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Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

Research in medical education: balancing service and science.  

PubMed

Since the latter part of the 1990's, the English-speaking medical education community has been engaged in a debate concerning the types of research that should have priority. To shed light on this debate and to better understand its implications for the practice of research, 23 semi-structured interviews were conducted with "influential figures" from the community. The results were analyzed using the concept of "field" developed by the sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. The results reveal that a large majority of these influential figures believe that research in medical education continues to be of insufficient quality despite the progress that has taken place over the past 2 decades. According to this group, studies tend to be both redundant and opportunistic, and researchers tend to have limited understanding of both theory and methodological practice from the social sciences. Three factors were identified by the participants to explain the current problems in research: the working conditions of researchers, budgetary restraints in financing research in medical education, and the conception of research in the medical environment. Two principal means for improving research are presented: intensifying collaboration between PhD's and clinicians, and encouraging the diversification of perspectives brought to bear on research in medical education. PMID:17033879

Albert, Mathieu; Hodges, Brian; Regehr, Glenn

2007-02-01

2

Trend of Knowledge Production of Research Centers in the Field of Medical Sciences in Iran  

PubMed Central

Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science). Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country.

Falahat, K; Eftekhari, MB; Habibi, E; Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M; Mojarrab, Sh

2013-01-01

3

Trend of knowledge production of research centers in the field of medical sciences in iran.  

PubMed

Establishment of medical research centers at universities and health-related organizations and annually evaluation of their research activities was one of the strategic policies which followed by governmental organization in last decade in order to strengthening the connections between health research system and health system. The aim of this study is to scrutinize the role of medical research centers in medical science production in Iran. This study is a cross sectional which has been performed based on existing reports on national scientometrics and evaluation results of research performance of medical research centers between years 2001 to 2010. During last decade number of medical research centers increased from 53 in 2001 to 359 in 2010. Simultaneous scientific output of medical research centers has been increased especially articles indexed in ISI (web of science). Proper policy implementation in the field of health research system during last decades led to improving capacity building and growth knowledge production of medical science in recent years in Iran. The process embedding research into the health systems requires planning up until research products improves health outcomes and health equity in country. PMID:23865017

Falahat, K; Eftekhari, Mb; Habibi, E; Djalalinia, Sh; Peykari, N; Owlia, P; Malekafzali, H; Ghanei, M; Mojarrab, Sh

2013-01-01

4

An international basic science and clinical research summer program for medical students.  

PubMed

An important part of training the next generation of physicians is ensuring that they are exposed to the integral role that research plays in improving medical treatment. However, medical students often do not have sufficient time to be trained to carry out any projects in biomedical and clinical research. Many medical students also fail to understand and grasp translational research as an important concept today. In addition, since medical training is often an international affair whereby a medical student/resident/fellow will likely train in many different countries during his/her early training years, it is important to provide a learning environment whereby a young medical student experiences the unique challenges and value of an international educational experience. This article describes a program that bridges the gap between the basic and clinical research concepts in a unique international educational experience. After completing two semester curricula at Alfaisal University in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, six medical students undertook a summer program at St. Boniface Hospital Research Centre, in Winnipeg, MB, Canada. The program lasted for 2 mo and addressed advanced training in basic science research topics in medicine such as cell isolation, functional assessment, and molecular techniques of analysis and manipulation as well as sessions on the conduct of clinical research trials, ethics, and intellectual property management. Programs such as these are essential to provide a base from which medical students can decide if research is an attractive career choice for them during their clinical practice in subsequent years. An innovative international summer research course for medical students is necessary to cater to the needs of the medical students in the 21st century. PMID:22383409

Ramjiawan, Bram; Pierce, Grant N; Anindo, Mohammad Iffat Kabir; Alkukhun, Abedalrazaq; Alshammari, Abdullah; Chamsi, Ahmad Talal; Abousaleh, Mohannad; Alkhani, Anas; Ganguly, Pallab K

2012-03-01

5

Engagement, Wonder, and Learning by Jerks in Science: Perspectives of Pre-Service Elementary Education Students, Medical Students, and Research Science Doctoral Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How do good science students perceive the process of learning science? What occurs in the learning process that motivates students to accept the challenge of pursuing a career in science? This paper reports on panel discussions held by teams of medical students, research science doctoral students, science education students, and high school…

Pelaez, Nancy; And Others

6

The medical sciences in Czechoslovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Science Citation Index, the Czechoslovak medical sciences contributed about 1.2% of the world medical knowledge pool in the 1960s. This contribution decreased to about 0.6% in the 1980s. The reasons for this decline are many and varied, such as the suppression of certain fields of scientific research by the Communist government and the degradation of the position of

V Schreiber

1993-01-01

7

Is it science? A study of the attitudes of medical trainees and physicians toward qualitative and quantitative research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the degree of acceptance of qualitative research by medical trainees and physicians, and explored the\\u000a causes for any differences in their support of qualitative versus quantitative research. Thirty-two individuals at four levels\\u000a of medical training were studied. Eight philosophers of science served for construct validation. After completing a questionnaire,\\u000a participants were interviewed using a semi-structured procedure. Transcriptions

Jeannette Goguen; Melanie Knight; Richard Tiberius

2008-01-01

8

Molecules, magic and forgetful fruit flies: the supernatural science of medical gas research.  

PubMed

Medical gas research often involves the study of molecules under extraphysiologic conditions, that is, conditions that do not exist in nature. This "supernatural" nature of medical gas research sometimes produces results that appear to be almost "magic" to those schooled in traditional physiology"Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from magic".-Arthur C. Clarke. PMID:22146602

Mychaskiw, George

2011-01-01

9

New Belgian law on research on human embryos: trust in progress through medical science.  

PubMed

The new Belgian law on research on embryos in vitro accepts all types of research directed at therapeutic purposes and at increased medical knowledge. This includes research for germline and somatic gene therapy, therapeutic cloning, and the development of embryonic stem cell lines. As this presupposes the creation of embryos for research, this too is allowed. Other goals like sex selection for nonmedical reasons, eugenic practices and reproductive cloning are prohibited. In general, the law expresses a belief in the importance of freedom of research and the acceptance of ethical pluralism in society. PMID:12948098

Pennings, G

2003-08-01

10

The reincarnation of a biomedical researcher: from bench science to medical education.  

PubMed

After 33 years as a biomedical research scientist, I embarked on a new career in medical education. The transformation was awkward, difficult and exciting. Although I had assumed that previous experience in research and scholarship would stand me in good stead, such was hardly the case. I had to learn to navigate a strange new literature, replete with terms that I did not understand, and to deal with concepts that challenged my physico-chemical mindset. As I learned, I found myself discovering a field rich in essential questions, controversial hypotheses, and important potential applications. With my newly acquired knowledge and skills, I began to reflect on my own educational endeavors. I identified a number of outstanding issues and I designed studies to address them. What made these investigations particularly significant for me was their applicability. Although medical education is an exciting and meaningful career path, because of its low profile in most medical schools, few faculty are aware of the academic opportunities that it affords. PMID:18278657

Brawer, James R

2008-02-01

11

Fraud, misconduct or normal science in medical research--an empirical study of demarcation.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To study and describe how a group of senior researchers and a group of postgraduate students perceived the so-called "grey zone" between normal scientific practice and obvious misconduct. DESIGN: A questionnaire concerning various practices including dishonesty and obvious misconduct. The answers were obtained by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS). The central (two quarters) of the VAS were designated as a grey zone. SETTING: A Swedish medical faculty. SURVEY SAMPLE: 30 senior researchers and 30 postgraduate students. RESULTS: Twenty of the senior researchers and 25 of the postgraduate students answered the questionnaire. In five cases out of 14 the senior researchers' median was found to be clearly within the interval of the grey zone, compared with three cases for the postgraduate students. Three examples of experienced misconduct were provided. Compared with postgraduate students, established researchers do not call for more research ethical guidelines and restrictions. CONCLUSION: Although the results indicate that consensus exists regarding certain obvious types of misconduct the response pattern also indicates that there is no general consensus on several procedures.

Lynoe, N; Jacobsson, L; Lundgren, E

1999-01-01

12

The cost of not doing medical research.  

PubMed

At a time when governmental expenditures on medical research are being questioned by treasury boards, it seems wise to review historical examples of profitable investment in such research. Differentiation of medical research from medical technology is essential in this confrontation. Continuity of merited research support is a key factor in attracting inquisitive and gifted minds to this area of medical science. Medical research should be seen as social investment and not as a charity. PMID:6775097

Gibson, W C

1980-10-17

13

Health sciences librarians' research on medical students' use of information for their studies at the medical school, University of Queensland, Australia.  

PubMed

This study reports the findings of research undertaken by health sciences librarians at the University of Queensland Library into how medical students use information for their studies, particularly resources and services provided by the Library. The methods utilized were an online survey and focus groups. Results indicated that students favor print resources over electronic, value accessing resources on a one-stop basis, and prefer training to be delivered flexibly. The implication of these results for future resource selection, service provision, and instructional design and delivery is discussed. PMID:21534114

Lasserre, Kaye E; Foxlee, Nicola; Kruesi, Lisa; Walters, Julie

2011-01-01

14

Can medical education be researched?  

PubMed

Many medical educators are tempted or encouraged to conduct research into teaching techniques, methods of evaluation, and curricular change. These educators are generally career physicians who become distressed by their inability to apply the social science model of research to their project with impunity. This paper addresses the issues involved in conducting educational research and provides some suggestions for methodology that can be used. PMID:1749345

Lloyd, D A

1991-01-01

15

Understanding Medical Research  

MedlinePLUS

... hear about the results of a new medical research study. Sometimes the results of one study seem ... a randomized controlled clinical trial? Where was the research done? If a new treatment was being tested, ...

16

Where techno-science meets poverty: Medical research and the economy of blood in The Gambia, West Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers how internationally supported medical research is understood and interpreted by its actual and potential study subjects, exposing the limits to bioethical discourses amidst economic inequalities and contrasting socio-cultural worlds. It focuses on the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratories in The Gambia and particularly their Pneumococcal Vaccine Trial (PVT) that was conducted jointly with the Gambian government during

James Fairhead; Melissa Leach; Mary Small

2006-01-01

17

75 FR 65363 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review...Minority Biomedical Research Neuro Grant Applications. Date...Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of...

2010-10-22

18

75 FR 63843 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Review...Minority Biomedical Research Neuro Grant Applications. Date...Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of...

2010-10-18

19

Collaboration in research and the influential factors in Golestan University of Medical Sciences research projects (2005-2007): an academic sample from Iran  

PubMed Central

Background Number of Iranian articles published in ISI journals has increased significantly in recent years.Despite the quantitative progress, studies performed in Iran represent low collaboration in research; therefore,we decided to evaluate collaboration in Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GOUMS) research projects. Methods In this cross-sectional study, all GOUMS research projects that had got grants from the universitybetween 2005-2007 were studied. Among 107 research projects included in our study, 102 projects were evaluatedand checklists were completed. The researcher's questionnaire was sent to the principle investigators (n=46) of the projects and eventually 40 questionnaires were collected. Results The review of 102 research proposals shows that 10 projects (9.8%) have been performed in collaborationwith other organizations. Scientific outputs in these projects have been more than projects which wereconfined to the university (98% compare to 68%; p= 0.04). The total cost of the projects under study was a littlemore than 300,000 US$. In just 12 projects (11.8%) a part of the cost had been provided by organizations outsidethe university. About 50% of researchers declared that they had chosen their research topic based on their"personal interest". Only 1 project was performed by the demand of nongovernmental organizations and 12 researchersreported no collaboration in their activities. Conclusion This study shows that collaboration in GOUMS research projects is low. Moreover, collaborationswith governmental and nongovernmental organizations are trivial. The scientific outputs in collaborativeresearch projects are much more than other projects.

Borghei, Afsaneh; Rezapour, Aziz; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Asayesh, Hamid; Mansourian, Morteza; Noroozi, Mahdi; Jahahgir, Fereydoon

2013-01-01

20

National Institute of General Medical Sciences Research Grants, Part II. By Study Section.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The list of research grants provides information on the 1,875 awards which were 'active' on June 30, 1967, with a total funded value of $69.9 million. These awards represent 1,825 different projects--the difference between the number of awards and the num...

1967-01-01

21

Mapping Medical Informatics Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to create a big picture of a knowledge domain is valuable to both experts and newcomers, who can use such a picture to orient themselves in the field’s intellectual space, track the dynamics of the field, or discover potential new areas of research. In this chapter we present an overview of medical informatics research by applying domain visualization

Shauna Eggers; Zan Huang; Hsinchun Chen; Lijun Yan; Cathy Larson; Asraa Rashid; Michael Chau; Chienting Lin

22

Medical Sciences Division report for 1993  

SciTech Connect

This year`s Medical Sciences Division (MSD) Report is organized to show how programs in our division contribute to the core competencies of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). ORISE`s core competencies in education and training, environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, occupational and environmental health, and enabling research support the overall mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE).

Not Available

1993-12-31

23

"HTLV-I Infection" Twenty-Year Research in Neurology Department of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types 1 and 2 belong to the Oncorna group of retroviridae, a large family of viruses, grouped initially by pathogenic features, but later revised on the basis of genome structure and nucleotide sequence. HTLV-I was the first discovered human retrovirus to be associated with a malignancy in 1980. The malignancy, first described by Uchiyama and co-workers in southwestern Japan, was named Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL) and characterized with cutaneous and respiratory involvement, hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy and various metabolic abnormalities such as hypercalcemia. The HTLV-I has been known to be endemic to certain parts of Iran like the province of Khorasan in the northeast since 1990, with a 2.3% prevalence rate of infection. The main manifestations of HTLV-I infection are neurologic and hematologic (such as ATL) disorders, but it has also other manifestations such as uveitis, arthritis, dermatitis, vitiligo and lymphocytic alveolitis. Its main neurologic manifestation is a chronic progressive myelopathy that is referred to HTLV-I Associated Myelopathy (HAM) in Japan and Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (TSP) in Caribbean. But other disorders such as peripheral neuropathy, polyradiculoneuropathy, myopathy, peripheral facial paresis, and so on have been reported too. In this review we wish to give some brief information on the different aspects (including epidemiology, pathogenesis and pathology, clinical findings, and treatment) of HTLV-I infection according to our twenty-year researches. The department of neurology of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences has been a pioneer in researches on HTLV-I in the last twenty years.

Shoeibi, Ali; Etemadi, Mohammdmahdi; Moghaddam Ahmadi, Amir; Amini, Mona; Boostani, Reza

2013-01-01

24

Mandibular Fractures at Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Medical Science and Research Institute, Garhwal Region, Uttarakhand, India: A Retrospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Mandibular fractures constitute a substantial proportion of cases of maxillofacial trauma. Demographic data related to mandibular fractures are difficult to evaluate because of many variables associated with the studies. The information is as diverse as the countries and the people who inhabit them. Aim: This is a retrospective study designed to determine the site distribution, associated fracture and causes of mandibular fractures in patients presenting to the trauma centre of Veer Chandra Singh Garhwali Government Medical Science and Research Institute, Uttarakhand, India. Materials and Methods: Records of 121 patients with confirmed mandibular fractures presenting over a three year period (i.e., 1st January 2008 to 31st December 2010). Data obtained from record included age, sex, site of fracture and causes. Results: There were 48/121 (39.6%) males and 73/121 (60.3%) females. The most predominant age group of fracture was found to be 21-30 (53/121-43.8%) followed by 11-20 (25/121-20.6%). In this study history of fall was the most common cause of mandibular fracture (66/121-54.5%), followed by road traffic accidents (45/121-37.1%), fights and assault (08/121-6.6%) and industrial accidents (02/121-1.6%). In our study most of the patients suffered from fracture in the parasymphysis (35/139-25.1%) and angle region (32/139-23.0%) followed by body (30/139-21.5%), condyle (21/139-15.1%), symphysis (19/139-13.7%), and ramus (02/121-1.4%) area. Conclusion: In this study mandibular fractures were more prevalent in females especially during the second and third decade of life. History of fall was the most predominant cause of mandibular fracture. The most frequently affected sites were parasymphysis and angle.

Mittal, G; Mittal, SR

2013-01-01

25

Research support in an academic medical center.  

PubMed

In 2003, the Prior Health Sciences Library (Prior Library) at The Ohio State University (OSU) explored the possibility of providing specialized support to biomedical, nursing, and allied health researchers by adding a research librarian position. The decision came about after the Medical Library Association (MLA) investigated how libraries could provide enhanced support to medical researchers. This article describes how the research librarian position was developed and how it continues to evolve. PMID:20391163

Cheek, Fern M

2010-01-01

26

Medical Research System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on Johnson Space Flight Center's development of a rotating bioreactor cell culture apparatus for Space Shuttle medical research, Johnson Space Flight Center engineers who worked on the original project formed a company called Synthecon, with the intention of commercializing the bioreactor technology. Synthecon grows three dimensional tissues in the bioreactor. These are superior to previous two-dimensional tissue samples in the study of human cell growth. A refined version of the Johnson Space Center technology, Synthecon's Rotary Cell Culture System includes a cell culture chamber that rotates around a horizontal axis. The cells establish an orbit that approximates free fall through the liquid medium in the chamber. The technology has significant applications for cancer research and treatment as well as AIDS research.

1993-01-01

27

The Hyper-Commons: how open science prizes can expand and level the medical research playing field.  

PubMed

The largest industry in America is increasingly incapable of serving its customers. Over-fencing of the information commons has led to unaffordable medicine, for want of which millions of Americans and people around the world go without lifesaving treatments. Eliminating patent distribution exclusivity altogether, however, is not feasible, given the entrenched nature of the health-care industry. This paper proposes a program of voluntary Open Science Prizes that would draw large numbers of new players, who would in turn produce much new medical innovation, provide academic priority recognition, and develop a growing body of patent-beating prior art that would serve as public domain firewalls on a new supranational Hyper-Commons. PMID:19119862

Hynek, Paul

2008-12-01

28

Library and information science practitioners and research  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a continuing need for more and better research in the field of library and information science (LIS). However, many LIS practitioners are not heavily involved in research. To add to our knowledge of practitioners’ involvement in research, 1,444 questionnaires were sent to members of the American Library Association, the American Society for Information Science and Technology, the Medical

Ronald R. Powell; Lynda M. Baker; Joseph J. Mika

2002-01-01

29

The rate commitment to ISO 214 standard among the persian abstracts of approved research projects at school of health management and medical informatics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Commitment to abstracting standards has a very significant role in information retrieval. The present research aimed to evaluate the rate of Commitment to ISO 214 Standard among the Persian abstracts of approved research projects at School of Health Management and Medical Informatics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study used a researcher-made checklist to collect data, which was then analyzed through content analysis. The studied population consisted of 227 approved research projects in the School of Health Management and Medical Informatics, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences during 2001-2010. The validity of the checklist was measured by face and content validity. Data was collected through direct observations. Statistical analyzes including descriptive (frequency distribution and percent) and inferential statistics (Chi-square test) were performed in SPSS-16. Results: The highest and lowest commitment rates to ISO 214 standard were in using third person pronouns (100%) and using active verbs (34/4%), respectively. In addition, the highest commitment rates to ISO 214 standard (100%) related to mentioning third person pronouns, starting the abstract with a sentence to explain the subject of the research, abstract placement, and including keyword in 2009. On the other hand, during 2001-2003, the lowest commitment rate was observed in reporting research findings (16/7%). Moreover, various educational groups differed significantly only in commitment to study goals, providing research findings, and abstaining from using abbreviations, signs, and acronyms. Furthermore, educational level of the corresponding author was significantly related with extracting the keywords from the text. Other factors of ISO 214 standard did not have significant relations with the educational level of the corresponding author. Conclusions: In general, a desirable rate of commitment to ISO 214 standard was observed among the Persian abstracts of approved research projects at the School of Health Management and Medical Informatics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. However, commitment rates differed between years. In addition, commitment to ISO 214 standard was not significantly related with educational group and level.

Papi, Ahmad; Khalaji, Davoud; Rizi, Hasan Ashrafi; Shabani, Ahmad; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

2014-01-01

30

A Course in Medical Research Study Design and Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A course to familiarize medical students with the principles of good medical research study design and analysis focuses on three types of studies: clinical trials, laboratory science, and epidemiology and biostatistics. (MSE)

Linskey, Mark E.; And Others

1987-01-01

31

Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science  

SciTech Connect

Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241 Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R and D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

Ahle, Larry [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, L-414, PO Box 808 Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

2007-10-26

32

Global Security, Medical Isotopes, and Nuclear Science  

SciTech Connect

Over the past century basic nuclear science research has led to the use of radioactive isotopes into a wide variety of applications that touch our lives everyday. Some are obvious, such as isotopes for medical diagnostics and treatment. Others are less so, such as National/Global security issues. And some we take for granted, like the small amount of 241Am that is in every smoke detector. At the beginning of this century, we are in a position where the prevalence and importance of some applications of nuclear science are pushing the basic nuclear science community for improved models and nuclear data. Yet, at the same time, the push by the basic nuclear science community to study nuclei that are farther and farther away from stability also offer new opportunities for many applications. This talk will look at several global security applications of nuclear science, summarizing current R&D and need for improved nuclear data It will also look at how applications of nuclear science, such as to medicine, will benefit from the push for more and more powerful radioactive ion beam facilities.

Ahle, L E

2007-09-17

33

National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Science Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of General Medical Sciences' (NIGMS) Science Education website brings together award-winning booklets on topics like cell biology and genetics, their in-house magazine, interactive games, and a scientific image gallery for those who hold science close to their heart. First-time visitors will notice that there are two primary areas here: "Publications" and "School Resources". The "Publications" area includes "Findings" (their in-house magazine) and the very helpful "Biomedical Beat" news digest. This digest is published monthly, and it contains research news and educational updates from the NIGMS. The "School Resources" area includes interactive games that deal with Nobel Prize winners and proteins, along with suggestions on how to most effectively use the resources here with different grade levels.

34

Social Science Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since 1923, the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) has been an independent, international association committed to the promotion of interdisciplinary research in the social sciences. This Website provides information about the SSRC's academic conferences, grant opportunities, fellowship programs, scholarly exchanges, research committees, and council publications. Expository information about the SSRC as well as a brief history of the council are also available on-site.

35

Japanese medical students' interest in basic sciences: a questionnaire survey of a medical school in Japan.  

PubMed

The number of physicians engaged in basic sciences and teaching is sharply decreasing in Japan. To alleviate this shortage, central government has increased the quota of medical students entering the field. This study investigated medical students' interest in basic sciences in efforts to recruit talent. A questionnaire distributed to 501 medical students in years 2 to 6 of Juntendo University School of Medicine inquired about sex, grade, interest in basic sciences, interest in research, career path as a basic science physician, faculties' efforts to encourage students to conduct research, increases in the number of lectures, and practical training sessions on research. Associations between interest in basic sciences and other variables were examined using ?(2) tests. From among the 269 medical students (171 female) who returned the questionnaire (response rate 53.7%), 24.5% of respondents were interested in basic sciences and half of them considered basic sciences as their future career. Obstacles to this career were their original aim to become a clinician and concerns about salary. Medical students who were likely to be interested in basic sciences were fifth- and sixth-year students, were interested in research, considered basic sciences as their future career, considered faculties were making efforts to encourage medical students to conduct research, and wanted more research-related lectures. Improving physicians' salaries in basic sciences is important for securing talent. Moreover, offering continuous opportunities for medical students to experience research and encouraging advanced-year students during and after bedside learning to engage in basic sciences are important for recruiting talent. PMID:23337622

Yamazaki, Yuka; Uka, Takanori; Shimizu, Haruhiko; Miyahira, Akira; Sakai, Tatsuo; Marui, Eiji

2013-01-01

36

The logic of the medical research article.  

PubMed

As do all forms of science, medical theories have a factual as well as a logical basis. New information is presented in medical research articles. These papers have three separate arguments: the argument of the hypothesis, the argument of the experimental protocol, and the argument of the hypothesis's judgement. These arguments may be examples of the hypothetico-deductive or confirmational model of scientific interference. The logical form of these arguments are informal and inductive rather than formal and deductive. Understanding the nature of the logic of the medical research article may help avoid erroneous conclusions. PMID:8259532

Velanovich, V

1993-09-01

37

Prescriptions for medical research. I--Management within the Medical Research Council  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their submission to the government in advance of the white paper on science policy in the United Kingdom the Medical Research Council commends the MRC's own approach to managing directly funded research. But a series of semi-structured interviews with the directors of some of the MRC's units suggests a gap between the MRC's model of managed research and the

R Gillett; J Harrow

1993-01-01

38

Medical Privacy and Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical records are increasingly kept in electronic form. The existence of large medical data bases raises new questions about privacy and control over that information. When records exist in a form that they can easily be shared with others, there are legitimate fears about loss of privacy. The paper argues that this fear is not properly an issue of privacy,

Norman M. Bradburn

2001-01-01

39

State of the Science on Safe Medication Administration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the report is to develop research priorities and clinical care and policy recommendations addressing the state of the art and science of safe medication administration. The objectives were to: (1) describe the state of the science in safe m...

D. J. Mason J. H. Barnsteiner K. Burke M. C. Alexander V. Rich

2005-01-01

40

Dystonia Medical Research Foundation  

MedlinePLUS

... of Dystonia Research Research News Funding Programs Current Research Dystonia Coalition About DMRF Mission People Dystonia Dialogue DMRF Insights Blog For the Media Connect Contact Us Privacy Policy Find a Support Group Attend an Event

41

Microgravity Science Research Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is a transcription of the Microgravity Science Research Panel's discussion about their research and about some of the contributions that they feel have been important to the field during their time with the program. The panel includes Dr. Eugene Trinh, Dr. Lawrence DeLucas, Dr. Charles Bugg, Dr. David Larson, and Dr. Simon Ostrach.

Carpenter, Bradley M.; Trinh, Eugene H.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Larson, David; Koss, Matthew; Ostrach, Simon

2000-01-01

42

Human Sciences Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Human Sciences Research Council provides news and research in South African social sciences, including economics, social analysis, education, and governance. The site posts weekly media releases on contemporary topics; recent working papers; and "published findings" on such topics as Children's Rights in South Africa, Human Rights and Democratization, and pending social legislation. (A search engine is provided for these materials, but wasn't accessible when we visited.) The site also gives some annotated links to prime databases for further research on South Africa. Note: the site's book-length publications generally must be ordered online.

43

Molecular Science Research Center  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Molecular Science Research Center is a designated national user facility, available to scientists from universities, industry, and other national laboratories. After an opening section, which includes conferences hosted, appointments, and projects, this document presents progress in the following fields: chemical structure and dynamics; environmental dynamics and simulation; macromolecular structure and dynamics; materials and interfaces; theory, modeling, and simulation; and computing and information sciences. Appendices are included: MSRC staff and associates, 1992 publications and presentations, activities, and acronyms and abbreviations.

Knotek, M. L.

1994-01-01

44

Medical Sciences Division Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education report for 1992  

SciTech Connect

Research programs from the medical science division of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) are briefly described in the following areas: Biochemistry, cytogenetics, microbiology, center for epidemiologic research, radiation medicine, radiation internal dose information center, center for human reliability studies, facility safety, occupational medicine, and radiation emergency assistance center/training site.

Not Available

1992-12-31

45

Medical Research: Considering a Career in Medical Research  

MedlinePLUS

... MD-PhD Dual Degree Training PhD in Biomedical Sciences Biomedical scientists carry out research to learn about the functioning of molecules, cells, and organisms. The discoveries they make are then applied to understanding how ...

46

Medical Research for All Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Current Issue Past Issues Medical Research for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents ... improvements to the health and well being of all Americans. Starting on page 10, our special section ...

47

Teaching Science through Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the objectives of the science curriculum and the teacher's responsibility of passing through not only the required material, but also skills. Suggests that in order to improve teaching and learning skills, new strategies, such as teaching and learning through research must be utilized. Presents four examples of teaching and learning…

Hugerat, Muhamad; Zidani, Saleem; Kurtam, Naji

2003-01-01

48

Biomedical research competencies for osteopathic medical students  

PubMed Central

Background Without systematic exposure to biomedical research concepts or applications, osteopathic medical students may be generally under-prepared to efficiently consume and effectively apply research and evidence-based medicine information in patient care. The academic literature suggests that although medical residents are increasingly expected to conduct research in their post graduate training specialties, they generally have limited understanding of research concepts. With grant support from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, and a grant from the Osteopathic Heritage Foundation, the University of North Texas Health Science Center (UNTHSC) is incorporating research education in the osteopathic medical school curriculum. The first phase of this research education project involved a baseline assessment of students' understanding of targeted research concepts. This paper reports the results of that assessment and discusses implications for research education during medical school. Methods Using a novel set of research competencies supported by the literature as needed for understanding research information, we created a questionnaire to measure students' confidence and understanding of selected research concepts. Three matriculating medical school classes completed the on-line questionnaire. Data were analyzed for differences between groups using analysis of variance and t-tests. Correlation coefficients were computed for the confidence and applied understanding measures. We performed a principle component factor analysis of the confidence items, and used multiple regression analyses to explore how confidence might be related to the applied understanding. Results Of 496 total incoming, first, and second year medical students, 354 (71.4%) completed the questionnaire. Incoming students expressed significantly more confidence than first or second year students (F = 7.198, df = 2, 351, P = 0.001) in their ability to understand the research concepts. Factor analyses of the confidence items yielded conceptually coherent groupings. Regression analysis confirmed a relationship between confidence and applied understanding referred to as knowledge. Confidence scores were important in explaining variability in knowledge scores of the respondents. Conclusion Medical students with limited understanding of research concepts may struggle to understand the medical literature. Assessing medical students' confidence to understand and objectively measured ability to interpret basic research concepts can be used to incorporate competency based research material into the existing curriculum.

Cruser, des Anges; Dubin, Bruce; Brown, Sarah K; Bakken, Lori L; Licciardone, John C; Podawiltz, Alan L; Bulik, Robert J

2009-01-01

49

Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial contents; Medical Chemical/Biological Defense Research, Chemical/Biological Defense Rationale for Rationale for Investment,Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program Mission, Medical Chemical and Biological Defense Research Program D...

C. D. Linden

2001-01-01

50

Standardizing and personalizing science in medical education.  

