article is designed to point "CBE-Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be

  17. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    This feature is designed to point "CBE - Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may

  18. Pre-Medical Education in the Physical Sciences for Tomorrow's Physicians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    Medical knowledge is being transformed by instrumentation advances and by research results including genomic and population level studies; at the same time, though, the premedical curriculum is constrained by a relatively unchanging overall content in the MCAT examination, which inhibits innovation on undergraduate science education. A committee convened jointly by the Association of American Medical Colleges and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute has examined the science and mathematics competencies that the graduating physician will need, and has asked which of these should be achieved during undergraduate study. The recommendations emphasize competency -- what the learner should be able to ``do'' at the end of the learning experience -- rather than dictating specific courses. Because the scientific content of modern medical practice is evolving, new science competencies are desirable for the entering medical student. An example is statistics, an increasingly prominent foundation for database and genomic analysis but which is not yet uniformly recommended as preparation for medical school. On the other hand, the committee believes that the value of a broad liberal arts education is enduring, and science coursework should not totally consume a premedical student's time. Thus if we recommend new areas of science and mathematics competency for pre-meds, we must find other areas that can be trimmed or combined. Indeed, at present there are some science topics mandated for premedical study, which may not be essential. For these reasons, the committee aims to state premedical recommendations in ways that can be met either through traditional disciplinary courses, or through innovative and/or interdisciplinary courses. Finally, we acknowledge that practice of medicine requires grounding in scientific principles and knowledge and in the practice of critical inquiry. These principles may be learned and practiced in undergraduate study through work in the physical sciences, as well as in biology, and such multidisciplinary training should be encouraged.

  19. MRIdb: medical image management for biobank research.

    PubMed

    Woodbridge, Mark; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; O'Regan, Declan P

    2013-10-01

    Clinical picture archiving and communications systems provide convenient, efficient access to digital medical images from multiple modalities but can prove challenging to deploy, configure and use. MRIdb is a self-contained image database, particularly suited to the storage and management of magnetic resonance imaging data sets for population phenotyping. It integrates a mature image archival system with an intuitive web-based user interface that provides visualisation and export functionality. In addition, utilities for auditing, data migration and system monitoring are included in a virtual machine image that is easily deployed with minimal configuration. The result is a freely available turnkey solution, designed to support epidemiological and imaging genetics research. It allows the management of patient data sets in a secure, scalable manner without requiring the installation of any bespoke software on end users' workstations. MRIdb is an open-source software, available for download at http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/bioinfsupport/resources/software/mridb . PMID:23619930

  20. Survey Nonresponse Bias in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Surveys continue to be one of the primary research methods in social science research, as they have been useful for exploring subjects ranging from attitudes and intentions to motivations and behaviors, to name but a few. Notwithstanding, response rates in survey research continue to decline despite the development of more systematic procedures to…

  1. Science Education Research and Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oversby, John; McGregor, Deb; Woodhouse, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Well-designed and thoughtful approaches to practitioner research can bring about very positive impacts to improve teaching and learning in science classrooms. Readers of highly-rated research also need to appreciate and understand research design, literature critique, appropriate data collection, methods of analysis, theoretical frameworks,…

  2. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and

  3. Validity and Reliability in Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drost, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author aims to provide novice researchers with an understanding of the general problem of validity in social science research and to acquaint them with approaches to developing strong support for the validity of their research. She provides insight into these two important concepts, namely (1) validity; and (2) reliability, and…

  4. Reproducible research in vadose zone sciences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A significant portion of present-day soil and Earth science research is computational, involving complex data analysis pipelines, advanced mathematical and statistical models, and sophisticated computer codes. Opportunities for scientific progress are greatly diminished if reproducing and building o...

  5. ADHD--To Medicate or Not? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2009-01-01

    What does the research indicate are the effects of medicating or not medicating adolescents with ADHD? Many parents and health care providers are rethinking and questioning the long-term effects of medication on children. Whether or not to medicate adolescents with ADHD is a conundrum that many parents face. Some parents believe their child will…

  6. Two h-Index Benchmarks for Evaluating the Publication Performance of Medical Informatics Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Luk; Jonker, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Background The h-index is a commonly used metric for evaluating the publication performance of researchers. However, in a multidisciplinary field such as medical informatics, interpreting the h-index is a challenge because researchers tend to have diverse home disciplines, ranging from clinical areas to computer science, basic science, and the social sciences, each with different publication performance profiles. Objective To construct a reference standard for interpreting the h-index of medical informatics researchers based on the performance of their peers. Methods Using a sample of authors with articles published over the 5-year period 2006–2011 in the 2 top journals in medical informatics (as determined by impact factor), we computed their h-index using the Scopus database. Percentiles were computed to create a 6-level benchmark, similar in scheme to one used by the US National Science Foundation, and a 10-level benchmark. Results The 2 benchmarks can be used to place medical informatics researchers in an ordered category based on the performance of their peers. A validation exercise mapped the benchmark levels to the ranks of medical informatics academic faculty in the United States. The 10-level benchmark tracked academic rank better (with no ties) and is therefore more suitable for practical use. Conclusions Our 10-level benchmark provides an objective basis to evaluate and compare the publication performance of medical informatics researchers with that of their peers using the h-index. PMID:23079075

  7. The Secure Medical Research Workspace: An IT Infrastructure to Enable Secure Research on Clinical Data

    PubMed Central

    Shoffner, Michael; Owen, Phillips; Mostafa, Javed; Lamm, Brent; Wang, Xiaoshu; Schmitt, Charles P.; Ahalt, Stanley C.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical data has tremendous value for translational research, but only if security and privacy concerns can be addressed satisfactorily. A collaboration of clinical and informatics teams, including RENCI, NC TraCS, UNC’s School of Information and Library Science, Information Technology Service’s Research Computing and other partners at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have developed a system called the Secure Medical Research Workspace (SMRW) that enables researchers to use clinical data securely for research. SMRW significantly minimizes the risk presented when using of identified clinical data, thereby protecting patients, researchers, and institutions associated with the data. The SMRW is built on a novel combination of virtualization and data leakage protection and can be combined with other protection methodologies and scaled to production levels. PMID:23751029

  8. The "Science of HRD Research": Reshaping HRD Research through Scientometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Gilley, Jerry W.; Sun, Judy Y.

    2012-01-01

    We explore opportunities for assessing and advancing Human Resource Development (HRD) research through an integrative literature review of scientometric theories and methods. Known as the "science of science," scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative study of scholarly communications, disciplinary structure and assessment and measurement

  9. The "Science of HRD Research": Reshaping HRD Research through Scientometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Greg G.; Gilley, Jerry W.; Sun, Judy Y.

    2012-01-01

    We explore opportunities for assessing and advancing Human Resource Development (HRD) research through an integrative literature review of scientometric theories and methods. Known as the "science of science," scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative study of scholarly communications, disciplinary structure and assessment and measurement…

  10. Advancing global health through regulatory science research: summary of the Global Summit on Regulatory Science Research and Innovation.

    PubMed

    Slikker, William; Miller, Margaret Ann; Lou Valdez, Mary; Hamburg, Margaret A

    2012-04-01

    As a first step in the implementation of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Pathway to Global Product Safety and Quality (Anonymous, 2011), FDA's Office of International Programs (OIP) and the National Center for Toxicological Research (NCTR) sponsored a Global Summit on Regulatory Science Research and Innovation. Through a series of presentations and panel discussions, the Global Summit participants explored how research could be used more effectively as a tool for advancing regulatory science, food safety, medical technologies, and public health. Speakers provided an overview of each of the components in the global regulatory-science research initiative, including scientific innovation and modernizing toxicology; and discussed how the integration of these components is needed to achieve the promise of regulatory science at the global level. All participants agreed with the formation of a Global Coalition of Regulatory Research Scientists who will work collaboratively to build knowledge, promote the development of regulatory science, discover novel ways to clearly define research needs, and improve public health. PMID:22342950

  11. NASA technology utilization applications. [transfer of medical sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The work is reported from September 1972 through August 1973 by the Technology Applications Group of the Science Communication Division (SCD), formerly the Biological Sciences Communication Project (BSCP) in the Department of Medical and Public Affairs of the George Washington University. The work was supportive of many aspects of the NASA Technology Utilization program but in particular those dealing with Biomedical and Technology Application Teams, Applications Engineering projects, new technology reporting and documentation and transfer activities. Of particular interest are detailed reports on the progress of various hardware projects, and suggestions and criteria for the evaluation of candidate hardware projects. Finally some observations about the future expansion of the TU program are offered.

  12. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals*

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

    2010-01-01

    The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act. PMID:20648253

  13. Instrumentation opportunities for ocean science research

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, H.L.

    1993-02-01

    Progress in ocean research is inextricably linked to advances in instrumentation and technology. Modern ocean science research increasingly deals with the dynamic physical, chemical, and biological processes within the oceans and how these processes interact over long time and spatial scales. This type of research requires strong links between scientists conducting the research and others developing the instruments and technology. The National Science Foundation (NSF) provides approximately 70 percent of all funding for basic ocean science research in the U.S. Research activities fall within the four primary ocean science disciplines: biological, chemical, physical oceanography, and marine geology and geophysics. Despite great diversity in observational needs between these diciplines, three general categories of instrument development projects sponsored by NSF reflect distinct community requirements. Demonstration if feasibility projects test an idea for improving existing instrumentation. Goals are readily achievable over a short duration and have modest budgets. Implementation projects are wide-ranging, multi-year projects involving development of new instrumentation. Instrumentation systems development projects integrate a number of observational and operational systems. These require cooperative efforts between scientists and engineers and are both lengthy and expensive. Given the diversity of ocean science activities, important roles exist for federal mission agencies, private and state research institutions, industry and individuals.

  14. Nanoscale Science, Engineering and Technology Research Directions

    SciTech Connect

    Lowndes, D. H.; Alivisatos, A. P.; Alper, M.; Averback, R. S.; Jacob Barhen, J.; Eastman, J. A.; Imre, D.; Lowndes, D. H.; McNulty, I.; Michalske, T. A.; Ho, K-M; Nozik, A. J.; Russell, T. P.; Valentin, R. A.; Welch, D. O.; Barhen, J.; Agnew, S. R.; Bellon, P.; Blair, J.; Boatner, L. A.; Braiman, Y.; Budai, J. D.; Crabtree, G. W.; Feldman, L. C.; Flynn, C. P.; Geohegan, D. B.; George, E. P.; Greenbaum, E.; Grigoropoulos, C.; Haynes, T. E.; Heberlein, J.; Hichman, J.; Holland, O. W.; Honda, S.; Horton, J. A.; Hu, M. Z.-C.; Jesson, D. E.; Joy, D. C.; Krauss, A.; Kwok, W.-K.; Larson, B. C.; Larson, D. J.; Likharev, K.; Liu, C. T.; Majumdar, A.; Maziasz, P. J.; Meldrum, A.; Miller, J. C.; Modine, F. A.; Pennycook, S. J.; Pharr, G. M.; Phillpot, S.; Price, D. L.; Protopopescu, V.; Poker, D. B.; Pui, D.; Ramsey, J. M.; Rao, N.; Reichl, L.; Roberto, J.; Saboungi, M-L; Simpson, M.; Strieffer, S.; Thundat, T.; Wambsganss, M.; Wendleken, J.; White, C. W.; Wilemski, G.; Withrow, S. P.; Wolf, D.; Zhu, J. H.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zunger, A.; Lowe, S.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes important future research directions in nanoscale science, engineering and technology. It was prepared in connection with an anticipated national research initiative on nanotechnology for the twenty-first century. The research directions described are not expected to be inclusive but illustrate the wide range of research opportunities and challenges that could be undertaken through the national laboratories and their major national scientific user facilities with the support of universities and industry.

  15. Designing medical informatics research and library--resource projects to increase what is learned.

    PubMed

    Stead, W W; Haynes, R B; Fuller, S; Friedman, C P; Travis, L E; Beck, J R; Fenichel, C H; Chandrasekaran, B; Buchanan, B G; Abola, E E

    1994-01-01

    Careful study of medical informatics research and library-resource projects is necessary to increase the productivity of the research and development enterprise. Medical informatics research projects can present unique problems with respect to evaluation. It is not always possible to adapt directly the evaluation methods that are commonly employed in the natural and social sciences. Problems in evaluating medical informatics projects may be overcome by formulating system development work in terms of a testable hypothesis; subdividing complex projects into modules, each of which can be developed, tested and evaluated rigorously; and utilizing qualitative studies in situations where more definitive quantitative studies are impractical. PMID:7719785

  16. Corporate Disguises in Medical Science: Dodging the Interest Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sismondo, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Roughly 40% of the sizeable medical research and literature on recently approved drugs is "ghost managed" by the pharmaceutical industry and its agents. Research is performed and articles are written by companies and their agents, though apparently independent academics serve as authors on the publications. Similarly, the industry hires academic…

  17. Biomarkers in the ontology for general medical science.

    PubMed

    Ceusters, Werner; Smith, Barry

    2015-01-01

    A great deal of recent work has been devoted to the topic of biomarkers as aids to diagnosis, prognosis and treatment evaluation. Basing our work on the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) and on the specifications provided by the Institute of Medicine (IOM), we propose definitions for biomarkers of various types. These definitions provide a formal representation of what biomarkers are in a way that allows us to remove certain ambiguities and inconsistencies in the documentation provided by the IOM. PMID:25991121

  18. [Two research projects on infectious diseases conducted in Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research, University of Ghana by Tokyo Medical and Dental University].

    PubMed

    Ido, Eiji; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ghana-Tokyo Medical and Dental University Research Collaboration Center has been established since 2008 when our Program was chosen together with the Program in the Philippines proposed by Tohoku University as an additional small-scale research center of the Overseas Research Program on Emerging and Reemerging Diseases that is funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology of the Japanese Government and started in 2005. This 5-year government-supported Program has changed its name to develop into a more active world-level program called Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) and entered the second 5-year phase in 2010, and our Program is playing an important role among other research centers located in Asia and Africa. Currently, two research projects are carried out in parallel in Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research by Tokyo Medical and Dental University: one is a J-GRID project and the other is the one of Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) which is a joint project between Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). This special article is describing what these two projects are all about. PMID:24769582

  19. Science education research interests of elementary teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabel, Dorothy; Samuel, K. V.; Helgeson, Stanley; McGuire, Saundra; Novak, Joseph; Butzow, John

    Science education researchers have always sought to improve the quality of our nation's schools. One way of doing this is to make research findings on the teaching of science available to teachers. Perhaps an even more effective way is to plan research studies with teachers' interests in mind. The purpose of this study was to determine the science education research interests of elementary teachers and to examine the data according to certain demographic variables. The sample consisted of 553 elementary teachers in 98 schools from across the nation. The survey instrument contained 28 items, 16 of which were included on a survey instrument prepared by White et al. The data collected using the Likert-type questionnaire were dichotomized as 1 important and O not important and were analyzed using the Cochran Test and the McNemar Test for post hoc comparisons. Results of the study indicate that the top five research interests of teachers in the order of preference are: hands-on experiences, science content of the curriculum, cognitive development and learning styles, problem solving, and teaching strategies. The area of lowest interest was research on sex differences.Results of the survey have several important implications for science education. First, they can be used to help science educators plan research that may be of interest to elementary teachers. Second, they can be used by groups such as NSTA who publish research reviews, and by colleges and universities that prepare elementary teachers, as a guide to not only what is of interest to elementary teachers, but to identify those areas of research for which dissemination has been lacking.

  20. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are

  1. Environmental Research Puts Science into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such…

  2. Research Methods in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somekh, Bridget, Ed.; Lewin, Cathy, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This book is intended as a resource and an indispensable companion to welcome educators into the community of social science research. While it is recognized that some methodological frameworks are incompatible with others, the overarching premise of the book is to indicate how a wide range of researchers choose a methodology and methods which are…

  3. A Note about Information Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salton, Gerard

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between information science research and practice and briefly describes current research on 10 topics in information retrieval literature: vector processing retrieval strategy, probabilistic retrieval models, inverted file procedures, relevance feedback, Boolean query formulations, front-end procedures, citation…

  4. REVIEW OF RESEARCH STUDIES IN SCIENCE EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TAYLOR, WAYNE; AND OTHERS

    SECONDARY SCHOOL SCIENCE EDUCATION RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED DURING 1963-65 ARE REVIEWED AND COMPARED WITH THOSE REVIEWED DURING 1961-63. TITLES OF 195 RESEARCH REPORTS WERE OBTAINED FROM PERIODICALS, SERIAL AND NONSERIAL BULLETINS, AND INDEXES. ABSTRACTS OF 125 DOCUMENTS WERE OBTAINED AND REVIEWED BY A COMMITTEE. THE STUDIES WERE CLASSIFIED AS

  5. Environmental Research Puts Science into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such

  6. Engineering and Applied Science, Recent Research Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate of Engineering and Applied Science.

    This collection contains abstracts of technical reports and journal articles resulting from research funded by the National Science Foundation. Included in the collection are abstracts arranged in several categories: (1) electrical, computer, and systems engineering; (2) civil and mechanical engineering; (3) applied research; (4) problem-focused…

  7. Social Science Research and the Modern State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt, Clark C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses how modern governments support and use social science research data to keep informed about social needs and the functions of various government programs. Questions what happens to the data and how government policy research influences policy formation. (Author/DB)

  8. Mutations in Soviet public health science: post-Lysenko medical genetics, 1969-1991.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Susanne

    2014-09-01

    This paper traces the integration of human genetics with Soviet public health science after the Lysenko era. For nearly three decades, USSR biology pursued its own version of anti-bourgeois, Soviet 'creative Darwinism', departing from western, post-WWII scientific developments. After Lysenko was suspended, research niches of immunology, biophysics and mutation research formed the basis of new departments at the Institute of Medical Genetics, which was founded in 1969 as part of the Soviet Academy of Medical Sciences. Focussing on early research activities and collaborations at the institute, I show how the concept of mutagenesis, a pivotal issue during the Cold War, became mobilized from Drosophila genetics to human heredity and to society as a whole. This mode of scaling up and down through population studies shaped not only Soviet human biology and genetics; it also brought about changes in clinical practice and public health as well as in the monitoring and regulation of mutagenic agents in the environment. PMID:24947269

  9. Medical technology advances from space research.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    NASA-sponsored medical R & D programs for space applications are reviewed with particular attention to the benefits of these programs to earthbound medical services and to the general public. Notable among the results of these NASA programs is an integrated medical laboratory equipped with numerous advanced systems such as digital biotelemetry and automatic visual field mapping systems, sponge electrode caps for electroencephalograms, and sophisticated respiratory analysis equipment.

  10. Medical student perceptions of a behavioural and social science curriculum

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In 2006, Oregon Health & Science University began implementing changes to better integrate mental health and social science into the curriculum by addressing the Institute of Medicine's (IOM's) 2004 recommendation for the inclusion of six behavioural and social science (BSS) domains: health policy and economics, patient behaviour, physician–patient interaction, mind–body interactions, physician role and behaviour, and social and cultural issues. Methods We conducted three focus groups with a purposive sample of 23 fourth-year medical students who were exposed to 4 years of the new curriculum. Students were asked to reflect upon the adequacy of their BSS training specifically as it related to the six IOM domains. The 90-minute focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analysed. Results Students felt the MS1 and MS2 years of the curriculum presented a strong didactic orientation to behavioural and social science precepts. However, they reported that these principles were not well integrated into clinical care during the second two years. Students identified three opportunities to further the inclusion of BSS in their clinical training: presentation of BSS concepts prior to relevant clinical exposure, consistent BSS skills mentoring in the clinical setting, and improving cultural congruence between aspects of BSS and biomedicine. Conclusions Students exposed to the revised BSS curriculum tend to value its principles; however, modelling and practical training in the application of these principles during the second two years of medical school are needed to reinforce this learning and demonstrate methods of integrating BSS principles into practice. PMID:23205062

  11. [Medical research in the US Armed Forces. Part 4].

    PubMed

    Agapitov, A A; Aleĭnikov, S I; Bolekhan, V N; Ivchenko, E V; Krassiĭ, A B; Nagibovich, O A; Petrov, S V; Rezvantsev, M V; Soldatov, E A; Shalakhin, R A; Sheppli, E V

    2013-01-01

    The present article is the fourth part of the review dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Armed Forces. The first, second and the third parts were published in the previous issues of the journal. Specifically this article is dedicated to organization and management of medical research in the US Navy. It is shown that in the US Navy the fundamental and a part of applied investigations are conducted in the Office of Naval Research while more practical research is carried out at the Naval Medical Research Center. The latter includes the Naval Health Research Center, the Naval Submarine Medical Research Laboratory and seven Naval Medical Research Units which are successively presented. The particular research programs conducted in the above mentioned organizations are discussed. PMID:23805629

  12. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  13. Tissue simulating gel for medical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Companion, John A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A tissue simulating gel and a method for preparing the tissue simulating gel are disclosed. The tissue simulating gel is prepared by a process using water, gelatin, ethylene glycol, and a cross-linking agent. In order to closely approximate the characteristics of the type of tissue being simulated, other material has been added to change the electrical, sound conducting, and wave scattering properties of the tissue simulating gel. The result of the entire process is a formulation that will not melt at the elevated temperatures involved in hyperthermia medical research. Furthermore, the tissue simulating gel will not support mold or bacterial growth, is of a sufficient mechanical strength to maintain a desired shape without a supporting shell, and is non-hardening and non-drying. Substances have been injected into the tissue simulating gel prior to the setting-up thereof just as they could be injected into actual tissue, and the tissue simulating gel is translucent so as to permit visual inspection of its interior. A polyurethane spray often used for coating circuit boards can be applied to the surface of the tissue simulating gel to give a texture similar to human skin, making the tissue simulating gel easier to handle and contributing to its longevity.

  14. 76 FR 64957 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

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  1. 78 FR 66369 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings

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  1. 76 FR 68486 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting

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  7. 78 FR 50427 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

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  8. 77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

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  10. Medical anthropology: toward a third moment in social science?

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    2001-12-01

    This article about medical anthropology was inspired by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, specifically, his efforts to reconcile the antinomy of a "social structuralist" and a "cultural constructivist" perspective. These perspectives are often opposed in the literature, but, in Bourdieu's view, human life cannot be studied without taking into account both how individuals are situated within and constrained by social structures and how those individuals construct an understanding of and impose meaning on the world around them. I argue that the special subject matter of medical anthropology--human health--demands that a synthetic approach be taken in our theory and research. I illustrate this argument with examples from my own research on social and cultural factors associated with blood pressure, and I point to other examples of this synthesis in medical anthropology. The results of this research hold promise for the continuing refinement of culture theory. PMID:11794870

  11. Global change research: Science and policy

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1993-05-01

    This report characterizes certain aspects of the Global Change Research Program of the US Government, and its relevance to the short and medium term needs of policy makers in the public and private sectors. It addresses some of the difficulties inherent in the science and policy interface on the issues of global change. Finally, this report offers some proposals for improving the science for policy process in the context of global environmental change.

  12. Molecular Science Research Center 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Molecular Science Research Center is a designated national user facility, available to scientists from universities, industry, and other national laboratories. After an opening section, which includes conferences hosted, appointments, and projects, this document presents progress in the following fields: chemical structure and dynamics; environmental dynamics and simulation; macromolecular structure and dynamics; materials and interfaces; theory, modeling, and simulation; and computing and information sciences. Appendices are included: MSRC staff and associates, 1992 publications and presentations, activities, and acronyms and abbreviations.

  13. Challenges of the Health Research System in a Medical Research Institute in Iran: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Momeni, Khalil; Ravangard, Ramin; Yaghoubi, Maryam; Alimohammadzadeh, Khalil; Teymourzadeh, Ehsan; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Medical research institute is the main basis for knowledge production through conducting research, and paying attention to the research is one of the most important things in the scientific communities. At present, there is a large gap between knowledge production in Iran compared to that in other countries. This study aimed to identify the challenge of research system in a research institute of medical sciences in Iran. Matherials and Methods: This was a descriptive and qualitative study conducted in the first 6 months of 2013. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on 16 heads of research centers in a research institute of medical sciences. The required data were gathered using semi-structured interviews. The collected data were analyzed using MAXQDA 10.0 software. Results: Six themes identified as challenges of research system. The themes included barriers related to the design and development, and approval of research projects, the implementation of research projects, the administrative and managerial issues in the field of research, the personal problems, publishing articles, and guidelines and recommendations. Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, the following suggestions can be offered: pushing the research towards solving the problems of society, employing the strong executive and scientific reseach directors in the field of research, providing training courses for researchers on how to write proposals, implementing administrative reforms in the Deputy of Research and Technology, accelerating the approval of the projects through automating the administrative and peer-reviewing processes. PMID:25560335

  14. Nuclear Medical Science Officers: Army Health Physicists Serving and Defending Their Country Around the Globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )

  15. Research interests of secondary science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabel, Dorothy L.; Samuel, K. V.; Helgeson, Stanley; Novak, Joseph; Butzow, John

    In the past few years, science educators and the nation at large have become increasingly concerned about the Crisis in Science Education. An underlying cause of this crisis is the nonuniform quality of instruction delivered by secondary science teachers. One way to improve the quality of teaching in the schools is the application of science education research findings to teaching. Most teachers are unaware of the research findings and/or do not apply them in their classrooms. This study helps determine the areas of research which are of greatest interest to secondary science teachers. Results will be used by NSTA to determine the contents of future volumes of the monograph What Research Says to the Science Teacher. A random sample of 600 secondary science teachers was obtained from the National Registry of NSTA. Teachers were sent a 23 item questionnaire that asked them to rate their interest in each research topic on a five point scale. The questionnaire contained the 12 items prepared by a NARST-NSTA committee in 1979 and an additional 11 items using the same format. Demographic data collected from the survey included sex, teaching assignment, role in school, type of school, type of community, years of teaching experience, and familiarity with What Research Says. Data were analyzed using this demographic data as well as according to whether teachers returned the original or a follow-up questionnaire. Teachers who returned the first questionnaire had basically the same preferences as those who returned the follow-up questionnaire. Sixty percent of the teachers completed the questionnaire in usable form. Overall results of the study based on both frequency of response and on mean rating indicate that the following five topics are of greatest interest to secondary science teachers: laboratory experiences, motivational techniques, effect on college courses, problem solving, and meaningful learning. Analysis of data according to the subject taught indicated that chemistry and physics teachers are more interested in problem solving than biology teachers, and that chemistry, physics, and earth science teachers are also interested in the sequence of the content. Males and females had the same top five interests but in a different order. The same is true for teachers of grades 7-9 versus grades 10-12. Rural teachers preferences varied substantially from those in other settings and differences were also found for teachers familiar with What Research Says compared to the rest of the sample. For every classification of teacher, the area of least interest was sex difference research.

  16. Regulatory Science in the Review of Drugs and Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Koide, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    The review of drugs and medical devices is an integral part of regulatory science. The Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) evaluates the efficacy, safety, and quality of drugs and medical devices after applications are submitted for regulatory approval. The products are approved when their benefits exceed their risks, i.e., an application is approved if the efficacy of the product in patients was demonstrated and the safety of the product is acceptable in view of its observed benefits. However, drugs and medical devices for which efficacy was not clearly demonstrated in clinical trials makes the decision to approve a difficult process. Under those circumstances, the approval process is based on the totality of information, such as the reason why clinical trials did not succeed and medical needs in Japan. The Wingspan stent system, which was approved for the treatment of intracranial arterial stenosis, is an example of a product with a use different from that intended by the US Food and Drug Administration and PMDA. PMID:27040338

  17. What are the implications of implementation science for medical education?

    PubMed Central

    Price, David W.; Wagner, Dianne P.; Krane, N. Kevin; Rougas, Steven C.; Lowitt, Nancy R.; Offodile, Regina S.; Easdown, L. Jane; Andrews, Mark A. W.; Kodner, Charles M.; Lypson, Monica; Barnes, Barbara E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Derived from multiple disciplines and established in industries outside of medicine, Implementation Science (IS) seeks to move evidence-based approaches into widespread use to enable improved outcomes to be realized as quickly as possible by as many as possible. Methods This review highlights selected IS theories and models, chosen based on the experience of the authors, that could be used to plan and deliver medical education activities to help learners better implement and sustain new knowledge and skills in their work settings. Results IS models, theories and approaches can help medical educators promote and determine their success in achieving desired learner outcomes. We discuss the importance of incorporating IS into the training of individuals, teams, and organizations, and employing IS across the medical education continuum. Challenges and specific strategies for the application of IS in educational settings are also discussed. Conclusions Utilizing IS in medical education can help us better achieve changes in competence, performance, and patient outcomes. IS should be incorporated into curricula across disciplines and across the continuum of medical education to facilitate implementation of learning. Educators should start by selecting, applying, and evaluating the teaching and patient care impact one or two IS strategies in their work. PMID:25911282

  18. Materials science research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H.

    1992-01-01

    There are several important attributes of an extended duration microgravity environment that offer a new dimension in the control of the microstructure, processing, and properties of materials. First, when gravitational effects are minimized, buoyancy driven convection flows are also minimized. The flows due to density differences, brought about either by composition or temperature gradients will then be reduced or eliminated to permit a more precise control of the temperature and the composition of a melt which is critical in achieving high quality crystal growth of electronic materials or alloy structures. Secondly, body force effects such as sedimentation, hydrostatic pressure, and deformation are similarly reduced. These effects may interfere with attempts to produce uniformly dispersed or aligned second phases during melt solidification. Thirdly, operating in a microgravity environment will facilitate the containerless processing of melts to eliminate the limitations of containment for reactive melts. The noncontacting forces such as those developed from electromagnet, electrostatic, or acoustic fields can be used to position samples. With this mode of operation, contamination can be minimized to enable the study of reactive melts and to eliminate extraneous crystal nucleation so that novel crystalline structures and new glass compositions may be produced. In order to take advantage of the microgravity environment for materials research, it has become clear that reliable processing models based on a sound ground based experimental experience and an established thermophysical property data base are essential.

  19. New Paradigms in Translational Science Research in Cancer Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Paul D.; Srivastava, Sudhir

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investments in basic science by the US National Institutes of Health, there is a concern that the return on this investment has been limited in terms of clinical utility. In the field of biomarkers, translational research is used to bridge the gap between the results of basic research that identify biomolecules involved in or the consequence of carcinogenesis and their incorporation into medical application. The cultural separation between different scientific disciplines often makes it difficult to establish the multidisciplinary and multi-skilled teams that are necessary for successful translational research. The field of biomarker research requires extensive interactions between academic researchers and industrial developers, and clinicians are needed to help shape the research direction that can only be addressed by multi-disciplinary, multi-institutional approach. In this article, we provide our perspective on the relatively slow pace of cancer biomarker translation, especially those for early detection and screening. PMID:22424436

  20. Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Trinh, E H

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. PMID:14649258

  1. Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

    2010-01-01

    This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of "International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education" from 1990 to 2007. The…

  2. Measuring the returns to NASA life sciences research and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertzfeld, Henry R.