PubMed

In the century since the initial publication of the Flexner Report, medical education has emphasized a broad knowledge of science and a fundamental understanding of the scientific method, which medical educators believe are essential to the practice of medicine. The enormous growth of scientific knowledge that underlies clinical practice has challenged medical schools to accommodate this new information within the curricula. Although innovative educational modalities and new curricula have partly addressed this growth, the authors argue for a systematic restructuring of the content and structure of science education from the premedical setting through clinical practice. The overarching goal of science education is to provide students with a broad, solid foundation applicable to medicine, a deep understanding of the scientific method, and the attitudes and skills needed to apply new knowledge to patient care throughout their careers. The authors believe that to accomplish this successfully, the following changes must occur across the three major stages of medical education: (1) a reshaping of the scientific preparation that all students complete before medical school, (2) an increase in individualized science education during medical school, and (3) an emphasis on knowledge acquisition skills throughout graduate medical education and beyond to assure lifelong scientific learning. As students progress through the educational continuum, the balance of standardized and personalized scientific knowledge will shift toward personalization. Greater personalization demands that physicians possess well-refined skills in information acquisition, interpretation, and application for optimal lifelong learning and effective clinical practice. PMID:20107368

Lambert, David R; Lurie, Stephen J; Lyness, Jeffrey M; Ward, Denham S

2010-02-01

51

National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Inside Life Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Institute of General Medical Sciences has worked to create this excellent series of articles that help explain "how basic biomedical research - from the history of a field to the people doing cutting-edge work today - lays the foundation for advances in disease diagnosis, treatment and prevention." First-time visitors might want to check out articles like "What Students Want to Know About Cells," "Remarkable RNAs," and "Forecasting Flu" to get the flavor of the site. Each article contains illustrative material, such as photos, charts, diagrams, and links to other relevant publications. Visitors can share these articles via email or sign up to receive the site's free newsletter. Finally, visitors can also locate articles by general topic: Cell Biology, Genetics, Pharmacology, and several others.

2013-01-25

52

Research in computer science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Synopses are given for NASA supported work in computer science at the University of Virginia. Some areas of research include: error seeding as a testing method; knowledge representation for engineering design; analysis of faults in a multi-version software experiment; implementation of a parallel programming environment; two computer graphics systems for visualization of pressure distribution and convective density particles; task decomposition for multiple robot arms; vectorized incomplete conjugate gradient; and iterative methods for solving linear equations on the Flex/32.

Ortega, J. M.

1985-01-01

53

Research in computer science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various graduate research activities in the field of computer science are reported. Among the topics discussed are: (1) failure probabilities in multi-version software; (2) Gaussian Elimination on parallel computers; (3) three dimensional Poisson solvers on parallel/vector computers; (4) automated task decomposition for multiple robot arms; (5) multi-color incomplete cholesky conjugate gradient methods on the Cyber 205; and (6) parallel implementation of iterative methods for solving linear equations.

Ortega, J. M.

1986-01-01

54

Knowledge Translation for Research Utilization: Design of a Knowledge Translation Model at Tehran University of Medical Sciences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduction: The present study aimed to generate a model that would provide a conceptual framework for linking disparate components of knowledge translation. A theoretical model of such would enable the organization and evaluation of attempts to analyze current conditions and to design interventions on the transfer and utilization of research

Majdzadeh, Reza; Sadighi, Jila; Nejat, Saharnaz; Mahani, Ali Shahidzade; Gholami, Jaleh

2008-01-01

55

Spacelab Life Sciences Research Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document describes some of the life sciences research that was conducted on Spacelab missions. Dr. Larry Young, Director of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute, provides an overview of the Life Sciences Spacelabs.

Sulzman, Frank; Young, Laurence R.; Seddon, Rhea; Ross, Muriel; Baldwin, Kenneth; Frey, Mary Anne; Hughes, Rod

2000-01-01

56

Medical operations and life sciences activities on space station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space station health maintenance facilities, habitability, personnel, and research in the medical sciences and in biology are discussed. It is assumed that the space station structure will consist of several modules, each being consistent with Orbiter payload bay limits in size, weight, and center of gravity.

Johnson, P. C. (editor); Mason, J. A. (editor)

1982-01-01

57

Emotional intelligence in medical laboratory science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this study was to explore the role of emotional intelligence (EI) in medical laboratory science, as perceived by laboratory administrators. To collect and evaluate these perceptions, a survey was developed and distributed to over 1,400 medical laboratory administrators throughout the U.S. during January and February of 2013. In addition to demographic-based questions, the survey contained a list of 16 items, three skills traditionally considered important for successful work in the medical laboratory as well as 13 EI-related items. Laboratory administrators were asked to rate each item for its importance for job performance, their satisfaction with the item's demonstration among currently working medical laboratory scientists (MLS) and the amount of responsibility college-based medical laboratory science programs should assume for the development of each skill or attribute. Participants were also asked about EI training in their laboratories and were given the opportunity to express any thoughts or opinions about EI as it related to medical laboratory science. This study revealed that each EI item, as well as each of the three other items, was considered to be very or extremely important for successful job performance. Administrators conveyed that they were satisfied overall, but indicated room for improvement in all areas, especially those related to EI. Those surveyed emphasized that medical laboratory science programs should continue to carry the bulk of the responsibility for the development of technical skills and theoretical knowledge and expressed support for increased attention to EI concepts at the individual, laboratory, and program levels.

Price, Travis

58

The science of medical librarianship: investing in the future.  

PubMed Central

Information science is changing from an applied service-oriented activity to a basic research discipline. The library profession must earn a central place in this endeavor, and must address a number of important issues. These include ownership and intellectual property rights, a stronger research component for the profession, development of quality assurance systems for health information services, and a conceptual framework for training and career development of health sciences library technicians. The future of medical librarianship as a profession depends on a lasting commitment to research, a clear vision of the profession's fundamental mission and of the library's place in society.

Love, E

1987-01-01

59

Medical Informatics and the Science of Cognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in medical informatics research have afforded possibilities for great advances in health care delivery. These exciting opportunities also present formidable challenges to the implementation and integration of technologies in the workplace. As in most domains, there is a gulf between technologic artifacts and end users. Since medical practice is a human endeavor, there is a need for bridging

Vimla L Patel; David R Kaufman

1998-01-01

60

The Past and Present of Information Retrieval in Medical Sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a lecture at the 15th anniversary of JICST Kyushu Branch. In Medical Science there are many fields of study classified by the difference of approach. Each field is related closely, and to make a study of a field the knowledges of other fields are also needed. Such characteristic of medical study has been the problem on research of medical literature. Online information retrieval such as JOIS has changed the retrieval much easier, however some difficulties by the characteristic still remain. Importance of training specialist in information retrieval, construction of specialized databases, making databases easier to use and so on are suggested.

Yamamoto, Torao

61

US Army Medical Research and Development Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1979, summarizes research performed by the US Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory in projects authorized by The Surgeon General, US Army, and the Commander, US Army Medical Research and D...

J. N. Albertson

1979-01-01

62

The altruistic medical researcher: gone and forgotten?  

PubMed

With increasing economic, political, and bureaucratic involvement in research, there is little focus on the medical researcher's idealistic and benevolent intentions. Benevolence is a pillar of ethical human-subjects research, and altruism is a form of benevolence that is difficult to quantify. It is interest in the welfare of others without personal benefit. This article examines the extent of altruism in medical research from philosophical, psychological, and practical points of view. With the emergence of experimental human trials in the first half of the century, the fame and recognition of physicians largely precluded altruistic motivation. From the philosophical perspective, altruism is at best an optional moral principle. It is not evident in ethical guidelines. In the scientific process, altruism can exist only in ethical and properly designed research. Egoism, scientific misconduct, and conflicts of interest undermine it; but altruism is also a potential solution for these problems. Research is not globally oriented and has an unjust distribution. In an evolutionary model, altruism cannot thrive due to its lack of rewards and feedback, particularly in the economic climate of today's science. Anonymity is decreasing, selfishness is increasing. Research has become an industry, and virtuous ideals are a romantic notion. If we use altruism as an indicator, then its rarity and fragility indicate research's unhealthy state. PMID:12378741

von Schroeder, H P

1997-09-01

63

Summaries of research projects for fiscal years 1996 and 1997, medical applications and biophysical research  

SciTech Connect

The Medical Applications and Biophysical Research Division of the Office of Biological and Environmental Research supports and manages research in several distinct areas of science and technology. The projects described in this book are grouped by the main budgetary areas: General Life Sciences (structural molecular biology), Medical Applications (primarily nuclear medicine) and Measurement Science (analytical chemistry instrumentation), Environmental Management Science Program, and the Small Business Innovation Research Program. The research funded by this division complements that of the other two divisions in the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (OBER): Health Effects and Life Sciences Research, and Environmental Sciences. Most of the OBER programs are planned and administered jointly by the staff of two or all three of the divisions. This summary book provides information on research supported in these program areas during Fiscal Years 1996 and 1997.

NONE

1998-02-01

64

Medical students showcase research projects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The serotonergic system1 and hypertension, Dupuytren’s disease2 and the antibiotic treatment of head and neck infection were just some of the research projects presented by fourth year Medicine students and PHD candidates at the inaugural Notre Dame Medical Student Showcase on the Fremantle Campus.\\u000aInitiated by Fremantle School of Medicine Associate Dean (Preclinical), Professor Kathryn Hird, the Showcase provided final

Leigh Dawson

2011-01-01

65

Fire-related medical science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spacecraft fire safety may be improved by the use of a fire-retardant atmosphere in occupied spaces. Low concentrations of oxygen can protect humans from fire damage by reducing the rate and spread of combustion, but care must be taken to avoid the hypoxic effects of oxygen-lean atmospheres. Crews can live and work in 11 percent oxygen if barometric pressure were adjusted to maintain the partial pressure of oxygen above 16 kPa. Eleven percent oxygen should prevent most types of fires, since 15 percent oxygen retards the combustion of paper and 13 percent oxygen extinguishes pentane flames. Test results indicate that seated humans can perform mental tasks in atmospheres containing 11.5 percent oxygen. Although this strategy of fire safety is under consideration for submarines, it could be adapted to spacecraft once operational procedures define a maximum hyperbaric pressure and fire research defines the effects of reduced oxygen concentrations on combustion in low gravity environments.

Knight, Douglas R.

1987-01-01

66

A current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship  

PubMed Central

Objective: The article offers a current perspective on medical informatics and health sciences librarianship. Narrative: The authors: (1) discuss how definitions of medical informatics have changed in relation to health sciences librarianship and the broader domain of information science; (2) compare the missions of health sciences librarianship and health sciences informatics, reviewing the characteristics of both disciplines; (3) propose a new definition of health sciences informatics; (4) consider the research agendas of both disciplines and the possibility that they have merged; and (5) conclude with some comments about actions and roles for health sciences librarians to flourish in the biomedical information environment of today and tomorrow. Summary: Boundaries are disappearing between the sources and types of and uses for health information managed by informaticians and librarians. Definitions of the professional domains of each have been impacted by these changes in information. Evolving definitions reflect the increasingly overlapping research agendas of both disciplines. Professionals in these disciplines are increasingly functioning collaboratively as “boundary spanners,” incorporating human factors that unite technology with health care delivery.

Perry, Gerald J.; Roderer, Nancy K.; Assar, Soraya

2005-01-01

67

Global informetric perspective studies on translational medical research  

PubMed Central

Background Translational medical research literature has increased rapidly in the last few decades and played a more and more important role during the development of medicine science. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the global performance of translational medical research during the past few decades. Methods Bibliometric, social network analysis, and visualization technologies were used for analyzing translational medical research performance from the aspects of subject categories, journals, countries, institutes, keywords, and MeSH terms. Meanwhile, the co-author, co-words and cluster analysis methods were also used to trace popular topics in translational medical research related work. Results Research output suggested a solid development in translational medical research, in terms of increasing scientific production and research collaboration. We identified the core journals, mainstream subject categories, leading countries, and institutions in translational medical research. There was an uneven distribution of publications at authorial, institutional, and national levels. The most commonly used keywords that appeared in the articles were “translational research”, “translational medicine”, “biomarkers”, “stroke”, “inflammation”, “cancer”, and “breast cancer”. Conclusions The subject categories of “Research & Experimental Medicine”, “Medical Laboratory Technology”, and “General & Internal Medicine” play a key role in translational medical research both in production and in its networks. Translational medical research and CTS, etc. are core journals of translational research. G7 countries are the leading nations for translational medical research. Some developing countries, such as P.R China, also play an important role in the communication of translational research. The USA and its institutions play a dominant role in the production, collaboration, citations and high quality articles. The research trends in translational medical research involve drug design and development, pathogenesis and treatment of disease, disease model research, evidence-based research, and stem and progenitor cells.

2013-01-01

68

Structural equation modeling in medical research: a primer  

PubMed Central

Background Structural equation modeling (SEM) is a set of statistical techniques used to measure and analyze the relationships of observed and latent variables. Similar but more powerful than regression analyses, it examines linear causal relationships among variables, while simultaneously accounting for measurement error. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate SEM to medical and health sciences researchers and exemplify their application. Findings To facilitate its use we provide a series of steps for applying SEM to research problems. We then present three examples of how SEM has been utilized in medical and health sciences research. Conclusion When many considerations are given to research planning, SEM can provide a new perspective on analyzing data and potential for advancing research in medical and health sciences.

2010-01-01

69

Social Science Research Council  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Founded in 1923 (and last reviewed by the Scout Report on November 3, 1998), the Social Science Research Council (SSRC) is an independent non-profit organization with ongoing research projects on every continent, most of which are designed to encourage innovation and to help social scientists engage broader constituencies. Some of the council's key interests include children and armed conflict, economic growth, international migration, and global security and cooperation. From the website, visitors can learn about the most recent project initiatives, which include the initiative on HIV / AIDS, social transformation and emergencies, and humanitarian action. Along with these recent initiatives, visitors may also read about the 30 thematic programs, which are organized into five broad program areas. Graduate students coming to the site will want to definitely take a look at the many fellowship and dissertation funding opportunities offered by the SSRC. Visitors may also browse through the SSRC quarterly publication, Items & Issues, which features essays, roundtables, and other writings by participants in SSRC-sponsored programs.

70

Social Science Research Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), this site allows users to freely access thousands of abstracts and full-text research papers. The core of the site is the SSRN Electronic Library, which contains an Abstract Database with over 15,600 entries and an Electronic Paper Collection, which currently contains over 4,200 full-text papers. Users can search title, abstract, and author fields, or browse the journals, which are grouped under the five respective Research Networks that form the SSRN: Accounting, Economics, Latin American, Financial, and Legal Scholarship. Within each journal entry, users may select from several display options to narrow their results and available full-text documents are indicated by a special symbol. Information on each of the five networks, including conference and job announcements, as well as information on subscribing and a list of site licenses, is accessible via a menu panel on the left side of the main page. According to SSEP, access to the abstracts and full-text papers will remain free of charge to all users until \\"the next revision to the web site this winter.\\"

2005-11-02

71

Social Science Research Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by Social Science Electronic Publishing (SSEP), this site allows users to freely access thousands of abstracts and full-text research papers. The core of the site is the SSRN Electronic Library, which contains an Abstract Database with over 15,600 entries and an Electronic Paper Collection, which currently contains over 4,200 full-text papers. Users can search title, abstract, and author fields, or browse the journals, which are grouped under the five respective Research Networks that form the SSRN: Accounting, Economics, Latin American, Financial, and Legal Scholarship. Within each journal entry, users may select from several display options to narrow their results and available full-text documents are indicated by a special symbol. Information on each of the five networks, including conference and job announcements, as well as information on subscribing and a list of site licenses, is accessible via a menu panel on the left side of the main page. According to SSEP, access to the abstracts and full-text papers will remain free of charge to all users until "the next revision to the web site this winter."

72

Image segmentation techniques in medical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical and clustering techniques for image segmentation are important tools in medical sciences. Classical techniques include histogram, region growing, watershed, and contour. The more recent clustering techniques include standard fuzzy c-means clustering, kernelized c-means, spatial constrained fuzzy c-means, and k-means clustering. These methods are applied on different images, synthetic image, T1-weighted MR phantom, and real MR slices, which the performance

E. A. Zanaty

73

The Place of Behavioral Science in Medical Education and Practice.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Technological and social changes have left the medical profession without theory and content needed to adapt, making it essential to upgrade teaching of behavioral sciences in medical education. Despite their breadth and lack of definition relative to medical science, behavioral sciences provide a functional area that mediates between the patient…

Bolman, William M.

1995-01-01

74

Science for All. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students need to be competent in science because of its impact on everyday decision-making, the rapid pace of change and the increasing interdependent global economy (Lawton, 2007; U.S. Department of Education, 2000; Lederman, 1998). According to the National Research Council, "Teachers of science should develop communities of science learners…

Walker, Karen

2008-01-01

75

A Tool for Medical Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

California Measurements, Inc.'s PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer, developed by William Chiang, a former Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) engineer, was used in a study to measure the size of particles in the medical environment. Chiang has a NASA license for the JPL crystal oscillator technology and originally built the instrument for atmospheric research. In the operating room, it enabled researchers from the University of California to obtain multiple sets of data repeatedly and accurately. The study concluded that significant amounts of aerosols are generated during surgery when power tools are employed, and most of these are in the respirable size. Almost all contain blood and are small enough to pass through surgical masks. Research on the presence of blood aerosols during oral surgery had similar results. Further studies are planned to determine the possibility of HIV transmission during surgery, and the PC-2H will be used to quantify blood aerosols.

1992-01-01

76

76 FR 11801 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology Grant Applications. Date: March 25, 2011. Time...821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research;...

2011-03-03

77

78 FR 13364 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Systems Biology Grant Applications. Date: March 19, 2013. Time...821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research;...

2013-02-27

78

77 FR 15378 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Peer Review of Systems Biology (P50) Grant. Applications Date: April 5, 2012...821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research;...

2012-03-15

79

The Social Science Research Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Social Science Research Network is a rapidly growing Web site containing full text scholarly working papers and forthcoming papers in the fields of accounting, economics, Latin American studies, and legal research. This column describes and analyzes the site.

John R. Clark

2002-01-01

80

Earth System Science Research Course  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Earth System Science Research Course is a unique class implemented by Frederick County Public Schools. The course (ESSR) was designed in conjunction with NASA Education Specialists and is supported by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Students in this course have the opportunity to use data from cutting edge earth science experiments while researching their own topics and answering

J. P. Leck

2005-01-01

81

Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences12  

PubMed Central

The tantalizing potential of nanotechnology is to fabricate and combine nanoscale approaches and building blocks to make useful tools and, ultimately, interventions for medical science, including nutritional science, at the scale of ?1–100 nm. In the past few years, tools and techniques that facilitate studies and interventions in the nanoscale range have become widely available and have drawn widespread attention. Recently, investigators in the food and nutrition sciences have been applying the tools of nanotechnology in their research. The Experimental Biology 2009 symposium entitled “Nanotechnology Research: Applications in Nutritional Sciences” was organized to highlight emerging applications of nanotechnology to the food and nutrition sciences, as well as to suggest ways for further integration of these emerging technologies into nutrition research. Speakers focused on topics that included the problems and possibilities of introducing nanoparticles in clinical or nutrition settings, nanotechnology applications for increasing bioavailability of bioactive food components in new food products, nanotechnology opportunities in food science, as well as emerging safety and regulatory issues in this area, and the basic research applications such as the use of quantum dots to visualize cellular processes and protein-protein interactions. The session highlighted several emerging areas of potential utility in nutrition research. Nutrition scientists are encouraged to leverage ongoing efforts in nanomedicine through collaborations. These efforts could facilitate exploration of previously inaccessible cellular compartments and intracellular pathways and thus uncover strategies for new prevention and therapeutic modalities.

Srinivas, Pothur R.; Philbert, Martin; Vu, Tania Q.; Huang, Qingrong; Kokini, Josef L.; Saos, Etta; Chen, Hongda; Peterson, Charles M.; Friedl, Karl E.; McDade-Ngutter, Crystal; Hubbard, Van; Starke-Reed, Pamela; Miller, Nancy; Betz, Joseph M.; Dwyer, Johanna; Milner, John; Ross, Sharon A.

2010-01-01

82

Educating the public about research funded by the National Institutes of Health using a partnership between an academic medical center and community-based science museum.  

PubMed

The NIH roadmap has among its goals, to promote studies designed to improve public understanding of biomedical and behavioral science, and to develop strategies for promoting collaborations between scientists and communities toward improving the public's health. Here, we report findings on the impact of a partnership between the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) designed to inform the public about health research being conducted in Oregon, which was linked to a 17-week traveling exhibition of BodyWorlds3. Measures included the public's understanding of health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and visitor experience in their interactions with OHSU experts/volunteers, which were collected using exit surveys administered verbally. Nine hundred fifty-three surveys were included in analyses. Among those who felt that health behavior change was relevant to them, 67.4% of smokers (n = 133) intended to change their smoking behavior, 58.6% (of 677) intended to change their eating habits, 60.3% (of 667) intended to change their exercise routine, and 47% (of 448) intended to change their dental care habits. Forty-six percent of these visited the OHSU research exhibits (n = 437), and responded to how the exhibit changed their understanding about and openness to participate in health research. Greater than 85% had a much improved understanding of NIH research at OHSU and >58% reported they would be willing to participate in future research studies at OHSU. In conclusion, research partnerships between academic institutions and community-based museums appear to be viable ways to inform the public about research, stimulate their interest as future participants, and possibly influence their intention to improve health behaviors. PMID:19350373

Carney, Patricia A; Bunce, Arwen; Perrin, Nancy; Howarth, Linda C; Griest, Susan; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William E

2009-08-01

83

Educating the Public About Research Funded by the National Institutes of Health Using a Partnership Between an Academic Medical Center and Community-based Science Museum  

PubMed Central

The NIH roadmap has among its goals, to promote studies designed to improve public understanding of biomedical and behavioral science, and to develop strategies for promoting collaborations between scientists and communities toward improving the public’s health. Here, we report findings on the impact of a partnership between the Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU) and the Oregon Museum of Science and Industry (OMSI) designed to inform the public about health research being conducted in Oregon, which was linked to a 17-week traveling exhibition of BodyWorlds3. Measures included the public’s understanding of health knowledge, attitudes, intended health behaviors, and visitor experience in their interactions with OHSU experts/volunteers, which were collected using exit surveys administered verbally. Nine hundred fifty-three surveys were included in analyses. Among those who felt that health behavior change was relevant to them, 67.4% of smokers (n = 133) intended to change their smoking behavior, 58.6% (of 677) intended to change their eating habits, 60.3% (of 667) intended to change their exercise routine, and 47% (of 448) intended to change their dental care habits. Forty-six percent of these visited the OHSU research exhibits (n = 437), and responded to how the exhibit changed their understanding about and openness to participate in health research. Greater than 85% had a much improved understanding of NIH research at OHSU and >58% reported they would be willing to participate in future research studies at OHSU. In conclusion, research partnerships between academic institutions and community-based museums appear to be viable ways to inform the public about research, stimulate their interest as future participants, and possibly influence their intention to improve health behaviors.

Bunce, Arwen; Perrin, Nancy; Howarth, Linda C.; Griest, Susan; Beemsterboer, Phyllis; Cameron, William E.

2009-01-01

84

Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Research News  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For breaking news of interest to the medical research community, see this news metasite from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. From enzymes to viral infections, or RNA to muscle fibers, this page serves up all the medical research news that's fit to print.

85

NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ongoing challenge faced by NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program is to work with the scientific and engineering communities to secure the maximum return from our Nation's investments by: assuring that the best possible science emerges from the science community for microgravity investigations; ensuring the maximum scientific return from each investigation in the most timely and cost-effective manner; and enhancing the distribution of data and applications of results acquired through completed investigations to maximize their benefits.

1996-01-01

86

Governing controversial science: Lessons from stem cell research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in genomic science and biotechnology are creating new governance challenges concerning funding, oversight, and regulation of the underlying science and its applications. Among forms of genomics and biotechnology, human stem cell research has been one of the most controversial. It holds great promise for the development of medical therapies, but the link between human reproduction and research on embryonic

Michael Mintrom; Rebecca Bollard

2009-01-01

87

Research in Computer Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research efforts of University of Virginia students under a NASA sponsored program are summarized and the status of the program is reported. The research includes: testing method evaluations for N version programming; a representation scheme for model...

J. M. Ortega

1984-01-01

88

Cooperative research in space sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This grant covered the period from July 1989 through September 30, 1995. The research covered a number of topics in the general area of space science. Specific research topics included: (1) Solar astronomy - largely in support of the Ulysses project; (2) Space Science - largely in support of instrumentation for several NASA satellite projects; (3) Cometary astronomy; and (4) Planetary Astronomy - largely supporting the NASA Infrared Heterodyne instrument.

1995-01-01

89

Democratization of Medical Science and Citizen Participation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are living in a world in which medical and technological research is progressing very rapidly. The population of Quebec,\\u000a like those of many industrialized North American and European nations, is undergoing major socioeconomic upheaval. For example,\\u000a in the health field, for several years now there has been a marked trend towards deinstitutionalization and ambulatory care.\\u000a The elderly, the sick,

Caroline Francoeur; Johane Patenaude

90

Research opportunities in photochemical sciences  

SciTech Connect

The workshop entitled {open_quotes}Research Opportunities in Photochemical Sciences{close_quotes} was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Research (ER), Office of Basic Energy Sciences (BES), Division of Chemical Sciences. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado was requested by ER to host the workshop. It was held February 5-8, 1996 at the Estes Park Conference Center, Estes Park, CO, and attended by about 115 leading scientists and engineers from the U.S., Japan, and Europe; program managers for the DOE ER and Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) programs also attended. The purpose of the workshop was to bridge the communication gap between the practioneers and supporters of basic research in photochemical science and the practioneers and supporters of applied research and development in technologies related to photochemical science. For the purposes of the workshop the definition of the term {open_quotes}photochemical science{close_quotes} was broadened to include homogeneous photochemistry, heterogeneous photochemistry, photoelectrochemistry, photocatalysis, photobiology (for example, the light-driven processes of biological photosynthesis and proton pumping), artificial photosynthesis, solid state photochemistry, and solar photochemistry. The technologies under development through DOE support that are most closely related to photochemical science, as defined above, are the renewable energy technologies of photovoltaics, biofuels, hydrogen energy, carbon dioxide reduction and utilization, and photocatalysis for environmental cleanup of water and air. Individual papers were processed separately for the United states Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1996-07-01

91

Supporting medical education research quality: the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical Education Research Certificate program.  

PubMed

The quality of the medical education research (MER) reported in the literature has been frequently criticized. Numerous reasons have been provided for these shortcomings, including the level of research training and experience of many medical school faculty. The faculty development required to improve MER can take various forms. This article describes the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program, a national faculty development program that focuses exclusively on MER. Sponsored by the Association of American Medical Colleges and led by a committee of established medical education researchers from across the United States, the MERC program is built on a set of 11 interactive workshops offered at various times and places across the United States. MERC participants can customize the program by selecting six workshops from this set to fulfill requirements for certification. This article describes the history, operations, current organization, and evaluation of the program. Key elements of the program's success include alignment of program content and focus with needs identified by prospective users, flexibility in program organization and logistics to fit participant schedules, an emphasis on practical application of MER principles in the context of the participants' activities and interests, consistency in program content and format to ensure standards of quality, and a sustainable financial model. The relationship between the national MERC program and local faculty development initiatives is also described. The success of the MERC program suggests that it may be a possible model for nationally disseminated faculty development programs in other domains. PMID:21099386

Gruppen, Larry D; Yoder, Ernie; Frye, Ann; Perkowski, Linda C; Mavis, Brian

2011-01-01

92

Educational Practice of Computer Science in Medical Imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical imaging is a science using a variety of medical imaging techniques to diagnose and treat human diseases. In these years, the digitalizing progress of medical imaging, from collection and display to reconstruction, diagnosis, transmission, storage and so on, is closely bounded up to the maturity of computer software technique with no exception. Therefore, the development of medical imaging brought

Zhang Xue-jun; Guo Hong; Zhang Yun-ting; Li Ying; Guo Li

2010-01-01

93

77 FR 62245 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3An-12, Bethesda, MD 20892, zacharya@nigms.nih.gov. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support;...

2012-10-12

94

Research in computer science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The research efforts of University of Virginia students under a NASA sponsored program are summarized and the status of the program is reported. The research includes: testing method evaluations for N version programming; a representation scheme for modeling three dimensional objects; fault tolerant protocols for real time local area networks; performance investigation of Cyber network; XFEM implementation; and vectorizing incomplete Cholesky conjugate gradients.

Ortega, J. M.

1984-01-01

95

Comparative effectiveness research: Challenges for medical journals  

PubMed Central

Editors from a number of medical journals lay out principles for journals considering publication of Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER). In order to encourage dissemination of this editorial, this article is freely available in PLoS Medicine and will be also published in Medical Decision Making, Croatian Medical Journal, The Cochrane Library, Trials, The American Journal of Managed Care, and Journal of Clinical Epidemiology.

2010-01-01

96

Medicine and medical sciences in Africa.  