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has invested in R&D in the life sciences for forty years. The thrust of this investment has been directed toward the support of human beings in space flight and in space activities. There are many documented examples of beneficial services and products now used in everyday life and medical practice that can be traced to origins in the R&D of the space program. However, a framework for quantitatively documenting, characterizing, and analyzing these public benefits has eluded researchers. This paper will present the results of a pilot project that includes the development of a methodology for assessing the economic benefits from NASA life sciences R&D and for realistically evaluating the financial leverage that private companies which are either involved in NASA R&D or which have ``bootstrapped'' NASA R&D into commercial products have realized. The results will show that the NASA life sciences investments are more engineering oriented, and more typically show results in the fields of instrumentation and medical devices. This is substantially different in nature from the focus of the National Institutes of Health, which is organized around the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The appropriate measures of benefits for engineering-oriented products are economic parameters that focus on capital equipment. NIH benefits are more typically measured by human labor parameters, including the much more difficult to quantify measures of the quality and delivery of medical services. Although there is tremendous overlap in the goals and outputs of NASA life sciences and NIH investments, and NASA R&D is also very concerned with human beings and the quality of life, NIH is the overwhelming large source of life sciences R&D funds in the US. NASA has a special niche in life sciences R&D that supports the NASA mission as well as overall research issues in the life sciences. This paper evaluates the economic benefits of NASA's life sciences from the perspective of its special role, and presents evidence of the types of returns to the economy that have occurred from a sample of successful research efforts.

  3. Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert L., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

  4. [Cardiology was born with the modern medical science].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Modern medical science was born in the post-Renaissance age and began to consolidate towards the middle of the XVII century thanks to physicists, physiologists and biologists, most of whom were direct or indirect pupils of Galileo. The discovery of blood circulation by Harvey is now considered the only progress in physiology at the beginning of the XVII century, comparable to the current advances seen in physical sciences. The history of this exploit could be written from view point of the progressive advance in knowledge. In his experiments, Harvey referred to the authentic not imaginary experiments, and put forward irrefutable quantitative arguments. We can therefore claim that his discovery of blood circulation was the first proper explanation of an organic process and the starting point leading to experimental physiology. So it seems justified to assert that modern medical science did not all rise suddenly, but was gradually structured starting from the middle of the XVII century following the path traced by William Harvey in light of Galileo's thought. PMID:25554458

  5. [Ocean and bio-medical research].

    PubMed

    Boeuf, par Gilles

    2007-01-01

    On the Planet Earth, oceans and seas today correspond to the largest volume offered to Life. Roughly, 275,000 species have been described from marine environments, only representing some 15% of all the present known living. But marine biomass can be enormous. Life appeared in the ancestral ocean 3 800 million years ago and determining events occurred there: appearance of the nuclear membrane and cell nucleus, "pluricellularity", capture of bacteria transformed into organelles, then sexuality. On the 33 phyla existing today on the Earth, 12 never have left the ocean and are exclusively marine. Such biodiversity, archaism of characters, organisational and behavioural patterns make these marine organisms an excellent reservoir for identifying and extracting very interesting pharmacological and cosmetic molecules (>5 000 today) and/or to represent very pertinent "models" for basic and applied research. Relationships between ocean and public health are physical, chemical, biological and physiological. A few marine species as "models" set the base for major advances in life sciences recognized by several Nobel Prices: from the discovery of phagocytosis to anaphylactic shock, and including nervous influx transmission, memory molecular bases, cyclins discovery, eye organisation, neurotransmitter membrane receptors, bases of the specific immune system... These marine models are very useful to understand the origin and functioning of important living mechanisms in the human and sometimes to deduce applications for efficient treatments. Ocean supplies mankind with renewable living resources, much threatened today. We have to manage and protect these to maintain ecosystems, stocks and biodiversity. Only because of the greenhouse effect and anthropic emissions, temperature is globally increasing: and, what if (tomorrow?) one million species would disappear (before 2050) because of global warming? PMID:17762819

  6. Community centrality and social science research

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  7. Community centrality and social science research.

    PubMed

    Allman, Dan

    2015-12-01

    Community centrality is a growing requirement of social science. The field's research practices are increasingly expected to conform to prescribed relationships with the people studied. Expectations about community centrality influence scholarly activities. These expectations can pressure social scientists to adhere to models of community involvement that are immediate and that include community-based co-investigators, advisory boards, and liaisons. In this context, disregarding community centrality can be interpreted as failure. This paper considers evolving norms about the centrality of community in social science. It problematises community inclusion and discusses concerns about the impact of community centrality on incremental theory development, academic integrity, freedom of speech, and the value of liberal versus communitarian knowledge. Through the application of a constructivist approach, this paper argues that social science in which community is omitted or on the periphery is not failed science, because not all social science requires a community base to make a genuine and valuable contribution. The utility of community centrality is not necessarily universal across all social science pursuits. The practices of knowing within social science disciplines may be difficult to transfer to a community. These practices of knowing require degrees of specialisation and interest that not all communities may want or have. PMID:26440071

  8. Education and research in medical optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demongeot, Jacques; Fleute, M.; Herve, T.; Lavallee, Stephane

    2000-06-01

    First we present here the main post-graduate courses proposed in France both for physicians and engineers in medical optronics. After we explain which medical domains are concerned by this teaching, essentially computer assisted surgery, telemedicine and functional exploration. Then we show the main research axes in these fields, in which new jobs have to be invented and new educational approaches have to be prepared in order to satisfy the demand coming both from hospitals (mainly referent hospitals) and from industry (essentially medical imaging and instrumentation companies). Finally we will conclude that medical optronics is an important step in an entire chain of acquisition and processing of medical data, capable to create the medical knowledge a surgeon or a physician needs for diagnosis or therapy purposes. Optimizing the teaching of medical optronics needs a complete integration from acquiring to modeling the medical reality. This tendency to give a holistic education in medical imaging and instrumentation is called `Model driven Acquisition' learning.

  9. Quality of publication ethics in the instructions to the authors of Iranian journals of medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Salamat, Fatemeh; Sobhani, Abdol-Rasoul; Mallaei, Mahin

    2013-03-01

    Providing a perfect instruction to authors can prevent most potential publication ethics errors. This study was conducted to determine the quality of ethical considerations in the instructions to the authors of Iranian research scientific journals of medical sciences (accredited by the Commission for Accreditation and Improvement of Iranian Medical Journals) in October 2011. Checklist items (n=15) were extracted from the national manual of ethics in medical research publications, and the validity of the manual of ethics was assessed. All the accredited Iranian journals of medical sciences (n=198) were entered into the study. The instructions to the authors of 160 accredited Iranian journals were available online and were reviewed. The ANOVA and Kendall Correlation coefficient were performed to analyze the results. A total of 76 (47.5%) of the 160 journals were in English and 84 (52.5%) were in Farsi. The most frequently mentioned items related to publication ethics comprised "commitment not to send manuscripts to other journals and re-publish manuscripts" (85%, 83.8%), "aim and scope" of the journal (81.9%), "principles of medical ethics in the use of human samples" (74.4%), and "review process" (74.4%). On the other hand, the items of "principles of advertising" (1.2%), "authorship criteria" (15%), and "integrity in publication of clinical trial results" (30.6%) were the least frequently mentioned ones. Based on the study findings, the quality of publication ethics, as instructed to the authors, can improve the quality of the journals. PMID:23645959

  10. Radiology, physical science, and the emergence of medical physics.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M; Trott, N G

    1995-11-01

    The early development of medical physics as a separate discipline and profession is briefly reviewed. Although both x rays and radioactivity were discovered by physicists, at first the physical investigations of these phenomena, and their medical applications, proceeded along parallel but independent lines. Radiological journals were founded in Britain, Germany, and the U.S. as early as 1896-1897 but it was not until ten years later that papers on radiation physics began to appear regularly. In 1913 the first full-time physicists were appointed to posts in medical schools and hospitals: William Duane in the U.S. and Sydney Russ in Britain. Thereafter the number of physicists engaged in medical applications increased slowly but steadily, and in the 1920s they began to apply the new science of radiation dosimetry to both x ray and radium therapy. The "Hospital Physicists' Association" was founded in Britain in 1943 with 53 members and the "American Association of Physicists in Medicine" followed in 1958 with 127 charter members. PMID:8587542

  11. Interpreting chronic disorders of consciousness: medical science and family experience

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, Andrew; Kitzinger, Celia; Kitzinger, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Rationale, aims and objectives Chronic disorders of consciousness (CDoC) pose significant problems of understanding for both medical professionals and the relatives and friends of the patient. This paper explores the tensions between the different interpretative resources that are drawn upon by lay people and professionals in their response to CDoC. Methods A philosophical analysis of data from 51 interviews with people who have relatives who are (or have been) in a vegetative or minimally conscious state. Results The medical specialist and the lay person tend to draw on two different interpretative frameworks: a medical science framework, which tends to construct the patient in terms of measurable physical parameters, and an interpretative framework that encompasses the uniqueness of the patient and the relative's relationship to them as a social being. Conclusions These differences potentially lead to ruptures in communication between medical professionals and relatives such that that an increased self-consciousness of the framing assumptions being made will facilitate communication and enrich understanding of CDoCs. PMID:24995490

  12. Life-sciences research opportunities in commercial suborbital space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2014-11-01

    Commercial suborbital space flights will reach altitudes above 100 km, with 3-5 min of weightlessness bracketed by high-g launch and landing phases. The proposed frequency of these flights, and the large passenger population, present interesting opportunities for researchers in the life sciences. The characteristics of suborbital flight are between those of parabolic and orbital flights, opening up new scientific possibilities and easing the burden for obtaining access to 0g. There are several areas where these flights might be used for research in the life sciences: (1) operational research: preparation for “real” space flight, such as rehearsal of medical procedures, (2) applied research-to answer questions relevant to long-term space flight; (3) passenger health and safety-effects on passengers, relevant to screening and training; (4) basic research in physiological mechanisms-to address issues of fundamental science. We describe possible projects in each of these categories. One in particular spans several areas. Based on the anticipated suborbital flight profiles, observations from parabolic flight, and the wide range of fitness and experience levels of suborbital passengers, sensorimotor disturbances such as motion sickness and disorientation are major concerns. Protocols for pre-flight adaptation of sensorimotor responses might help to alleviate some of these problems, based on results from research in the initial flights. This would improve the passenger experience and add to the knowledge base relevant to space flight more generally.

  13. Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Erin

    2010-01-01

    This feature is designed to point readers of this journal to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may be accessible at the indicated URL…

  14. Focus areas of cardiovascular medical device research in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Chimhundu, Chipo; De Jager, Kylie; Douglas, Tania S

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the focus of cardiovascular medical device research in South Africa over the 15-year period 2000 - 2014. Information drawn from journal articles was used for the analysis, with attention to articles describing a contribution to the development of a cardiovascular medical device, or a new application of an existing device. The findings suggest that research has focused on diagnostic and monitoring as well as prosthetic cardiovascular medical devices, with specific emphasis on vascular and valvular heart diseases. PMID:26792307

  15. Evaluation of medical research performance – position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF)

    PubMed Central

    Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H.; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists’ careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. Methods: During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. Results: The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific “impact” rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. Conclusions: With the explicit recommendations presented in the current position paper, the AWMF suggests enhancements to the practice of evaluating medical research performance by faculties, ministries and research funding organizations. PMID:24971044

  16. Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

  17. Medical students' attitudes towards science and gross anatomy, and the relationship to personality

    PubMed Central

    Plaisant, Odile; Stephens, Shiby; Apaydin, Nihal; Courtois, Robert; Lignier, Baptiste; Loukas, Marios; Moxham, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of the personalities of medical students can enable medical educators to formulate strategies for the best development of academic and clinical competencies. Previous research has shown that medical students do not share a common personality profile, there being gender differences. We have also shown that, for French medical students, students with personality traits associated with strong competitiveness are selected for admission to medical school. In this study, we further show that the medical students have different personality profiles compared with other student groups (psychology and business studies). The main purpose of the present investigation was to assess attitudes to science and gross anatomy, and to relate these to the students' personalities. Questionnaires (including Thurstone and Chave analyses) were employed to measure attitudes, and personality was assessed using the Big Five Inventory (BFI). Data for attitudes were obtained for students at medical schools in Cardiff (UK), Paris, Descartes/Sorbonne (France), St George's University (Grenada) and Ankara (Turkey). Data obtained from personality tests were available for analysis from the Parisian cohort of students. Although the medical students were found to have strongly supportive views concerning the importance of science in medicine, their knowledge of the scientific method/philosophy of science was poor. Following analyses of the BFI in the French students, ‘openness’ and ‘conscientiousness’ were linked statistically with a positive attitude towards science. For anatomy, again strongly supportive views concerning the subject's importance in medicine were discerned. Analyses of the BFI in the French students did not show links statistically between personality profiles and attitudes towards gross anatomy, except male students with ‘negative affectivity’ showed less appreciation of the importance of anatomy. This contrasts with our earlier studies that showed that there is a relationship between the BF dimensions of personality traits and anxiety towards the dissection room experience (at the start of the course, ‘negative emotionality’ was related to an increased level of anxiety). We conclude that medical students agree on the importance to their studies of both science in general and gross anatomy in particular, and that some personality traits relate to their attitudes that could affect clinical competence. PMID:23594196

  18. Scientometric Analysis of the Journals of the Academy of Medical Sciences in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet; Begic, Edin; Zunic, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Currently in Bosnia and Herzegovina there are 25 journals in the field of biomedicine, 6 of them are indexed in Medline/PubMed base (Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica, Acta Informatica Medica, Acta Medica Academica, Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences (BJBMS) and Medical Glasnik), and one (BJBMS) is indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE)/Web of Science base. Aim: The aim of this study was to show the scope of work of the journals that were published by Academy of Medical Sciences of Bosnia and Herzegovina - Medical Archives, Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica. Material and Methods: The research presents a meta-analysis of three journals, or their issues, during the calendar year 2015 (retrospective and descriptive character). Results: During 2015 calendar year a total of 286 articles were published (in Medical Archives 104 (36.3%), in Materia Socio-Medica 99 (34.6%), and in Acta Informatica Medica 83 (29%)). Original articles are present in the highest number in all three journals (in Medical Archives 80.7%, in Materia Socio Medica 77.7%, and in Acta Informatica Medica 68.6%). In Medical Archives, 90.3% of the articles were related to the field of clinical medicine. In Materia Socio-Medica, the domain of clinical medicine and public health was the most represented. Preclinical areas are most frequent in Acta Informatica Medica. The period of 50-60 days for a decision on the admission of article is most common in all three journals, with trend of shortening of that period. Articles came from 19 countries, mostly from Bosnia and Herzegovina, then from Iran, Kosovo, Saudi Arabia and Greece. Conclusion: In Medical Archives original articles in the field of clinical medicine (usually internal and surgical disciplines) are most often present, and that is the case in last four years. The number of articles in Materia Socio-Medica and Acta Informatica Medica is growing from year to year. In Materia Socio-Medica there is a trend of growth of articles in the field of public health, while the most common articles in Acta Informatica Medica are about medical informatics. PMID:27041805

  19. Rate of Medical Errors in Affiliated Hospitals of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni; Mardanshahi, Alireza; Ranjbar, Mansour; Siamian, Hasan; Azar, Masoud Shayeste; Asghari, Zolikah; Motamed, Nima

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health care organizations are highly specialized and complex. Thus we may expect the adverse events will inevitably occur. Building a medical error reporting system to analyze the reported preventable adverse events and learn from their results can help to prevent the repeat of these events. The medical errors which were reported to the Clinical Governance’s office of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (MazUMS) in years 2011-2012 were analyzed. Methods and Materials: This is a descriptive retrospective study in which 18 public hospitals were participated. The instrument of data collection was checklist that was designed by the Ministry of Health of Iran. Variables were type of hospital, unit of hospital, season, severity of event and type of error. The data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: Of 317966 admissions 182 cases, about 0.06%, medical error reported of which most of the reports (%51.6) were from non- teaching hospitals. Among various units of hospital, the highest frequency of medical error was related to surgical unit (%42.3). The frequency of medical error according to the type of error was also evaluated of which the highest frequency was related to inappropriate and no care (totally 37%) and medication error 28%. We also analyzed the data with respect to the effect of the error on a patient of which the highest frequency was related to minor effect (44.5%). Conclusion: The results showed that a wide variety of errors. Encourage and revision of the reporting process will be result to know more data for prevention of them. PMID:25870528

  20. Policy Sciences in Water Resources Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, Ronald G.

    1984-07-01

    As the newly appointed Policy Sciences Editor for this journal, I would like to take this opportunity to introduce myself to WRR's readership as well as to offer a few comments concerning my views of policy sciences in water resources research. I am an economist working in the area of natural resources and environmental management. As such, I've spent a good part of my research career working with noneconomists. During 1969-1972, I worked in Mexico with hydrologists and engineers from Mexico's Water Resources Ministry in efforts to assess management/investment programs for reservoir systems and systems for interbasin water transfers. Between 1972 and 1975, while serving as Chairman of the Department of Resource Economics at the University of Rhode Island, my research involved collaborative efforts with biologists and soil scientists in studies concerning the conjunctive management of reservoirs for agricultural and lagoon systems and the control of salinity levels in soils and aquifers. Since 1975, at which time I joined the faculty at the University of New Mexico, I have worked with engineers at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in developing operation/management models for hot, dry rock geothermal systems and, more recently, with legal scholars and hydrologists in analyses of water rights issues. Thus I am comfortable with and appreciative of research conducted by my colleagues in systems engineering, operations research, and hydrology, as well as those in economics, law, and other social sciences.