PubMed

The year 2014 is an important year because it will mark the 25th Anniversary of the founding of the African Association of Physiological Sciences (AAPS) and initial talks to launch the International Society for Pathophysiology (ISP). Both these organizations had a foothold in Finland and both occurred during the IUPS Centennial Celebration Congress in 1989. The congress was hosted by the Finnish Physiological Society in Helsinki, Finland in July 1989. For both organizations, Prof OsmoHänninen was instrumental in the launching and inauguration of AAPS and also to initiate the creation of ISP. In order to celebrate the 25th Anniversaries of both organizations it was decided to hold the ISP2014 congress on the African soil. Hence in 2004, at the 4th international congress of AAPS held in Morocco, Wail Benjeloun.the then secretary general of AAPS, submitted successfully a bid to host ISP2014 in Morocco. Following the inauguration of AAPS in Helsinki, the 1st Congress of AAPS was held in Nairobi, Kenya in 1992 where the Constitution of AAPS was drawn up. The Constitution was adopted at the 2nd congress of AAPS in Durban, South Africa in 1997. Following this congress, the next congress, as scheduled, was held in Pretoria, South Africa in 2000. The last congress (6th) of AAPS was held on 1-5 September 2012 in Ismailia, Egypt. This was an historical congress because of many reasons and amongst these was the appointment of Anthony B. Ebeigbe, Department of Physiology, University of Benin, Nigeria as its first Editor-in-Chief of its official journal, the Journal of the African association of Physiological Sciences (JAAPS). He successfully published the first issue in June 2013, as mandated in Ismailia. The World's medicine has its initial root in Africa and in fact it was in Memphis, Egypt as early as 2700 BC. During the Ptulomaic period the seat of medicine was in Alexandria, Egypt and Medical knowledge then spread to the Greeks 330 BC. Many western medical scientists acknowledge learning medicine and anatomy form the Egyptian experts. The University of Al Karaouine, in Fez, Morocco, Africa is considered the oldest continuously operating university in the world and has been a center of learning for more than 1,000 years. Medicine in Africa has been acknowledged by many authoritarians to be well developed, long before its development in Greece and other European Countries. Almost every African country has medical and medical sciences societies and associations. According the WHO, African journals online (AJOL) as the worlds largest collection of peer-reviewed journals. It is also believed that Africa will play a major role in Sciences in the future, and in fact one of the Worlds leading palaeo-anthropologist was a South African. PMID:24290618

Gathiram, Prem; Hänninen, Osmo

2014-06-01

97

Undergraduate medical research: the student perspective  

PubMed Central

Background Research training is essential in a modern undergraduate medical curriculum. Our evaluation aimed to (a) gauge students' awareness of research activities, (b) compare students' perceptions of their transferable and research-specific skills competencies, (c) determine students' motivation for research and (d) obtain students' personal views on doing research. Methods Undergraduate medical students (N=317) completed a research skills questionnaire developed by the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and Learning in Applied Undergraduate Research Skills (CETL-AURS) at Reading University. The questionnaire assessed students' transferable skills, research-specific skills (e.g., study design, data collection and data analysis), research experience and attitude and motivation towards doing research. Results The majority of students are motivated to pursue research. Graduate entrants and male students appear to be the most confident regarding their research skills competencies. Although all students recognise the role of research in medical practice, many are unaware of the medical research activities or successes within their university. Of those who report no interest in a career incorporating research, a common perception was that researchers are isolated from patients and clinical practice. Discussion Students have a narrow definition of research and what it entails. An explanation for why research competence does not align more closely with research motivation is derived from students' lack of understanding of the concept of translational research, as well as a lack of awareness of the research activity being undertaken by their teachers and mentors. We plan to address this with specific research awareness initiatives.

Burgoyne, Louise N.; O'Flynn, Siun; Boylan, Geraldine B.

2010-01-01

98

NASA's computer science research program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Following a major assessment of NASA's computing technology needs, a new program of computer science research has been initiated by the Agency. The program includes work in concurrent processing, management of large scale scientific databases, software engineering, reliable computing, and artificial intelligence. The program is driven by applications requirements in computational fluid dynamics, image processing, sensor data management, real-time mission control and autonomous systems. It consists of university research, in-house NASA research, and NASA's Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) and Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering (ICASE). The overall goal is to provide the technical foundation within NASA to exploit advancing computing technology in aerospace applications.

Larsen, R. L.

1983-01-01

99

Perceptions of Medical Sciences Students Towards Probiotics  

PubMed Central

Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge of people particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic products is important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of medical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different faculty majors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the one was about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge as well as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoring of 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable and good, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the students across different gender, major and degree groups. Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD) of knowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low, 48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and their health effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use of efficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial.

Payahoo, Laleh; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohamad

2012-01-01

100

Perceptions of medical sciences students towards probiotics.  

PubMed

Background: Regarding the importance of probiotics in prevention of different diseases, the knowledge of people particularly health-related professionals about the beneficial effects and availability of probiotic products is important. Considering the limited studies, the present study was conducted to assess the knowledge of medical sciences students as future provider of health information about probiotics in Tabriz, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 296 medical sciences students from different faculty majors with mean age of 22 ± 4 years. The students completed two self-administered questionnaires; the one was about the demographic characteristics and the other one with nine closed questions as for knowledge as well as probiotics and their health effects and 2 questions related to availability of probiotic products. Scoring of 9 knowledge questions was divided to three sections 0-3, 4-6, 7-9 and classified as poor, acceptable and good, respectively. The Chi-square test was used to examine the differences in knowledge of the students across different gender, major and degree groups. Results: Six percent of students had poor, 43% acceptable, and 51% good knowledge. Total mean±(SD) of knowledge was 6.25 ±1.6 . Answers of students about the availability of probiotic products were 36.9% low, 48.1% moderate, and 15% high. Comparison of knowledge result between different major and degree groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion: Although students had approximately acceptable level of knowledge about probiotics and their health effects, their awareness about common available form of probiotic products was low. The use of efficient co-educational materials such as teaching new findings for students may be beneficial. PMID:24688923

Payahoo, Laleh; Nikniaz, Zeinab; Mahdavi, Reza; Asghari Jafar Abadi, Mohamad

2012-01-01

101

Journal of Research in Science and Teaching  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the homepage for the Journal of Research in Science and Teaching, the official journal of the National Association for Research in Science Teaching. The site publishes reports for science education researchers and practitioners on such issues as science teaching and learning and science education policy.

Wiley

102

Research priorities in medical education: A national study  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: One preliminary step to strengthen medical education research would be determining the research priorities. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities of medical education in Iran in 2007-2008. METHODS: This descriptive study was carried out in two phases. Phase one was performed in 3 stages and used Delphi technique among academic staffs of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. The three stages included a brainstorming workshop for 140 faculty members and educational experts resulting in a list of research priorities, then, in the second and third stages 99 and 76 questionnaires were distributed among faculty members. In the second phase, the final questionnaires were mailed to educational research center managers of universities type I, II and III, and were distributed among 311 academic members and educational experts to rate the items on a numerical scale ranging from 1 to 10. RESULTS: The most important research priorities included faculty members’ development methods, faculty members’ motives, satisfaction and welfare, criteria and procedures of faculty members’ promotion, teaching methods and learning techniques, job descriptions and professional skills of graduates, quality management in education, second language, clinical education, science production in medicine, faculty evaluation and information technology. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the medial education research priorities in national level and in different types of medical universities in Iran. It is recommended that faculty members and research administrators consider the needs and requirements of education and plan the researches in education according to these priorities.

Tootoonchi, Mina; Yamani, Nikoo; Changiz, Tahereh; Yousefy, Alireza

2012-01-01

103

Transition of Research into Medical Practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the process of transforming medical research into practical medicine for astronauts and for every day people. Several examples of medical practices that started in space medical research and then were proved useful in other settings: Actigraphy, bone density scanning, the use of Potassium Citrate as a countermeasure used to lessen the risk of kidney stone formation, and ultrasound uses in remote and telemedicine,

Polk, James D.; Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.

2010-01-01

104

Fraud and deceit in medical research.  

PubMed

Fraud and deceit in medical research is a serious issue that may be more prevalent than currently thought. This article examines the extent and history of medical research fraud and looks at the current and future mechanisms for detection and prevention. PMID:17974302

Ramnarain, Nishan; Kirk, Paul

2007-10-01

105

Contributions of empirical research to medical ethics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Empirical research pertaining to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), clinician behaviors related to do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and substituted judgment suggests potential contributions to medical ethics. Research quantifying the likelihood of surviving CPR points to the need for further philosophical analysis of the limitations of the patient autonomy in decision making, the nature and definition of medical futility, and the relationship between futility

Robert A. Pearlman; Steven H. Miles; Robert M. Arnold

1993-01-01

106

Earth science research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The analysis of ground-truth data from the boreal forest plots in the Superior National Forest, Minnesota, was completed. Development of statistical methods was completed for dimension analysis (equations to estimate the biomass of trees from measurements of diameter and height). The dimension-analysis equations were applied to the data obtained from ground-truth plots, to estimate the biomass. Classification and analyses of remote sensing images of the Superior National Forest were done as a test of the technique to determine forest biomass and ecological state by remote sensing. Data was archived on diskette and tape and transferred to UCSB to be used in subsequent research.

Botkin, Daniel B.

1987-01-01

107

Materials Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Microgravity materials processing experiments provide an opportunity to perform scientific research in an environment which allows one to observe various phenomena without the masking effects of gravity-driven convective flows, buoyancy, or contaminating influences of walled containers. Even for the most experienced scientists, it is still difficult to predict beforehand, whether or not microgravity experimentation can be successfully performed in space and achieve solutions to problems which are not attainable in 1 g. Consequently, experimentation in ground based facilities which are capable of simulating, in somewhat lesser time frames and to a lesser degree of microgravity, provides a unique low-cost approach to determine the feasibility of continuing research in a particular experiment. The utilization of these facilities in developing the full requirements for a space experiment does present a very cost-effective approach to microgravity experimentation. The Drop Tube Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) provides an excellent test bed for containerless processing experiments such as described here. These facilities have demonstrated for a number of years the capability to develop insight into space experiments involving containerless processing, rapid solidification, and wetting phenomena through the use of lower-cost ground facilities. Once sufficient data has been obtained, then a space-based experiment can be better defined.

Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

1995-01-01

108

Research Ideas for Science Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book was developed for use in India and is adapted from "Ideas for Science Investigations" by Victor M. Showalter and Irwin L. Slesnick. It is a source book of ideas for student research projects. Three model projects are described, illustrating different approaches taken by three students to the investigation of the rise of sap in plants.…

Goyal, K. C.; Swami, Piyush

109

Research in the Optical Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report discusses research progress in the optical sciences, including the areas of: Monte Carlo simulation of multiple quantum well infrared detectors; field-of-view micro-optics; optical elements for X-UV wavelengths; fundamental physics of MBE hete...

R. C. Powell

1994-01-01

110

A Revolution in Progress: Human Genetics and Medical Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The DeWitt Stetten, Jr., Museum of Medical Research at the National Institutes of Health presents this online version of the new exhibit, "A Revolution in Progress," which offers a comprehensive look at genetic research and its contribution to medical science. Readers can really cover some ground with this Web site, with pages upon pages devoted to a wide range of topics including genetic diseases, genes and drugs, the Human Genome Project, ethics and genetics, and more. Not overly familiar with genetic concepts? The Genetic Basics area of the site provides a solid and easy-to-follow introduction to the field. There is also a cartoon guide to genetics for kids.

111

Women in medical research: headaches and hurdles.  

PubMed

Very few women have professorial status in Australian medical schools. However, there are approximately equal numbers of male and female PhD students in biomedical research at Australian universities. At Flinders University of South Australia, females comprise approximately 25% of academics in the School of Medicine, with 75% of general staff (including research staff without academic status, e.g. research assistants, research officers) being female. Females comprise 29% of Fellows in the highly competitive Career Awards Scheme of the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC; 26% excluding those of the lowest rank, namely RD Wright Fellows). In both systems, a higher percentage of women are appointed to the lower levels. The statistics suggest that the main hurdle for women in medical research is the inability to progress in the postdoctoral ranks (e.g. appointment to, or promotion from, academic Level A/B positions (Tutor/Lecturer) or appointment to the NHMRC Research Fellowships Scheme). This may reflect the conflicts that women face in their debate of the priorities of family (children and partner) versus career, or research versus teaching and professional activities. All medical research is time-demanding and continuing research funds are difficult to obtain. Women and men have similar success rates for obtaining funds from the NHMRC. However, a greater percentage of women academics do not apply for grants. Why? Can women be helped to play a larger role in medical research? PMID:8889971

Hart, P

1996-09-01

112

Prescriptions for medical research. I--Management within the Medical Research Council.  

PubMed Central

In their submission to the government in advance of the white paper on science policy in the United Kingdom the Medical Research Council commends the MRC's own approach to managing directly funded research. But a series of semi-structured interviews with the directors of some of the MRC's units suggests a gap between the MRC's model of managed research and the reality. Although such units are theoretically managed from MRC head office (and units are charged an overhead for this), in practice each unit runs its own affairs. Between major reviews average contact time with the head office contact person is seven hours a year. The first paper argues that a purchaser-provider split would recognise the benefits of decentralisation and allow units to bid for research funds from several sources, the successful ones guaranteeing their survival through a rolling series of research programmes. The second paper criticises the MRC's cumbersome peer review system. Reliance on outside experts atrophies the scientific skills of head office staff and builds delays into decision making. A purchaser-provider model would allow the head office scientific staff to act like commercial research and development managers, commissioning research, and using the outcome, rather than peer review, as a criterion for continued funding.

Gillett, R; Harrow, J

1993-01-01

113

Medical technology advances from space research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details of medical research and development programs, particularly an integrated medical laboratory, as derived from space technology are given. The program covers digital biotelemetry systems, automatic visual field mapping equipment, sponge electrode caps for clinical electroencephalograms, and advanced respiratory analysis equipment. The possibility of using the medical laboratory in ground based remote areas and regional health care facilities, as well as long duration space missions is discussed.

Pool, S. L.

1972-01-01

114

Snake oil and venoms for medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some think that using derivatives of snake venom for medical purposes is the modern version of snake oil but they are seriously misjudging the research potentials of some of these toxins in medicines of the 2000's. Medical trials, using some of the compounds has proven their usefulness. Several venoms have shown the possibilities that could lead to anticoagulants, helpful in

H. D. Wolpert

2011-01-01

115

Computer Science Research at Langley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A workshop was held at Langley Research Center, November 2-5, 1981, to highlight ongoing computer science research at Langley and to identify additional areas of research based upon the computer user requirements. A panel discussion was held in each of nine application areas, and these are summarized in the proceedings. Slides presented by the invited speakers are also included. A survey of scientific, business, data reduction, and microprocessor computer users helped identify areas of focus for the workshop. Several areas of computer science which are of most concern to the Langley computer users were identified during the workshop discussions. These include graphics, distributed processing, programmer support systems and tools, database management, and numerical methods.

Voigt, S. J. (editor)

1982-01-01

116

Are medical students inclined to do research?".  

PubMed

Background: Medical research at undergraduate level has been given poor importance in developing countries including India. Less incentives, poor resources, lack of benefits has all been the reason for curbing the research interests of the students. Objective: This research was done to understand if medical students perceived research to be important at an undergraduate level, to understand the reasons for doing research and the benefits obtained from research. Study Design: Cross sectional study. Material and Methods: Questionnaires were distributed to medical students studying in second, third, fourth and fifth years in the MBBS course at an undergraduate medical conference and a medical college. Questions were so designed to verify student's ideas on research, their research involvement and their reasons for conducting research. The answers were tabulated, data analyzed and statistics were made based on their answers. Statistical Analysis: Frequency and percentage. Results: Out of the given sample, it was seen that though only 20.9% of the students had credited publications, 81.7% of the students admitted to research being essential to understanding and changing their perception of medicine. Only 38.3% of the sample found research to be cumbersome. 24.3% of the students were involved in research purely for the purpose of acquiring knowledge, 18.3% were pursuing interest in the field and a meager 1.7% were doing research to improve their curriculum vitae. Conclusion : These results are in conformance with other studies from elsewhere that shows decreased Indian medical student's engagement in researches, compared to those from developed countries, but on par with those from the developing countries. PMID:24551667

Jimmy, Rosmy; Palatty, Princy Louis; D'Silva, Prajna; Baliga, Manjunath Srinath; Singh, Abhimanyu

2013-12-01

117

78 FR 67374 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of Health...Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Genomes to Natural Products. Date: November...Institute of General Medical Sciences, National Institutes of...

2013-11-12

118

Fraud and deceit in medical research.  

PubMed

Publication of medical research is the cornerstone for the propagation and dissemination of medical knowledge, culminating in significant effects on the health of the world's population. However, instances of individuals and institutions subverting the ethos of honesty and integrity on which medical research is built in order to advance personal ambitions have been well documented. Many definitions to describe this unethical behavior have been postulated, although the most descriptive is the "FFP" (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) model put forward by the United States' Office of Research Integrity. Research misconduct has many ramifications of which the world's media are all too keen to demonstrate. Many high-profile cases the world over have demonstrated this lack of ethics when performing medical research. Many esteemed professionals and highly regarded world institutions have succumbed to the ambitions of a few, who for personal gains, have behaved unethically in pursuit of their own ideals. Although institutions have been set up to directly confront these issues, it would appear that a lot more is still required on the part of journals and their editors to combat this behavioral pattern. Individuals starting out at very junior positions in medical research ought to be taught the basics of medical research ethics so that populations are not failed by the very people they are turning to for assistance at times of need. This article provides a review of many of the issues of research misconduct and allows the reader to reflect and think through their own experiences of research. This hopefully will allow individuals to start asking questions on, what is an often, a poorly discussed topic in medical research. PMID:23833585

Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, Marios

2012-11-01

119

Fraud and deceit in medical research  

PubMed Central

Publication of medical research is the cornerstone for the propagation and dissemination of medical knowledge, culminating in significant effects on the health of the world's population. However, instances of individuals and institutions subverting the ethos of honesty and integrity on which medical research is built in order to advance personal ambitions have been well documented. Many definitions to describe this unethical behavior have been postulated, although the most descriptive is the “FFP” (fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism) model put forward by the United States’ Office of Research Integrity. Research misconduct has many ramifications of which the world's media are all too keen to demonstrate. Many high-profile cases the world over have demonstrated this lack of ethics when performing medical research. Many esteemed professionals and highly regarded world institutions have succumbed to the ambitions of a few, who for personal gains, have behaved unethically in pursuit of their own ideals. Although institutions have been set up to directly confront these issues, it would appear that a lot more is still required on the part of journals and their editors to combat this behavioral pattern. Individuals starting out at very junior positions in medical research ought to be taught the basics of medical research ethics so that populations are not failed by the very people they are turning to for assistance at times of need. This article provides a review of many of the issues of research misconduct and allows the reader to reflect and think through their own experiences of research. This hopefully will allow individuals to start asking questions on, what is an often, a poorly discussed topic in medical research.

Sarwar, Umran; Nicolaou, Marios

2012-01-01

120

Four Medical Schools and a Research Center in Scotland.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Aberdeen University Medical School (Bacteriology, Surgery); Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen; Dundee University Medical School (Bacteriology, Pathology, Surgery); Glasgow University Medical School (Bacteriology and Immunology, Viro...

A. W. Frisch

1972-01-01

121

The Oral History Program: II. Personal views of health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.  

PubMed Central

The Medical Library Association Oral History Program uses accepted oral history techniques to collect and preserve interviews with members. The original taped interviews and transcripts are kept in the Medical Library Association archives and made available for research purposes; edited copies of the interviews are distributed through the National Network of Libraries of Medicine, and members are encouraged to borrow and read the histories. Summaries of forty-three interviews provide personal views on health sciences librarianship and the Medical Library Association.

McKenzie, D; Pifalo, V

1998-01-01

122

Mathematical Sciences Postdoctoral Research Fellowships  

NSF Publications Database

Organization Limit: The Mathematical Sciences Postdoctoral Research Fellowships are awards to individuals, and applications are submitted directly by the applicant to the NSF. Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that deviates from the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. More comprehensive information on NSF Award Conditions is contained in the NSF Grant Policy Manual (GPM) Chapter II, available electronically on the ...

123

Categorising computer science education research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interdisciplinary nature of Computer Science Education as a field of study is a complicating factor when authors are choosing\\u000a appropriate journals and conferences for publishing research results. This paper reports a survey of 42 such publications\\u000a in order to identify the types of paper frequently accepted for publication in each. We review existing taxonomies developed\\u000a for the general fields

Mike Joy; Jane Sinclair; Shanghua Sun; Jirarat Sitthiworachart; Javier López-González

2009-01-01

124

Research in Science Education: An Interdisciplinary Perspective  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The continuing goal of science education research is the generation of pedagogical knowledge that can be used to improve meaningful understanding of science concepts by students. Using present initiatives in science education as a foundation, the authors provide an overview of developments in cognitive science and instructional psychology and associated exemplary research findings and implications that provide researchers and practitioners with an interdisciplinary framework for improving the quality of school science instruction.

Vitale, Michael R.; Romance, Nancy R.

2006-01-01

125

Science of Science Policy: A Federal Research Roadmap.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document, 'The Science of Science Policy: A Federal Research Roadmap,' was developed in response to a challenge for a new 'science of science policy' that will begin to address the need for better scientific theories and analytical tools for improvin...

2008-01-01

126

Neutron science research project in JAERI  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conception of Neutron Science Research Project (NSRP) has been proposed in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) since 1994 for its future big science project. The project aims at exploring new basic science and nuclear energy science by using a high-intensity proton accelerator. NSRP is a complex composed of a powerful superconducting proton linac, the target systems which convert

Y. Suzuki; Y. Oyama; T. Sasa; K. Suzuki; H. Yasuda; T. Tone; T. Takizuka; M. Mizumoto; N. Watanabe; T. Mukaiyama

1997-01-01

127

The Nature of Science Education Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on a study by the Evidence-based Practice in Science Education (EPSE) Research Network that explores practitioners' views on the nature, use, and potential of science education research. (DDR)

Ratcliffe, Mary; Bartholomew, Hannah; Hames, Vicky; Hind, Andy; Leach, John; Millar, Robin; Osborne, Jonathan

2002-01-01

128

Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research  

SciTech Connect

Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable beams, time structure and polarization of synchrotron radiation provide an ideal x- ray source for many applications in the medical sciences. There is a dual aspect to the field of medical applications of synchrotron radiation. First there are the important in-vitro programs such as structural biology, x-ray microscopy, and radiation cell biology. Second there are the programs that are ultimately targeted at in-vivo applications. The present status of synchrotron coronary angiography, bronchography, multiple energy computed tomography, mammography and radiation therapy programs at laboratories around the world is reviewed.

Thomlinson, W.

1997-08-01

129

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute  

Cancer.gov

Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute was founded in 1976 as the La Jolla Cancer Research Foundation and received its NCI cancer center designation in 1981. The Institute's headquarters are in La Jolla, California and a second campus was opened in Orlando, Florida in 2009.

130

[Medical research ethics 50 years after Nuremberg].  

PubMed

50 years ago, in Nuremberg, 23 German doctors were accused of crimes against humanity. The anniversary is a solemn reminder of the dark origins of medical research ethics. Many researchers today believe that the medical experiments carried out under Hitler "vaccinated" postwar researchers against abuse. A review of the practices of postwar research shows that the "vaccination" had limited effect and that there is no reason to believe that the events which took place under Hitler were unique and will never happen again. After the war various measures were introduced to protect research subjects: informed consent, self regulation and independent research ethics committees. The measures have undoubtedly limited the abuse of subjects substantially. Nevertheless, in the Armed Forces, where abuse has been most rampant after the war, informed consent is not always practised and independent review is seldom carried out. With the support of grant institutions, journals and industry the protection of research subjects can be improved. It is recommended that medical faculties arrange an annual commemoration of the victims of medical research in order to raise consciousness and awareness among teachers and students. PMID:9456583

Ruyter, K W

1997-12-10

131

Scientific Production of Medical Sciences Universities in North of Iran  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction The study of the scientific evidence citation production by famous databases of the world is one of the important indicators to evaluate and rank the universities. The study at investigating the scientific production of Northern Iran Medical Sciences Universities in Scopus from 2005 through 2010. Method This survey used scientometrics technique. The samples under studies were the scientific products of four northern Iran Medical universities. Results Viewpoints quantity of the Scientific Products Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences stands first and of Babol University of Medical Sciences ranks the end, but from the viewpoints of quality of scientific products of considering the H-Index and the number of cited papers the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences is a head from the other universities under study. From the viewpoints of subject of the papers, the highest scientific products belonged to the faculty of Pharmacy affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medial Sciences, but the three other universities for the genetics and biochemistry. Conclusion Results showed that the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences as compared to the other understudies universities ranks higher for the number of articles, cited articles, number of hard work authors and H-Index of Scopus database from 2005 through 2010.

Siamian, Hasan; Firooz, Mousa Yamin; Vahedi, Mohammad; Aligolbandi, Kobra

2013-01-01

132

Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Medical Sciences Division report for 1994  

SciTech Connect

The primary mission of the Medical Sciences Division is (1) to conduct basic and applied biomedical research on human health related to energy systems, (2) to provide technical assistance and training in occupational and environmental medicine, and (3) to make related biomedical applications available to others through technology transfer. As can be gleaned from this report, the strengths and capabilities of their staff in carrying out this mission are closely aligned with the four core competencies of ORISE: (1) occupational and environmental health, (2) environmental and safety evaluation and analysis, (3) education and training, and (4) enabling research. Brief descriptions of the various scientific and technical programs and their progress, as well as the staff responsible for the accomplishments made during 1994, are presented in this report. Research programs include the following: biochemistry; cytogenetics; Center for Epidemiologic Research; Center for Human Reliability Studies; occupational medicine; Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site; and Radiation Internal Dose Information Center.

Snyder, F.; Poston, S.; Engle, J. [eds.

1995-08-01

133

Fifteen years medical information sciences: the Amsterdam curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To inform the medical informatics community on the rational, goals, evolution and present contents of the Medical Information Sciences program of the University of Amsterdam and our achievements. Methods: We elaborate on the history of our program, the philosophy, contents and organizational structure of the present-day curriculum. Besides, we describe the various didactic approaches in the program and the

Monique W. M. Jaspers; Paul Fockens; Jan H. Ravesloot; Martien Limburg; Ameen Abu-hanna

2004-01-01

134

IBM Research: Computer Science and Software Services  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

IBM's Almaden Research Center is located in the Silicon Valley and conducts research in the areas of: Computer science software, computer science storage systems, science and technology, services research and WebFountain. The different websites review the research programs and provide some background information. For example, the Computer Science Software & Services department provides an overview of the theory behind its work, describing various algorithms, models, and resources used. The Science and Technology Center provides overviews of several disciplines, including Nanoscale Sciences, Exploratory Technology, and Quantum Information.

135

Classification systems in behavioural science: current systems and lessons from the natural, medical and social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specifying individual behaviour change techniques (BCTs) is crucial for better development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. Classification of BCTs will help this process and can be informed by classification systems in the natural, medical and social sciences. Method: A search of the classification literature in the natural, medical and social sciences produced a framework within which to consider

Zoe Stavri; Susan Michie

2011-01-01

136

Classification systems in behavioural science: current systems and lessons from the natural, medical and social sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Specifying individual behaviour change techniques (BCTs) is crucial for better development and evaluation of behaviour change interventions. Classification of BCTs will help this process and can be informed by classification systems in the natural, medical and social sciences. Method: A search of the classification literature in the natural, medical and social sciences produced a framework within which to consider

Zoe Stavri; Susan Michie

2012-01-01

137

NCI and the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Sign Statement of Intent  

Cancer.gov

Today the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the Cancer Institute/Hospital of the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CICAMS) signed a statement of intent to share an interest in fostering collaborative biomedical research in oncology and a common goal in educating and training the next generation of cancer research scientists and clinicians.

138

National medical research ranking and scientific productivity: Where do we stand?  

PubMed Central

Background: Continuous evaluation of research performance is an effective tool for financial and human resource allocation to promote knowledge production by academic institutions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the scientific performance of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) from April 2010 to April 2011 in the national medical research ranking. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out through running advanced searches in the national, local and international information databases and other websites. Then the data were analyzed in order to demonstrate IUMS scientific production and research status at a national level. Results: From April 2010 to April 2011, about 9% of total Iranian medical articles, 6% of total Iranian ISI indexed articles in medical science and 12% of Iranian PubMed indexed articles affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Although Isfahan University of Medical Sciences stood at the third place in the annual national research ranking, but it was first in the scientific growth among Iranian medical universities. Conclusions: The study indicated that Isfahan University of Medical Sciences witnessed striking improvement in scientific productivity, research performance and national research grade during 2010-2011.

Aminpour, Farzaneh

2012-01-01

139

Computing Life: National Institute of General Medical Sciences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computers are embedded in much of what we do, whether it's a form of instant communication or the navigation of city streets via a GPS unit. Computers have also proved to be extremely useful to scientific researchers, a fact not lost on the people at the National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS). The NIGMS has created this virtual online booklet titled "Computing Life" in order to inform young people about the various scientific and medical careers that are open to them and to educate people more generally about the role of computers in scientific inquiry and discovery. The homepage features a set of "Featured Topics" that contains video clips of researchers talking about their work, interactive games, and role-playing exercises. These intriguing topics include "Movie Mania", "The Next Top Protein Model", and "Made Possible By"". In the "Web Extras" area, visitors can watch short films (including a simulation of potential pandemic flu in the United States), listen and watch interviews, and take a crack at a crossword puzzle. Visitors who get hooked on the site may wish to sign up to receive updates via their RSS feed.

140

[Accessing medical records for research purposes].  

PubMed

The Organic Law 15/1999 of 13 December on the Protection of Personal Data and the Law 41/2002 of 14 November regulating patient autonomy and rights and obligations of information and clinical documentation are the basic rules which govern the medical history in Spain. However, the lack of development of these laws regarding data protection in clinical research, particularly in terms of access to the medical history, repeatedly causes doubts about its construction by the Research Ethics Committees. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the rules which govern the access to the medical history for research purposes, with particular emphasis on the common problems that arise in the Committees for the ethical evaluation of these projects and finally setting a series of recommendations. The use for research purpose of genetic personal data contained in the medical history is also addressed in this paper. In this sense, a key contribution of the Law on Biomedical Research is relating to the specific regulation of the genetic personal data, both with respect to their production and access to the data as a support and regarding to its use for research purpose. PMID:24868961

Alcalde Bezhold, Guillermo; Alfonso Farnós, Iciar

2013-01-01

141

Does Undergraduate Student Research Constitute Scholarship? Drawing on the Experiences of One Medical Faculty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While undergraduate research has been part of the learning culture in some disciplines for many years, it is only more recently that it is being included into mainstream medical curricula. Undergraduate medical students at the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, United Arab Emirates University, have several opportunities to undertake research

McLean, Michelle; Howarth, F. Christopher

2008-01-01

142

Remote Sensing Information Science Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the final report summarizing research conducted by the Remote Sensing Research Unit, Department of Geography, University of California, Santa Barbara under National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research Grant NAG5-10457. This document describes work performed during the period of 1 March 2001 thorough 30 September 2002. This report includes a survey of research proposed and performed within RSRU and the UCSB Geography Department during the past 25 years. A broad suite of RSRU research conducted under NAG5-10457 is also described under themes of Applied Research Activities and Information Science Research. This research includes: 1. NASA ESA Research Grant Performance Metrics Reporting. 2. Global Data Set Thematic Accuracy Analysis. 3. ISCGM/Global Map Project Support. 4. Cooperative International Activities. 5. User Model Study of Global Environmental Data Sets. 6. Global Spatial Data Infrastructure. 7. CIESIN Collaboration. 8. On the Value of Coordinating Landsat Operations. 10. The California Marine Protected Areas Database: Compilation and Accuracy Issues. 11. Assessing Landslide Hazard Over a 130-Year Period for La Conchita, California Remote Sensing and Spatial Metrics for Applied Urban Area Analysis, including: (1) IKONOS Data Processing for Urban Analysis. (2) Image Segmentation and Object Oriented Classification. (3) Spectral Properties of Urban Materials. (4) Spatial Scale in Urban Mapping. (5) Variable Scale Spatial and Temporal Urban Growth Signatures. (6) Interpretation and Verification of SLEUTH Modeling Results. (7) Spatial Land Cover Pattern Analysis for Representing Urban Land Use and Socioeconomic Structures. 12. Colorado River Flood Plain Remote Sensing Study Support. 13. African Rainfall Modeling and Assessment. 14. Remote Sensing and GIS Integration.

Clarke, Keith C.; Scepan, Joseph; Hemphill, Jeffrey; Herold, Martin; Husak, Gregory; Kline, Karen; Knight, Kevin

2002-01-01

143

Overview of Medical Data Management Solutions for Research Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medical imaging research deals with large, heterogeneous and fragmented amounts of medical images. The need for secure, federated and functional medical image databases is very strong within these research communities. This paper provides an overview of the different projects concerned with building medical image databases for medical imaging research. It also discusses the characteristics and requirements of this community and

Sorina Camarasu-Pop; Frederic Cervenansky; Yonny Cardenas; Jean-Yves Nief; Hugues Benoit-Cattin

2010-01-01

144

Organizational behavior of employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Organizational behaviors are commonly acknowledged as fundamentals of organizational life that strongly influence both formal and informal organizational processes, interpersonal relationships, work environments, and pay and promotion policies. The current study aims to investigate political behavior tendencies among employees of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). This cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical study was conducted on 810 TUMS employees at the headquarters of the Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2010–2011. The research tool for data collection was a researcher-tailored questionnaire on political behaviors. The validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by seven management professors, and its reliability was tested by a pilot study using test-retest method which yielded a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.71. The respondents were asked to fill the questionnaire and express their perceptions and tendencies to engage in organizational behaviors. The collected data was read to and analyzed by IBM SPSS environment and correlation analytical methods. Overall, 729 respondents filled and returned the questionnaire yielding a response rate of 90%. Most of the respondents indicated that they had no tendency to engage in political behavior. Moreover, we found that there was a significant correlation between sex, higher education degrees, tenure and the employees’ tendency to engage in political behavior. The participants were not overtly political because of their personal belief, ethical values, and personal characters. Non-political and overtly political employees are both prejudicial for all organizations. Therefore, it seems that the medium rate of good political behavior is vital and prevalent in Iranian organizations.

Dargahi, Hossein

2012-01-01

145

Research in computer science: an empirical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we examine the state of computer science (CS) research from the point of view of the following research questions: 1. What topics do CS researchers address? 2. What research approaches do CS researchers use? 3. What research methods do CS researchers use? 4. On what reference disciplines does CS research depend? 5. At what levels of analysis

Venkataraman Ramesh; Robert L. Glass; Iris Vessey

2004-01-01

146

Shifting Paradigms of Research in Medical Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Medical educators debate which models of scientific research should be applied to problems in academic medicine. The reigning model was derived from the first scientific revolution of Newtonian physics. The emerging model is grounded in the second scientific revolution of Einstein's quantum physics. (Author/MSE)

Irby, David M.; Edwards, Janine C. Ed.

1990-01-01

147

Analysis of serial measurements in medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

In medical research data are often collected serially on subjects. The statistical analysis of such data is often inadequate in two ways: it may fail to settle clinically relevant questions and it may be statistically invalid. A commonly used method which compares groups at a series of time points, possibly with t tests, is flawed on both counts. There may,

J. N. S. Matthews; D. G. Altman; M. J. Campbell; P. Royston

1990-01-01

148

Challenges to human subject protections in US medical research.  

PubMed

United States regulations governing federally supported research with human subjects derive in part from 2 international codes, the Nuremberg Code and the Declaration of Helsinki. The Declaration of Helsinki states that "concern for the interests of the subject must always prevail over the interests of science and society." The concept of minimal risk and the principle of informed consent are the key means by which US federal regulations seek to protect the rights and welfare of the individual in the research setting. Current trends in medical research-including increased funding, ever-greater capabilities of computers, development of new clinical tools that can also be used in research, and new research tools developed through research itself are creating greater demand for human subjects, for easier recruitment and conscription of these subjects, and for unimpeded access to patient medical records and human biological materials. Nationally and internationally, there are new pressures to subordinate the interests of the subject to those of science and society. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission, which is about to undertake a comprehensive review of the US system of human subject protections, faces a daunting task. PMID:10580461

Woodward, B

1999-11-24

149

Investigation of the age trends in patients with breast cancer and different sizes of tumors in Breast Cancer Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2001-2010  

PubMed Central

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women in the age range of 35-55 years. Each year, one or two cases of breast cancer per 1000 women are diagnosed as new cases. Despite the serious prognosis and high rate of morbidity, mortality, and pathogenicity, in the case of early diagnoses, the prognosis will be better. The aim of this study was to investigate the age trends in breast cancer patients with different sizes of tumors in Breast Cancer Research Center of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2001-2010. Materials and Methods: The information in radiotherapy and oncology of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences and Milad Hospital from 2001 to 2010 were coded and analyzed. Frequency of patients’ age groups, tumor sizes and the year of cancer diagnosis were calculated. Correlation test was used for data analysis in statistical analysis in social science (SPSS) software version 18. Findings: Among the 3722 patients with breast cancer, the highest relative frequency distribution, respectively was observed in the age of 40-49 years (34.4%), 50-59 years (26.6%), 30-39 years (17.7%), 60-69 years (13.2%), 20-29 years (2.5%), 70 years and older (5.2%) and less than 20 years. Relative frequency distribution of tumor sizes in a variety of 5 cm (T2) was with the frequency of 59.8%, and then 26% at 5 cm (T3), 10.5% at 2 cm (T1), 3.1% at T4 and 0.6 at In-situ, respectively. Conclusion: The investigation of age trends showed that diagnosis rate of breast cancer increased from 2001 to 2004. It reached its highest value in 2006 at the age range of 30-39 years. Then, the trend has been downward, and it has continued to decline until 2010, which could be the result of the equipping screening system and recording the malignant cases. 85.8% of the examined tumors in T2 and T3 group were visible and may be disturbing. Comparing the frequency distribution of the infected population showed that the highest incidence of breast cancer diagnosis were in the age range of 40-49 years. It seems that as long as the mass has not reached an obvious palpable state, it has not been diagnosed.

Tazhibi, Mehdi; Dehkordi, Zahra Fazeli; Babazadeh, Shadi; Tabatabaeian, Maryam; Rezaei, Parisa; Faghihi, Mehri

2014-01-01

150

76 FR 71982 - Advancing Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/Medical Countermeasure Devices...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices...Regulatory Science for Highly Multiplexed Microbiology/ Medical Countermeasure Devices...performance evaluation of highly multiplexed microbiology/medical countermeasure (MCM)...

2011-11-21

151

Physics for the Medical Science Major.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how one professor makes his physics course relevant to pharmacy majors. The course emphasizes the relation of basic physics concepts (like forces and thermodynamics) to the human body and uses problems drawn from the medical profession. Student course evaluations show a favorable view of content learned and its relevance. (DB)

McCall, Richard P.

2000-01-01

152

Domestic Medical Tourism: A Neglected Dimension of Medical Tourism Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the literature on medical tourism has focused almost exclusively on international medical tourism, or medical services outsourced to other countries. However, there are a growing number of patients who travel for medical care within their own country. Medical tourism experts have suggested that competition introduced from abroad, combined with health care reform, may stimulate improvement in health care

Simon Hudson; Xiang Li

2012-01-01

153

Domestic Medical Tourism: A Neglected Dimension of Medical Tourism Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, the literature on medical tourism has focused almost exclusively on international medical tourism, or medical services outsourced to other countries. However, there are a growing number of patients who travel for medical care within their own country. Medical tourism experts have suggested that competition introduced from abroad, combined with healthcare reform, may stimulate improvement in health care offerings

Simon Hudson; Xiang Li

2011-01-01

154

USGS Alaska Science Center, Biological Science Office: Research Programs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website provides information about the research programs of the USGS Alaska Science Center - Biological Science Office (ASC-BSO). The programs are divided into several categories including Ecosystems & Habitats, Mammals, Technical Programs, Fish and Fisheries, and Birds. Links connect to research information about numerous program subcategories like Coastal and Marine, Sea Otters, Loons, Fisheries Projects, and more. The site also links to background information about the ASC-BSO, job listings, staff contact information, and the Alaska Science Center Publications Database.

155

Qualitative studies. Their role in medical research.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To define qualitative research in terms of its philosophical roots, the questions it addresses, its methods and analyses, and the type of results it can offer. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases were searched for the years January 1985 to April 1998. The search strategy consisted of "textword" terms that searched in the "title" field of both databases. Qualitative research and evaluation textbooks in health and the social sciences were also used. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information on qualitative research is based on the most recent and valid evidence from the health and social science fields. MAIN MESSAGE: Qualitative research seeks to understand and interpret personal experience to explain social phenomena, including those related to health. It can address questions that quantitative research cannot, such as why people do not adhere to a treatment regimen or why a certain health care intervention is successful. It uses many methods of data collection, including participant observation, case studies, and interviews, and numerous approaches to data analysis that range from the quasistatistical to the intuitive and inductive. CONCLUSIONS: Qualitative research, a form of research completely different from quantitative research, can provide important insights into health-related phenomena and can enrich further research inquiries.

Huston, P.; Rowan, M.

1998-01-01

156

Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

PSRD is a Website dedicated to providing the discoveries made in planetary and space sciences through NASA-funded research. The NASA Cosmochemistry Program and the University of Hawaii sponsor this Website. Interesting aspects of the site are the Current Contents and Archive sections. Articles in the current contents section, which are accompanied by images, cover topics of current interest -- presently a conference on the origins and history of the Earth and Moon, and the composition of chondrules, spherical objects found in meteorites. Each article links to additional resources, and the section also offers a list of general links. The Archive section organizes previous Current Contents articles by topics such as Mercury, Earth, Moon, Mars, Mars Life Issues, The Jupiter System, Meteorites, Comets, and Origins. The Website also provides a searchable (by keyword) database and links to related resources.

157

Advancing Research on Undergraduate Science Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This special issue of "Journal of Research in Science Teaching" reflects conclusions and recommendations in the "Discipline-Based Education Research" (DBER) report and makes a substantial contribution to advancing the field. Research on undergraduate science learning is currently a loose affiliation of related fields. The…

Singer, Susan Rundell

2013-01-01

158

Mixed Methods Approaches in Family Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The complex phenomena of interest to family scientists require the use of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Researchers across the social sciences are now turning to mixed methods designs that combine these two approaches. Mixed methods research has great promise for addressing family science topics, but only if researchers understand the…

Plano Clark, Vicki L.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Churchill, Susan L.; Green, Denise O'Neil; Garrett, Amanda L.

2008-01-01

159

[The returns to society from medical research].  

PubMed

Medical research can benefit society in many ways and through a multiplicity of inter-connected pathways. Some of these pathways involve the commercial sector directly, through the invention, trial and marketing of new drugs, vaccines, medical devices and equipment, which can improve patient diagnosis and treatment. These inventions are usually protected by patents. Biomedical patents often cite scientific articles, usually basic research rather than clinical observations. However, disease prevention may provide greater returns, and is typically accomplished through public health measures (e.g., vaccination, health services, provision of clean water) and wiser lifestyle choices by the population (e.g., not smoking, taking more exercise, practising safe sex, and eating a healthy diet). The reduction of environmental pollution has also played a major role in the increase in life expectancy. All these measures are ideally informed by sound research, and are brought about by government policy and influenced by public opinion. The latter is strongly affected by the mass media, which play an increasing role in connecting readers, listeners and viewers with medical research enterprise. Hopes of a cure for a disease are frequently offered, but commentators usually warn that much more research is needed first. New bibliometric techniques allow some of these interconnected pathways to be traced and analyzed, mainly through news stories or other documents citing research articles. For example, clinical guidelines rely on scientific evidence, including clinical trials, and even government policy documents sometimes cite research findings, although not often enough. Thus the socioeconomic effect of biomedical research can be evaluated in new ways that may provide a fairer view of its utility and impact than do conventional methods of citation analysis. PMID:19631822

Lewison, Grant

2008-12-01

160

Teacher Leaders In Research Based Science Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the web site home for the Teacher Leaders in Research Based Science Education (TLRBSE) program supported by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory. It is designed to retain and renew middle and high school teachers of science by integrating the best practices of Research Based Science Education with the process of mentoring. The program involves teachers in research while also building leadership skills and pedagogical tools.

2006-04-10

161

Research Objectives for the Applied Mathematical Sciences Research Subprogram.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document describes areas of research in applied mathematics and computer science that are important to the Department of Energy. The interest of the Department of all aspects of computational science has increased because of recent advances in superc...

1986-01-01

162

The Integration of Behavioral Science Theory and Clinical Experience for Second-Year Medical Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A program is described that relates behavioral science research to cancer care, encourages frank discussion and objective analysis of oncology practice, and attempts to dispell the myth that cancer patients are not medically manageable. A wide range of teaching methods are used. (MSE)

Taylor, Kathryn M.; And Others

1983-01-01

163

75 FR 43180 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, Research Centers in Trauma, Burn, and Peri-Operative Injury (P50). Date: August 17, 2010. Time: 1 p.m. to 6 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-07-23

164

75 FR 69090 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Research Centers in Trauma, Burn and Peri-Operative Injury. Date: December 3, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-11-10

165

77 FR 33477 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; Trauma, Burn and Peri-Operative Injury Research Centers. Date: June 26, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. Agenda: To review...

2012-06-06

166

Developing a Research Agenda in Science Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Science Summit reinforced a question upon which many of us in science education are focused: How can we, the science education community of researchers, practitioners, and consumers, lead policy? We include a brief review of the No Child Left Behind Act and its implications for teachers, and elaborate about one ongoing and growing effort to…

Simmons, Patricia E.; Brunkhorst, Herb; Lunetta, Vincent; Penick, John; Peterson, Jodi; Pietrucha, Barbara; Staver, John

2005-01-01

167

Viewpoints on Medical Image Processing: From Science to Application  

PubMed Central

Medical image processing provides core innovation for medical imaging. This paper is focused on recent developments from science to applications analyzing the past fifteen years of history of the proceedings of the German annual meeting on medical image processing (BVM). Furthermore, some members of the program committee present their personal points of views: (i) multi-modality for imaging and diagnosis, (ii) analysis of diffusion-weighted imaging, (iii) model-based image analysis, (iv) registration of section images, (v) from images to information in digital endoscopy, and (vi) virtual reality and robotics. Medical imaging and medical image computing is seen as field of rapid development with clear trends to integrated applications in diagnostics, treatment planning and treatment.

Deserno (ne Lehmann), Thomas M.; Handels, Heinz; Maier-Hein (ne Fritzsche), Klaus H.; Mersmann, Sven; Palm, Christoph; Tolxdorff, Thomas; Wagenknecht, Gudrun; Wittenberg, Thomas

2013-01-01

168

Exercising privacy rights in medical science  

PubMed Central

Privacy laws are intended to preserve human well-being and improve medical outcomes. We used the Sportstats website, a repository of competitive athletic data, to test how easily these laws can be circumvented. We designed a haphazard, unrepresentative case-series analysis and applied unscientific methods based on an Internet connection and idle time. We found it both feasible and titillating to breach anonymity, stockpile personal information and generate misquotations. We extended our methods to snoop on celebrities, link to outside databases and uncover refusal to participate. Throughout our study, we evaded capture and public humiliation despite violating these 6 privacy fundamentals. We suggest that the legitimate principle of safeguarding personal privacy is undermined by the natural human tendency toward showing off.

Hillmer, Michael; Redelmeier, Donald A.

2007-01-01

169

IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Special Libraries. Biological and Medical Science Libraries Section. Social Science Libraries Section. Papers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Six of the nine papers in this collection focus on biological and medical science libraries; the remaining three are concerned with social science libraries. The papers on biological and medical science libraries appear first in this list: (1) "Standards for Medical and Health Care Libraries: Canada" (Jan Greenwood, Canada); (2) "Standards for…

International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

170

Research on and in medical education.  

PubMed

Dr. George Lister of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center delivered the Lee E. Farr Lecture on Student Research Day on May 9, 2011. This day focused on the dissertation work of Yale School of Medicine MD students, whose research opportunities for prospective physicians were recently examined and critiqued by Yale's Committee to Promote Student Interest in Careers as Physician Scientists. Lister's talk served to highlight the importance of communication between the laboratory and the clinic in optimizing diagnostics and treatments, effectively affirming the validity of the Committee's objectives. PMID:21966044

Panter, Michaela S

2011-09-01

171

Research on and in Medical Education  

PubMed Central

Dr. George Lister of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center delivered the Lee E. Farr Lecture on Student Research Day on May 9, 2011. This day focused on the dissertation work of Yale School of Medicine MD students, whose research opportunities for prospective physicians were recently examined and critiqued by Yale’s Committee to Promote Student Interest in Careers as Physician Scientists. Lister’s talk served to highlight the importance of communication between the laboratory and the clinic in optimizing diagnostics and treatments, effectively affirming the validity of the Committee’s objectives.

Panter, Michaela S.

2011-01-01

172

Reference earth orbital research and applications investigations (blue book). Volume 8: Life sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The functional program element for the life sciences facilities to operate aboard manned space stations is presented. The life sciences investigations will consist of the following subjects: (1) medical research, (2) vertebrate research, (3) plant research, (4) cells and tissue research, (5) invertebrate research, (6) life support and protection, and (7) man-system integration. The equipment required to provide the desired functional capability for the research facilities is defined. The goals and objectives of each research facility are described.

1971-01-01

173

Correlation Research of Medical Security Management System Network Platform in Medical Practice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective-The related research of medical security management system network in medical practice. Methods-Establishing network platform of medical safety management system, medical security network host station, medical security management system(C/S), medical security management system of departments and sections, comprehensive query, medical security disposal and examination system. Results-In medical safety management, medical security management system can reflect the hospital medical security problem, and can achieve real-time detection and improve the medical security incident detection rate. Conclusion-The application of the research in the hospital management implementation, can find hospital medical security hidden danger and the problems of medical disputes, and can help in resolving medical disputes in time and achieve good work efficiency, which is worth applying in the hospital practice.

Jie, Wang; Fan, Zhang; Jian, Hao; Li-nong, Yu; Jun, Fei; Ping, Hao; Ya-wei, Shen; Yue-jin, Chang

174

Applied Science and Research Applications: Recent Research Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report contains abstracts of new technical reports and other documents resulting from research supported by the directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications of the National Science Foundation. Research reports from current programs include work in the areas of public policy and regulation; public service delivery and urban…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Applied Science and Research Applications.

175

Researchers’ Perspective on Science and Technology Research Graduate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on the perception of undergraduate researchers towards science and technology research activities. The activity is carried out in the form of a research project in their final year of studies at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, which is a requirement for graduation. Responses from these students are the most important component in determining whether the Faculty of Science and

Faizal Mohamed; Khalijah M Salleh; Azmin Sham Rambely; Irman Abdul Rahman; Faszly Rahim; Sharina Abu Hanifah; Rokiah Ahmad; Nur Riza M Suradi; Wan Fuad Wan Hassan; Ahmad Puaad Othman; Sahrim Hj. Ahmad; Marina M Razaki

2011-01-01

176

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funds research and training in the UK in engineering and the physical sciences. Viewing public engagement as important for stimulating interest in research, inspiring future generations of researchers and, "helping the research base evolve in tune with the changing needs of a more informed society," the EPSRC also promotes public awareness of science and engineering, providing a good deal of resources and links online. Research reports and briefs from some of the collaborating institutions' work on a wide range of research projects in engineering, the physical sciences and mathematics are all available in the Publications section. Other sections describe activities for young people and teachers, and research opportunities for graduate students.

177

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) funds research and training in the UK in engineering and the physical sciences. Viewing public engagement as important for stimulating interest in research, inspiring future generations of researchers and, "helping the research base evolve in tune with the changing needs of a more informed society," the EPSRC also promotes public awareness of science and engineering, providing a good deal of resources and links online. Research reports and briefs from some of the collaborating institutions' work on a wide range of research projects in engineering, the physical sciences and mathematics are all available in the Publications section. Other sections describe activities for young people and teachers, and research opportunities for graduate students.

2007-07-15

178

Using Social Science Tools in Agroforestry Research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent innovations in agroforestry research indicate the need to elicit farmers' participation in technology adaptations. The paper is intended for non-social scientists who wish to use social science research tools in order to assess the role of multipur...

J. L. Marcucci

1990-01-01

179

Contributions of international medical graduates to US biomedical research: The experience of US medical schools.  

PubMed

International medical graduates (IMGs) constitute an appreciable fraction of full-time faculty at US medical schools and of principal investigators (PIs) on National Institutes of Health (NIH) research project grants. Information from the Faculty Roster of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) and from the NIH Consolidated Grant Applicant File (CGAF) was examined to assess IMGs' contribution to US medical school faculty and research. The study found that the number of IMG full-time faculty more than doubled over two decades-from 7,866 individuals in 1984 to 17,085 individuals in 2004, but that IMGs remained relatively stable as a share of physician full-time faculty (from 18.8 to 19.4%); the share is somewhat higher (20.0% of full-time physician faculty in 1984 to 23.7% in 2004) if faculty with degrees of unknown provenance are included. From 1984 to 2004, IMGs increased as a share of full-time physician faculty who are principal investigators on NIH research grants from 16.5% (540) to 21.3% (1,143). Including faculty with incomplete data on degree provenance, the corresponding IMG share increases to 18.0 and 24.0% respectively. Thus, IMGs comprise at least one-fifth and more likely one-fourth of all full-time faculty physicians who are PIs on NIH research project grants. The proportion of IMG full-time physician faculty who are in basic science departments is about twice that of their US/Canadian counterparts, as is the proportion of IMG physician PIs. Slightly fewer than half (48%) of full-time IMG faculty PIs pursue human subjects research (as coded by the NIH), while the majority of US/Canadian counterparts pursue human subjects research. PMID:18163966

Alexander, Hershel; Heinig, Stephen J; Fang, Di; Dickler, Howard; Korn, David

2007-12-01

180

Mathematics and computer science in medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book is divided into two parts. Part 1 gives an introduction to and an overview of the field in ten tutorial chapters. Part 2 contains a selection of invited and proffered papers reporting on current research. Subjects covered in depth are: analytical image reconstruction, regularization, iterative methods, image structure, 3-D display, compression, architectures for image processing, statistical pattern recognition,

M. A. Viergever; A. E. Todd-Pokroper

1987-01-01

181

ALA Guide to Medical & Health Sciences Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This resource provides an annotated list of print and electronic biomedical and health-related reference sources, including Internet resources and digital image collections. Readers will find relevant research, clinical, and consumer health information resources. The emphasis is on resources within the United States, with a few representative…

ALA Editions, 2011

2011-01-01

182

Medical research funding may have over-expanded and be due for collapse.  

PubMed

The continual and uninterrupted expansion of medical research funding is generally assumed to be a permanent feature of modern societies, but this expectation may turn out to be mistaken. Sciences tend to go through boom and bust phases. Twentieth century physics is an example where huge increases in funding followed an era of scientific breakthroughs. Speculative over-expansion led to diminishing returns on investment, then a collapse in funding. We predict that medicine will follow the same trajectory. After prolonged over-funding of the 'basic-to-applied' model of clinical innovation, and a progressive shift towards Big Science organization, medical research has become increasingly inefficient and ineffective. Although incremental improvements to existing treatment strategies continue, the rate of significant therapeutic breakthroughs has been declining for three decades. Medical science now requires rationalization and modernization. From this perspective, the current level of medical research funding looks like a bubble due to burst. PMID:15625354

Charlton, B G; Andras, P

2005-01-01

183

Comparative Effectiveness Research: Medical Practice, Payments, and Politics: the Need to Retain Standards of Medical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative effectiveness research (CER), once only the scientific interest of clinical and health services researchers who compared medical treaments, now has tumbled into the public arena. ( 1 ) Facing the need for drastic improvement in our nation’s healthcare delivery, Congress and the Obama Administration are looking to CER to improve and broaden the use of treatments in a cost-effective

Harry P. Selker

2009-01-01

184

Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since 1969, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA), a private, nonprofit corporation, has worked closely with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to advance space science and technology and to promote education in those areas. USRA's Division of Space Life Sciences (DSLS) has been NASA's life sciences research partner for the past 18 years. For the last six years, our Cooperative Agreement NCC9-41 for the 'Space Life Sciences Research and Education Program' has stimulated and assisted life sciences research and education at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) - both at the Center and in collaboration with outside academic institutions. To accomplish our objectives, the DSLS has facilitated extramural research, developed and managed educational programs, recruited and employed visiting and staff scientists, and managed scientific meetings.

Coats, Alfred C.

2001-01-01

185

Regulation of financial conflicts of interest in medical practice and medical research: a damaging solution in search of a problem.  

PubMed

The free market, which includes most practicing physicians, publicly supported biomedical researchers, and private drug and device companies, has succeeded spectacularly in delivering new medical technologies to the public. Increased interactions between doctors (physicians and biomedical researchers), epitomized by the founding of the biotechnology revolution, have and can continue to accelerate this delivery. A powerful anti-commercial advocacy movement that has blossomed over the past 20 years threatens this momentum. This movement has succeeded in inverting reality by demonizing the market and by promoting distorted and damaging views of professionalism and of science. Most ominously, it has imposed onerous and counterproductive regulations on medical education and translational research. PMID:17259676

Stossel, Thomas P

2007-01-01

186

Science Graduation Requirements. Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

According to the National Center for Education Statistics (Table 153), there are almost as many states that require a minimum of 2 credits of science for graduation (22) as there are those that require 3 credits (21). According to the "2000 High School Transcript Study," between 1990 and 2000, not only did the average number of science credits…

Muir, Mike

2004-01-01

187

Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. c2003 American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Trinh, E. H.

2003-01-01

188

Strategic Research Directions In Microgravity Materials Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) is moving aggressively to align programs, projects, and products with the vision for space exploration. Research in advanced materials is a critical element in meeting exploration goals. Research in low gravity materials science in OBPR is being focused on top priority needs in support of exploration: 1) Space Radiation Shielding; 2) In Situ Resource Utilization; 3) In Situ Fabrication and Repair; 4) Materials Science for Spacecraft and Propulsion Systems; 5) Materials Science for Advanced Life Support Systems. Roles and responsibilities in low gravity materials research for exploration between OBPR and the Office of Exploration Systems are evolving.

Clinton, Raymond G., Jr.; Wargo, Michael J.; Marzwell, Neville L.; Sanders, Gerald; Schlagheck, Ron; Semmes, Ed; Bassler, Julie; Cook, Beth

2004-01-01

189

Outline of a design science research process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Discussions about the body of knowledge of information systems, including the research domain, relevant perspectives and methods have been going on for a long time. Many researchers vote for a combination of research perspectives and their respective research methodologies; rigour and relevance as requirements in design science are generally accepted. What has been lacking is a formalisation of a detailed

Philipp Offermann; Olga Levina; Marten Schönherr; Udo Bub

2009-01-01

190

Toward a Science of Transdisciplinary Action Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper offers a conceptual framework for establishing a science of transdisciplinary action research. Lewin's (1951) concept of action research highlights the scientific and societal value of translating psychological research into community problem-solving strategies. Implicit in Lewin's formulation is the importance of achieving effective collaboration among behavioral researchers, community members and policy makers. The present analysis builds on Lewin's analysis

Daniel Stokols

2006-01-01

191

Library and Information Science Practitioners and Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the need for research in the field of library and information science and describes results of questionnaires sent to library association members that investigated how many practitioners read at least one research journal, how many read research-based articles, how many apply research results to professional practices, and how many…

Powell, Ronald R.; Baker, Lynda M.; Mika, Joseph J.

2002-01-01

192

Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research  

SciTech Connect

The medical projects employing synchrotron radiation as discussed in this paper are, for the most part, still in their infancies and no one can predict the direction in which they will develop. Both the basic research and applied medical programs are sure to be advanced at the new facilities coming on line, especially the ESRF and Spring- 8. However, success is not guaranteed. There is a lot of competition from advances in conventional imaging with the development of digital angiography, computed tomography, functional magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound. The synchrotron programs will have to provide significant advantages over these modalities in order to be accepted by the medical profession. Advances in image processing and potentially the development of compact sources will be required in order to move the synchrotron developed imaging technologies into the clinical world. In any event, it can be expected that the images produced by the synchrotron technologies will establish ``gold standards`` to be targeted by conventional modalities. A lot more work needs to be done in order to bring synchrotron radiation therapy and surgery to the level of human studies and, subsequently, to clinical applications.

Thomlinson, W.

1995-12-31

193

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences electronic health record and medical informatics training for undergraduate health professionals*  

PubMed Central

The University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) is planning interprofessional training in electronic health records (EHRs) and medical informatics. Training will be integrated throughout the curricula and will include seminars on broad concepts supplemented with online modules, didactic lectures, and hands-on experiences. Training will prepare future health professionals to use EHRs, evidence-based medicine, medical decision support, and point-of-care tools to reduce errors, improve standards of care, address Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act requirements and accreditation standards, and promote appropriate documentation to enable data retrieval for clinical research. UAMS will ensure that graduates are ready for the rapidly evolving practice environment created by the HITECH Act.

Hart, Jan K; Newton, Bruce W; Boone, Steven E

2010-01-01

194

Two h-Index Benchmarks for Evaluating the Publication Performance of Medical Informatics Researchers  

PubMed Central

Background The h-index is a commonly used metric for evaluating the publication performance of researchers. However, in a multidisciplinary field such as medical informatics, interpreting the h-index is a challenge because researchers tend to have diverse home disciplines, ranging from clinical areas to computer science, basic science, and the social sciences, each with different publication performance profiles. Objective To construct a reference standard for interpreting the h-index of medical informatics researchers based on the performance of their peers. Methods Using a sample of authors with articles published over the 5-year period 2006–2011 in the 2 top journals in medical informatics (as determined by impact factor), we computed their h-index using the Scopus database. Percentiles were computed to create a 6-level benchmark, similar in scheme to one used by the US National Science Foundation, and a 10-level benchmark. Results The 2 benchmarks can be used to place medical informatics researchers in an ordered category based on the performance of their peers. A validation exercise mapped the benchmark levels to the ranks of medical informatics academic faculty in the United States. The 10-level benchmark tracked academic rank better (with no ties) and is therefore more suitable for practical use. Conclusions Our 10-level benchmark provides an objective basis to evaluate and compare the publication performance of medical informatics researchers with that of their peers using the h-index.