  1. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101830, and TBD).

  2. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Here the transparent furnace is extracted for servicing. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  3. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  4. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  5. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

  6. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. A larger image is available without labels (No. 0101755).

  7. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830).

  8. Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, and TBD). This composite is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  9. Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences

    SciTech Connect

    HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

    1999-10-11

    Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

  10. How Does Iranian's Legal System Protect Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity in Medical Research?

    PubMed

    Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2011-04-01

    The astonishing advance of medical science in recent decades has had endless advantages for humans, including improved level of health, prevention of disease and advances in treatment. These advances depend to a great extent on conducting continuous research. However, besides its enormous advantages, the sole interest of medical science undermines the principles of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity, in both positive and negative approaches. The positive approach refers to the people who participate in research and practice, while the negative approach refers to people who are deprived of research and practice. The authors of this work, based on legal or moral grounds try to analyse the tension between the principle of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity and the interest of medical science. Undoubtedly, in applying scientific knowledge and medical practice human vulnerability should be taken into account. In this regard, especially vulnerable individuals and groups should be protected and the personal integrity of such individuals respected. In the light of the merits of Islamic law, this paper is designed to examine the significance of the principles of human vulnerability and personal integrity in medical research by studying the international documents as formalised by UNESCO in order to explore the place of these principles in the Iranian legal system. PMID:23408269

  11. Launch vouchers for space science research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1989-01-01

    Recent national space policy proposes the use of space transportation vouchers to increase opportunities for space-based science research and to support the U.S. space transportation industry. Vouchers issued and financially backed by the government would be given to researchers for redemption on any mode of space transportation. This paper examines the economic costs and benefits of vouchers; incentive-based strategies for effective program design; and areas where the voucher scheme is weak. It is concluded that, under plausible assumptions, vouchers may well be a cost-effective way to achieve near-term space transportation for space research payloads.

  12. Citation analysis in journal rankings: medical informatics in the library and information science literature.

    PubMed

    Vishwanatham, R

    1998-10-01

    Medical informatics is an interdisciplinary field. Medical informatics articles will be found in the literature of various disciplines including library and information science publications. The purpose of this study was to provide an objectively ranked list of journals that publish medical informatics articles relevant to library and information science. Library Literature, Library and Information Science Abstracts, and Social Science Citation Index were used to identify articles published on the topic of medical informatics and to identify a ranked list of journals. This study also used citation analysis to identify the most frequently cited journals relevant to library and information science. PMID:9803294

  13. Citation analysis in journal rankings: medical informatics in the library and information science literature.

    PubMed Central

    Vishwanatham, R

    1998-01-01

    Medical informatics is an interdisciplinary field. Medical informatics articles will be found in the literature of various disciplines including library and information science publications. The purpose of this study was to provide an objectively ranked list of journals that publish medical informatics articles relevant to library and information science. Library Literature, Library and Information Science Abstracts, and Social Science Citation Index were used to identify articles published on the topic of medical informatics and to identify a ranked list of journals. This study also used citation analysis to identify the most frequently cited journals relevant to library and information science. PMID:9803294

  14. Yes, no, or perhaps: reflections on Swedish human science nursing research development.

    PubMed

    Willman, Ania; Stoltz, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This article attempts to describe and analyze whether Swedish nursing research development belongs in a human science perspective. Traditionally, nursing in Sweden has been taught and practiced as a medical science, however another worldview seems to characterize Swedish nursing research today. This trend was identified through a study of the latest Swedish theoretical developments, in comparison with different international standpoints and views on the human science perspective. The conclusion is that Swedish nursing research is developing toward, and perhaps belongs in, a human science nursing perspective. PMID:11873476

  15. Undergraduate Science Research: A Comparison of Influences and Experiences between Premed and Non-Premed Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacifici, Lara Brongo; Thomson, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Most students participating in science undergraduate research (UR) plan to attend either medical school or graduate school. This study examines possible differences between premed and non-premed students in their influences to do research and expectations of research. Questionnaire responses from 55 premed students and 80 non-premed students were…

  16. [The Pangenetic theory in the tradition of Greek medical science].

    PubMed

    Imai, Masahiro

    2009-01-01

    The Pangenetic theory which holds that sperm comes from all the body seems to have been one of the most remarkable doctrines in Greek biology in the fifth and fourth centuries BC, since Aristotle gives a detailed description of the theory and criticizes it severely. The main sources of information about the Pangenetic theory are several medical treatises in the Hippocratic Corpus. There are only some mentions of it in the extant fragments ascribed to Democritus. It would be probable, therefore, that the theory had the origin of its theoretical form in the tradition of Greek medical science, and then came to the focus of attention among the Presocratic philosophers. Some scholars, on the other hand, claim that Democritus had a decisive role in the formation and development of the theory, which was then taken over by the Hippocratic doctors in their attempt to give a systematic explanation for some of the important genetic issues, such as the inheritance of similarities from parents to their children. It must be kept in mind, however, that Hippocratic doctors thought of particular fluids or humours with their inherent powers (delta upsilon nu alpha mu epsilon iotas) as the essential constituents of human body. This fact leads us to have an idea that the doctors had a completely different view of matter from the corpuscular theory, although Lesky (1950) and Lonie (1981) assume them to have been almost dependent on the atomism of Democritus. We can conclude that the Pangenetic theory came originally from Greek medical science, and then developed into the most influential doctrine before Aristotle. PMID:19824316

  17. Privacy, public safety, and medical research.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Margaret G E

    2005-02-01

    The increasing storage of vast amounts of information on computers and the rapidly increasing size of the databases stored on-line has the population and even many politicians worried about invasion of privacy. This paper examines some possible ways in which privacy may be invaded by the use of medical databases particularly during analysis and publication of results. The current literature is examined to reveal current practices. PMID:15839334

  18. The (human) science of medical virtual learning environments

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    The uptake of virtual simulation technologies in both military and civilian surgical contexts has been both slow and patchy. The failure of the virtual reality community in the 1990s and early 2000s to deliver affordable and accessible training systems stems not only from an obsessive quest to develop the ‘ultimate’ in so-called ‘immersive’ hardware solutions, from head-mounted displays to large-scale projection theatres, but also from a comprehensive lack of attention to the needs of the end users. While many still perceive the science of simulation to be defined by technological advances, such as computing power, specialized graphics hardware, advanced interactive controllers, displays and so on, the true science underpinning simulation—the science that helps to guarantee the transfer of skills from the simulated to the real—is that of human factors, a well-established discipline that focuses on the abilities and limitations of the end user when designing interactive systems, as opposed to the more commercially explicit components of technology. Based on three surgical simulation case studies, the importance of a human factors approach to the design of appropriate simulation content and interactive hardware for medical simulation is illustrated. The studies demonstrate that it is unnecessary to pursue real-world fidelity in all instances in order to achieve psychological fidelity—the degree to which the simulated tasks reproduce and foster knowledge, skills and behaviours that can be reliably transferred to real-world training applications. PMID:21149363

  19. Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barsten, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) conducts and coordinates research projects that provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Program is divided into 6 major elements, which a) Provide the Program s knowledge and capabilities to conduct research, addressing the human health and performance risks. b) Advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures to the point of transfer to the customer programs and organizations. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is a partner with the HRP in developing a successful research program. 3

  20. Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

    1994-01-01

    The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

  1. Life sciences research using a lunar laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cipriano, Leonard F.; Ballard, Rodney W.

    1990-01-01

    The necessity for life sciences research on the lunar surface in order to determine the consequences of returning from extended missions in various low gravity environments and of transiting through high multiple gravity forces during decelerations is discussed. The functions of a lunar gravitational biology laboratory are outlined. Lunar science objectives include investigations in developmental biology including the evaluation of the capacity of diverse organisms to undergo normal development and the evaluation of the use of the lunar environment to study specific developmental phenomena in ways that cannot be accomplished by earth-based research. The need for musculoskeletal studies to examine the dynamics of osteoclast and osteoblast formation and breakdown and to address bone and demineralization problems is discussed. Biological adaptation to hypogravic environments and the effects of radiation and electromagnetic environmental factors are also considered.

  2. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

    1987-01-01

    Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

  3. Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2000-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, and visiting scientist programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA information technology research communities.

  4. [Research groups in biomedical sciences. Some recommendations].

    PubMed

    Cardona, Ricardo; Sánchez, Jorge; Sánchez, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Despite the growing number of scientific publications reflecting a greater number of people interested in the biomedical sciences, many research groups disappear secondary to poor internal organization. From the review of the available literature, we generate a series of recommendations that may be useful for the creation of a research group or to improve the productivity of an existing group. Fluid communication between its members with a common overall policy framework allows the creation of a good foundation that will lead to the consolidation of the group. PMID:26239332

  5. Information Science Research Institute: 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, K.O.; Cray, R.

    1994-09-01

    This is a second annual research report of the UNLV Information Science Research Institute. It includes the annual OCR Technology Assessment test results and gives an overview of other ISRI projects. In the Assessment test the relationship between character accuracy and page quality, skew, resolution, and font features is investigated. Measures of significance to text retrieval applications are presented. Two voting systems were tested, both able to correct large percentages of OCR errors but limited when processing degraded text. A new version of ISRI experimental tools used to test foreign language OCR systems is introduced. An overview of the interest in the relationship between OCR accuracy and retrieval effectiveness is also presented.

  6. Metafunctional Practices in Medical Research Articles: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assadi, Nader; Ghassemi, Mojtaba; Madadi, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore any possible difference among the verb types chosen in articles written in English by the non-natives and natives. In so doing, Halliday's Systemic Functional Grammar (1994) was employed. 80 published articles from the medical sciences field of study were chosen from among which 40 were written by native…

  7. In search of the soul in science: medical ethics' appropriation of philosophy of science in the 1970s.

    PubMed

    Aronova, Elena

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the deployment of science studies within the field of medical ethics. For a short time, the discourse of medical ethics became a fertile ground for a dialogue between philosophically minded bioethicists and the philosophers of science who responded to Thomas Kuhn's challenge. In their discussion of the validity of Kuhn's work, these bioethicists suggested a distinct interpretation of Kuhn, emphasizing the elements in his account that had been independently developed by Michael Polanyi, and propelling a view of science that retreated from idealizations of scientific method without sacrificing philosophical realism. Appropriating Polanyi, they extended his account of science to biology and medicine. The contribution of Karl Popper to the debate on the applicability of philosophy of science to the issues of medical ethics provides the opportunity to discuss the ways in which political agendas of different epistemologies of science intertwined with questions of concern to medical ethics. PMID:19835265

  8. What Is Medical Education Here Really Like? Suggestions for Action Research Studies of Climates of Medical Education Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genn, J. M.; Harden, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews how medical teachers can assess the climate or overall ambience of their medical education environment. Suggests climate research studies that medical teachers might undertake. Presents some methodologies that might be employed in such studies. Promotes action research by medical teachers to improve the quality of medical education. (TW)

  9. Research Experiences in Community College Science Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauregard, A.

    2011-12-01

    The benefits of student access to scientific research opportunities and the use of data in curriculum and student inquiry-driven approaches to teaching as effective tools in science instruction are compelling (i.e., Ledley, et al., 2008; Gawel & Greengrove, 2005; Macdonald, et al., 2005; Harnik & Ross. 2003). Unfortunately, these experiences are traditionally limited at community colleges due to heavy faculty teaching loads, a focus on teaching over research, and scarce departmental funds. Without such hands-on learning activities, instructors may find it difficult to stimulate excitement about science in their students, who are typically non-major and nontraditional. I present two different approaches for effectively incorporating research into the community college setting that each rely on partnerships with other institutions. The first of these is a more traditional approach for providing research experiences to undergraduate students, though such experiences are limited at community colleges, and involves student interns working on a research project under the supervision of a faculty member. Specifically, students participate in a water quality assessment study of two local bayous. Students work on different aspects of the project, including water sample collection, bio-assay incubation experiments, water quality sample analysis, and collection and identification of phytoplankton. Over the past four years, nine community college students, as well as two undergraduate students and four graduate students from the local four-year university have participated in this research project. Aligning student and faculty research provides community college students with the unique opportunity to participate in the process of active science and contribute to "real" scientific research. Because students are working in a local watershed, these field experiences provide a valuable "place-based" educational opportunity. The second approach links cutting-edge oceanographic research with my community college students by partnering with a research oceanographer. Through this partnership, students have had access to an active oceanographic researcher through classroom visits, use of data in curriculum, and research/cruise progress updates. With very little research activity currently going on at the community college, this "window" into scientific research is invaluable. Another important aspect of this project is the development of a summer internship program that has allowed four community college students to work directly with an oceanographer in her lab for ten weeks. This connection of community college students with world-class scientists in the field promotes better understanding of research and potentially may encourage more students to major in the sciences. In either approach, the interaction with scientists at different stages of their careers, from undergraduate and graduate students at universities to post docs and research scientists, also provides community college students with the opportunity to gain insight into possible career pathways. For both majors and non-majors, a key outcome of such experiences will be gaining experience in using inquiry and reasoning through the scientific method and becoming comfortable with data and technology.

  10. Chemistry and materials science research report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-05-31

    The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

  11. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…

  12. Teaching Medical Students Basic Neurotransmitter Pharmacology Using Primary Research Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We

  13. Information-seeking behavior of cardiovascular disease patients in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Maryam; Soleymani, Mohammad Reza; Afshar, Mina; Shahrzadi, Leila; Zadeh, Akbar Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients, as one of the most prominent groups requiring health-based information, encounter numerous problems in order to obtain these pieces of information and apply them. The aim of this study was to determine the information-seeking behavior of cardiovascular patients who were hospitalized in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences hospitals. Materials and Methods: This is a survey research. The population consisted of all patients with cardiovascular disease who were hospitalized in the hospitals of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2012. According to the statistics, the number of patients was 6000. The sample size was determined based on the formula of Cochran; 400 patients were randomly selected. Data were collected by researcher-made questionnaire. Two-level descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were used for analysis. Results: The data showed that the awareness of the probability to recover and finding appropriate medical care centers were the most significant informational needs. The practitioners, television, and radio were used more than the other informational resources. Lack of familiarity to medical terminologies and unaccountability of medical staff were the major obstacles faced by the patients to obtain information. The results also showed that there was no significant relationship between the patients’ gender and information-seeking behavior, whereas there was a significant relationship between the demographic features (age, education, place of residence) and information-seeking behavior. Conclusion: Giving information about health to the patients can help them to control their disease. Appropriate methods and ways should be used based on patients’ willingness. Despite the variety of information resources, patients expressed medical staff as the best source for getting health information. Information-seeking behavior of the patients was found to be influenced by different demographic and environmental factors. PMID:25250349

  14. [Promoting research in a medical center--the management narrative].