Arbuckle, Luk; Jonker, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kevin

2012-01-01

195

Science and Engineering Research in the 21st Century  

NSF Publications Database

... Science Board Science and Engineering Research and Education in the 21st Century A National Science ... Center University of California at Davis National Science Board Arlington, VA 22230 Science and ...

196

Gender perspective in medicine: a vital part of medical scientific rationality. A useful model for comprehending structures and hierarchies within medical science  

PubMed Central

Background During the past few decades, research has reported gender bias in various areas of clinical and academic medicine. To prevent such bias, a gender perspective in medicine has been requested, but difficulties and resistance have been reported from implementation attempts. Our study aimed at analysing this resistance in relation to what is considered good medical research. Method We used a theoretical model, based on scientific competition, to understand the structures of scientific medicine and how they might influence the resistance to a gender perspective in medicine. The model was originally introduced to discuss how pluralism improves rationality in the social sciences. Results The model provided a way to conceptualise different fields of research in medicine: basic research, applied research, medical philosophy, and 'empowering' research. It clarified how various research approaches within medicine relate to each other, and how they differ and compete. It also indicated why there might be conflicts between them: basic and applied research performed within the biomedical framework have higher status than gender research and other research approaches that are performed within divergent research paradigms. Conclusion This hierarchy within medical research contributes to the resistance to a gender perspective, causing gender bias and making medical scientific rationality suboptimal. We recommend that the theoretical model can be applied in a wider medical context when different and hierarchically arranged research traditions are in conflict. In this way, the model might contribute to shape a medical community where scientific pluralism is acknowledged to enlarge, not to disturb, the scientific rationality of medicine.

Risberg, Gunilla; Hamberg, Katarina; Johansson, Eva E

2006-01-01

197

National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of the Graduate Research Fellowship Program (GRFP) of the National Science Foundation (NSF) is to support the vitality of the human resource base of science, mathematics, and engineering in the United States and to reinforce its diversity. Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU) manages the GRFP application and review processes under contract to NSF.

Jeffrey Johnson

2002-01-01

198

Recent Research in Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This feature is designed to point "CBE - Life Sciences Education" readers to current articles of interest in life sciences education as well as more general and noteworthy publications in education research. URLs are provided for the abstracts or full text of articles. For articles listed as "Abstract available," full text may…

Allen, Deborah

2014-01-01

199

Research and Teaching: Problem Solving in Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews current research in the application of the Neo-Piagetian theory of Pascual-Leone and shows how it provides the science teacher new implements. Hypothesizes that the role of the environment and creativity, if emphasized adequately, can help make science instruction more effective. (Contains 45 references.) (PR)

Niaz, Mansoor

1993-01-01

200

Nuclear Medical Science Officers: Army Health Physicists Serving and Defending Their Country Around the Globe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tracing their distinguished history back to the Manhattan Project that developed the world's first atomic bomb, the Nuclear Medical Science Officers are the Army's experts on radiation and its health effects. Serving around the globe, these commissioned Army officers serve as military health physicists that ensure the protection of Soldiers and those they defend against all sources of radiation, military and civilian. This poster will highlight the various roles and responsibilities that Nuclear Medical Science Officers fill in defense of the Nation. Areas where these officers serve include medical health physics, deployment health physics, homeland defense, emergency response, radiation dosimetry, radiation research and training, along with support to the Army's corporate radiation safety program and international collaborations. The poster will also share some of the unique military sources of radiation such as depleted uranium, which is used as an anti-armor munition and in armor plating because of its unique metallurgic properties. )

Melanson, Mark; Bosley, William; Santiago, Jodi; Hamilton, Daniel

2010-02-01

201

Remote Science Operation Center research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Progress in the following areas is discussed: the design, planning and operation of a remote science payload operations control center; design and planning of a data link via satellite; and the design and prototyping of an advanced workstation environment for multi-media (3-D computer aided design/computer aided engineering, voice, video, text) communications and operations.

Banks, P. M.

1986-01-01

202

Research Collaboration - Team Science Toolkit  

Cancer.gov

See Mâsse, LC, Moser, RP, Stokols, D, Taylor, BK, MA, Marcus, SE, Morgan, GD, Hall, KL, Croyle, RT, Trochim, WM (2008). Measuring Collaboration and Transdisciplinary Integration in Team Science. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 35(2S), S151-160.

203

ADHD--To Medicate or Not? Research Brief  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What does the research indicate are the effects of medicating or not medicating adolescents with ADHD? Many parents and health care providers are rethinking and questioning the long-term effects of medication on children. Whether or not to medicate adolescents with ADHD is a conundrum that many parents face. Some parents believe their child will…

Walker, Karen

2009-01-01

204

Patient compliance and medical research: issues in methodology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compliance with medication and medical appointments is presumed to have a critical influence on outcomes of medical interventions. However, compliance may not always be easily defined or accurately measured. No single method of measuring compliance with appointments or medication is applicable in all settings. The apparent effects of compliance on outcome may be both direct and indirect; research is needed

J. Melnikow; Catarina I. Kiefe

1994-01-01

205

Research on application of Lucene in medical image retrieval system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical imaging technology widely used in the medical domain, the massive medical images produced in the clinic has an important reference value to the medical scientific research, but for its large quantity and difficult to manage, the efficiency and accuracy in the retrieval are still insufficient. Lucene is architecture with a full-text search engine, providing the complete query and

Wencheng Cui; Mengjia Xu; Huayu Sun; Hong Shao

2011-01-01

206

Survey Nonresponse Bias in Social Science Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Surveys continue to be one of the primary research methods in social science research, as they have been useful for exploring subjects ranging from attitudes and intentions to motivations and behaviors, to name but a few. Notwithstanding, response rates in survey research continue to decline despite the development of more systematic procedures to…

Reio, Thomas G., Jr.

2007-01-01

207

SOCIAL SCIENCE RESEARCH METHODS IN INTERNET TIME  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses three interrelated challenges related to conducting social science research in ‘Internet Time’. (1) The rate at which the Internet is both diffusing through society and developing new capacities is unprecedented. It creates some novel challenges for scholarly research. (2) Many of our most robust research methods are based upon ceteris paribus assumptions that do not hold in

David Karpf

2012-01-01

208

Science Education Research and Teacher Professional Development  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Well-designed and thoughtful approaches to practitioner research can bring about very positive impacts to improve teaching and learning in science classrooms. Readers of highly-rated research also need to appreciate and understand research design, literature critique, appropriate data collection, methods of analysis, theoretical frameworks,…

Oversby, John; McGregor, Deb; Woodhouse, Fiona

2013-01-01

209

[Anthropology of medical research in developing countries: a Senegalese experience].  

PubMed

Medical research is an essential tool of biomedicine that raises many social and ethical questions especially in resource-poor countries where the number of clinical trials has increased significantly over the past two decades. This article presents the way anthropology of medical research critically examines medical research in non-western countries without questioning its strategic importance for advances in scientific knowledge and in public health improvement. This article draws on observations conducted in Senegal in 2007 during a vaccine trial against meningitis and discusses, more broadly, medical research in non western-countries related to: the presence and management of medical research sites, the impact of medical research benefits on its representations and the questions raised by blood-stealing rumours regarding medical research practice itself. PMID:23351699

Ouvrier, Ashley

2013-01-01

210

Using Random Numbers in Science Research Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the importance of science process skills and describes ways to select sets of random numbers for selection of subjects for a research study in an unbiased manner. Presents an activity appropriate for grades 5-12. (JRH)

Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

1996-01-01

211

The secure medical research workspace: an IT infrastructure to enable secure research on clinical data.  

PubMed

Clinical data have tremendous value for translational research, but only if security and privacy concerns can be addressed satisfactorily. A collaboration of clinical and informatics teams, including RENCI, NC TraCS, UNC's School of Information and Library Science, Information Technology Service's Research Computing and other partners at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have developed a system called the Secure Medical Research Workspace (SMRW) that enables researchers to use clinical data securely for research. SMRW significantly minimizes the risk presented when using identified clinical data, thereby protecting patients, researchers, and institutions associated with the data. The SMRW is built on a novel combination of virtualization and data leakage protection and can be combined with other protection methodologies and scaled to production levels. PMID:23751029

Shoffner, Michael; Owen, Phillips; Mostafa, Javed; Lamm, Brent; Wang, Xiaoshu; Schmitt, Charles P; Ahalt, Stanley C

2013-06-01

212

The Secure Medical Research Workspace: An IT Infrastructure to Enable Secure Research on Clinical Data  

PubMed Central

Clinical data has tremendous value for translational research, but only if security and privacy concerns can be addressed satisfactorily. A collaboration of clinical and informatics teams, including RENCI, NC TraCS, UNC’s School of Information and Library Science, Information Technology Service’s Research Computing and other partners at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have developed a system called the Secure Medical Research Workspace (SMRW) that enables researchers to use clinical data securely for research. SMRW significantly minimizes the risk presented when using of identified clinical data, thereby protecting patients, researchers, and institutions associated with the data. The SMRW is built on a novel combination of virtualization and data leakage protection and can be combined with other protection methodologies and scaled to production levels.

Shoffner, Michael; Owen, Phillips; Mostafa, Javed; Lamm, Brent; Wang, Xiaoshu; Schmitt, Charles P.; Ahalt, Stanley C.

2013-01-01

213

Science Research Management (Selected Articles).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Partial Contents: Problems of organization and administration in factory scientific research, The amalgamation of higher school scientific research and the academic functioning of schools, and An effective measure for promoting the reform of scientific re...

W. Zhi-liang R. Ting-shu Q. Wei-ming

1986-01-01

214

The Founding of ISOTT: The Shamattawa of Engineering Science and Medical Science.  

PubMed

The founding of ISOTT was based upon the blending of Medical and Engineering sciences. This occurrence is portrayed by the Shamattawa, the joining of the Chippewa and Flambeau rivers. Beginning with Carl Scheele's discovery of oxygen, the medical sciences advanced the knowledge of its importance to physiological phenomena. Meanwhile, engineering science was evolving as a mathematical discipline used to define systems quantitatively from basic principles. In particular, Adolf Fick's employment of a gradient led to the formalization of transport phenomena. These two rivers of knowledge were blended to found ISOTT at Clemson/Charleston, South Carolina, USA, in 1973.The establishment of our society with a mission to support the collaborative work of medical scientists, clinicians and all disciplines of engineering was a supporting step in the evolution of bioengineering. Traditional engineers typically worked in areas not requiring knowledge of biology or the life sciences. By encouraging collaboration between medical science and traditional engineering, our society became one of the forerunners in establishing bioengineering as the fifth traditional discipline of engineering. PMID:24729215

Bruley, Duane F

2014-01-01

215

Center for Cancer Research - Science  

Cancer.gov

The Center for Cancer Research (CCR) is part of the National Cancer Institute (NCI). Our mission is to inform and empower the entire cancer research community by making breakthrough discoveries in basic and clinical cancer research and by developing these discoveries into new therapeutic interventions for adults and children afflicted with cancer or infected with HIV.

216

An interdisciplinary course in the basic sciences for senior medical and PhD students.  

PubMed

Integrating clinical and basic sciences throughout the medical school curriculum has become a major objective of various innovations in medical education. While early clinical exposure has evolved as an efficient means of introducing clinical studies in the preclinical years, interdisciplinary integration of basic sciences during the clinical years remains a challenge. The authors describe their three years of experience with an interdisciplinary course designed to demonstrate the continuum of medical information from the clinic to the basic sciences. In this course, sixth-year medical students are required to choose one of three to four different one-week programs, each of which requires them to conduct an in-depth investigation of a defined clinical topic. Program coordinators are encouraged to work in clinician-basic scientist teams and to use a variety of teaching methods, with an emphasis on tutored individual and group learning based on critical readings of original papers. Coordinators are also encouraged to enable graduate research students to participate. From 1998 to 2000, students participated in nine programs, seven of which were coordinated by interdisciplinary teams. Several clinical and basic science disciplines were represented in each program, and various teaching methods were used. Graduate students participated in two of the programs. Evaluation of the programs (a debriefing discussion as well as short written evaluations) indicated moderate to good achievement of the course objectives. PMID:11597853

Rudich, A; Bashan, N

2001-10-01

217

Medical anthropology: toward a third moment in social science?  

PubMed

This article about medical anthropology was inspired by the work of Pierre Bourdieu, specifically, his efforts to reconcile the antinomy of a "social structuralist" and a "cultural constructivist" perspective. These perspectives are often opposed in the literature, but, in Bourdieu's view, human life cannot be studied without taking into account both how individuals are situated within and constrained by social structures and how those individuals construct an understanding of and impose meaning on the world around them. I argue that the special subject matter of medical anthropology--human health--demands that a synthetic approach be taken in our theory and research. I illustrate this argument with examples from my own research on social and cultural factors associated with blood pressure, and I point to other examples of this synthesis in medical anthropology. The results of this research hold promise for the continuing refinement of culture theory. PMID:11794870

Dressler, W W

2001-12-01

218

Proteome research in food science.  

PubMed

The proteome is the totality of proteins present in a biological sample. In contrast to the static genome, the proteome is highly dynamic, influenced by the genome and many external factors, such as the state of development, tissue type, metabolic state, and various interactions. Thus, the proteome reflects very closely the biological (and chemical) processes occurring in a system. For proteome analysis, gel based and shotgun methods are most widely applied. Because of the potential to generate a systematic view of protein composition and biological as well as chemical interactions, the application of proteome analysis in food science is steadily growing. This tutorial review introduces several fields in food science, where proteomics has been successfully applied: analysis of food composition, safety assessment of genetically modified food, the search for marker proteins for food authentication, identification of food allergens, systematic analysis of the physiological activity of food, analysis of the effects of processing on food proteins and the improvement of food quality. PMID:19690740

Pischetsrieder, Monika; Baeuerlein, Rainer

2009-09-01

219

MRIdb: medical image management for biobank research.  

PubMed

Clinical picture archiving and communications systems provide convenient, efficient access to digital medical images from multiple modalities but can prove challenging to deploy, configure and use. MRIdb is a self-contained image database, particularly suited to the storage and management of magnetic resonance imaging data sets for population phenotyping. It integrates a mature image archival system with an intuitive web-based user interface that provides visualisation and export functionality. In addition, utilities for auditing, data migration and system monitoring are included in a virtual machine image that is easily deployed with minimal configuration. The result is a freely available turnkey solution, designed to support epidemiological and imaging genetics research. It allows the management of patient data sets in a secure, scalable manner without requiring the installation of any bespoke software on end users' workstations. MRIdb is an open-source software, available for download at http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/bioinfsupport/resources/software/mridb . PMID:23619930

Woodbridge, Mark; Fagiolo, Gianlorenzo; O'Regan, Declan P

2013-10-01

220

Advanced Sciences and Technology Research for Astrodynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Advanced Sciences and Technology Research Institute for Astrodynamics (ASTRIA) has been created as a research endeavor that focuses all astrodynamics R&D within the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). ASTRIA is mainly a consortium of academic partners brought together to bear on the nation's challenges as related to astrodynamics sciences and technologies. An overview of ASTRIA is presented as well as examples of several research efforts that are relevant to data/track association, UCT/cross-tagging mitigation, and attitude recovery from light curve data.

Jah, M.

221

HIV Infections as Unanticipated Problems During Medical Research in Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulations and guidelines in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom require institutions that manage medical research on humans anywhere in the world to protect research participants. Analyses of published data from six medical research projects in Africa funded by governments and other organizations in the above countries reveal HIV infections statistically linked to participation in research. Given this

DAVID GISSELQUIST

2009-01-01

222

Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity Annual Report 2001.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity annual Report 2001 summarizes work done to support the development of evidence-based medical accession standards contained in DoD Instruction 6130.4 'Criteria and Procedure Requirements for Ph...

D. W. Niebuhr Y. Li T. B. Powers M. R. Krauss

2002-01-01

223

Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity Annual Report 2002.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity annual Report 2002 summarizes work done to support the development of evidence-based medical accession standards contained in DoD Instruction 6130.4 'Criteria and Procedure Requirements for Ph...

D. W. Niebuhr Y. Li T. E. Powers M. R. Krauss

2003-01-01

224

The "Science of HRD Research": Reshaping HRD Research through Scientometrics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We explore opportunities for assessing and advancing Human Resource Development (HRD) research through an integrative literature review of scientometric theories and methods. Known as the "science of science," scientometrics is concerned with the quantitative study of scholarly communications, disciplinary structure and assessment and measurement…

Wang, Greg G.; Gilley, Jerry W.; Sun, Judy Y.

2012-01-01

225

The Application of High Energy Physics Techniques in Medical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Medical and Biophysical Sciences have often made use of technical developments in the Physical Sciences. High Energy Physics has made its contributions in recent years by bringing the use of scintillation and solid state detectors in trace element detection and in gamma imaging. More recently, the use of position sensitive detectors such as Multi-wire Proportional Chambers (MWPC) has been

V. Perez-Mendez

1976-01-01

226

Photon Science Research at APRC of JAEA  

SciTech Connect

Overviewed is research on photon science and technology at the Advanced Photon Research Center (APRC) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), where development of ultra-fast, high intensity lasers and their applications are being promoted. The importance of combined applications of laser, accelerators, and synchrotron radiation is emphasized.

Kimura, Toyoaki [Advanced Photon Research Center, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency 8-1 Umemidai, Kizugawa-shi, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan)

2008-06-24

227

SHaRE: Collaborative materials science research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Shared Research Equipment (SHaRE) Program provides access to the wide range of advanced equipment and techniques available in the Metals and Ceramics Division of ORNL to researchers from universities, industry, and other national laboratories. All SHaRE projects are collaborative in nature and address materials science problems in areas of mutual interest to the internal and external collaborators. While all

E. A. Kenik; K. L. More

1988-01-01

228

A Note about Information Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship between information science research and practice and briefly describes current research on 10 topics in information retrieval literature: vector processing retrieval strategy, probabilistic retrieval models, inverted file procedures, relevance feedback, Boolean query formulations, front-end procedures, citation…

Salton, Gerard

1985-01-01

229

Major Federal Regulations Governing Social Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report provides administrators, project leaders, and researchers with information about major federal regulations governing research in the social sciences. The report is presented in five major chapters. Chapter I identifies the report's limitations. For example, it describes only statutory and regulatory provisions and covers only domestic…

Gandara, Arturo

230

Engineering and Applied Science, Recent Research Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection contains abstracts of technical reports and journal articles resulting from research funded by the National Science Foundation. Included in the collection are abstracts arranged in several categories: (1) electrical, computer, and systems engineering; (2) civil and mechanical engineering; (3) applied research; (4) problem-focused…

National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate of Engineering and Applied Science.

231

Development and Evaluation of the Habitat Demonstration Unit Medical Operations Workstation and Opportunities for Future Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA develops missions to leave Earth orbit and explore distant destinations (Mars, Moon, Asteroids) it is necessary to rethink human spaceflight paradigms in the life sciences. Standards developed for low earth orbit human spaceflight may not be fully applicable and in-space research may be required to develop new standards. Preventative and emergency medical care may require new capabilities never before used in space. Due to spacecraft volume limitations, this work area may also be shared with various animal and plant life science research. This paper explores the prototype Medical Operations Workstation within the NASA Habitat Demonstration Unit and discusses some of the lessons learned from field analogue missions involving the workstation. Keywords: Exploration, medical, health, crew, injury emergency, biology, animal, plant, science, preventative, emergency.

Howard, Robert L., Jr.

2012-01-01

232

Mathematical Research in Materials Science Opportunities and Perspectives. Part 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This National Research Council report from the Board on Mathematical Sciences documents and presents technical details of fruitful collaborations between the mathematical sciences and materials science, and indicates areas of mathematical sciences researc...

1993-01-01

233

Are you a researcher as well as a medical illustrator?  

PubMed

When we list the areas of practice for medical illustrators we always include research, but how involved in research are we? The aim of this activity is to encourage your professional development not just as a medical illustrator but your involvement with research whether that is undertaking your own research, undertaking evidence based practice (1) , working as part of a research team, advising researchers on the value of medical illustration or supporting a student undertaking a research project for their degree or post-graduate qualification. PMID:24252147

Bryson, David

2013-12-01

234

Physical sciences research plans for the International Space Station.  

PubMed

The restructuring of the research capabilities of the International Space Station has forced a reassessment of the Physical Sciences research plans and a re-targeting of the major scientific thrusts. The combination of already selected peer-reviewed flight investigations with the initiation of new research and technology programs will allow the maximization of the ISS scientific and technological potential. Fundamental and applied research will use a combination of ISS-based facilities, ground-based activities, and other experimental platforms to address issues impacting fundamental knowledge, industrial and medical applications on Earth, and the technology required for human space exploration. The current flight investigation research plan shows a large number of principal investigators selected to use the remaining planned research facilities. PMID:14649258

Trinh, E H

2003-01-01

235

Science Research Facilities - Versatility for Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Space Station Science Lab Module (SLM) and its interfaces are designed to minimize complexity and maximize user accommodations. The facilities provided encompass life sciences research, the control of external payloads, the servicing of customer equipment, and general scientific investigations. The SLM will have the unprecedented ability to diagnose, service, and replace equipment while in orbit. In addition, the SLM will have significant operational advantages over previous spacecraft in terms of available volume, power, and crew interaction possibilities.

Giannovario, J. A.; Schelkopf, J. D.; Massey, K.; Solly, M.

1986-01-01

236

Accelerator based materials science research in India  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Materials science research with ion beams has been basically developed by nuclear physicists. It started with the development of accelerator based techniques for materials characterization, leading into surface studies and depth profiling. Interest in modification of materials increased with availability of heavy duty ions of higher energies. Now the swift heavy ions are being utilized for engineering the properties of materials and are exploited in almost all the emerging new areas in materials science.

Mehta, G. K.

2003-12-01

237

Science Learning Environments and Action Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A learning environment survey can be easily used in your science classroom to evaluate new instructional approaches, to spark enthusiasm, and to produce evidence showing that you are indeed becoming a reflective practitioner. Intellectual professional development should go beyond attending conferences and inservice training. This article will describe how you can successfully implement CLEAR (Classroom Learning Environment Action Research) as a strategy for improving your science teaching practice.

Martin-Dunlop, Catherine

2006-09-01

238

Research on Gender in Science and Engineering  

NSF Publications Database

The Research on Gender in Science and Engineering program has been funding these objectives since 1993, under the prior names "Program for Women and Girls" (PWG), "Program for Gender Equity in Science, Mathematics, Engineering and Technology" (PGE), and "Gender Diversity in STEM Education" (GDSE). Full Proposal Preparation Instructions: This solicitation contains information that supplements the standard Grant Proposal Guide (GPG) proposal preparation guidelines. NSF expects to fund 10 ...

239

Science versus Basic Educational Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

One goal of basic research in education is to identify the variables of effective instruction. As this pursuit has been conceived, however, its theoretical problems make it unlikely that the effort will provide a clear picture of instructional variables, their interactions, or the kind of teacher training that is implied by instructional variables.

Engelmann, Siegfried

2008-01-01

240

Commentary: The Value of Science Research Projects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this month's Commentary, the value of science research projects is emphasized. The authors of this article have found that conservatively such projects could potentially have a positive impact on curricular requirements, regardless of the perception that science projects should be complex and difficult or that they should be limited only to students who continue their education beyond high school. They effectively illustrate the benefits of science projects as an alternative learning path for all students, where they acquire critical thinking skills and other components of inquiry-based instruction.

Frisby, Al; Mccurdy, Dennis

2005-04-01

241

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries' collaboration with the Association of American Medical Colleges, Medical Library Association, and other organizations  

PubMed Central

The Association of Academic Health Sciences Libraries has made collaboration with other organizations a fundamental success strategy throughout its twenty-five year history. From the beginning its relationships with Association of American Medical Colleges and with the Medical Library Association have shaped its mission and influenced its success at promoting academic health sciences libraries' roles in their institutions. This article describes and evaluates those relationships. It also describes evolving relationships with other organizations including the National Library of Medicine and the Association of Research Libraries.

Jenkins, Carol G.; Bader, Shelley A.

2003-01-01

242

A case study approach to estimating the burden of research misconduct in publicly funded medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The economic impact of research misconduct in medical research has been unexplored. While research misconduct in publicly funded medical research has increasingly been the object of discussion, public policy debate, government and institutional action, and scientific research, the costs of research misconduct have been unexamined. The author develops a model to estimate the per case cost of research misconduct, specifically

Elizabeth Gammon

2009-01-01

243

Quality of life of medical students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences.  

PubMed

This study aims to investigate the quality of life (QOL) of Tehran University of Medical Sciences' (TUMS) medical students at different educational levels and specify the most important factors related to this quality. A sample of 242 medical students was selected randomly, given their number in three educational levels (basic sciences, physiopathology-stager and intern). The QOL was measured by WHOQOL-BREF. The students obtained average high score in two psychological and environmental health domains, and low score in physical health and social relationship domains. As the educational level of students increased their quality of life decreased at all four domains. At social relationship domain, the female students had overall better situation as compared to males (p=0.009). The female and male students had opposite condition at the level of basic sciences and internship, in a way that the female students earned higher marks at basic sciences level and the males at internship level (P= 0.008). The condition of female students in terms of environmental, physical and psychological health became static while their education rose. However, only environmental health of the male students reduced as their education level increased (P= 0.05). The students were of undesirable conditions in two domains of social relationship and physical health. Internship is a specific level in both groups which has a negative impact on the dimensions of quality of life and naturally needs more care for the students. Married status improved the students' QOL and could moderate the undesired effects of internship. PMID:24902021

Heidari, Mohammad; Majdzadeh, Reza; Pasalar, Parvin; Nedjat, Saharnaz

2014-01-01

244

National Exposure Research Laboratory: Environmental Sciences Division  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"The Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) of the Office of Research and Development's National Exposure Research Laboratory conducts research, development, and technology transfer programs on environmental exposures to ecological and human receptors." Chemists can discover ESD's methods for characterizing chemical stressors and its research and monitoring of contamination. Researchers can download various models for contaminate transport, data analysis, and environmental assessments. The website provides many online scientific articles dealing with ESD's projects including spatial interpolations, the Trace Organic Analysis, and the use of a mass spectrometer in environmental forensics.

245

Evaluation of medical research performance - position paper of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF)  

PubMed Central

Objective: The evaluation of medical research performance is a key prerequisite for the systematic advancement of medical faculties, research foci, academic departments, and individual scientists’ careers. However, it is often based on vaguely defined aims and questionable methods and can thereby lead to unwanted regulatory effects. The current paper aims at defining the position of German academic medicine toward the aims, methods, and consequences of its evaluation. Methods: During the Berlin Forum of the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany (AWMF) held on 18 October 2013, international experts presented data on methods for evaluating medical research performance. Subsequent discussions among representatives of relevant scientific organizations and within three ad-hoc writing groups led to a first draft of this article. Further discussions within the AWMF Committee for Evaluation of Performance in Research and Teaching and the AWMF Executive Board resulted in the final consented version presented here. Results: The AWMF recommends modifications to the current system of evaluating medical research performance. Evaluations should follow clearly defined and communicated aims and consist of both summative and formative components. Informed peer reviews are valuable but feasible in longer time intervals only. They can be complemented by objective indicators. However, the Journal Impact Factor is not an appropriate measure for evaluating individual publications or their authors. The scientific “impact” rather requires multidimensional evaluation. Indicators of potential relevance in this context may include, e.g., normalized citation rates of scientific publications, other forms of reception by the scientific community and the public, and activities in scientific organizations, research synthesis and science communication. In addition, differentiated recommendations are made for evaluating the acquisition of third-party funds and the promotion of junior scientists. Conclusions: With the explicit recommendations presented in the current position paper, the AWMF suggests enhancements to the practice of evaluating medical research performance by faculties, ministries and research funding organizations.

Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; Brunner, Edgar; Hildenbrand, Sibylle; Loew, Thomas H.; Raupach, Tobias; Spies, Claudia; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Vahl, Christian-Friedrich; Wenz, Hans-Jurgen

2014-01-01

246

Visionlearning: Research Methods: The Practice of Science  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This instructional module introduces four types of research methods: experimentation, description, comparison, and modeling. It was developed to help learners understand that the classic definition of the "scientific method" does not capture the dynamic nature of science investigation. As learners explore each methodology, they develop an understanding of why scientists use multiple methods to gather data and develop hypotheses. It is appropriate for introductory physics courses and for teachers seeking content support in research practices. Editor's Note: Secondary students often cling to the notion that scientific research follows a stock, standard "scientific method". They may be unaware of the differences between experimental research, correlative studies, observation, and computer-based modeling research. In this resource, they can glimpse each methodology in the context of a real study done by respected scientists. This resource is part of Visionlearning, an award-winning set of classroom-tested modules for science education.

Carpi, Anthony; Egger, Anne

247

Medical Ethics Research Between Theory and Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main object of criticism of present-day medical ethics is the standard view of the relationship between theory and practice. Medical ethics is more than the application of moral theories and principles, and health care is more than the domain of application of moral theories. Moral theories and principles are necessarily abstract, and therefore fail to take account of the

Henk A. M. J. Ten Have; Annique Lelie

1998-01-01

248

Information and its role in medical and pharmaceutical science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a record of the lecture at the Lecturer Meeting for Scientific and Technical Information, which was held as one of the events of Science and Technology Week in 1989. Lecturer explains how the scientific information takes part in research and how researchers make use of it, based on his own experience. He states that the information is especially important in R & D and creative research, by showing the case of studies in the chironomidmidges as an example. Referring to the researches being conducted outside of large cities, he states that online service have eliminated the regional differences in obtaining scientific information and gave researchers much more time for carring out their own research works. Finally, he expects that floppy disk will become popular as one of the information media in the future.