    PubMed

    Halevy, Jonathan; Turner, Dan

    2014-12-01

    Promoting research within a medical institute is a delicate balance between the importance of facilitating academia and maximizing resources towards the primary goal of a hospital--healing sick people. Shaare Zedek Medical Center have successfully adopted a "niche" approach to research in which the hospital invests in selected talented clinicians-scientists rather than futile expectation that all clinicians would be engaged in high impact research. Moreover, these research excellence centers are developing into a driving force to also foster research endeavors of other clinicians and residents in the hospital. In this special issue of Harefuah honoring Shaare Zedek investigators, 18 manuscripts included reflect the diversity of research projects performed in the medical center. We believe that this project will assist and encourage clinicians to be engaged in research, at all levels and disciplines. PMID:25654907

  15. Redefining Quality in Medical Education Research: A Consumer's View

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Gail M.; Simpson, Deborah; Cook, David A.; DeIorio, Nicole M.; Andolsek, Kathryn; Opas, Lawrence; Philibert, Ingrid; Yarris, Lalena M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite an explosion of medical education research and publications, it is not known how medical educator consumers decide what to read or apply in their practice. Objective To determine how consumers of medical education research define quality and value. Methods Journal of Graduate Medical Education editors performed a literature search to identify articles on medical education research quality published between 2000 and 2013, surveyed medical educators for their criteria for judging quality, and led a consensus-building workshop at a 2013 Association of American Medical Colleges meeting to further explore how users defined quality in education research. The workshop used standard consensus-building techniques to reach concept saturation. Attendees then voted for the 3 concepts they valued most in medical education research. Results The 110 survey responses generated a list of 37 overlapping features in 10 categories considered important aspects of quality. The literature search yielded 27 articles, including quality indexes, systematic and narrative reviews, and commentaries. Thirty-two participants, 12 facilitators, and 1 expert observer attended the workshop. Participants endorsed the following features of education research as being most valuable: (1) provocative, novel, or challenged established thinking; (2) adhered to sound research principles; (3) relevant to practice, role, or needs; (4) feasible, practical application in real-world settings; and (5) connection to a conceptual framework. Conclusions Medical educators placed high value on rigorous methods and conceptual frameworks, consistent with published quality indexes. They also valued innovative or provocative work, feasibility, and applicability to their setting. End-user opinions of quality may illuminate how educators translate knowledge into practice. PMID:26294940

  16. Research of Medication Use during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat pain: Healthcare providers often prescribe painkillers called opioids for pain management. Unfortunately, we do not have ... certain heart defects , were linked with use of opioids during early pregnancy. [ Read summary ] Researchers looking at ...

  17. Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiseman, Elisa

    2001-03-01

    Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

  18. THE IMPACT OF THE BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES ON THE COLLECTING POLICY OF MEDICAL SCHOOL LIBRARIES.

    PubMed

    MACKENZIE, R C; BLOOMQUIST, H

    1964-01-01

    The scope of medical science has broadened to embrace subject areas in the behavioral and social sciences. Medical school curricula have responded to this trend, and the response is inevitably making itself felt in the medical school library. One medical school library's efforts to identify significant library materials in this area are presented as an example of a technique and as an indication of an order of magnitude. A master list of appropriate journal titles is appended. PMID:14119295

  19. Ethics and medical research in children.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Andrew J; O'Brien, Mike

    2009-10-01

    The ethics of clinical research is based on several well-known guidelines and documents. The guidelines vary between countries, but the principles of respect for persons, beneficence, and justice are constant. These principles are reflected in requirements to obtain free and informed consent, to minimize risk or harm, and to not overly burden or disadvantage particular populations. For research to be ethical, it must also be of such a standard, and be conducted in such a manner that it will generate knew and useful knowledge. Children have limited capacity for understanding and may be more open to coercion. Therefore, they are regarded as a particularly vulnerable population, and specific clauses regarding children are incorporated into many guidelines. A key concept in these clauses is the degree of risk acceptable for children involved in research. While it is generally agreed that children require particular attention because of their vulnerability, there is also increasing concern that children in general should not be disadvantaged by lack of knowledge due to reduced research activity. Finally, an increasingly active area of research in children involves genetics and biobanking. Research in these areas raises new and challenging ethical issues. PMID:19709376

  20. The Role of Public Policy in K-12 Science Education. Research in Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBoer, George E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this volume of "Research in Science Education" is to examine the relationship between science education policy and practice and the special role that science education researchers play in influencing policy. It has been suggested that the science education research community is isolated from the political process, pays little attention…

  1. Then & Now: Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Then & Now Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... which afflict tens of millions of Americans of all ages. William Howard Taft—Then & Now Taft's Condition ...

  2. A research program in empirical computer science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knight, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    During the grant reporting period our primary activities have been to begin preparation for the establishment of a research program in experimental computer science. The focus of research in this program will be safety-critical systems. Many questions that arise in the effort to improve software dependability can only be addressed empirically. For example, there is no way to predict the performance of the various proposed approaches to building fault-tolerant software. Performance models, though valuable, are parameterized and cannot be used to make quantitative predictions without experimental determination of underlying distributions. In the past, experimentation has been able to shed some light on the practical benefits and limitations of software fault tolerance. It is common, also, for experimentation to reveal new questions or new aspects of problems that were previously unknown. A good example is the Consistent Comparison Problem that was revealed by experimentation and subsequently studied in depth. The result was a clear understanding of a previously unknown problem with software fault tolerance. The purpose of a research program in empirical computer science is to perform controlled experiments in the area of real-time, embedded control systems. The goal of the various experiments will be to determine better approaches to the construction of the software for computing systems that have to be relied upon. As such it will validate research concepts from other sources, provide new research results, and facilitate the transition of research results from concepts to practical procedures that can be applied with low risk to NASA flight projects. The target of experimentation will be the production software development activities undertaken by any organization prepared to contribute to the research program. Experimental goals, procedures, data analysis and result reporting will be performed for the most part by the University of Virginia.

  3. Identification of Emerging Science Competencies in Agriculture. Vocational Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge. School of Vocational Education.

    A research project identified new and emerging science concepts that should be taught in high school vocational agriculture. Agricultural scientists on an advisory panel identified the emerging science concepts. The majority were in the areas of plant science and animal science. Animal science was completely reorganized with greater emphasis on…

  4. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  5. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The

  6. Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university

    PubMed Central

    Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence. PMID:24834092

  7. Molecular Science Research Center, 1991 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, M.L.

    1992-03-01

    During 1991, the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) experienced solid growth and accomplishment and the Environmental, and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) construction project moved forward. We began with strong programs in chemical structure and dynamics and theory, modeling, and simulation, and both these programs continued to thrive. We also made significant advances in the development of programs in materials and interfaces and macromolecular structure and dynamics, largely as a result of the key staff recruited to lead these efforts. If there was one pervasive activity for the past year, however, it was to strengthen the role of the EMSL in the overall environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) mission at Hanford. These extended activities involved not only MSRC and EMSL staff but all PNL scientific and technical staff engaged in ER/WM programs.

  8. Ames Research Center life sciences payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. X.; Tremor, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    In response to a recognized need for an in-flight animal housing facility to support Spacelab life sciences investigators, a rack and system compatible Research Animal Holding Facility (RAHF) has been developed. A series of ground tests is planned to insure its satisfactory performance under certain simulated conditions of flight exposure and use. However, even under the best conditions of simulation, confidence gained in ground testing will not approach that resulting from actual spaceflight operation. The Spacelab Mission 3 provides an opportunity to perform an inflight Verification Test (VT) of the RAHF. Lessons learned from the RAHF-VT and baseline performance data will be invaluable in preparation for subsequent dedicated life sciences missions.

  9. Suborbital Science Program: Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelFrate, John

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the suborbital science program at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Program Objectives are given in various areas: (1) Satellite Calibration and Validation (Cal/val)--Provide methods to perform the cal/val requirements for Earth Observing System satellites; (2) New Sensor Development -- Provide methods to reduce risk for new sensor concepts and algorithm development prior to committing sensors to operations; (3) Process Studies -- Facilitate the acquisition of high spatial/temporal resolution focused measurements that are required to understand small atmospheric and surface structures which generate powerful Earth system effects; and (4) Airborne Networking -- Develop disruption-tolerant networking to enable integrated multiple scale measurements of critical environmental features. Dryden supports the NASA Airborne Science Program and the nation in several elements: ER-2, G-3, DC-8, Ikhana (Predator B) & Global Hawk and Reveal. These are reviewed in detail in the presentation.

  10. Pupils' Attitudes to Science. A Review of Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.; Duckworth, D.

    This review of research into pupils' attitudes toward science cites significant British and American studies. Research studies appear under one of nine headings: (1) Attitude measurement in science education, (2) Differences between biology and the physical sciences, (3) The difficulty of the physical sciences and its causes, (4) The early age of…

  11. Effective Science Instruction: What Does Research Tell Us? Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banilower, Eric; Cohen, Kim; Pasley, Joan; Weiss, Iris

    2010-01-01

    This brief distills the research on science learning to inform a common vision of science instruction and to describe the extent to which K-12 science education currently reflects this vision. A final section on implications for policy makers and science education practitioners describes actions that could integrate the findings from research into…

  12. The Role of Research on Science Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Research on science teaching and learning plays an important role in improving science literacy, a goal called for in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and supported by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2003). NSTA promotes a research agenda that is focused on the goal of enhancing student learning through effective…

  13. Religion and the body in medical research.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Courtney S

    1998-09-01

    Religious discussion of human organs and tissues has concentrated largely on donation for therapeutic purposes. The retrieval and use of human tissue samples in diagnostic, research, and education contexts have, by contrast, received very little direct theological attention. Initially undertaken at the behest of the National Bioethics Advisory Commission, this essay seeks to explore the theological and religious questions embedded in nontherapeutic use of human tissue. It finds that the "donation paradigm" typically invoked in religious discourse to justify uses of the body for therapeutic reasons is inadequate in the context of nontherapeutic research, while the "resource paradigm" implicit in scientific discourse presumes a reductionist account of the body that runs contrary to important religious values about embodiment. The essay proposes a "contribution paradigm" that provides a religious perspective within which research on human tissue can be both justified and limited. PMID:11656934

  14. Needles and Haystacks: Finding Funding for Medical Education Research.

    PubMed

    Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J

    2016-04-01

    Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance. PMID:26556292

  15. Physical Sciences Research Priorities and Plans in OBPR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Eugene

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of physical sciences research priorities and plans at the Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference; 2) Beneficial Characteristics of the Space Environment; 3) Windows of Opportunity for Research Derived from Microgravity; 4) Physical Sciences Research Program; 5) Fundamental Research: Space-based Results and Ground-based Applications; 6) Nonlinear Oscillations; and 7) Fundamental Research: Applications to Mission-Oriented Research.

  16. [Some aspects on medical research systems at the medical school in Belgrade].

    PubMed

    Marinković, J; Babić, D; Maksimović, R; Stanisavljević, D

    1995-09-01

    The ongoing development of new technologies is rapidly expanding the number and/or quality of medical researches. In order to evaluate the situation in our country we analysed master - degree and doctoral thesis that have been done at the Belgrade Medical School in 1987., 1990. and 1994. year. These years have been chosen because of medical knowledge's known rate of exponential growth. According to the main tasks of medical research: data management system and data analyses, we classified medical researches in two major categories: prospective and retrospective. The crucial difference is whether or not the investigators collect new data for analyses. First has been discovered in 11 doctoral and 10 master theses out of 225 reviewed. Medical researchers use variety of different database management systems and statistical techniques to store, retrieve and analyse data. These were identified in respectively 23 percent and 24 percent. Beside these major research activities we were interested in usage of application programmes such as text processors or graphical packages that were found in 28 percent and 20 percent of analysed theses. In summary, technological advances in computer hardware and software have reduced the barriers to long - term storage and processing of rich biomedical data. The development of new techniques for analysing such a data also encourages the discovery and validation of new medical relationships. PMID:18193778

  17. MIRASS: medical informatics research activity support system using information mashup network.

    PubMed

    Kiah, M L M; Zaidan, B B; Zaidan, A A; Nabi, Mohamed; Ibraheem, Rabiu

    2014-04-01

    The advancement of information technology has facilitated the automation and feasibility of online information sharing. The second generation of the World Wide Web (Web 2.0) enables the collaboration and sharing of online information through Web-serving applications. Data mashup, which is considered a Web 2.0 platform, plays an important role in information and communication technology applications. However, few ideas have been transformed into education and research domains, particularly in medical informatics. The creation of a friendly environment for medical informatics research requires the removal of certain obstacles in terms of search time, resource credibility, and search result accuracy. This paper considers three glitches that researchers encounter in medical informatics research; these glitches include the quality of papers obtained from scientific search engines (particularly, Web of Science and Science Direct), the quality of articles from the indices of these search engines, and the customizability and flexibility of these search engines. A customizable search engine for trusted resources of medical informatics was developed and implemented through data mashup. Results show that the proposed search engine improves the usability of scientific search engines for medical informatics. Pipe search engine was found to be more efficient than other engines. PMID:24700079

  18. The charisma and deception of reparative therapies: when medical science beds religion.

    PubMed

    Grace, André P

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I examine the history and resurgence of interest in sexual reorientation or reparative therapies. I begin with a critique of the contemporary "ex-gay" movement, interrogating Exodus as the prototype of a politico-religious transformational ministry that works to "cure" homosexuals, and examine how Exodus utilizes ex-gay testimony to deceive harried homosexuals looking for escape from the effects of internalized and cultural homophobia. Next, I investigate how reparative therapies function as orthodox treatments that charismatically meld conservative religious perspectives with medical science to produce a pseudoscience promising to treat homosexuality effectively. In this regard, I assess the ongoing debate regarding gay-affirming versus reparative therapies by first looking at the history of medicalizing homosexuality and then surveying the debate spurred by Robert L. Spitzer's research. I conclude with a consideration of research needed to measure whether efficacious change in sexual orientation is possible. PMID:19064479

  19. Optimize Use of Space Research and Technology for Medical Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnifield, Nona K.

    2012-01-01

    systems, and cutting-edge component technologies to conduct a wide range of scientific observations and measurements. These technologies are also considered for practical applications that benefit society in remarkable ways. At NASA Goddard, the technology transfer initiative promotes matching technologies from Earth and space science needs to targeted industry sectors. This requires clear knowledge of industry needs and priorities and social demands. The process entails matching mature technologies where there are known innovation challenges and good opportunities for matching technology needs. This requires creative thinking and takes commitment of time and resources. Additionally, we also look at applications for known hot industry or societal needs. Doing so has given us occasion to host discussions with representatives from industry, academia, government organizations, and societal special interest groups about the application of NASA Goddard technologies for devices used in medical monitoring and detection tools. As a result, partnerships have been established. Innovation transpired when new products were enabled because of NASA Goddard research and technology programs.

  20. Sports genetics moving forward: lessons learned from medical research.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, C Mikael; Wheeler, Matthew T; Waggott, Daryl; Caleshu, Colleen; Ashley, Euan A

    2016-03-01

    Sports genetics can take advantage of lessons learned from human disease genetics. By righting past mistakes and increasing scientific rigor, we can magnify the breadth and depth of knowledge in the field. We present an outline of challenges facing sports genetics in the light of experiences from medical research. Sports performance is complex, resulting from a combination of a wide variety of different traits and attributes. Improving sports genetics will foremost require analyses based on detailed phenotyping. To find widely valid, reproducible common variants associated with athletic phenotypes, study sample sizes must be dramatically increased. One paradox is that in order to confirm relevance, replications in specific populations must be undertaken. Family studies of athletes may facilitate the discovery of rare variants with large effects on athletic phenotypes. The complexity of the human genome, combined with the complexity of athletic phenotypes, will require additional metadata and biological validation to identify a comprehensive set of genes involved. Analysis of personal genetic and multiomic profiles contribute to our conceptualization of precision medicine; the same will be the case in precision sports science. In the refinement of sports genetics it is essential to evaluate similarities and differences between sexes and among ethnicities. Sports genetics to date have been hampered by small sample sizes and biased methodology, which can lead to erroneous associations and overestimation of effect sizes. Consequently, currently available genetic tests based on these inherently limited data cannot predict athletic performance with any accuracy. PMID:26757801

  1. Misrepresentation and responsibility in medical research.

    PubMed

    Engler, R L; Covell, J W; Friedman, P J; Kitcher, P S; Peters, R M

    1987-11-26

    Early in 1985, after being questioned about duplicate data in two of his papers, Robert A. Slutsky, M.D., resigned his appointments as a radiology resident (trainee) and nonsalaried associate clinical professor in the Department of Radiology at the University of California, San Diego. During the following year, faculty committees investigated Slutsky's entire bibliography of 137 articles published in seven years; 77 (including reviews) were classified as valid, 48 were judged questionable, and 12 were deemed fraudulent. The majority of these papers were published while Slutsky was a research or clinical trainee in cardiology, nuclear medicine, and then radiology. Our analysis of this case leads us to conclude that research fraud, although probably rare, in view of the size of the research establishment, may evade detection, and that there are scientists prepared to run the appreciable risk of submitting inaccurate statements for publication. Sophisticated dishonesty can escape detection by peer review and replication. The emphasis on competition and the pressure to produce, while intended to advance the discovery of truth, may foster a conflict between personal career goals and the intellectual motivation of scientists to seek the truth. The scientific community needs to address the issues raised by recent reports of fraud. Each institution and granting agency must have procedures for investigating suspected fraud or unethical practices, procedures that protect both the person who reports such practices and the accused person from premature disclosure. As we heighten awareness, we must avoid a "witch hunt." Deterrence of research fraud is clearly needed, but institution of practices that might stifle originality or discourage cooperative research would be counterproductive. PMID:3317039

  2. Attitudes of Saudi Arabian Undergraduate Medical Students towards Health Research

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hilali, Sara M.; Al-Kahtani, Eman; Zaman, Babar; Khandekar, Rajiv; Al-Shahri, Abdullah; Edward, Deepak P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate attitudes, perceptions and perceived barriers towards health research among Saudi Arabian undergraduate medical students. Methods: This cross-sectional study took place between August and October 2014 and included 520 students from five medical schools across Saudi Arabia. An anonymous online survey with 21 close-ended questions was designed to assess students’ attitudes towards research, contribution to research-related activities, awareness of the importance of research, perception of available resources/opportunities for research, appreciation of medical students’ research contributions and perceived barriers to research. Responses were scored on a 5-point Likert scale. Results: A total of 401 students participated in the study (response rate: 77.1%). Of these, 278 (69.3%) were female. A positive attitude towards research was reported by 43.9% of the students. No statistically significant differences were observed between genders with regards to attitudes towards and available resources for research (P = 0.500 and 0.200, respectively). Clinical students had a significantly more positive attitude towards research compared to preclinical students (P = 0.007). Only 26.4% of the respondents believed that they had adequate resources/opportunities for research. According to the students, perceived barriers to undertaking research included time constraints (n = 200; 49.9%), lack of research mentors (n = 95; 23.7%), lack of formal research methodology training (n = 170; 42.4%) and difficulties in conducting literature searches (n = 145; 36.2%). Conclusion: Less than half of the surveyed Saudi Arabian medical students had a positive attitude towards health research. Medical education policies should aim to counteract the barriers identified in this study. PMID:26909216

  3. New Earth Science Research Opportunities: Committee Seeks Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Mark

    2010-07-01

    In 2001, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) published Basic Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences, which helped define the priorities for the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Division of Earth Sciences (EAR) over the past decade. Motivated by this report, EAR funded key components of the EarthScope initiative, established a network of Critical Zone Observatories, and expanded its post-doctoral fellowship programs. Ten years later, again at the behest of NSF, NAS has assembled the Committee on New Research Opportunities in the Earth Sciences at the National Science Foundation. The committee will, among other things, identify high-priority new and emerging research opportunities in the Earth sciences over the next decade, including surface and deep Earth processes and interdisciplinary research with fields such as ocean and atmospheric sciences, biology, engineering, computer science, and social and behavioral sciences. The committee also will identify key instrumentation and facilities needed to support these new and emerging research opportunities.

  4. Veterans Administration support for medical research: opinions of the endangered species of physician-scientists.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Stanley; Crabbe, John C; Cooper, George; Finkelman, Fred; Largman, Corey; McCarley, Robert W; Rice, Louis; Rubin, Janet; Richardson, Bruce; Seil, Frederick; Snider, Gordon L; Vandenbark, Arthur A

    2004-10-01

    Over the past three decades the Veterans Affairs (VA) Research program has evolved into a powerful, peer-reviewed funding mechanism for basic and translational research that has resulted in numerous important contributions to medical science and improvements in patient care. Continuity in VA Merit Review funding has fostered and nurtured the scientific careers of a large number of physician-scientists who have remained devoted to the mission of performing creative and innovative research that affects the patient care mission of the VA. VA medical research policies have undergone a major overhaul in the past year. Although many of these changes (de-emphasizing bench research and revamping the peer review process) have recently been reversed, the future direction of VA research remains in flux. The goal of this manuscript is to demonstrate the importance of the Merit Review medical research funding mechanism not just to the VA, but to the entire nation's health care system. To achieve this goal, the opinions of 65 established VA medical investigators were obtained regarding the past success and future direction of VA research. The conclusions reached include the following. 1) Merit Review research funding has been essential to the training, recruitment, and retention of productive VA physician-scientists. 2) The VA research program has contributed both basic and clinical innovations that have led to improvements in medical care. Contributions of VA researchers to excellence in many aspects of patient care at VA hospitals have been extraordinary. 3) Development of initiatives that entice outstanding Ph.D.'s to develop their careers in the VA has been crucial to the success of the program. 4) The VA research program has fostered a mutually beneficial relationship with affiliated medical schools. 5) Better methods to quantify VA research contributions and outcomes are essential for future program development. PMID:15466355

  5. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L.; Alpi, Kristine M.; De Groote, Sandra L.; Babin, Ted D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity. PMID:27076808

  6. Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle and Interpretive Research in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    1993-01-01

    Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and the derivative notions of interdeterminacy, uncertainty, precision, and observer-observed interaction are discussed and their applications to social science research examined. Implications are drawn for research in science education. (PR)

  7. [Emerging problems of medical ethics in Russia: medical practice and research].

    PubMed

    Vlasov, V V

    2002-01-01

    The problem of maintenance of integrity of medical profession is rarely discussed in Russia. Meanwhile the following pressing challenges emerge within the medical community in this country: tolerant attitude to violations of ethical principles and falsification in research, incompetence and deceit in practical work, wide penetration of alternative medicine and witchery into everyday medical practice, involvement of physicians in advertising and marketing of drugs, even direct selling of them by medical doctors. Medical community should urgently respond to these challenges and develop mechanisms of internal control. This can be accomplished within the framework of associations of physicians and medical professional groups. Without solution of the above problems Russian medicine would never occupy appropriate high position in the society. PMID:12494154

  8. Ring Fenced Research: The Case of Computer-Assisted Learning in Health Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Gabriel; Ip, Barry

    2005-01-01

    Interdisciplinary research is being promoted in many quarters as the way forward, but "research islands" still persist. Taking computer-assisted learning (CAL) within health sciences as a case in point, this paper describes a detailed study of the references to source material within papers published in general medical, specific nursing and…

  9. Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society

    SciTech Connect

    The HEP Accelerator R&D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

    2012-07-01

    In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

  10. The Stanford Medical Youth Science Program: educational and science-related outcomes.

    PubMed

    Crump, Casey; Ned, Judith; Winkleby, Marilyn A

    2015-05-01

    Biomedical preparatory programs (pipeline programs) have been developed at colleges and universities to better prepare youth for entering science- and health-related careers, but outcomes of such programs have seldom been rigorously evaluated. We conducted a matched cohort study to evaluate the Stanford Medical Youth Science Program's Summer Residential Program (SRP), a 25-year-old university-based biomedical pipeline program that reaches out to low-income and underrepresented ethnic minority high school students. Five annual surveys were used to assess educational outcomes and science-related experience among 96 SRP participants and a comparison group of 192 youth who applied but were not selected to participate in the SRP, using ~2:1 matching on sociodemographic and academic background to control for potential confounders. SRP participants were more likely than the comparison group to enter college (100.0 vs. 84.4 %, p = 0.002), and both of these matriculation rates were more than double the statewide average (40.8 %). In most areas of science-related experience, SRP participants reported significantly more experience (>twofold odds) than the comparison group at 1 year of follow-up, but these differences did not persist after 2-4 years. The comparison group reported substantially more participation in science or college preparatory programs, more academic role models, and less personal adversity than SRP participants, which likely influenced these findings toward the null hypothesis. SRP applicants, irrespective of whether selected for participation, had significantly better educational outcomes than population averages. Short-term science-related experience was better among SRP participants, although longer-term outcomes were similar, most likely due to college and science-related opportunities among the comparison group. We discuss implications for future evaluations of other biomedical pipeline programs. PMID:25096792

  11. Applying spatial thinking in social science research

    PubMed Central

    Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Hongwei

    2010-01-01

    Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that are now at the disposal of researchers, and illustrate them with studies that reflect the very wide range of problems that use these tools. PMID:20431703

  12. Undergraduate Research in the Human Sciences: Three Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Nina; Mitstifer, Dorothy I.; Nelson Goff, Briana S.; Hymon-Parker, Shirley

    2009-01-01

    Undergraduate research in the sciences has been shown by numerous studies to enhance the educational experience. The Undergraduate Research Community (URC) founded in 2001 supports several initiatives that promote research in human sciences/family and consumer sciences including an online peer-reviewed journal specifically for undergraduate work,…

  13. Bridging the Gap between Research and Practice: Implementation Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olswang, Lesley B.; Prelock, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article introduces implementation science, which focuses on research methods that promote the systematic application of research findings to practice. Method: The narrative defines implementation science and highlights the importance of moving research along the pipeline from basic science to practice as one way to facilitate…

  14. Gender-sensitive reporting in medical research.

    PubMed

    Heidari, Shirin; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Auerbach, Judith D; Buitendijk, Simone E; Cahn, Pedro; Curno, Mirjam J; Hankins, Catherine; Katabira, Elly; Kippax, Susan; Marlink, Richard; Marsh, Joan; Marusic, Ana; Nass, Heidi M; Montaner, Julio; Pollitzer, Elizabeth; Ruiz-Cantero, Maria Teresa; Sherr, Lorraine; Sow, Papa Salif; Squires, Kathleen; Wainberg, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Sex and gender differences influence the health and wellbeing of men and women. Although studies have drawn attention to observed differences between women and men across diseases, remarkably little research has been pursued to systematically investigate these underlying sex differences. Women continue to be underrepresented in clinical trials, and even in studies in which both men and women participate, systematic analysis of data to identify potential sex-based differences is lacking. Standards for reporting of clinical trials have been established to ensure provision of complete, transparent and critical information. An important step in addressing the gender imbalance would be inclusion of a gender perspective in the next Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) guideline revision. Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals, as a set of well-recognized and widely used guidelines for authors and biomedical journals, should similarly emphasize the ethical obligation of authors to present data analyzed by gender as a matter of routine. Journal editors are also promoters of ethical research and adequate standards of reporting, and requirements for inclusion of gender analyses should be integrated into editorial policies as a matter of urgency. PMID:22400977

  15. [A methodological approach to assessing the quality of medical health information on its way from science to the mass media].

    PubMed

    Serong, Julia; Anhäuser, Marcus; Wormer, Holger

    2015-01-01

    A current research project deals with the question of how the quality of medical health information changes on its way from the academic journal via press releases to the news media. In an exploratory study a sample of 30 news items has been selected stage-by-stage from an adjusted total sample of 1,695 journalistic news items on medical research in 2013. Using a multidimensional set of criteria the news items as well as the corresponding academic articles, abstracts and press releases are examined by science journalists and medical experts. Together with a content analysis of the expert assessments, it will be verified to what extent established quality standards for medical journalism can be applied to medical health communication and public relations or even to studies and abstracts as well. PMID:26028455

  16. Russian Earth Science Research Program on ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armand, N. A.; Tishchenko, Yu. G.

    1999-01-01

    Version of the Russian Earth Science Research Program on the Russian segment of ISS is proposed. The favorite tasks are selected, which may be solved with the use of space remote sensing methods and tools and which are worthwhile for realization. For solving these tasks the specialized device sets (submodules), corresponding to the specific of solved tasks, are working out. They would be specialized modules, transported to the ISS. Earth remote sensing research and ecological monitoring (high rates and large bodies transmitted from spaceborne information, comparatively stringent requirements to the period of its processing, etc.) cause rather high requirements to the ground segment of receiving, processing, storing, and distribution of space information in the interests of the Earth natural resources investigation. Creation of the ground segment has required the development of the interdepartmental data receiving and processing center. Main directions of works within the framework of the ISS program are determined.

  17. Russian Earth Science Research Program on ISS

    SciTech Connect

    Armand, N. A.; Tishchenko, Yu. G.

    1999-01-22

    Version of the Russian Earth Science Research Program on the Russian segment of ISS is proposed. The favorite tasks are selected, which may be solved with the use of space remote sensing methods and tools and which are worthwhile for realization. For solving these tasks the specialized device sets (submodules), corresponding to the specific of solved tasks, are working out. They would be specialized modules, transported to the ISS. Earth remote sensing research and ecological monitoring (high rates and large bodies transmitted from spaceborne information, comparatively stringent requirements to the period of its processing, etc.) cause rather high requirements to the ground segment of receiving, processing, storing, and distribution of space information in the interests of the Earth natural resources investigation. Creation of the ground segment has required the development of the interdepartmental data receiving and processing center. Main directions of works within the framework of the ISS program are determined.

  18. Arctic Research NASA's Cryospheric Sciences Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waleed, Abdalati; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Much of NASA's Arctic Research is run through its Cryospheric Sciences Program. Arctic research efforts to date have focused primarily on investigations of the mass balance of the largest Arctic land-ice masses and the mechanisms that control it, interactions among sea ice, polar oceans, and the polar atmosphere, atmospheric processes in the polar regions, energy exchanges in the Arctic. All of these efforts have been focused on characterizing, understanding, and predicting, changes in the Arctic. NASA's unique vantage from space provides an important perspective for the study of these large scale processes, while detailed process information is obtained through targeted in situ field and airborne campaigns and models. An overview of NASA investigations in the Arctic will be presented demonstrating how the synthesis of space-based technology, and these complementary components have advanced our understanding of physical processes in the Arctic.

  19. [Centralized biobanks: a basis for medical research].