Sassa, Manabu

249

Education and research in medical optronics in France  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

First we present here the main post-graduate courses proposed in France both for physicians and engineers in medical optronics. After we explain which medical domains are concerned by this teaching, essentially computer assisted surgery, telemedicine and functional exploration. Then we show the main research axes in these fields, in which new jobs have to be invented and new educational approaches have to be prepared in order to satisfy the demand coming both from hospitals (mainly referent hospitals) and from industry (essentially medical imaging and instrumentation companies). Finally we will conclude that medical optronics is an important step in an entire chain of acquisition and processing of medical data, capable to create the medical knowledge a surgeon or a physician needs for diagnosis or therapy purposes. Optimizing the teaching of medical optronics needs a complete integration from acquiring to modeling the medical reality. This tendency to give a holistic education in medical imaging and instrumentation is called `Model driven Acquisition' learning.

Demongeot, Jacques; Fleute, M.; Herve, T.; Lavallee, Stephane

2000-06-01

250

Faculty development in medical education research: a cooperative model.  

PubMed

As the definition of scholarship is clarified, each specialty should develop a cadre of medical education researchers who can design, test, and optimize educational interventions. In 2004, the Association for American Medical Colleges' Group on Educational Affairs developed the Medical Education Research Certificate (MERC) program to provide a curriculum to help medical educators acquire or enhance skills in medical education research, to promote effective collaboration with seasoned researchers, and to create better consumers of medical education scholarship. MERC courses are offered to individuals during educational meetings. Educational leaders in emergency medicine (EM) identified a disparity between the "scholarship of teaching" and medical education research skills, and they collaborated with the MERC steering committee to develop a mentored faculty development program in medical education research. A planning committee comprising experienced medical education researchers who are also board-certified, full-time EM faculty members designed a novel approach to the MERC curriculum: a mentored team approach to learning, grounded in collaborative medical education research projects. The planning committee identified areas of research interest among participants and formed working groups to collaborate on research projects during standard MERC workshops. Rather than focusing on individual questions during the course, each mentored group identified a single study hypothesis. After completing the first three workshops, group members worked under their mentors' guidance on their multiinstitutional research projects. The expected benefits of this approach to MERC include establishing a research community network, creating projects whose enrollments offer a multiinstitutional dimension, and developing a cadre of trained education researchers in EM. PMID:20520036

Coates, Wendy C; Love, Jeffrey N; Santen, Sally A; Hobgood, Cherri D; Mavis, Brian E; Maggio, Lauren A; Farrell, Susan E

2010-05-01

251

Undergraduate Science Research: A Comparison of Influences and Experiences between Premed and Non-Premed Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Most students participating in science undergraduate research (UR) plan to attend either medical school or graduate school. This study examines possible differences between premed and non-premed students in their influences to do research and expectations of research. Questionnaire responses from 55 premed students and 80 non-premed students were…

Pacifici, Lara Brongo; Thomson, Norman

2011-01-01

252

Between Clinical Medicine and the Laboratory: Medical Research Funding in France from 1945 to the Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

By focusing on funding methods, this paper considers the way in which medical research eventually led to the science-based medicine that is prevalent in France today. This process seems to have taken place in three stages during the second half of the twentieth century. In the 1940s and 1950s, two major events occurred. The first was the creation of a

Jean-François Picard; Laurence Esterle

2011-01-01

253

Between Clinical Medicine and the Laboratory: Medical Research Funding in France from 1945 to the Present  

Microsoft Academic Search

: By focusing on funding methods, this paper considers the way in which medical research eventually led to the science-based medicine that is prevalent in France today. This process seems to have taken place in three stages during the second half of the twentieth century. In the 1940s and 1950s, two major events occurred. The first was the creation of

Jean-François Picard; Laurence Esterle

2011-01-01

254

How Does Iranian's Legal System Protect Human Vulnerability and Personal Integrity in Medical Research?  

PubMed Central

The astonishing advance of medical science in recent decades has had endless advantages for humans, including improved level of health, prevention of disease and advances in treatment. These advances depend to a great extent on conducting continuous research. However, besides its enormous advantages, the sole interest of medical science undermines the principles of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity, in both positive and negative approaches. The positive approach refers to the people who participate in research and practice, while the negative approach refers to people who are deprived of research and practice. The authors of this work, based on legal or moral grounds try to analyse the tension between the principle of respect for human vulnerability and personal integrity and the interest of medical science. Undoubtedly, in applying scientific knowledge and medical practice human vulnerability should be taken into account. In this regard, especially vulnerable individuals and groups should be protected and the personal integrity of such individuals respected. In the light of the merits of Islamic law, this paper is designed to examine the significance of the principles of human vulnerability and personal integrity in medical research by studying the international documents as formalised by UNESCO in order to explore the place of these principles in the Iranian legal system.

Karoubi, Mohammad Taghi; Akhondi, Mohammad Mehdi

2011-01-01

255

Promoting medical student research productivity: the student perspective.  

PubMed

One-third of medical students complete medical school without significant exposure to research. This gap in their medical education is significant: research not only exposes medical students to scientific methodology and academic writing, but also encourages them to multi-task, communicate, and critically analyze the scientific literature - valuable skills that will serve them well in their future medical careers. We report herein the proceedings from a student-led symposium that aimed to promote student involvement in research at the Alpert Medical School of Brown University by providing practical information on how to successfully complete a research project. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-06.asp, free with no login]. PMID:24905376

Young, Benjamin K; Cai, Fei; Tandon, Vickram J; George, Paul; Greenberg, Paul B

2014-01-01

256

Fieldwork and social science research ethics.  

PubMed

Fieldwork as a part of social science research brings the researcher closest to the subject of research. It is a dynamic process where there is an exchange between the researcher, participants, stakeholders, gatekeepers, the community and the larger sociopolitical context in which the research problem is located. Ethical dilemmas that surface during fieldwork often pose a unique challenge to the researcher. This paper is based on field experiences during an action research study conducted with a human rights perspective. It discusses the role conflict that researchers face during fieldwork in a situation of humanitarian crisis. It raises issues pertaining to the need to extend the ethical decision-making paradigm to address ethical dilemmas arising during the course of fieldwork. PMID:18630249

Contractor, Qudsiya

2008-01-01

257

Materials science research in microgravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are several important attributes of an extended duration microgravity environment that offer a new dimension in the control of the microstructure, processing, and properties of materials. First, when gravitational effects are minimized, buoyancy driven convection flows are also minimized. The flows due to density differences, brought about either by composition or temperature gradients will then be reduced or eliminated to permit a more precise control of the temperature and the composition of a melt which is critical in achieving high quality crystal growth of electronic materials or alloy structures. Secondly, body force effects such as sedimentation, hydrostatic pressure, and deformation are similarly reduced. These effects may interfere with attempts to produce uniformly dispersed or aligned second phases during melt solidification. Thirdly, operating in a microgravity environment will facilitate the containerless processing of melts to eliminate the limitations of containment for reactive melts. The noncontacting forces such as those developed from electromagnet, electrostatic, or acoustic fields can be used to position samples. With this mode of operation, contamination can be minimized to enable the study of reactive melts and to eliminate extraneous crystal nucleation so that novel crystalline structures and new glass compositions may be produced. In order to take advantage of the microgravity environment for materials research, it has become clear that reliable processing models based on a sound ground based experimental experience and an established thermophysical property data base are essential.

Perepezko, John H.

1992-01-01

258

Genetic Engineering of Animals for Medical Research: Students' Views.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on the results of a survey meant to ascertain the views of 16- to 18-year-old students (n=778) on using animals in medical research. Suggests that students have no greater objection to the use of genetically engineered animals over naturally bred animals in medical research. Contains 16 references. (Author/WRM)

Hill, Ruaraidh; Stanisstreet, Martin; O'Sullivan, Helen; Boyes, Edward

1999-01-01

259

Implementation of a Medical Workstation for Research Support in Cardiology  

PubMed Central

Computer support of medical research is nowadays limited to support of individual packages. This paper describes a prototype medical workstation integrating these individual packages into one research support environment. The design of the workstation will be outlined and the implementation of the prototype will be discussed.

van Mulligen, Erik M.; Timmers, Teun; Leao, Beatriz de F.

1990-01-01

260

COSEE New England Ocean Science Researcher Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Are you an ocean science researcher who would you like assistance engaging in educational outreach and achieving broader impacts? This site will help you connect with educators in order to build meaningful educational collaborations. The website includes resources, ideas, and tools for researchers to become effectively involved in education and outreach. The site also features information on upcoming workshops and activities that will foster effect programs.

261

Research of Medication Use during Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... treatment options. Learning the Effects of Medication during Pregnancy The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates ... http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch/default.htm . Pregnancy Registries Drug companies sometimes conduct special studies using ...

262

Accelerator based materials science research in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materials science research with ion beams has been basically developed by nuclear physicists. It started with the development of accelerator based techniques for materials characterization, leading into surface studies and depth profiling. Interest in modification of materials increased with availability of heavy duty ions of higher energies. Now the swift heavy ions are being utilized for engineering the properties of

G. K. Mehta

2003-01-01

263

Actual problems of research in food science.  

PubMed

Starting from the necessary trend towards development in the field of food production, the author outlines, on the basis of current knowledge, the problems to be solved in food science. A general research conception is deduced for the essential nutrient "protein" (as an example) which is illustrated by results from studies on protein fibre and protein gel formation. PMID:7278944

Schmandke, H

1981-01-01

264

Science Teacher Development through Collaborative Action Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article explores the views and actions of four science teachers participating in a collaborative action research project. A qualitative case study approach was used to describe and analyze the development of these teachers. This development initially involved the teachers critically comparing their extant practices to current developments in…

Fazio, Xavier; Melville, Wayne

2008-01-01

265

The Association between Students' Research Involvement in Medical School and Their Postgraduate Medical Activities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A survey of 567 graduates of 3 medical schools (Pennsylvania State University, University of Connecticut, and University of Massachusetts) showed medical school research involvement to be strongly associated with postgraduate research involvement. In residency specialty training, fellowship training, academic appointments, career practice choices,…

Segal, Scott; And Others

1990-01-01

266

Research To Reality: A Model for Community Based Medical Nutrition Therapy an a Comprehensive Early Intervention Program for Medically at Risk Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Arkansas Medical Sciences Department of Pediatrics at Arkansas Children's Hospital participated in a national research project from 1984-89 that focused on low birthweight premature babies. Results of the research revealed significantly higher IQ scores in children receiving intervention. In 1989, the KIDS FIRST program was developed to continue that model of care.Located in 12 sites throughout Arkansas,

V. M. Baker; A. Vance

1998-01-01

267

Changes needed in basic biomedical sciences teaching in Cuban medical schools.  

PubMed

In the 20th century, the basic biomedical sciences (particularly anatomy, histology, embryology, physiology and biochemistry) were taught predominantly in the first semesters of Cuban medical education, with differing curricular connections between these and the clinical sciences. Establishment of the University Polyclinic Program in 2004 laid the foundation for integration of basic biomedical sciences into a transdisciplinary unit designated morphophysiology. This paper argues for improvements in this curricular unit and in its coordination with family medicine in the first semesters of medical training, complemented by integration of basic biomedical sciences into family medicine clinical courses throughout the remainder of the six-year curriculum. KEYWORDS Medical laboratory science, medical clinical science, medical education, curriculum, biological science disciplines, interdisciplinary communication, transfer of learning, Cuba. PMID:22869249

Pernas, Marta; Arencibia, Lourdes G; Garí, Mayra

2012-07-01

268

Research in the chemical sciences: Summaries of FY 1994.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary book is published annually on research supported by DOE's Division of Chemical Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. Research in photochemical and radiation sciences, chemical physics, atomic physics, chemical energy, separations and ana...

1994-01-01

269

Twelve Theses on Design Science Research in Information Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This essay discusses 12 theses for guiding design science research. They are aimed at strengthening the design science orientation\\u000a of Information Systems, clarifying future discourses on design science research aspects of the discipline, and giving some\\u000a further guidelines for design science research in Information Systems.

Juhani Iivari

270

75 FR 7484 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Sciences, National Institutes of Health, Natcher Building, Room 3AN18C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2771, johnsonrh@nigms.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Initial Review Group, Minority Programs...

2010-02-19

271

Emotional intelligence and related factors in medical sciences students of an Iranian university  

PubMed Central

Background: Emotional intelligence has evolved lot of interest in a variety of fields. The aim of this study was to determine the emotional intelligence and its related factors among junior medical sciences students. Materials and Methods: The research design was a descriptive — analytic analysis. Based on a census sampling method, the emotional intelligence of 322 junior medical sciences students was evaluated using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory. This study was done from 2008 to 2009 in the Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Results: The findings showed that 48.1% and 22.4% of students had effective functioning and enhanced skills in emotional intelligence, respectively, while 29.5% of them needed some interventions in order to enhance the emotional intelligence. The study revealed that the students required intervention in every composite of emotional intelligence. In addition, emotional intelligence was correlated with gender, psychiatric history of the student and his/her family, experience of stressful life events, interest in the field of study, grade of study, and marital status. Conclusions: The results of the present study have shown that the students need some interventions to improve their emotional intelligence.

Lolaty, Hamideh Azimi; Tirgari, Abdolhakim; Fard, Jabbar Heydari

2014-01-01

272

The reception and implementation of ethical guidelines of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences in medical and nursing practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Questions under study: We conducted a survey among Swiss health care professionals on the reception and implementation of a number of selected ethical guidelines of the Swiss Academy of Medical Sciences (SAMS). The following guidelines were chosen for evaluation: \\

Eliane Pfister; Nikola Biller-Andorno

273

JAMA Patient Page: Supporting Medical Research  

MedlinePLUS

... research rely on private contributions for their research grants (money awarded to researchers to pay for the ... it will be handled • Whether insurance or a grant will cover the costs Contact your doctor if ...

274

Research Misconduct and the Physical Sciences  

SciTech Connect

Research misconduct includes the fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism (FFP) of concepts or ideas; some institutions have expanded this concept to include ''other serious deviations (OSD) from accepted research practice.'' An action can be evaluated as research misconduct if it involves activities unique to the practice of science and could negatively affect the scientific record. Although the number of cases of research misconduct is uncertain (formal records are kept only by the NIH and the NSF), the costs are high in integrity of the scientific record, diversions from research to investigate allegations, ruined careers of those eventually exonerated, and erosion of public confidence in science. Currently, research misconduct policies vary from institution to institution and from government agency to government agency; some have highly developed guidelines that include OSD, others have no guidelines at ail. One result has been that the federal False Claims Act has been used to pursue allegations of research misconduct and have them adjudicated in the federal court, rather than being judged by scientific peers. The federal government will soon establish a first-ever research misconduct policy that would apply to all research funded by the federal government regardless of what agency funded the research or whether the research was carried out in a government, industrial or university laboratory. Physical scientists, who up to now have only infrequently been the subject or research misconduct allegations, must none-the-less become active in the debate over research misconduct policies and how they are implemented since they will now be explicitly covered by this new federal wide policy.

HM Kerch; JJ Dooley

1999-10-11

275

Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

2001-01-01

276

Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD). This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

277

Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830).

2001-01-01

278

Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Here the transparent furnace is extracted for servicing. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

2001-01-01

279

Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This scale model depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, and TBD). This composite is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

2001-01-01

280

Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. A larger image is available without labels (No. 0101755).

2001-01-01

281

Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101830, and TBD).

2001-01-01

282

Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This computer-generated image depicts the Materials Science Research Rack-1 (MSRR-1) being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the European Space Agency (ESA) for placement in the Destiny laboratory module aboard the International Space Station. The rack is part of the plarned Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF) and is expected to include two furnace module inserts, a Quench Module Insert (being developed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center) to study directional solidification in rapidly cooled alloys and a Diffusion Module Insert (being developed by the European Space Agency) to study crystal growth, and a transparent furnace (being developed by NASA's Space Product Development program). Multi-user equipment in the rack is being developed under the auspices of NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR) and ESA. Key elements are labeled in other images (0101754, 0101829, 0101830, and TBD).

2001-01-01

283

Launch vouchers for space science research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent national space policy proposes the use of space transportation vouchers to increase opportunities for space-based science research and to support the U.S. space transportation industry. Vouchers issued and financially backed by the government would be given to researchers for redemption on any mode of space transportation. This paper examines the economic costs and benefits of vouchers; incentive-based strategies for effective program design; and areas where the voucher scheme is weak. It is concluded that, under plausible assumptions, vouchers may well be a cost-effective way to achieve near-term space transportation for space research payloads.

Macauley, Molly K.

1989-01-01

284

Behavioral science research: ethical and policy implications.  

PubMed

Problems centered about protection of human subjects in behavioral science research are discussed. Difficulties in obtaining truly informed consent are noted. It is concluded that the risks involved to subjects are minimal in this field of research. The use of deception in psychological research is discussed along with the necessity of appropriately debriefing the subject. The use of institutional committees to protect subjects' rights is contrasted with the bureaucratic review processes of the government. It is concluded that, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, the local institutional review process is likely to induce greater cooperation from investigators in protecting subjects' rights. PMID:272252

Corah, N L

1977-11-01

285

Natural Sciences Research at the Bishop Museum  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learn about the latest in research at the Natural Sciences Department of the Bishop Museum in Honolulu. This Web site provides a short overview of research being conducted in the fields of botany, entomology, geology, malacology, ichthyology, invertebrate zoology, and vertebrate zoology. The pages provided for each field of study offer general information about the collection, image galleries, and searchable data sets that may be useful research resources. Users should note that not all features are available for each discipline. For instance, no data is available for the invertebrate zoology collection, and its info page is currently under construction.

2002-01-01

286

Wind Science and Engineering Research Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Wind Science and Engineering Research Center at Texas Tech University conducts "multidisciplinary research to mitigate the deleterious effects of windstorms on the built environment, people, and the quality of life, and to utilize the beneficial effects of wind." The website highlights the Fujita Scale Enhancement Project, which examines the scale used to classify tornadoes by intensity. Links to websites on other wind projects are also provided. The Wind Engineering Library allows visitors to search more than 4500 articles on the center's research as well as education-related publications. Teachers and the general public will find an extensive list of other Internet resources on wind energy.

287

75 FR 23847 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and Development...Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and [[Page...Office. Cellular & Molecular Medicine........ June 7, 2010...L'Enfant Plaza Hotel. Clinical Research...

2010-05-04

288

Modifying the Medical Research Council grading system through Rasch analyses  

PubMed Central

The Medical Research Council grading system has served through decades for the evaluation of muscle strength and has been recognized as a cardinal feature of daily neurological, rehabilitation and general medicine examination of patients, despite being respectfully criticized due to the unequal width of its response options. No study has systematically examined, through modern psychometric approach, whether physicians are able to properly use the Medical Research Council grades. The objectives of this study were: (i) to investigate physicians’ ability to discriminate among the Medical Research Council categories in patients with different neuromuscular disorders and with various degrees of weakness through thresholds examination using Rasch analysis as a modern psychometric method; (ii) to examine possible factors influencing physicians’ ability to apply the Medical Research Council categories through differential item function analyses; and (iii) to examine whether the widely used Medical Research Council 12 muscles sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy would meet Rasch model's expectations. A total of 1065 patients were included from nine cohorts with the following diseases: Guillain–Barré syndrome (n?=?480); myotonic dystrophy type-1 (n?=?169); chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (n?=?139); limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (n?=?105); multifocal motor neuropathy (n?=?102); Pompe's disease (n?=?62) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined related polyneuropathy (n?=?8). Medical Research Council data of 72 muscles were collected. Rasch analyses were performed on Medical Research Council data for each cohort separately and after pooling data at the muscle level to increase category frequencies, and on the Medical Research Council sum score in patients with Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. Disordered thresholds were demonstrated in 74–79% of the muscles examined, indicating physicians’ inability to discriminate between most Medical Research Council categories. Factors such as physicians’ experience or illness type did not influence these findings. Thresholds were restored after rescoring the Medical Research Council grades from six to four options (0, paralysis; 1, severe weakness; 2, slight weakness; 3, normal strength). The Medical Research Council sum score acceptably fulfilled Rasch model expectations after rescoring the response options and creating subsets to resolve local dependency and item bias on diagnosis. In conclusion, a modified, Rasch-built four response category Medical Research Council grading system is proposed, resolving clinicians’ inability to differentiate among its original response categories and improving clinical applicability. A modified Medical Research Council sum score at the interval level is presented and is recommended for future studies in Guillain–Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

Vanhoutte, Els Karla; Faber, Catharina Gerritdina; van Nes, Sonja Ingrid; Jacobs, Bart Casper; van Doorn, Pieter Antoon; van Koningsveld, Rinske; Cornblath, David Reid; van der Kooi, Anneke Jelly; Cats, Elisabeth Aviva; van den Berg, Leonard Hendrik; Notermans, Nicolette Claudia; van der Pol, Willem Lodewijk; Hermans, Mieke Catharina Elisabeth; van der Beek, Nadine Anna Maria Elisabeth; Gorson, Kenneth Craig; Eurelings, Marijke; Engelsman, Jeroen; Boot, Hendrik; Meijer, Ronaldus Jacobus; Lauria, Giuseppe; Tennant, Alan

2012-01-01

289

Evaluation of the National Library of Medicine's Programs in the Medical Behavior Sciences. Test Retrievals in Five Major Databases Covering the Medical Behavioral Sciences (MBS) Literature. Study 2.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study tests MEDLINE's ability to deliver useful citations in response to queries in the medical behavioral sciences (MBS). Like other project studies, it examines MEDLINE performance in the context of the performance of other major databases. ...

K. W. McCain H. D. White B. C. Griffith S. B. Horwitz N. E. Selinger

1984-01-01

290

Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Over the past two decades there has been a phenomenal growth in the number of dedicated synchrotron radiation facilities and a corresponding growth in the number of applications in both basic and applied sciences. The high flux and brightness, tunable bea...

W. Thomlinson

1997-01-01

291

Remote Sensing Information Sciences Research Group: Santa Barbara Information Sciences Research Group, year 4  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information Sciences Research Group (ISRG) research continues to focus on improving the type, quantity, and quality of information which can be derived from remotely sensed data. Particular focus in on the needs of the remote sensing research and application science community which will be served by the Earth Observing System (EOS) and Space Station, including associated polar and co-orbiting platforms. The areas of georeferenced information systems, machine assisted information extraction from image data, artificial intelligence and both natural and cultural vegetation analysis and modeling research will be expanded.

Estes, John E.; Smith, Terence; Star, Jeffrey L.

1987-01-01

292

Life sciences research using a lunar laboratory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The necessity for life sciences research on the lunar surface in order to determine the consequences of returning from extended missions in various low gravity environments and of transiting through high multiple gravity forces during decelerations is discussed. The functions of a lunar gravitational biology laboratory are outlined. Lunar science objectives include investigations in developmental biology including the evaluation of the capacity of diverse organisms to undergo normal development and the evaluation of the use of the lunar environment to study specific developmental phenomena in ways that cannot be accomplished by earth-based research. The need for musculoskeletal studies to examine the dynamics of osteoclast and osteoblast formation and breakdown and to address bone and demineralization problems is discussed. Biological adaptation to hypogravic environments and the effects of radiation and electromagnetic environmental factors are also considered.

Cipriano, Leonard F.; Ballard, Rodney W.

1990-01-01

293

Synchrotron radiation applications in medical research at Brookhaven National Laboratory.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In the relatively short time that synchrotrons have been available to the scientific community, their characteristic beams of UV and X-ray radiation have been applied to virtually all areas of medical science which use ionizing radiation. The ability to t...

W. Thomlinson

1997-01-01

294

Social Science Research on Rural Health Care Delivery -- A Compilation of Recent and Ongoing Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nature of research work on social and economic problems confronting rural areas is reviewed. During 1975 and 1976, names of persons performing social science research on the delivery of medical care were compiled. A form was devised for obtaining info...

S. M. Cordes

1978-01-01

295

Unique life sciences research facilities at NASA Ames Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Life Science Division at NASA's Ames Research Center has a suite of specialized facilities that enable scientists to study the effects of gravity on living systems. This paper describes some of these facilities and their use in research. Seven centrifuges, each with its own unique abilities, allow testing of a variety of parameters on test subjects ranging from single cells through hardware to humans. The Vestibular Research Facility allows the study of both centrifugation and linear acceleration on animals and humans. The Biocomputation Center uses computers for 3D reconstruction of physiological systems, and interactive research tools for virtual reality modeling. Psycophysiological, cardiovascular, exercise physiology, and biomechanical studies are conducted in the 12 bed Human Research Facility and samples are analyzed in the certified Central Clinical Laboratory and other laboratories at Ames. Human bedrest, water immersion and lower body negative pressure equipment are also available to study physiological changes associated with weightlessness. These and other weightlessness models are used in specialized laboratories for the study of basic physiological mechanisms, metabolism and cell biology. Visual-motor performance, perception, and adaptation are studied using ground-based models as well as short term weightlessness experiments (parabolic flights). The unique combination of Life Science research facilities, laboratories, and equipment at Ames Research Center are described in detail in relation to their research contributions.

Mulenburg, G. M.; Vasques, M.; Caldwell, W. F.; Tucker, J.

1994-01-01

296

Improving interdisciplinary research: Integrating the social and natural sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between social sciences and natural sciences in the natural resource area is explored. Five barriers to joint involvement of the social and natural sciences include the weakness of the social sciences, a perceived illegitimacy of the social sciences, the punishments associated with interdisciplinary research, the lack of disciplinary support structures, and conflicts over power and control.Progress toward bringing

Thomas A. Heberlein

1988-01-01

297

The Role of Theory and Theorising in Design Science Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature on Design Science (or Design Research) has been mixed on the inclusion, form, and role of theory and theorising in Design Science. Some authors have explicitly excluded theory development and testing from Design Science, leaving them to the Natural and Social\\/Behavioural Sciences. Others propose including theory development and testing as part of Design Science. Others propose some ideas

John R. Venable

298

Human Research Program Exploration Medical Capability  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s Human Research Program (HRP) conducts and coordinates research projects that provide human health and performance countermeasures, knowledge, technologies, and tools to enable safe, reliable, and productive human space exploration. The Program is divided into 6 major elements, which a) Provide the Program s knowledge and capabilities to conduct research, addressing the human health and performance risks. b) Advance the readiness levels of technology and countermeasures to the point of transfer to the customer programs and organizations. The National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) is a partner with the HRP in developing a successful research program. 3

Barsten, Kristina

2010-01-01

299

Capacity Building Partnership for Research and Education in Space Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goals of the Capacity Building Partnership for Research and Education in Space Science (CB-PRESS) project include 1) establish a viable partnership to develop model education, research outreach programs in space science 2) to enhance existing STEM curricula using space science content 3) to develop a BS\\/MS space science track or full programs 4) to promote the value of space

A. Kebede; S. Danagoulian; F. James; B. Craft

2005-01-01

300

The Role of Research on Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research on science teaching and learning plays an important role in improving science literacy, a goal called for in the National Science Education Standards (NRC 1996) and supported by the National Science Teachers Association (NSTA 2003). NSTA promotes a research agenda that is focused on the goal of enhancing student learning through effective…

National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2010

2010-01-01

301

What Research Says to the Science Teacher, Volume 4.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This volume was conceived as a review of basic research in science education and as a discussion of what the research findings mean for K-12 science teachers. The eight reports presented represent different dimensions of science education. Each provides a review of a given dimension and/or a goal of science teaching and suggests ways that current…

Yager, Robert E., Ed.

302

Physical Sciences Research Priorities and Plans in OBPR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents viewgraphs of physical sciences research priorities and plans at the Office of Biological and Physical Sciences Research (OBPR). The topics include: 1) Sixth Microgravity Fluid Physics and Transport Phenomena Conference; 2) Beneficial Characteristics of the Space Environment; 3) Windows of Opportunity for Research Derived from Microgravity; 4) Physical Sciences Research Program; 5) Fundamental Research: Space-based Results and Ground-based Applications; 6) Nonlinear Oscillations; and 7) Fundamental Research: Applications to Mission-Oriented Research.

Trinh, Eugene

2002-01-01

303

Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center. It currently operates under a multiple year grant/cooperative agreement that began on October 1, 1997 and is up for renewal in the year 2002. Ames has been designated NASA's Center of Excellence in Information Technology. In this capacity, Ames is charged with the responsibility to build an Information Technology Research Program that is preeminent within NASA. RIACS serves as a bridge between NASA Ames and the academic community, and RIACS scientists and visitors work in close collaboration with NASA scientists. RIACS has the additional goal of broadening the base of researchers in these areas of importance to the nation's space and aeronautics enterprises. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of information technology research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: (1) Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems. Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth; (2) Human-Centered Computing. Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities; (3) High Performance Computing and Networking. Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to data analysis of large datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply information technology research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, and visiting scientist programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA information technology research communities.

Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

2000-01-01

304

Research Collaboration Tools: A Resource Guide for Medical Librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

As medical research becomes an increasingly complex process that often includes some form of collaboration, a number of online tools have emerged to help meet this need. This column aims to search broadly across a number of these resources and organize the findings into a list of examples tailored to the interests of medical librarians. Specific attention is paid to

Jennifer Staley; Vivian McCallum

2010-01-01

305

Science with NOAA Research online Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website, a joint effort of the NOAA research division and the College of Education at the University of South Alabama, provides "middle school science students and teachers with research and investigation experiences using on-line resources." Each of the six water and weather-related categories contain an introduction, explanation, activity, and application section. Activities include interpreting maps of wind, waves, and temperatures; taking temperature and wave measurements; and investigating hurricanes, tornadoes, and lightning. The website provides student and teacher downloads for all of the material presented.

306

Hype in health reporting: "checkbook science" buys distortion of medical news.  

PubMed

The greatest danger to public health might be "checkbook science": research intended not to expand knowledge or to benefit humanity but to sell products. Much of the media coverage of health news stories is based on public relations efforts on behalf of the companies that sell the products, including pharmaceutical companies, diet clinics, or doctors selling new techniques. The author presents three case studies of how companies selling medical products effectively but invisibly shaped recent news coverage of medical products: fen-phen diet pills, breast implants, and hormone replacement therapy. All involve subtle strategies whereby physicians and other experts paid by corporate interests are influential because they are perceived to be objective medical experts. Articles in prestigious medical journals are sometimes ghostwritten by individuals paid by companies or are based on biased analyses or interpretations shaped by corporate interests. Nonprofit organizations that tout the benefits of specific medical products also may be part of the public relations efforts of the companies making the product. Meanwhile, important newsworthy studies are ignored by the mass media when corporate interests do not publicize or pitch the results to influential reporters and producers. PMID:12800894

Zuckerman, Diana

2003-01-01

307

Knowledge transfer in Tehran University of Medical Sciences: an academic example of a developing country  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In the past two decades, scientific publications in Iran have considerably increased their medical science content, and the number of articles published in ISI journals has doubled between 1997 and 2001. The aim of the present study was to determine how frequently knowledge transfer strategies were applied in Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS). We were also interested in

Saharnaz Nedjat; Reza Majdzadeh; Jaleh Gholami; Sima Nedjat; Katayoun Maleki; Mostafa Qorbani; Mostafa Shokoohi; Mahnaz Ashoorkhani

2008-01-01

308

Evaluating Currency of the Medical Sciences Collection Available on Public Library Shelves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because advances in medical science can lead to rapid changes in current health knowledge, a library collection of medical science materials can become dated rather quickly. This factor, as well as the many variables of library use and operation which impact the availability of current materials on the library shelves--loan periods, weeding…

Everhart, Peggy S.

309

Chemistry and materials science research report  

SciTech Connect

The research reported here in summary form was conducted under the auspices of Weapons-Supporting Research (WSR) and Institutional Research and Development (IR D). The period covered is the first half of FY90. The results reported here are for work in progress; thus, they may be preliminary, fragmentary, or incomplete. Research in the following areas are briefly described: energetic materials, tritium, high-Tc superconductors, interfaces, adhesion, bonding, fundamental aspects of metal processing, plutonium, synchrotron-radiation-based materials science, photocatalysis on doped aerogels, laser-induced chemistry, laser-produced molecular plasmas, chemistry of defects, dta equipment development, electronic structure study of the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of Al-Li Alloys, and the structure-property link in sub-nanometer materials.

Not Available

1990-05-31

310

Interior, looking corridor connecting 511 to 515 into Medical Research ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior, looking corridor connecting 511 to 515 into Medical Research Library in 516. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Central Service Building, North of Building No. 511, East of corridor connecting Building 511 to Building 515, Aurora, Adams County, CO

311

Senator Arlen Specter: Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Backing Medical Research and Battling Lymphoma Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For an enhanced version ... Arlen Specter was receiving chemotherapy treatments during the summer, he began using an elbow bump, instead of ...

312

Development of Meharry Medical College Prostate Cancer Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A prostate cancer (PCa) research program has been established at Meharry Medical College. There is substantial urology, oncology, epidemiology, nutrition and other expertise at Meharry and Vanderbilt addressing issues of PCa disparities, and 4 program inv...

F. A. Ukoli

2010-01-01

313

Then & Now: Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Issues Then & Now Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans Past Issues / Fall 2007 Table of Contents ... which afflict tens of millions of Americans of all ages. William Howard Taft—Then & Now Taft's Condition ...

314

How Hard Is Hard Science, How Soft Is Soft Science?: The Empirical Cumulativeness of Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research results in the social and behavioral sciences are often conceded to be less replicable than research results in the physical sciences. However, direct empirical comparisons of the cumulativeness of research in the social and physical sciences have not been made to date. This article notes the parallels between methods used in the quantitative synthesis of research in the social

Larry V. Hedges

1987-01-01

315

Genetic Research: Mining for Medical Treasures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

FASEB Breakthroughs in Bioscience article. "Knock-out" mice, in which specific genes have been inactivated, have been tremendously useful in helping researchers understand the genetic basis of disease. Moreover, "knock out" mice also serve as animal models for human diseases, allowing researchers to develop treatments and diagnostic tests for genetic diseases.

Cathryn M. Delude (The Writing Group)

2010-07-12

316

Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.  

PubMed

Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings. PMID:22420229

Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

2011-01-01

317

Basic Science Research and the Protection of Human Research Participants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Technological advances in basic biological research have been instrumental in recent biomedical discoveries, such as in the understanding and treatment of cancer, HIV/AIDS, and heart disease. However, many of these advances also raise several new ethical challenges. For example, genetic research may pose no physical risk beyond that of obtaining the initial blood sample, yet it can pose significant psychological and economic risks to research participants, such as stigmatization, discrimination in insurance and employment, invasion of privacy, or breach of confidentiality. These harms may occur even when investigators do not directly interact with the person whose DNA they are studying. Moreover, this type of basic research also raises broader questions, such as what is the definition of a human subject, and what kinds of expertise do Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) need to review the increasingly diverse types of research made possible by these advances in technology. The National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC), a presidentially appointed federal advisory committee, has addressed these and other ethical, scientific and policy issues that arise in basic science research involving human participants. Two of its six reports, in particular, have proposed recommendations in this regard. "Research Involving Human Biological Materials: Ethical and Policy Guidance" addresses the basic research use of human tissues, cells and DNA and the protection of human participants in this type of research. In "Ethical and Policy Issues in the Oversight of Human Research" NBAC proposes a definition of research involving human participants that would apply to all scientific disciplines, including physical, biological, and social sciences, as well as the humanities and related professions, such as business and law. Both of these reports make it clear that the protection of research participants is key to conducting ethically sound research. By ensuring that all participants in research are protected and by educating everyone involved in research with human participants, including the public, investigators, IRB members, institutions, and federal agencies, NBAC’s goal is to develop guidelines by which important basic research can proceed while making sure that the rights and welfare of human research participants are not compromised.

Eiseman, Elisa

2001-03-01

318

Medical Research Pays Off for All Americans  

MedlinePLUS

... Research Pays Off for All Americans Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For an enhanced version ... conditions. He was struck by polio in the summer of 1921, at age 39. A heavy smoker, ...

319

Medical Care and Patient Care Research Program.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report discusses a research program of related studies that described and evaluated needs, demands, utilizations, satisfaction, outcomes, and utilization of personal health services provided in hospitals, clinics, physician offices, and elsewhere. The...

K. L. White

1976-01-01

320

Suborbital Science Program: Dryden Flight Research Center  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the suborbital science program at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The Program Objectives are given in various areas: (1) Satellite Calibration and Validation (Cal/val)--Provide methods to perform the cal/val requirements for Earth Observing System satellites; (2) New Sensor Development -- Provide methods to reduce risk for new sensor concepts and algorithm development prior to committing sensors to operations; (3) Process Studies -- Facilitate the acquisition of high spatial/temporal resolution focused measurements that are required to understand small atmospheric and surface structures which generate powerful Earth system effects; and (4) Airborne Networking -- Develop disruption-tolerant networking to enable integrated multiple scale measurements of critical environmental features. Dryden supports the NASA Airborne Science Program and the nation in several elements: ER-2, G-3, DC-8, Ikhana (Predator B) & Global Hawk and Reveal. These are reviewed in detail in the presentation.

DelFrate, John

2008-01-01

321

Molecular Science Research Center, 1991 annual report  

SciTech Connect

During 1991, the Molecular Science Research Center (MSRC) experienced solid growth and accomplishment and the Environmental, and Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL) construction project moved forward. We began with strong programs in chemical structure and dynamics and theory, modeling, and simulation, and both these programs continued to thrive. We also made significant advances in the development of programs in materials and interfaces and macromolecular structure and dynamics, largely as a result of the key staff recruited to lead these efforts. If there was one pervasive activity for the past year, however, it was to strengthen the role of the EMSL in the overall environmental restoration and waste management (ER/WM) mission at Hanford. These extended activities involved not only MSRC and EMSL staff but all PNL scientific and technical staff engaged in ER/WM programs.

Knotek, M.L.

1992-03-01

322

Research frontiers in the physical sciences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As a prestigious generalist journal with a high scholarly reputation and a long influential history, the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (Series A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences), is an ideal vehicle for charting research frontiers across the physical sciences. It is the world's longest running scientific journal, and all issues since its foundation in 1665 are archived electronically by JSTOR in the USA (see http://www.jstor.org/) and are accessible through most university libraries. This archive gives facsimile access, and search facilities, to the works of many famous scientists. In this brief editorial I give first an introduction to the special Christmas issues by young scientists, followed by an overview of the fields covered.

Thompson, J. M. T.

2002-12-01

323

An evaluation framework for non-medical prescribing research.  

PubMed

Without robust and credible evidence for the benefits in health outcomes of non-medical prescribing, widespread implementation will be challenging. Our aim is to develop a consistent evaluation framework that could be applied to non-medical prescribing research. An informal collaboration was initiated in 2008 by a group of pharmacists from Australia and New Zealand to assist in information sharing, pilot design, methodologies and evaluation for pharmacist prescribing. Different pilots used different models, methodologies and evaluation. It was agreed that the development of a consistent evaluation framework to be applied to future research on non-medical prescribing was required. The framework would help to align the outcomes of different research pilots and enable the comparison of endpoints to determine the effectiveness of a non-medical prescribing intervention. PMID:22624646

Hale, Andrew R; Stowasser, Danielle A; Coombes, Ian D; Stokes, Julie; Nissen, Lisa

2012-05-01

324

Reviews of Science for Science Librarians: Coal Science and Technology Research 1970–2010  

Microsoft Academic Search

A literature search utilizing the Web of Science (Science Citation Index Expanded) was used to examine historic and recent publication quantity for scientific and engineering-related coal research. Searches on the term “coal” in the title of English-language journal articles were conducted for the time spans of 1970–2000 for historic data and 2000–2010 for recent activity. The number of journal articles

Robert L. Tolliver; Jonathan P. Mathews

2012-01-01

325

Accelerator R&D: Research for Science - Science for Society  

SciTech Connect

In September 2011 the US Senate Appropriations Committee requested a ten-year strategic plan from the Department of Energy (DOE) that would describe how accelerator R&D today could advance applications directly relevant to society. Based on the 2009 workshop 'Accelerators for America's Future' an assessment was made on how accelerator technology developed by the nation's laboratories and universities could directly translate into a competitive strength for industrial partners and a variety of government agencies in the research, defense and national security sectors. The Office of High Energy Physics, traditionally the steward for advanced accelerator R&D within DOE, commissioned a task force under its auspices to generate and compile ideas on how best to implement strategies that would help fulfill the needs of industry and other agencies, while maintaining focus on its core mission of fundamental science investigation.

The HEP Accelerator R& D Task Force: N.R. Holtkamp,S. Biedron, S.V. Milton, L. Boeh, J.E. Clayton, G. Zdasiuk, S.A. Gourlay, M.S. Zisman,R.W. Hamm, S. Henderson, G.H. Hoffstaetter, L. Merminga, S. Ozaki, F.C. Pilat, M. White

2012-07-01

326

Summer Research Program for Science Teachers: Lesson Plans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from the Columbia University Summer Research Program for Science Teachers, provides lesson plans developed by participants. Lesson plans can be found in the areas of astrophysics, biology, chemistry, earth science, environmental science, general science, and physics. Most of the lesson plans are research-inspired and reference science standards. Currently, there are over 300 lesson plans in the database. The site also provides a search engine to search by keywords for available lesson plans.

2008-07-31

327

Consent and Research Governance in Biobanks: Evidence from Focus Groups with Medical Researchers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much is known about patient attitudes to ethical and legal questions in the context of biobanking, particularly regarding privacy protection and consent. However, little is known about the attitudes of medical researchers who use biobanks for research to these issues. Four focus groups with medical researchers in the UK were conducted in 2010–2011. The study highlights a range of issues

E. A. Whitley; N. Kanellopoulou; J. Kaye

2012-01-01

328

Regulation and the social licence for medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Regulation and governance of medical research is frequently criticised by researchers. In this paper, we draw on Everett Hughes’\\u000a concepts of professional licence and professional mandate, and on contemporary sociological theory on risk regulation, to\\u000a explain the emergence of research governance and the kinds of criticism it receives. We offer explanations for researcher\\u000a criticism of the rules and practices of

Mary Dixon-Woods; Richard E. Ashcroft

2008-01-01

329

Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Science Education News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) offers a wide range of educational programs. Part of its work is getting out the word about its own research projects and outreach efforts. On this site, visitors can read short news articles exploring everything from the nature of human evolution and natural selection to fellowship programs. Visitors can browse throughout the offerings chronologically and also look at the important resources on the right-hand side of the page. Here they will find the HHMI On The Web, which features direct links to the BioInteractive web site and Becoming a Scientist, which features 11 HHMI scientists talking about their successes in their fields. The site is rounded out by a link that allows users to sign up for news alerts via email.

2012-04-06

330

Applying spatial thinking in social science research  

PubMed Central

Spatial methods that build upon Geographic Information Systems are spreading quickly across the social sciences. This essay points out that the appropriate use of spatial tools requires more careful thinking about spatial concepts. As easy as it is now to measure distance, it is increasingly important to understand what we think it represents. To interpret spatial patterns, we need spatial theories. We review here a number of key concepts as well as some of the methodological approaches that are now at the disposal of researchers, and illustrate them with studies that reflect the very wide range of problems that use these tools.

Logan, John R.; Zhang, Weiwei; Xu, Hongwei

2010-01-01

331

Medical students as human subjects in educational research  

PubMed Central

Introduction Special concerns often arise when medical students are themselves the subjects of education research. A recently completed large, multi-center randomized controlled trial of computer-assisted learning modules for surgical clerks provided the opportunity to explore the perceived level of risk of studies where medical students serve as human subjects by reporting on: 1) the response of Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at seven institutions to the same study protocol; and 2) the thoughts and feelings of students across study sites about being research subjects. Methods From July 2009 to August 2010, all third-year medical students at seven collaborating institutions were eligible to participate. Patterns of IRB review of the same protocol were compared. Participation burden was calculated in terms of the time spent interacting with the modules. Focus groups were conducted with medical students at each site. Transcripts were coded by three independent reviewers and analyzed using Atlas.ti. Results The IRBs at the seven participating institutions granted full (n=1), expedited (n=4), or exempt (n=2) review of the WISE Trial protocol. 995 (73% of those eligible) consented to participate, and 207 (20%) of these students completed all outcome measures. The average time to complete the computer modules and associated measures was 175 min. Common themes in focus groups with participant students included the desire to contribute to medical education research, the absence of coercion to consent, and the low-risk nature of the research. Discussion Our findings demonstrate that risk assessment and the extent of review utilized for medical education research vary among IRBs. Despite variability in the perception of risk implied by differing IRB requirements, students themselves felt education research was low risk and did not consider themselves to be vulnerable. The vast majority of eligible medical students were willing to participate as research subjects. Participants acknowledged the time demands of their participation and were readily able to withdraw when those burdens became unsustainable.

Sarpel, Umut; Hopkins, Mary Ann; More, Frederick; Yavner, Steven; Pusic, Martin; Nick, Michael W.; Song, Hyuksoon; Ellaway, Rachel; Kalet, Adina L.

2013-01-01

332

Research Design and Methods of Quantitative Synthesis of Medical Evidence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the scientific principles, strengths, and limitations of research designs and methods of quantitative synthesis of medical evidence.Data Sources: We used MEDLINE to perform a systematic search for literature using the keywords research design, epidemiology, and biometry. Journals searched included six major journals in obstetrics and gynecology and three in general medicine. These sources were supplemented with texts

Jeffrey F Peipert; Deidre S Gifford; Lori A Boardman

1997-01-01

333

76 FR 19188 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2011-04-06

334

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2012-04-04

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78 FR 22622 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...  

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2013-04-16

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2012-10-22

337

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2013-11-07

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2011-01-07

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76 FR 79273 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...  

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2011-12-21

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75 FR 57833 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...  

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2010-09-22

341

76 FR 24974 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...  

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2011-05-03

342

77 FR 23810 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...  

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2012-04-20

343

77 FR 26069 - Joint Biomedical Laboratory Research and Development and Clinical Science Research and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-05-02

344

Medical students and research: Is there a current discrepancy between education and demands?  

PubMed Central

This article refers to a correspondence letter recently published in The Lancet, describing successful student-led research initiatives in Latin America, which were introduced because of low support from universities and governments. As a final-year medical student with keen interest in science, the topic of student engagement in research activities caught my interest. Literature shows that while junior doctors are required to perform research on their own and face intense pressure to publish, formal training in principles of research and scientific writing is often neglected by medical schools. This contrast is worrying, as the progression of the medical profession and the quality of patient care depend on high-quality research and on future generations of physician-scientists being both enthusiastic and competent. Hence, this article summarizes suggestions to increase both students' research proficiency and participation in scientific activities, and offers a critical view on this important topic, as medical schools without curricular research education and without active student integration should urgently consider revising their policies.

Mileder, Lukas Peter

2014-01-01

345

The effective management of medical isotope production in research reactors  

SciTech Connect

During the 50-yr history of the use of radioisotopes for medical applications, research reactors have played a pivotal role in the production of many if not most of the key products. The marriage between research reactors and production operations is subject to significant challenges on two fronts. The medical applications of the radioisotope products impose some unique constraints and requirements on the production process. In addition, the mandates and priorities of a research reactor are not always congruent with the demands of a production environment. This paper briefly reviews the historical development of medical isotope production, identifies the unique challenges facing this endeavor, and discusses the management of the relationship between the isotope producer and the research reactor operator. Finally, the key elements of a successful relationship are identified.

Drummond, D.T. (Nordion International, Incorporated, Kanata, Ontario (Canada))

1993-01-01

346

Challenges for data storage in medical imaging research.  

PubMed

Researchers in medical imaging have multiple challenges for storing, indexing, maintaining viability, and sharing their data. Addressing all these concerns requires a constellation of tools, but not all of them need to be local to the site. In particular, the data storage challenges faced by researchers can begin to require professional information technology skills. With limited human resources and funds, the medical imaging researcher may be better served with an outsourcing strategy for some management aspects. This paper outlines an approach to manage the main objectives faced by medical imaging scientists whose work includes processing and data mining on non-standard file formats, and relating those files to the their DICOM standard descendents. The capacity of the approach scales as the researcher's need grows by leveraging the on-demand provisioning ability of cloud computing. PMID:20544372

Langer, Steve G

2011-04-01

347

Russian Earth Science Research Program on ISS  

SciTech Connect

Version of the Russian Earth Science Research Program on the Russian segment of ISS is proposed. The favorite tasks are selected, which may be solved with the use of space remote sensing methods and tools and which are worthwhile for realization. For solving these tasks the specialized device sets (submodules), corresponding to the specific of solved tasks, are working out. They would be specialized modules, transported to the ISS. Earth remote sensing research and ecological monitoring (high rates and large bodies transmitted from spaceborne information, comparatively stringent requirements to the period of its processing, etc.) cause rather high requirements to the ground segment of receiving, processing, storing, and distribution of space information in the interests of the Earth natural resources investigation. Creation of the ground segment has required the development of the interdepartmental data receiving and processing center. Main directions of works within the framework of the ISS program are determined.

Armand, N. A.; Tishchenko, Yu. G. [Institute of Radioengineering and Electronics RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)

1999-01-22

348

Improving medication use for older adults: an integrated research agenda.  

PubMed

Effective health care is a core determinant of successful aging, and medications are one of the most important therapeutic tools of health care providers. Most older adults use at least one prescription drug. Costs for these drugs are a substantial out-of-pocket expense for Medicare beneficiaries, and low-income older adults must weigh these costs against those of other basic needs. Although medications bring welcome relief to millions of elderly persons with age-related conditions, adverse drug events are an important cause of illness and death in these patients. Thus, the appropriate, cost-effective use of medication is central to successful aging. Despite increasing attention to geriatric pharmacotherapy, there is an enormous need for additional research to improve the use of medications among older adults. The necessary research agenda encompasses much more than just the discovery of new drugs; better use of the current pharmacopeia has great potential to improve the lives of older adults. We review four domains of pharmaceutical research: drug discovery and delivery, drug efficacy and safety, pharmacoepidemiology and drug policy, and improved access to and use of drugs. These domains encompass both the pre- and postmarketing phases of drug research. Premarketing research currently has greater magnitude and a better infrastructure than postmarketing research, yet issues arising in the two phases of research are equally important to the health and safety of older adults. A national, federally supported pharmaceutical database could greatly enhance the infrastructure of postmarketing research. However, many major improvements in medication use among older adults will also depend on closing the gap between knowledge and practice and increasing the ability of older adults to manage their medications. PMID:12965970

Murray, Michael D; Callahan, Christopher M

2003-09-01

349

Undergraduate Science Research: A Comparison of Influences and Experiences between Premed and Non-Premed Students  

PubMed Central

Most students participating in science undergraduate research (UR) plan to attend either medical school or graduate school. This study examines possible differences between premed and non–premed students in their influences to do research and expectations of research. Questionnaire responses from 55 premed students and 80 non–premed students were analyzed. No differences existed in the expectations of research between the two groups, but attitudes toward science and intrinsic motivation to learn more about science were significantly higher for non–premed students. Follow-up interviews with 11 of the students, including a case study with one premed student, provided explanation for the observed differences. Premed students, while not motivated to learn more about science, were motivated to help people, which is why most of them are pursuing medicine. They viewed research as a way to help them become doctors and to rule out the possibility of research as a career. Non–premed students participated in research to learn more about a specific science topic and gain experience that may be helpful in graduate school research. The difference in the reasons students want to do UR may be used to tailor UR experiences for students planning to go to graduate school or medical school.

Pacifici, Lara Brongo; Thomson, Norman

2011-01-01

350

Social Science Research under Siege: Scarcity or Conspiracy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Threats to social science research progress include decreasing federal support for social science research, restrictions on access to data, the privatization of public research, and the politicization of professional processes associated with research support. Explanations for these threats are explored. (Author/RM)

Kirkpatrick, Samuel A.

1983-01-01

351

Library and Information Science Research: Perspectives and Strategies for Improvement.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 28 essays in this collection provide an overview of research in library/information science (LIS), present a practical context of such research, and consider related issues and concerns. The essays are: (1) "The Elusive Nature of Research in LIS" (Peter Hernon); (2) "Guides to Conducting Research in Library and Information Science" (Ronald R.…

McClure, Charles R., Ed.; Hernon, Peter, Ed.

352

78 FR 20664 - 2013 Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2013-04-05

353

77 FR 21785 - Medical Countermeasures Initiative Regulatory Science Symposium  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2012-04-11

354

Open Science Project in White Dwarf Research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

I will propose a new way of advancing white dwarf research. Open science is a method of doing research that lets everyone who has something to say about the subject take part in the problem solving process. Already now, the amount of information we gather from observations, theory and modeling is too vast for any one individual to comprehend and turn into knowledge. And the amount of information just keeps growing in the future. A platform that promotes sharing of thoughts and ideas allows us to pool our collective knowledge of white dwarfs and get a clear picture of our research field. It will also make it possible for researchers in fields closely related to ours (AGB stars, planetary nebulae etc.) to join the scientific discourse. In the first stage this project would allow us to summarize what we know and what we don't, and what we should search for next. Later, it could grow into a large collaboration that would have the impact to, for example, suggest instrument requirements for future telescopes to satisfy the needs of the white dwarf community, or propose large surveys. A simple implementation would be a wiki page for collecting knowledge combined with a forum for more extensive discussions. These would be simple and cheap to maintain. A large community effort on the whole would be needed for the project to succeed, but individual workload should stay at a low level.

Vornanen, T.

2013-01-01

355

Prevalence and Causes of Medical Absenteeism Among Staff (Case Study at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences: 2009-2010)  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Work absenteeism is a significant issue and can be observed in terms of human resources management. Given the importance of staff practices, which are anticipated in every organization, the role of each employee in this system and the implications of their absence as well as the importance of recovery time rest in fast recovery of staff and anticipated costs for their lost work days, thus this study is aimed to determine the extent and causes of medical absenteeism (sickness absence) of head staff of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Methods and Materials: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was conducted using medical absenteeism (sickness absence) persons happened in 2010. Research population was included all records of staff working in central departments of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. There was no sampling due to the importance of the issue. Studied variables were included age, gender, employment status, employees’ education, name of the disease, physician specialty in issuing the medical absence paper, leave issuing reference and department, position of the employee, number of absence days, number of absences, number of annual leave days. Also, data were gathered using a checklist, then were entered into the SPSS software and got analyzed using descriptive statistics. In order to respect the confidentiality, name of the doctors and employees weren’t mentioned publicly. Results: Based on the results, 1200 employees were leaved the organization due to the sickness issue, which 957 (79.7%) of them were studied. The mean age for those employees was 39±7. Also, total average sick leave days and total sick leave days were 2±1 and 2571, respectively. 40.8 % ( 390 employees) were male and the rest were female. Moreover, 18.3% of sick leaves were issued for singles and the remained were for married employees. Regarding the employees’ education, 2% under diploma, 11.3% diploma, 7.8% upper diploma, 47.6% B.Sc., 14.6% MS.c and 15.85 had doctorate degree. Considering their position, 65%, 30.3%, 2.5% and 1.8% were experts, others, heads, and mangers, respectively. Furthermore, their employment status indicated that 62.3%, 18.1%, 16.8% and 2.8% of employees were employed in form of formal, short-term contract, long-term contract and other forms, respectively. Among the aspiratory diseases, 115 persons had got cold and 97 were infected to flu. The prevalence of other diseases was as follows: neck and back pain among the skeletal diseases (118 persons), fever and headache among the signs (71 persons) and diarrhea and vomiting among the infectious diseases (88 persons). Conclusion: According to the study results, due to the nature of staff work, physical problems, which are caused by doing mental works as well as low mobility, are rising among the employees. Of course, practicing ergonomic considerations, devoting hours in form of exercise break for staff can be effective in this regard. In order to address other diseases, vaster researches are needed with a concentration on exact reasons of work absenteeism.

Mohseni Saravi, Beyamin; Kabirzadeh, Azar; Rezazadeh, Esmaiel; Khariki, Mohammad Fallah; Asgari, Zolaykha; Bagherian Farahabadi, Ebrahim; Motamed, Nima; Siamian, Hasan

2013-01-01

356

Review of existing issues, ethics and practices in general medical research and in radiation protection research.  

PubMed

A literature review was carried out in relation to general medical research and radiation protection research. A large number of documents were found concerning the subject of ethics in general medical research. For radiation protection research, the number of documents and the information available is very limited. A review of practices in 13 European countries concerning general medical research and radiation protection research was carried out by sending a questionnaire to each country. It was found that all countries reviewed were well regulated for general medical research. For research that involves ionising radiation, the UK and Ireland are by far the most regulated countries. For other countries, there does not seem to be much information available. From the literature review and the review of practices, a number of existing ethical issues were identified and exposed, and a number of conclusions were drawn. PMID:18440965

Schreiner-Karoussou, A

2008-01-01

357

Portraits of care: medical research through portraiture.  

PubMed

The Portraits of Care study used portraiture to investigate ideas about care and care giving at the intersection of art and medicine. The study employed mixed methods involving both qualitative and quantitative research techniques. All aspects of the study were approved by the Institutional Review Board. The study included 26 patient and 20 caregiver subjects. Patient subjects were drawn from across the lifespan and included healthy and ill patients. Caregiver subjects included professional and familial caregivers. All subjects gave their informed consent for the study and the subsequent exhibition of artwork. The artist drew or painted 100 portraits during the 2-year study. A multi-disciplinary analysis team carried out the initial analysis of portraits and subject data. Findings from their qualitative analysis were used to develop a quantitative survey and qualitative journal tool that the public used to give feedback at the subsequent exhibition. Exhibition data confirmed the initial findings. Study results showed the introspection of subjects that revealed their sense of identity and psychological status. Patients appear as 'whole people', not fragmented by diagnosis. Caregivers' portraits reveal their commitment to care. There is also a sense of mutuality and fluidity in the background stories of subjects. Many patient subjects have been caregivers and, at times, caregivers are also patients. Public data emphasised the identity transformation of subjects, the centrality of the idea of mortality, the presence of hope despite adversity, and the importance of empathy and compassion in care. PMID:21393267

Aita, Virginia A; Lydiatt, William M; Gilbert, Mark A

2010-06-01

358

Right identification of the substantial energy source in biochemical processes as a necessary prerequisite for coherent development of medical sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of essential dependence of medical sciences on basic sciences, eventual misconceptions in basic sciences may exert a profound detrimental effect on medical sciences. One such example relates to a concept taken from chemistry that the reducing agent represents the substantial energy source in the process of oxido-reduction. While the recognition of the substantial source of energy is of little

Srdan V. Stankov

2004-01-01

359

Knowledge of medical students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences regarding plagiarism.  

PubMed

The core concept of plagiarism is defined as the use of other people's ideas or words without proper acknowledgement. Herein, we used a questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students of Tehran University of Medical Sciences (TUMS) regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement. The questionnaire comprised 8 questions. The first six questions of the questionnaire were translations of exercises of a book about academic writing and were concerning plagiarism in preparing articles. Questions number 7 and 8 (which were concerning plagiarism in preparing Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows and copyright infringement, respectively) were developed by the authors of the present study. The validity of the questionnaire was approved by five experts in the field of epidemiology and biostatistics. A pilot study consisting of a test and retest was carried to assess the reliability of the questionnaire. The sampling method was stratified random sampling, and the questionnaire was handed out to 74 interns of TUMS during July and August 2011. 14.9% of the students correctly answered the first six questions. 44.6% of the students were adequately familiar with proper referencing in Microsoft PowerPoint slideshows. 16.2% of the students understood what constitutes copyright infringement. The number of correctly answered questions by the students was directly proportionate to the number of their published articles. Knowledge of students of TUMS regarding plagiarism and copyright infringement is quite poor. Courses with specific focus on plagiarism and copyright infringement might help in this regard. PMID:23852849

Gharedaghi, Mohammad Hadi; Nourijelyani, Keramat; Salehi Sadaghiani, Mohammad; Yousefzadeh-Fard, Yashar; Gharedaghi, Azadeh; Javadian, Pouya; Morteza, Afsaneh; Andrabi, Yasir; Nedjat, Saharnaz

2013-01-01

360

Research in Applied Mathematics, Fluid Mechanics and Computer Science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period October 1, 1998 through March 31, 1999.

1999-01-01

361

[Research activities in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report summarizes research conducted at the Institute for Computer Applications in Science and Engineering in applied mathematics, fluid mechanics, and computer science during the period April 1, 1995 through September 30, 1995.

1995-01-01

362

Computational Science Guides and Accelerates Hydrogen Research (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

This fact sheet describes NREL's accomplishments in using computational science to enhance hydrogen-related research and development in areas such as storage and photobiology. Work was performed by NREL's Chemical and Materials Science Center and Biosciences Center.

Not Available

2010-12-01

363

Psychosocial Learning Environment in Science Classrooms: A Review of Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews studies on the psychosocial learning environment of science classrooms focusing on: (1) assessment of classroom learning environments; (2) predictive validity of environmental perceptions in science classrooms; (3) past criterion validity studies; and (4) directions for future research. (DS)

Fraser, Barry J.; Walberg, Herbert J.