    PubMed

    Bernemann, Inga; Kersting, Markus; Prokein, Jana; Hummel, Michael; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Biobanks are the basis for a substantial part of biomedical research. The development, establishment and operation of biobanks are connected to a broad range of aspects, mainly concerning the preparation, storage, usage and dissemination of samples and associated data, in addition to the social and public involvement of these processes. These complex requirements can often only be managed in large centralized biobanks. In recent years, centralized clinical biobanks have been established in several university clinics in Germany. Similar activities take place in other European countries and worldwide. This article highlights the requirements and main tasks of centralized clinical biobanks: high-quality pre-analytics and sample storage, the creation of professional IT structures, data protection, ethical issues, in addition to quality and project management. PMID:26830106

  20. The role of social networking sites in medical genetics research.

    PubMed

    Reaves, Allison Cook; Bianchi, Diana W

    2013-05-01

    Social networking sites (SNS) have potential value in the field of medical genetics as a means of research subject recruitment and source of data. This article examines the current role of SNS in medical genetics research and potential applications for these sites in future studies. Facebook is the primary SNS considered, given the prevalence of its use in the United States and role in a small but growing number of studies. To date, utilization of SNS in medical genetics research has been primarily limited to three studies that recruited subjects from populations of Facebook users [McGuire et al. (2009); Am J Bioeth 9: 3-10; Janvier et al. (2012); Pediatrics 130: 293-298; Leighton et al. (2012); Public Health Genomics 15: 11-21]. These studies and a number of other medical and public health studies that have used Facebook as a context for recruiting research subjects are discussed. Approaches for Facebook-based subject recruitment are identified, including paid Facebook advertising, snowball sampling, targeted searching and posting. The use of these methods in medical genetics research has the potential to facilitate cost-effective research on both large, heterogeneous populations and small, hard-to-access sub-populations. PMID:23554131

  1. Why We Need Community Engagement in Medical Research

    PubMed Central

    Holzer, Jessica K.; Ellis, Lauren; Merritt, Maria W.

    2014-01-01

    Background The medical research enterprise depends on public recognition of its societal value. In light of evidence indicating public mistrust, especially among minorities, inadequate enrollment and diversity of research participants, and poor uptake of findings, medical research appears to fall short of sufficient public regard. Community engagement in medical research, with special attention to minority communities, may help to remedy this shortfall by demonstrating respect for communities in practical ways. Approach We provide three case examples that illustrate how specific approaches to community-engaged research can build trust between researchers and communities, encourage participation among under-represented groups, and enhance the relevance and uptake of research findings. Discussion A common attribute of the specific approaches discussed here is that they enable researchers to demonstrate respect by recognizing community values and interests. The demonstration of respect for communities has intrinsic ethical importance. Conclusion Two potential outgrowths of demonstrating respect specifically through community engagement are (1) the production of research that is more relevant to the community and (2) the mitigation of asymmetry in the researcher-community relationship. We summarize practical resources available to researchers who seek to incorporate community engagement in their research. PMID:24979468

  2. Hype in health reporting: "checkbook science" buys distortion of medical news.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Diana

    2003-01-01

    The greatest danger to public health might be "checkbook science": research intended not to expand knowledge or to benefit humanity but to sell products. Much of the media coverage of health news stories is based on public relations efforts on behalf of the companies that sell the products, including pharmaceutical companies, diet clinics, or doctors selling new techniques. The author presents three case studies of how companies selling medical products effectively but invisibly shaped recent news coverage of medical products: fen-phen diet pills, breast implants, and hormone replacement therapy. All involve subtle strategies whereby physicians and other experts paid by corporate interests are influential because they are perceived to be objective medical experts. Articles in prestigious medical journals are sometimes ghostwritten by individuals paid by companies or are based on biased analyses or interpretations shaped by corporate interests. Nonprofit organizations that tout the benefits of specific medical products also may be part of the public relations efforts of the companies making the product. Meanwhile, important newsworthy studies are ignored by the mass media when corporate interests do not publicize or pitch the results to influential reporters and producers. PMID:12800894

  3. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings. PMID:22420229

  4. The Webometric Status of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Behjat; Ghazavi, Roghayeh; Zahed, Arash; Otroj, Zahra; Mazaheri, Elahe; Soleimanzade-Najafi, Nayere-Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Webometrics refers to the quantitative study of science production, application, structure and technology in the cyber environment. Impact analysis, website collaboration, and recognition of core websites are regarded as the most practical advantages of webometrics. Furthermore, webometrics is applied in ranking studies for universities and academic institutes. This serves as an internationally approved means of academic ranking worldwide. Our study aimed to evaluate the webometric status of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) and its place in the Webometric Ranking of World Universities. We also tried to comment on how to improve the university’s webometric rank at national, regional, and international levels. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study including all websites of Iranian universities. Census sampling was applied to cover all Iranian university websites. Then the websites were evaluated according to the latest criteria for the international webometric ranking methodology (Cyberometric Lab, July 2012) and their webometric rank at the international level as well as the changes in the rank between July 2012 and January 2013 were analyzed. The webometric rank of IUMS was compared with other medical universities at different levels as well. Findings: According to the findings, from July 2012 to January 2013, IUMS webometric rank improved by 707, 5 and 2 at international, national and ministerial levels, respectively. Moreover, the rank of IUMS for openness rose from 4477 to 193 during the mentioned period (∆ 4284). In excellence, the university rank did not change sensibly (1537 /1538). In the same period, the rank in presence shifted from 1137 to 1091. Meanwhile, growth in website impact was negative as the university impact rank declined from 3369 to 3393. Conclusion: It seems that impact as the most influential ranking indicator fails to grow proportionately as other factors of IUMS website. This is potentially due to the content language (Farsi) which is an important barrier to easy retrieval of information by non-Farsi speakers. However, the scientific content and SEO (Search Engine Optimization) standards of the website need serious improvement. PMID:26483594

  5. 76 FR 71350 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, MBRS Score... Dunbar, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of...

  6. 76 FR 10381 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Genetics and Cell Biology. Date: March 21-22, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  7. 75 FR 71712 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Initial.... Craig Hyde, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of...

  8. 75 FR 42759 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of... of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Review of... Hyde, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of...

  9. Evaluating Currency of the Medical Sciences Collection Available on Public Library Shelves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhart, Peggy S.

    Because advances in medical science can lead to rapid changes in current health knowledge, a library collection of medical science materials can become dated rather quickly. This factor, as well as the many variables of library use and operation which impact the availability of current materials on the library shelves--loan periods, weeding…

  10. 78 FR 25281 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  11. 77 FR 47857 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is ] hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  12. 77 FR 76059 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  13. 76 FR 79200 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  14. 75 FR 49499 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  15. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  16. 76 FR 24499 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  17. 75 FR 2149 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  18. 75 FR 79386 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  19. 77 FR 24724 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  20. 78 FR 77472 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  1. 75 FR 22606 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of....), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory General Medical Sciences Council. The... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory General...

  2. A Journey in Science: Medical Scientist in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Hansson, Göran K

    2014-01-01

    Real innovations in medicine and science are historic and singular; the stories behind each occurrence are precious. At Molecular Medicine we have established the Anthony Cerami Award in Translational Medicine to document and preserve these histories. The monographs recount the seminal events as told in the voice of the original investigators who provided the crucial early insight. These essays capture the essence of discovery, chronicling the birth of ideas that created new fields of research; and launched trajectories that persisted and ultimately influenced how disease is prevented, diagnosed and treated. In this volume, the Cerami Award Monograph is by Göran K Hansson, MD, PhD, Karolinska Institute. A visionary in the field of cardiovascular research, this is the story of Dr. Hansson’s scientific journey. PMID:25356751

  3. Balancing the scales of public interest: medical research and privacy.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J E

    1991-10-21

    Guidelines for the protection of privacy in the conduct of medical research have been issued by the National Health and Medical Research Council, approved by the Commonwealth Privacy Commissioner, and gazetted on 1 July 1991 (Commonwealth of Australia Gazette No. P19) to remain in force until 30 June 1994. This paper examines the guidelines and seeks to inform researchers, institutional ethics committees and the institutions those committees represent of their content. Responsibilities are placed upon those engaged in the conduct of research and those involved in undertaking ethical review who now have to decide that the public interest in conducting the research substantially outweighs the public interest in privacy. There is also an emphasis on the requirement for surveillance of research projects by institutional ethics committees which has not previously been apparent. Questions are posed to assist in deciding whether a particular research protocol is subject to the guidelines. PMID:1943938

  4. The effective management of medical isotope production in research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Drummond, D.T. )

    1993-01-01

    During the 50-yr history of the use of radioisotopes for medical applications, research reactors have played a pivotal role in the production of many if not most of the key products. The marriage between research reactors and production operations is subject to significant challenges on two fronts. The medical applications of the radioisotope products impose some unique constraints and requirements on the production process. In addition, the mandates and priorities of a research reactor are not always congruent with the demands of a production environment. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of medical isotope production, identifies the unique challenges facing this endeavor, and discusses the management of the relationship between the isotope producer and the research reactor operator. Finally, the key elements of a successful relationship are identified.

  5. Symbolic Interaction and Applied Social Research: A FOCUS ON TRANSLATIONAL SCIENCE RESEARCH(1.)

    PubMed

    Kotarba, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    In symbolic interaction, a traditional yet unfortunate and unnecessary distinction has been made between basic and applied research. The argument has been made that basic research is intended to generate new knowledge, whereas applied research is intended to apply knowledge to the solution of practical (social and organizational) problems. I will argue that the distinction between basic and applied research in symbolic interaction is outdated and dysfunctional. The masters of symbolic interactionist thought have left us a proud legacy of shaping their scholarly thinking and inquiry in response to and in light of practical issues of the day (e.g., Znaniecki, and Blumer). Current interactionist work continues this tradition in topical areas such as social justice studies. Applied research, especially in term of evaluation and needs assessment studies, can be designed to serve both basic and applied goals. Symbolic interaction provides three great resources to do this. The first is its orientation to dynamic sensitizing concepts that direct research and ask questions instead of supplying a priori and often impractical answers. The second is its orientation to qualitative methods, and appreciation for the logic of grounded theory. The third is interactionism's overall holistic approach to interfacing with the everyday life world. The primary illustrative case here is the qualitative component of the evaluation of an NIH-funded, translational medical research program. The qualitative component has provided interactionist-inspired insights into translational research, such as examining cultural change in medical research in terms of changes in the form and content of formal and informal discourse among scientists; delineating the impact of significant symbols such as "my lab" on the social organization of science; and appreciating the essence of the self-concept "scientist" on the increasingly bureaucratic and administrative identities of medical researchers. This component has also contributed to the basic social scientific literature on complex organizations and the self. PMID:25221375

  6. Open Science Project in White Dwarf Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vornanen, T.

    2013-01-01

    I will propose a new way of advancing white dwarf research. Open science is a method of doing research that lets everyone who has something to say about the subject take part in the problem solving process. Already now, the amount of information we gather from observations, theory and modeling is too vast for any one individual to comprehend and turn into knowledge. And the amount of information just keeps growing in the future. A platform that promotes sharing of thoughts and ideas allows us to pool our collective knowledge of white dwarfs and get a clear picture of our research field. It will also make it possible for researchers in fields closely related to ours (AGB stars, planetary nebulae etc.) to join the scientific discourse. In the first stage this project would allow us to summarize what we know and what we don't, and what we should search for next. Later, it could grow into a large collaboration that would have the impact to, for example, suggest instrument requirements for future telescopes to satisfy the needs of the white dwarf community, or propose large surveys. A simple implementation would be a wiki page for collecting knowledge combined with a forum for more extensive discussions. These would be simple and cheap to maintain. A large community effort on the whole would be needed for the project to succeed, but individual workload should stay at a low level.

  7. Common statistical and research design problems in manuscripts submitted to high-impact medical journals

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To assist educators and researchers in improving the quality of medical research, we surveyed the editors and statistical reviewers of high-impact medical journals to ascertain the most frequent and critical statistical errors in submitted manuscripts. Findings The Editors-in-Chief and statistical reviewers of the 38 medical journals with the highest impact factor in the 2007 Science Journal Citation Report and the 2007 Social Science Journal Citation Report were invited to complete an online survey about the statistical and design problems they most frequently found in manuscripts. Content analysis of the responses identified major issues. Editors and statistical reviewers (n = 25) from 20 journals responded. Respondents described problems that we classified into two, broad themes: A. statistical and sampling issues and B. inadequate reporting clarity or completeness. Problems included in the first theme were (1) inappropriate or incomplete analysis, including violations of model assumptions and analysis errors, (2) uninformed use of propensity scores, (3) failing to account for clustering in data analysis, (4) improperly addressing missing data, and (5) power/sample size concerns. Issues subsumed under the second theme were (1) Inadequate description of the methods and analysis and (2) Misstatement of results, including undue emphasis on p-values and incorrect inferences and interpretations. Conclusions The scientific quality of submitted manuscripts would increase if researchers addressed these common design, analytical, and reporting issues. Improving the application and presentation of quantitative methods in scholarly manuscripts is essential to advancing medical research. PMID:21854631

  8. Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group, Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Smith, T.; Star, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. The focus is on remote sensing and application for the Earth Observing System (Eos) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The remote sensing research activities are being expanded, integrated, and extended into the areas of global science, georeferenced information systems, machine assissted information extraction from image data, and artificial intelligence. The accomplishments in these areas are examined.

  9. COOPEUS - connecting research infrastructures in environmental sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koop-Jakobsen, Ketil; Waldmann, Christoph; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    The COOPEUS project was initiated in 2012 bringing together 10 research infrastructures (RIs) in environmental sciences from the EU and US in order to improve the discovery, access, and use of environmental information and data across scientific disciplines and across geographical borders. The COOPEUS mission is to facilitate readily accessible research infrastructure data to advance our understanding of Earth systems through an international community-driven effort, by: Bringing together both user communities and top-down directives to address evolving societal and scientific needs; Removing technical, scientific, cultural and geopolitical barriers for data use; and Coordinating the flow, integrity and preservation of information. A survey of data availability was conducted among the COOPEUS research infrastructures for the purpose of discovering impediments for open international and cross-disciplinary sharing of environmental data. The survey showed that the majority of data offered by the COOPEUS research infrastructures is available via the internet (>90%), but the accessibility to these data differ significantly among research infrastructures; only 45% offer open access on their data, whereas the remaining infrastructures offer restricted access e.g. do not release raw data or sensible data, demand user registration or require permission prior to release of data. These rules and regulations are often installed as a form of standard practice, whereas formal data policies are lacking in 40% of the infrastructures, primarily in the EU. In order to improve this situation COOPEUS has installed a common data-sharing policy, which is agreed upon by all the COOPEUS research infrastructures. To investigate the existing opportunities for improving interoperability among environmental research infrastructures, COOPEUS explored the opportunities with the GEOSS common infrastructure (GCI) by holding a hands-on workshop. Through exercises directly registering resources, the first steps were taken to implement the GCI as a platform for documenting the capabilities of the COOPEUS research infrastructures. COOPEUS recognizes the potential for the GCI to become an important platform promoting cross-disciplinary approaches in the studies of multifaceted environmental challenges. Recommendations from the workshop participants also revealed that in order to attract research infrastructures to use the GCI, the registration process must be simplified and accelerated. However, also the data policies of the individual research infrastructure, or lack thereof, can prevent the use of the GCI or other portals, due to unclarities regarding data management authority and data ownership. COOPEUS shall continue to promote cross-disciplinary data exchange in the environmental field and will in the future expand to also include other geographical areas.

  10. Clinical research in medical schools: seizing the opportunity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R E; Griner, P F; Weissman, J

    1998-01-01

    Academic medical centers (AMCs) face challenges to the achievement of their potential in clinical research. These challenges include reduced support of research from clinical revenue, cultural impediments to clinical research within the traditional value system of research-intensive AMCs, and potential problems of patient access to clinical research in intensive managed care environments. This article considers options to strengthen clinical research that have been developed at some medical centers. While much attention is being directed to the expansion of clinical trials in many AMCs, this effort needs to be linked to a cohesive strategy for clinical research being conducted in an academic environment. The article also addresses the subject of training and career development. It concludes with the opinion that the "crisis" in clinical research in academic medical centers provides the opportunity to define, more explicitly, the nature and scope of the investment in clinical research, and to define strategies that will bring added value to knowledge generated from basic research and to the teaching and patient care missions of these centers. PMID:9824534

  11. Medical Researchers' Ancillary Care Obligations: The Relationship-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nate W

    2016-06-01

    In this article, I provide a new account of the basis of medical researchers' ancillary care obligations. Ancillary care in medical research, or medical care that research participants need but that is not required for the validity or safety of a study or to redress research injuries, is a topic that has drawn increasing attention in research ethics over the last ten years. My view, the relationship-based approach, improves on the main existing theory, Richardson and Belsky's 'partial-entrustment model', by avoiding its problematic restriction on the scope of health needs for which researchers could be obligated to provide ancillary care. Instead, it grounds ancillary care obligations in a wide range of morally relevant features of the researcher-participant relationship, including the level of engagement between researchers and participants, and weighs these factors against each other. I argue that the level of engagement, that is, the duration and intensity of interactions, between researchers and participants matters for ancillary care because of its connection to the meaningfulness of a relationship, and I suggest that other morally relevant features can be grounded in researchers' role obligations. PMID:26424512

  12. Teaching Science. Research Series No. 168.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Charles W.; Smith, Edward L.

    Science education has received increasing attention during the 1980s in both professional and public forums. This paper addresses three questions having to do with science teaching. The first question concerns student learning in science classes. The document proposes that science achievement is generally disappointing, especially if student…

  13. The Arabian Gulf University College of Medicine and Medical Sciences: a successful model of a multinational medical school.

    PubMed

    Hamdy, Hossam; Anderson, M Brownell

    2006-12-01

    In the late 1970s, leaders of the Arabian [corrected] Gulf countries proposed a novel idea of a joint educational and cultural venture: establishing a new regional university based in the Kingdom of Bahrain that would be managed as a multinational consortium of Gulf countries including Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and Bahrain. It was intended to promote higher education and research in the Gulf region; to serve the development needs of the region; to reflect the unique economic, social, and cultural attributes of the Gulf communities and their environments; and to respond to the health care needs of the member countries. Since its inception in 1982, the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS) at Arabian Gulf University (AGU) has adopted the educational philosophy of problem-based learning (PBL) and self-directed, student-centered education. The curriculum is integrated, with early introduction of education to foster clinical skills and professional competencies. The strategic alliance with the health care systems in Bahrain and other Gulf regions has created a successful model of efficient and effective initialization of health care resources in the community. The experience that has accumulated at the AGU-CMMS from introducing innovative medical education has allowed it to take a leadership position in medical education in the Gulf region. The original goals of this unique experiment have been realized along with unanticipated outcomes of spearheading changes in medical education in the Gulf region. Old and new medical schools have adopted several characteristics of the AGU educational program. Several elements contributed to its success: a clear vision of providing quality medical education and realizing and sustaining this vision by a supportive leadership at the university and college levels; an alliance with the regional health care systems; a dedicated faculty who have been able to work as a team while continually developing themselves; proper student selection and the creation of a culture of student/faculty partnerships in education and in building an international reputation and credibility by cooperating with reputable international universities and organizations. PMID:17122475

  14. 78 FR 28292 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit Review... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to...

  15. 76 FR 1212 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... areas of biomedical, behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to...

  16. 76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Eligibility of the Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and... biomedical, behavioral, and clinical science research. The panel meeting will be open to the public...

  17. 77 FR 64598 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  18. 77 FR 20489 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services... science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately one-half hour at...

  19. 75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... AFFAIRS Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development... Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development Services Scientific Merit..., behavioral and clinical science research. The panel meetings will be open to the public for approximately...

  20. Research Matters...to the Science Teacher. Volume 1, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Ann, Ed.

    Suggestions for instructional improvement are offered for science teachers in this compilation of research summaries on specific areas of science education. This series includes the articles: (1) "Improving Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science" (discussing the relationship between teachers and students conceptions of science and…

  1. Learning from Action Research about Science Teacher Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchener, Carole P.; Jackson, Wendy M.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we present a case study of a beginning science teacher's year-long action research project, during which she developed a meaningful grasp of learning from practice. Wendy was a participant in the middle grade science program designed for career changers from science professions who had moved to teaching middle grade science. An…

  2. What Is "Agency"? Perspectives in Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Jenny; Clarke, David John

    2014-01-01

    The contemporary interest in researching student agency in science education reflects concerns about the relevance of schooling and a shift in science education towards understanding learning in science as a complex social activity. The purpose of this article is to identify problems confronting the science education community in the development…

  3. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    PubMed

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies. PMID:22913519

  4. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit. PMID:26307387

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1986. Special Libraries Division. Section: Biological and Medical Sciences Libraries. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Four papers on biological and medical sciences libraries were presented at the 1986 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. "Activities and Services of Medical Libraries in Japan--Past, Present, and Future" (Kazuo Urata and Toshinobu Suga, Japan) discusses the inauguration of the Japan Medical Library Association…

  6. Problem-Based Learning of Social Sciences and Humanities by Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colby, Kathleen K.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A required fourth-year course integrating the social sciences and humanities into the required clinical medical curriculum at Dartmouth Medical School is intended to prepare students to deal with the social and humanistic issues involved in medical practice, including law, ethics, economics, and social anthropology. (MSE)

  7. ITK: enabling reproducible research and open science.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Matthew; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jomier, Julien; Marion, Charles; Ibanez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature. Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK) in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification. This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46. PMID:24600387

  8. ITK: enabling reproducible research and open science

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Matthew; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Jomier, Julien; Marion, Charles; Ibanez, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Reproducibility verification is essential to the practice of the scientific method. Researchers report their findings, which are strengthened as other independent groups in the scientific community share similar outcomes. In the many scientific fields where software has become a fundamental tool for capturing and analyzing data, this requirement of reproducibility implies that reliable and comprehensive software platforms and tools should be made available to the scientific community. The tools will empower them and the public to verify, through practice, the reproducibility of observations that are reported in the scientific literature. Medical image analysis is one of the fields in which the use of computational resources, both software and hardware, are an essential platform for performing experimental work. In this arena, the introduction of the Insight Toolkit (ITK) in 1999 has transformed the field and facilitates its progress by accelerating the rate at which algorithmic implementations are developed, tested, disseminated and improved. By building on the efficiency and quality of open source methodologies, ITK has provided the medical image community with an effective platform on which to build a daily workflow that incorporates the true scientific practices of reproducibility verification. This article describes the multiple tools, methodologies, and practices that the ITK community has adopted, refined, and followed during the past decade, in order to become one of the research communities with the most modern reproducibility verification infrastructure. For example, 207 contributors have created over 2400 unit tests that provide over 84% code line test coverage. The Insight Journal, an open publication journal associated with the toolkit, has seen over 360,000 publication downloads. The median normalized closeness centrality, a measure of knowledge flow, resulting from the distributed peer code review system was high, 0.46. PMID:24600387

  9. [The relevance of the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) for medical publishing and research].

    PubMed

    Reyes, Humberto B

    2014-01-01

    The International Committee of Medical Journal Editors is a leading independent institution providing guidance for the report of biomedical research and health related topics in medical journals. Established in 1978, it is currently constituted by editors of fourteen general medical journals from different countries, plus one representative for the US National Library of Medicine and one representative for the World Association of Biomedical Journal Editors. Since 1978 the Committee provides a document, originally named "Uniform Requirements…", "to help authors, editors, and others involved in peer review and biomedical publishing create and distribute accurate, clear, unbiased medical journal articles". This document has been updated several times and the last version was released in August 2013, now renamed "Recommendations for the Conduct, Reporting, Editing, and Publication of Scholarly Work in Medical Journals", available in www.icmje.org and citable as "ICMJE Recommendations". A vast proportion of medical journals, worldwide, have adopted these recommendations as rules. The ICMJE discusses and provides guidance on several relevant aspects including criteria on authorship, peer review, scientific misconduct, conflicts of interest, clinical trials registration, good editorial practices, the relations between editors and journal owners, the protection of individuals subject to medical research, the solvency of electronic publications, among others. The 2013 ICMJE Annual Meeting took place in Santiago, Chile, in November 4 and 5. The photograph shows attendants to the final session. PMID:24861118

  10. Historical continuity in the methodology of modern medical science: Leonardo leads the way.

    PubMed

    Pasipoularides, Ares

    2014-02-01

    Early modern medical science did not arise ex nihilo, but was the culmination of a long history stretching back through the Renaissance, the Middle Ages, Byzantium and Roman times, into Greek Antiquity. The long interval between Aristotle and Galen and Harvey and Descartes was punctuated by outstanding visionaries, including Leonardo, the ultimate Renaissance man. His attitude and mindset were based on Aristotelian pursuit of empirical fact and rational thought. He declared himself to be a "man without letters" to underscore his disdain for those whose culture was only mnemonics and philosophical inferences from authoritative books. Leonardo read the Book of Nature with the immense curiosity of the pioneering scientist, ushering in the methodology of modern medical science with help from forerunners. He left no publications, but extensive personal Notebooks: on his scientific research, hydrodynamics, physiological anatomy, etc. Apparently, numerous successors availed themselves of his methodologies and insights, albeit without attribution. In his Notebooks, disordered and fragmentary, Leonardo manifests the exactitude of the engineer and scientist, the spontaneous freshness of one speaking of what he has at heart and that he knows well. His style is unrefined, but intensely personal, rich with emotion and, sometimes, poetic. Leonardo, the visionary anatomist, strived consistently not merely to imitate nature by depicting body structures, but to perceive through analysis and simulations the intimate physiologic processes; i.e., the biomechanics underlying the workings of all bodily organs and components, even the mysterious beating heart. It is fitting to regard him as the first modern medical scientist. PMID:24360160

  11. Medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics education perspectives in South East Europe in graduate medical education.

    PubMed

    Mijaljica, Goran

    2014-03-01

    Ethics has an established place within the medical curriculum. However notable differences exist in the programme characteristics of different schools of medicine. This paper addresses the main differences in the curricula of medical schools in South East Europe regarding education in medical ethics and bioethics, with a special emphasis on research ethics, and proposes a model curriculum which incorporates significant topics in all three fields. Teaching curricula of Medical Schools in Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro were acquired and a total of 14 were analyzed. Teaching hours for medical ethics and/or bioethics and year of study in which the course is taught were also analyzed. The average number of teaching hours in medical ethics and bioethics is 27.1 h per year. The highest national average number of teaching hours was in Croatia (47.5 h per year), and the lowest was in Serbia (14.8). In the countries of the European Union the mean number of hours given to ethics teaching throughout the complete curriculum was 44. In South East Europe, the maximum number of teaching hours is 60, while the minimum number is 10 teaching hours. Research ethics topics also show a considerable variance within the regional medical schools. Approaches to teaching research ethics vary, even within the same country. The proposed model for education in this area is based on the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Bioethics Core Curriculum. The model curriculum consists of topics in medical ethics, bioethics and research ethics, as a single course, over 30 teaching hours. PMID:23436144

  12. The novel Arrowsmith, Paul de Kruif (1890-1971) and Jacques Loeb (1859-1924): a literary portrait of "medical science".

    PubMed

    Fangerau, H M

    2006-12-01

    Shortly after bacteriologist Paul de Kruif had been dismissed from a research position at the Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, he started contributing to a novel in collaboration with the future Nobel laureate Sinclair Lewis. The novel, Arrowsmith, would become one of the most famous satires on medicine and science. Using de Kruif's correspondence with his idol Jacques Loeb, this paper describes the many ways in which medical science is depicted in Arrowsmith. This article compares the novel with de Kruif's and Loeb's biographies, and (1) focuses on the struggles of the main character, Martin Arrowsmith, as an allegory of the institutionalisation of medical research in the US, (2) shows that (influenced by de Kruif) Sinclair's purpose is to caricaturise scientific work in modern medical research institutions anywhere and (3) shows that the novel depicts a reductionist philosophy of research that seems to contradict the "messiness" of medical practice. PMID:23673799

  13. Growing Research Among Osteopathic Residents and Medical Students: A Consortium-Based Research Education Continuum Model.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Grace D

    2016-05-01

    In general, physicians' interest in research continues to be a challenge. The lack of research culture is more pronounced in the osteopathic medical profession, which is historically not research oriented. With increasing focus on evidence-based medicine and with the single accreditation system for graduate medical education in motion, growing research and scholarly activities among osteopathic physicians and students and residents becomes imperative. This article illustrates how an educational consortium, such as an osteopathic postdoctoral training institution, can play a pivotal role in creating a culture of research through broad-based training of medical students and residents. PMID:27111784

  14. Patient perceptions on the subject of medical research

    PubMed Central

    Ventolini, Gary; Goodwin, Breanna; Woody, Courtney

    2014-01-01

    While performing medical research we often spend little time addressing patient’s views on how research participants perceive the trial will affect their own condition. This manuscript identifies various ways in which the field of medicine must approach the important subject of patient’s outlook. The described approach is vital to succeed at achieving meaningful patient’s involvement in research. PMID:25378954

  15. A Teacher Research Experience: Promoting Science Literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMinn, L.

    2007-12-01

    As an ARMADA master teacher, I was able to take part in STEEP, a study of the evolution of the Saint Elias Mountains. This enabled me to experience current geological fieldwork, and gave me the opportunity to step out of the classroom. As a middle school science teacher, one of my major responsibilities is to instill a love of scince in my students. I need to introduce them to the many career opportunities that are available in the field. To be more effective in the classroom, I am deeply committed to mastering the skills, techniques and content needed to ensure success for my students in this ever-changing world. Rich, authentic opportunities to work along with scientists in the field and to engage in scientific discourse can expand a teacher's knowledge of science and the scientific process. Teachers become more familiar with the use of scientific tools and how to gather and interpret data. This knowledge will be transferred into the classroom, which will enable students to become more scientifically literate. Because of this experience, I will more effectively mentor other teachers in my district to enhance the instruction in their classes. This presentation will show how research/teacher partnerships can benefit both parties, and how my experience transferred back to the classroom and to my school district.

  16. Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

    1989-01-01

    This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

  17. Division of Biological and Medical Research annual research summary, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.H.

    1984-08-01

    This research summary contains brief descriptions of research in the following areas: (1) mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis; (2) role of metals in cocarcinogenesis and the use of liposomes for metal mobilization; (3) control of mutagenesis and cell differentiation in cultured cells by tumor promoters; (4) radiation effects in mammalian cells; (5) radiation carcinogenesis and radioprotectors; (6) life shortening, tumor induction, and tissue dose for fission-neutron and gamma-ray irradiations; (7) mammalian genetics and biostatistics; (8) radiation toxicity studies; (9) hematopoiesis in chronic toxicity; (10) molecular biology studies; (11) chemical toxicology; (12) carcinogen identification and metabolism; (13) metal metabolism and toxicity; and (14) neurobehavioral chronobiology. (ACR)

  18. Diversifying Science: Underrepresented Student Experiences in Structured Research Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Sylvia; Cabrera, Nolan L.; Lin, Monica H.; Arellano, Lucy; Espinosa, Lorelle L.

    2009-01-01

    Targeting four institutions with structured science research programs for undergraduates, this study focuses on how underrepresented students experience science. Several key themes emerged from focus group discussions: learning to become research scientists, experiences with the culture of science, and views on racial and social stigma.…

  19. Entering the Community of Practitioners: A Science Research Workshop Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory; Pazos, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Science Research Workshop Program (SRW) and discusses how it provides students a legitimate science experience. SRW, which is funded by the National Science Foundation, is an apprenticeship-style program in which students write proposals requesting resources to research an original question. The program creates a

  20. Entering the Community of Practitioners: A Science Research Workshop Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streitwieser, Bernhard; Light, Gregory; Pazos, Pilar

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the Science Research Workshop Program (SRW) and discusses how it provides students a legitimate science experience. SRW, which is funded by the National Science Foundation, is an apprenticeship-style program in which students write proposals requesting resources to research an original question. The program creates a…