1981-01-01

364

Research methods from social science can contribute much to the health sciences  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Research methods from social science, such as social network analysis, random coefficient modeling, and advanced measurement techniques, can contribute much to the health sciences. There is, however, a slow rate of transmission of social science methodology into the health sciences. This paper identifies some of the barriers for adoption and proposes ideas for the future. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING:

Michel Wensing

2008-01-01

365

Small?world networks and management science research: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper reviews the literature on small?world networks in social science and management. This relatively new area of research represents an unusual level of cross?disciplinary research within social science and between social science and the physical sciences. We review the findings of this emerging area with an eye to describing the underlying theory of small worlds, the technical apparatus, promising

Brian Uzzi; Luis AN Amaral

2007-01-01

366

Broad Research Project on the Sciences of Complexity.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Previous DOE support for 'A Broad Research Program in the Sciences of Complexity' permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its Integrative Core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on spec...

2002-01-01

367

Recruiting Underserved Mothers to Medical Research: Findings from North Carolina  

PubMed Central

Representative samples are required for ethical, valid, and useful health research. Yet, recruiting participants, especially from historically underserved communities, can be challenging. This paper presents findings from in-depth interviews with 40 mothers about factors that might influence their willingness to participate or allow their children to participate in medical research. Saliency analysis organizes the findings. Frequent and important salient themes about research participation included concerns that it might cause participants harm, hope that participants might gain a health benefit, and recognition that time and transportation resources could limit participation. Ultimately, we propose that a theoretical model, such as the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), will facilitate more systematic evaluation of effective methods for recruitment and retention of participants in medical research. Future research should explore the utility of such a model for development of effective recruitment and retention strategies.

Spears, Chaya R.; Sandberg, Joanne C.; O'Neill, Jenna L.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Howard, Timothy D.; Feldman, Steven R.; Arcury, Thomas A.

2014-01-01

368

Analysis of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach  

PubMed Central

Background: Numerous researches conducted on about the quality of perception of media messages shows that the people are not passive receivers but they have the ability of understanding, interpreting and accepting or rejecting messages. In order to make clear the relationship of information and communication technologies with social changes and to gain a broader vision from this scope, sociological theories about information and communication technologies’ usage, especially appropriation approach can be very useful. So, keeping in mind the important role of Databases in the qualitative expansion of education, research, diagnosis, remedy and medical services presentation, this research was carried out with the aim of status determination of databases appropriation in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences according to the social appropriation approach in 2012. Materials and Methods: This is an applicative research of an analytical-descriptive type, which was carried out by measurement approach. The statistical society of this research was composed of the academic staffs of the Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences in 2012 and finally 390 academic staffs were selected according to the Cochran's formula were selected. The research tool are searcher's made questionnaire, which was composed of nine separate parts. Its validity was accepted by the specialists and its reliability was calculated and found to be 0.961 by Cronbakh's alpha. Results: Database appropriation score in the academic staffs of Iranian Universities of Medical Sciences with 65.020% was in a good status and data bases dis appropriation score with 71.484 was in a high status. Conclusion: According to the findings of this research, Librarians and politicians in this scope-with determination of the academic staff's positive and negative points in usage and appropriation would be capable of accurately diagnozing and analyzing the chances and challenges of the academic staffs members in using databases and would also be capable of achieving solutions and appropriate catalyzers of prolific usage and appropriation of databases.

Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Sohrabi, Mozaffar Cheshmeh; Zare, Firoozeh; Hassnazadeh, Akbar; Malekahmadi, Parisa

2014-01-01

369

A Teacher Research Experience: Promoting Science Literacy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As an ARMADA master teacher, I was able to take part in STEEP, a study of the evolution of the Saint Elias Mountains. This enabled me to experience current geological fieldwork, and gave me the opportunity to step out of the classroom. As a middle school science teacher, one of my major responsibilities is to instill a love of scince in my students. I need to introduce them to the many career opportunities that are available in the field. To be more effective in the classroom, I am deeply committed to mastering the skills, techniques and content needed to ensure success for my students in this ever-changing world. Rich, authentic opportunities to work along with scientists in the field and to engage in scientific discourse can expand a teacher's knowledge of science and the scientific process. Teachers become more familiar with the use of scientific tools and how to gather and interpret data. This knowledge will be transferred into the classroom, which will enable students to become more scientifically literate. Because of this experience, I will more effectively mentor other teachers in my district to enhance the instruction in their classes. This presentation will show how research/teacher partnerships can benefit both parties, and how my experience transferred back to the classroom and to my school district.

McMinn, L.

2007-12-01

370

NASA-HBCU Space Science and Engineering Research Forum Proceedings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The proceedings of the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) forum are presented. A wide range of research topics from plant science to space science and related academic areas was covered. The sessions were divided into the following subject areas: Life science; Mathematical modeling, image processing, pattern recognition, and algorithms; Microgravity processing, space utilization and application; Physical science and chemistry; Research and training programs; Space science (astronomy, planetary science, asteroids, moon); Space technology (engineering, structures and systems for application in space); Space technology (physics of materials and systems for space applications); and Technology (materials, techniques, measurements).

Sanders, Yvonne D. (editor); Freeman, Yvonne B. (editor); George, M. C. (editor)

1989-01-01

371

Diversifying Science: Underrepresented Student Experiences in Structured Research Programs  

PubMed Central

Targeting four institutions with structured science research programs for undergraduates, this study focuses on how underrepresented students experience science. Several key themes emerged from focus group discussions: learning to become research scientists, experiences with the culture of science, and views on racial and social stigma. Participants spoke of essential factors for becoming a scientist, but their experiences also raised complex issues about the role of race and social stigma in scientific training. Students experienced the collaborative and empowering culture of science, exhibited strong science identities and high self-efficacy, while developing directed career goals as a result of “doing science” in these programs.

Cabrera, Nolan L.; Lin, Monica H.; Arellano, Lucy; Espinosa, Lorelle L.

2013-01-01

372

Use of electronic medical records in oncology outcomes research  

PubMed Central

Oncology outcomes research could benefit from the use of an oncology-specific electronic medical record (EMR) network. The benefits and challenges of using EMR in general health research have been investigated; however, the utility of EMR for oncology outcomes research has not been explored. Compared to current available oncology databases and registries, an oncology-specific EMR could provide comprehensive and accurate information on clinical diagnoses, personal and medical histories, planned and actual treatment regimens, and post-treatment outcomes, to address research questions from patients, policy makers, the pharmaceutical industry, and clinicians/researchers. Specific challenges related to structural (eg, interoperability, data format/entry), clinical (eg, maintenance and continuity of records, variety of coding schemes), and research-related (eg, missing data, generalizability, privacy) issues must be addressed when building an oncology-specific EMR system. Researchers should engage with medical professional groups to guide development of EMR systems that would ultimately help improve the quality of cancer care through oncology outcomes research.

Kanas, Gena; Morimoto, Libby; Mowat, Fionna; O'Malley, Cynthia; Fryzek, Jon; Nordyke, Robert

2010-01-01

373

78 FR 8549 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Place: Marriott Courtyard Chevy Chase, 5520 Wisconsin Avenue, Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

2013-02-06

374

78 FR 28601 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...applications. Place: DoubleTree by Hilton Bethesda, 8120 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, MD 20814. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD, Scientific Review Officer, Office of Scientific Review, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, National...

2013-05-15

375

77 FR 59936 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...grant applications. Place: Marriott Courtyard 5520 Wisconsin Avenue Chevy Chase, MD 20815. Contact Person: Lisa A. Newman, SCD Scientific Review Officer Office of Scientific Review National Institute of General Medical Sciences National Institutes of...

2012-10-01

376

75 FR 71712 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel Initial Scientific Peer Review and Merit Evaluation of Grant Applications for NIGMS MIDAS Initiative. Date: December 14, 2010. Time: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

2010-11-24

377

78 FR 37557 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...National Institutes of Health, 45 Center Drive, Room 3An.18B, Bethesda, MD 20892-4874, 301-594-3663, weidmanma@nigms.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel, NRSA...

2013-06-21

378

77 FR 64812 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Notice of Closed Meetings  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...3An12C, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-594-2763, seetharams@nigms.nih.gov. Name of Committee: National Institute of General Medical Sciences Special Emphasis Panel; NIGMS Predoctoral T32 Review SEP. Date: November 16, 2012....

2012-10-23

379

Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

Black, David

2002-01-01

380

Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

2000-01-01

381

Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

Black, David; Marshall, Frank (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

382

Thematic Mapper research in the earth sciences  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper's studies were initiated under the NASA program for the purpose of conducting the earth sciences research using the Landsat Thematic Mapper. The goals of the program include studies of the factors influencing the growth, health, condition, and distribution of vegetation on the earth; the processes controlling the evolution of the earth's crust; the earth's water budget and the hydrologic processes that operate at local, regional, and global scales; the physical and chemical interaction between different types of surficial materials; and the interaction between the earth's surface and its atmosphere. Twenty-seven domestic and five foreign investigations were initiated in 1985, with the results from most of them already published (one study was terminated due to the delay in the TDRSS). Twelve of the studies addressed hydrology, snow and ice, coastal processes, and near-shore oceanographic phenomena; seven addressed vegetation, soils, or animal habitat; and twelve addressed geologic subjects.

Salomonson, Vincent V.; Stuart, Locke

1989-01-01

383

Examining the Literacy Component of Science Literacy: 25 Years of Language Arts and Science Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews literature in the theoretical views of language arts; perceived roles of language in science education; and research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. Suggests future research directions in critical listening and reading of various sources, multi-media presentations,…

Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

2003-01-01

384

Science in the Preschool Classroom: A Programmatic Research Agenda to Improve Science Readiness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research Findings: This article focuses on preschool science, an important but underresearched school readiness domain. There is considerable activity surrounding quality science in early childhood classroom practices, including state standards, curricula with science activities, and an extensive literature on potential best practices. However, there is very little empirical research focused on the effectiveness of these practices. The present article presents

Daryl B. Greenfield; Jamie Jirout; Ximena Dominguez; Ariela Greenberg; Michelle Maier; Janna Fuccillo

2009-01-01

385

Implications of Learning Research for Teaching Science to Non-Science Majors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In this paper we discuss ways in which learning research has affected conceptualization of how people learn science, and then discuss the implications of these research findings for teaching science to non-science majors. Prior to the cognitive revolution, learning a complex process was conceived as demonstratingmastery,through observable behaviors of all the sub-components,of

Eugenia Etkina; Jose P. Mestre

386

Science in the Preschool Classroom: A Programmatic Research Agenda to Improve Science Readiness  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research Findings: This article focuses on preschool science, an important but under-researched school readiness domain. There is considerable activity surrounding quality science in early childhood classroom practices, including state standards, curricula with science activities, and an extensive literature on potential best practices. However,…

Greenfield, Daryl B.; Jirout, Jamie; Dominguez, Ximena; Greenberg, Ariela; Maier, Michelle; Fuccillo, Janna

2009-01-01

387

Conflicts of interest in medical science: peer usage, peer review and `CoI consultancy'  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, the perception has grown that conflicts of interest are having a detrimental effect on medical science as it influences health policy and clinical practice, leading medical journals to enforce self-declaration of potential biases in the attempt to counteract or compensate for the problem.Conflict of interest (CoI) declarations have traditionally been considered inappropriate in pure science since its

Bruce G Charlton

2004-01-01

388

Quality assurance in military medical research and medical radiation accident management.  

PubMed

The provision of quality radiation-related medical diagnostic and therapeutic treatments cannot occur without the presence of robust quality assurance and standardization programs. Medical laboratory services are essential in patient treatment and must be able to meet the needs of all patients and the clinical personnel responsible for the medical care of these patients. Clinical personnel involved in patient care must embody the quality assurance process in daily work to ensure program sustainability. In conformance with the German Federal Government's concept for modern departmental research, the international standard ISO 9001, one of the relevant standards of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), is applied in quality assurance in military medical research. By its holistic approach, this internationally accepted standard provides an excellent basis for establishing a modern quality management system in line with international standards. Furthermore, this standard can serve as a sound basis for the further development of an already established quality management system when additional standards shall apply, as for instance in reference laboratories or medical laboratories. Besides quality assurance, a military medical facility must manage additional risk events in the context of early recognition/detection of health risks of military personnel on deployment in order to be able to take appropriate preventive and protective measures; for instance, with medical radiation accident management. The international standard ISO 31000:2009 can serve as a guideline for establishing risk management. Clear organizational structures and defined work processes are required when individual laboratory units seek accreditation according to specific laboratory standards. Furthermore, international efforts to develop health laboratory standards must be reinforced that support sustainable quality assurance, as in the exchange and comparison of test results within the scope of external quality assurance, but also in the exchange of special diagnosis data among international research networks. In summary, the acknowledged standard for a quality management system to ensure quality assurance is the very generic standard ISO 9001.Health Phys. 103(2):221-225; 2012. PMID:22951484

Hotz, Mark E; Meineke, Viktor

2012-08-01

389

NASA Research Strategy for Earth System Science: Climate Component  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the principles adopted by the NASA Earth Science Enterprise in formulating a comprehensive 2002-2010 research strategy for earth system science, and outlines one component of this broad interdisciplinary program, focused on physical climate research. Before embarking upon topical discussions of each element of the program, the authors sketch NASA's overall strategy for climate research and organize the

Ghassem Asrar; Jack A. Kaye; Pierre Morel

2001-01-01

390

The Schematic Structure of Computer Science Research Articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a linguistic description of the schematic organisation of research articles in the field of computer science. Forty articles from three different academic journals in computing research have been analysed; the results indicate that the IMRD (introduction-methods-results-discussion) pattern cannot be applied to research articles in computer science systematically. Introductory and concluding sections, however, are used in more instances.

Santiago Posteguillo

1999-01-01

391

Undergraduate Research Experiences Support Science Career Decisions and Active Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study examined the reliability of student evaluations of summer undergraduate research experiences using the SURE (Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences) and a follow-up survey disseminated 9 mo later. The survey further examines the hypothesis that undergraduate research enhances the educational experience of science undergraduates, attracts and retains talented students to careers in science, and acts as a pathway

David Lopatto

2007-01-01

392

Framework for Empirical Research on Science Teaching and Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In view of the research on education--and subject-related education in particular--that has been conducted in recent years, it would seem useful to describe the current state and future trends of research on science teaching and learning. In the present article, research findings are described, the deficits of science education are analyzed, and…

Fischer, Hans Ernst; Klemm, Klaus; Leutner, Detlev; Sumfleth, Elke; Tiemann, Rudiger; Wirth, Joachim

2005-01-01

393

Science Literacy and Research: Making Connections Using Kepler Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of and future plans for education-related components related to educator participation in the NASA/IPAC 2011 Teacher Archive Research Program (NITARP) are presented. NITARP engages both formal and informal educators in conducting authentic science research utilizing publicly available Kepler Mission data sets under the direction of scientists. This team's research entailed the analysis of stellar light curves, comparing periodicity and temperature from a sample of 250 known variable stars, to determine their characteristics using light curves, power spectra, and phased-plot diagrams. Participating educators shared their research experiences with students, educators, and the public in a variety of ways. Additionally, students were directly involved in the research project, providing additional insights into how science research is conducted. Education activities related to the science research are presented. This program provides educators, students, and the public at large, insight into the world of authentic science research while providing avenues to support science education. Linking the learning of science to the doing of science promotes true science literacy of students and the public. An understanding of the nature of science is vital to promoting the science literacy of civilization.

DeVeau, Stacy; Blackwell, J.; Edwards, D.; Ciardi, D.; Howell, S.

2012-01-01

394

A comparison of personality attributes of science teachers and medical technologists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Undergraduate students who major in science make diverse career choices. Two such career choices are medical technologists and science teachers. One possible reason for science majors selecting different career choices might be attributed to varied personality dimensions. The purpose of this study was to identify a set of personality attributes that distinguish practicing medical technologists from practicing science teachers. The subjects of this study consisted of 83 medical technologists and 57 science teachers. Eysenck Personality (EPI) was utilized to investigate the personality attributes of subjects in terms of Eysenck's personality variable of Extroversion-Introversion and Neuroticism-Stability. Vocational Preference Inventory was utilized to investigate the vocational personality profile of subjects in terms of Holland's classification of occupations and work environment. Data with EPI revealed that there was no significant difference between medical technologists and science teachers with respect to Eysenck's personality variable of extroversion. However, there was found a significant difference between the two groups with respect to Eysenck's personality variable of neuroticism. Data with VPI revealed that there was no significant difference between medical technologists and science teachers with respect to Eysenck's personality variable of extroversion. Both the groups were characterized by the personality profile of IAS (Intellectual-Artistic-Social). This profile was different from that required earlier in literature.

Kazi, M. U.; Piper, Martha K.

395

Internal Consistency of Medical Students' Scores in General and Baisc Science Exams, Kerman University, Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and purpose: Course-based assessment is a method to gather, analyze, disseminate, and use course data to improve student learning. We assessed the associations between medical students' scores in basic sciences and general courses in a university in Iran and compared these scores with their scores in comprehensive exam. Methods: We collected the scores of medical students in their courses

Haghdoost A; Esmaeili A

2006-01-01

396

Emergency Medical Science (T-139). Curriculum Models, Guidelines, and Outcome-Competencies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed for use by curriculum planners in Emergency Medical Science (EMS) programs throughout the North Carolina Community College System (NCCCS), and by evaluators in their reviews of existing programs, this manual provides a model set of guidelines for the education and training of the Emergency Medical Technician-Paramedic (EMT-P) in…

Lovin, Barbara Keelor

397

A Podiatric Medical Residency Program in an Academic Health Science Center  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The podiatric medical residency program in the Health Science Center at San Antonio provides an intensive exposure for the newly graduated podiatrist to practice in a multidisciplinary environment. Residents become more familiar with general medical and surgical diseases and disorders as well as podiatric pathology. (LBH)

Bogy, Louis T.; And Others

1977-01-01

398

Medical Image Processing, Analysis & Visualization in Clinical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging has become an essential component in many fields of medical and laboratory research and clinical practice. Biologists study cells and generate 3D confocal microscopy data sets; virologists generate 3D reconstructions of viruses from micrographs; radiologists identify and quantify tumors from MRI and CT scans; and neuroscientists detect regional metabolic brain activity from PET and functional MRI scans. Analysis of

Matthew J. Mcauliffe; Francois M. Lalonde; Delia Mcgarry; William Gandler; Karl Csaky; Benes L. Trus

2001-01-01

399

TUTORIAL IN BIOSTATISTICS Kappa coecients in medical research  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Kappa coecients are measures of correlation between categorical variables often used as reliability or validity coecients. We recapitulate development and denitions of the K (categories) by M (ratings) kappas (K × M ), discuss what they are well- or ill-designed to do, and summarize where kappas now stand with regard to their application in medical research. The 2 ×

Helena Chmura Kraemer; Vyjeyanthi S. Periyakoil; Art Noda

2004-01-01

400

The Unified Medical Language System : An Informatics Research Collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) assembled a large multidisciplinary, multisite team to work on the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS), a collaborative research project aimed at reducing fundamental barriers to the application of computers to medicine. Beyond its tangible products, the UMLS Knowledge Sources, and its influence on the field of informatics, the UMLS project is an

Betsy L Humphreys; Donald A B Lindberg; Harold M Schoolman; G Octo Barnett

1998-01-01

401

Translational research in medication development for nicotine dependence  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major obstacle to the development of medications for nicotine dependence is the lack of animal and human laboratory models with sufficient predictive clinical validity to support the translation of knowledge from laboratory studies to clinical research. This Review describes the animal and human laboratory paradigms commonly used to investigate the pathophysiology of nicotine dependence, and proposes how their predictive

Mark G. LeSage; Kenneth A. Perkins; Stephanie S. O'Malley; Steven J. Siegel; Neal L. Benowitz; Caryn Lerman; William A. Corrigall

2007-01-01

402

NASA IMAGESEER: NASA IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A number of web-accessible databases, including medical, military or other image data, offer universities and other users the ability to teach or research new Image Processing techniques on relevant and well-documented data. However, NASA images have traditionally been difficult for researchers to find, are often only available in hard-to-use formats, and do not always provide sufficient context and background for a non-NASA Scientist user to understand their content. The new IMAGESEER (IMAGEs for Science, Education, Experimentation and Research) database seeks to address these issues. Through a graphically-rich web site for browsing and downloading all of the selected datasets, benchmarks, and tutorials, IMAGESEER provides a widely accessible database of NASA-centric, easy to read, image data for teaching or validating new Image Processing algorithms. As such, IMAGESEER fosters collaboration between NASA and research organizations while simultaneously encouraging development of new and enhanced Image Processing algorithms. The first prototype includes a representative sampling of NASA multispectral and hyperspectral images from several Earth Science instruments, along with a few small tutorials. Image processing techniques are currently represented with cloud detection, image registration, and map cover/classification. For each technique, corresponding data are selected from four different geographic regions, i.e., mountains, urban, water coastal, and agriculture areas. Satellite images have been collected from several instruments - Landsat-5 and -7 Thematic Mappers, Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) Advanced Land Imager (ALI) and Hyperion, and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). After geo-registration, these images are available in simple common formats such as GeoTIFF and raw formats, along with associated benchmark data.

Le Moigne, Jacqueline; Grubb, Thomas G.; Milner, Barbara C.

2012-01-01

403

[Organisation of scientific and research work of Navy medical service].  

PubMed

The main issues of organization of scientific and research work of medical service in the North Fleet are considered in the present article. Analysis of some paragraphs of documents, regulating this work at army level is given. The authors give an example of successful experience of such work in the North Fleet, table some suggestions which allow to improve the administration of scientific and research work in the navy and also on the district scale. PMID:23808215

Gavrilov, V V; Myznikov, I L; Kuz'minov, O V; Shmelev, S V; Oparin, M Iu

2013-03-01

404

Selecting Students for Medical School: What Predicts Success during Basic Science Studies? A Cognitive Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study with 503 applicants to the University of Helsinki (Finland) medical school compared the predictive validity of multiple-choice science tests and a "learning-from-text" test (LFT) designed to measure deep-level text processing. Results indicated the LFT was the best predictor of student academic progress in basic science courses. (MSE)

Lindblom-Ylanne, Sari; And Others

1996-01-01

405

The NASA computer science research program plan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A taxonomy of computer science is included, one state of the art of each of the major computer science categories is summarized. A functional breakdown of NASA programs under Aeronautics R and D, space R and T, and institutional support is also included. These areas were assessed against the computer science categories. Concurrent processing, highly reliable computing, and information management are identified.

1983-01-01

406

The "Turning Point" for Minority Pre-Meds: The Effect of Early Undergraduate Experience in the Sciences on Aspirations to Enter Medical School of Minority Students at UC Berkeley and Stanford University. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.20.08  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The University of California faces the challenge of increasing the diversity of students graduating from its medical schools while also adhering to mandated restrictions on the use of race or ethnicity in the admissions process. Students from diverse backgrounds who gain admission as undergraduates to UC Berkeley and express an early interest in a…

Barr, Donald A.; Matsui, John

2008-01-01

407

Design Science Research in Information Systems: A Critical Realist Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Information systems (IS) research has serious utilization and relevance problems. To increase IS research utilization and\\u000a relevance, scholars argue that the dominating behavioral IS research paradigm should be complemented with IS design science\\u000a research. The most influential IS design science research schools have a strong focus on the IT artifact, in most cases an\\u000a exclusive focus on the IT artifact.

Sven A. Carlsson

408

Research in Science Education: New Questions, New Directions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Presented is a compilation of papers focusing on new questions and new directions for research in science education. Papers are grouped into one of three related fields of research: (1) analysis of curriculum materials, especially science textbooks; (2) investigations of science understandings of students and experts; and (3) investigations of the contextual factors of science classrooms. A general introduction precedes each of these three sections and summarizes and compares papers. Individual papers describe a particular problem related to one of the general areas, the theoretical base underlying the research and how the problem is being investigated, and selected research findings. Topics include: (1) textbook assessment; (2) analysis of science textbooks; (3) structure, strategies, and comprehension in learning; (4) concept of change in scientific reasoning; (5) understanding and problem-solving in physics; (6) implications of classroom research for science and math instruction; (7) mathematics classroom inquiry; and (8) the case for the participant/observer in mathematics classrooms.

Robinson, James T.

2006-10-09

409

Evaluating the Quality of Education at Dentistry School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences  

PubMed Central

Background: Educational evaluation is a process which deals with data collection and assessment of academic activities’ progress. In this research, educational evaluation of Dentistry School of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, which trains students in undergraduate and residency courses, was studied. Methods: This descriptive study was done with a model of educational evaluation in ten steps and 13 fields including purposes and mission objectives, management and organization, academic board members, students, human resources and support, educational, research, health and treatment spaces, educational, diagnostic, research and laboratory tools, educational, research, health and treatment programs and courses, process of teaching and learning, evaluation and assessment, alumni, and patients satisfaction. Data were collected using observation, interviews, questionnaires, and checklists. Results: Results of the study were mainly qualitative and in some cases quantitative, based on defined optimal situation. The total mean of qualitative results of educational evaluation of dentistry school in all 13 fields was 55.98% which is relatively desirable. In the case of quantitative ones, results of some fields such as treatment quality of patients and education and learning of the students were relatively desirable (61.32% and 60.16% respectively). Conclusion: According to the results, educational goals and missions, educational and research facilities and spaces which were identified as the weakest areas need to be considered and paid more serious attention.

Farzianpour, Fereshteh; Monzavi, Abbas; Yassini, Esmaeil

2011-01-01

410

Goals for Long-Range Research in Information Science.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to discuss the research goals of information science (IS), both its logical and its specific nature must be determined. Peircean logical analysis shows that IS may be classified in three parts: pure science, applied science, and technology. The d...

C. Pearson

1975-01-01

411

Science Education and Economic Development: Trends, Relationships, and Research Agenda.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the links between science education and economic development from a comparative perspective and examines current global trends in science education expansion. Reviews empirical research assessing the effects of science education on economic development from a comparative or cross-national perspective. (Contains 72 references.) (ASK)

Drori, Gili S.

2000-01-01

412

Attitude Research in Science Education: Classic and Contemporary Measurements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The research into how students' attitudes affect their learning of science related subjects has been one of the core areas of interest by science educators. The development in science education records various attempts in measuring attitudes and determining the correlations between behavior, achievements, career aspirations, gender identity and…

Saleh, Issa M., Ed.; Khine, Myint Swe, Ed.

2011-01-01

413

Medical education and research environment in Qatar: a new epoch for translational research in the Middle East  

PubMed Central

Recent advances in medical technology and key discoveries in biomedical research have the potential to improve human health in an unprecedented fashion. As a result, many of the Arab Gulf countries, particularly Qatar are devoting increasing resources toward establishing centers of excellence in biomedical research. However, there are challenges that must be overcome. The low profile of private medical institutions and their negligible endowments in the region are examples of such challenges. Business-type government controlled universities are not the solution for overcoming the challenges facing higher education and research programs in the Middle East. During the last decade, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community Development has attracted six branch campuses of American Institutions of higher learning to the Education City in Qatar, a 2500-acre area, which is rapidly becoming a model of integrating higher education and research in the region. Not-for profit, time-tested education institutions from abroad in public-private partnership with local organizations offer favorable conditions to build robust research programs in the region. Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar (WCMC-Q) of Cornell University is an example such an institution. It is the first and only medical school in Qatar. WCMC-Q's interwoven education, research and public health based framework lays a sturdy foundation for developing and implementing translational medicine research programs of importance to the State of Qatar and Middle Eastern nations. This approach is yielding positive results. Discoveries from this program should influence public policy in a positive fashion toward reducing premature mortality and morbidity due to diabetes, obesity, heart disease and cancer, examples of health conditions commonly encountered in Qatar.

2011-01-01

414

Improving a playcentre science programme through action research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attitudes to science develop early in life. In early childhood, the almost exclusively female staff members lack confidence in the area of science, and are therefore unable to develop an adequate science program for their children. In an action research project involving one third of the adults staffing a playcentre, during one term, the science programme in the centre was considerably improved, on measures of dialogues with the children, and of planning activities specifically for science. The staff members, mothers in the playcentre, reported increased confidence in talking with children about science topics, and a significant change in their interaction patterns both with their own families and with other children in the playcentre science programme. The action research method was found to be particularly helpful in supporting the group of parents in improving their centre's science program.

Jordan, Barbara

1992-12-01

415

Computing Curricula: Teaching Theory of Science to Computer Science Students (Science Education \\/ Curriculum, Research and Development)  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ideal Science for the existing Theory of Science (Popper, Carnap, Kuhn, Chalmers) is Physics. Not many modern Sciences conform to that ideal, however. Philosophy of Science (Theory of Science) as it is today is not of much help when trying to understand e.g. Computer Science. There is an urgent need to broaden the Theory of Science perspective in order

Gordana DODIG-CRNKOVIC; Ivica CRNKOVIC

416

Survey of Keyword Adjustment of Published Articles Medical Subject Headings in Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (2009-2010)  

PubMed Central

CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NONE DECLARED Introduction Keywords are the most important tools for Information retrieval. They are usually used for retrieval of articles based on contents of information reserved from printed and electronic resources. Retrieval of appropriate keywords from Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) can impact with exact, correctness and short time on information retrieval. Regarding the above mentioned matters, this study was done to compare the Latin keywords was in the articles published in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Method This is a descriptive study. The data were extracted from the key words of Englsih abstracts of articles published in the years 2009–2010 in the Journal of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences by census method. Checklist of data collection is designed, based on research objectives and literature review which has face validity. Compliance rate in this study was to determine if the keywords cited in this article as a full subject of the main subject headings in a MeSH (Bold and the selected word) is a perfect adjustment. If keywords were cited in the article but the main heading is not discussed in the following main topics to be discussed with reference to See and See related it has considered has partial adjustment. Results Out of 148 articles published in 12 issues in proposed time of studying, 72 research papers were analyzed. The average numbers of authors in each article were 4 ± 1. Results showed that most of specialty papers 42 (58. 4%), belonging to the (Department of Clinical Sciences) School of Medicine, 11 (15.3%) Basic Science, 6(8.4%) Pharmacy, Nursing and Midwifery 5(6.9%), 4(5.5%) Health, paramedical Sciences 3(4.2%), and non medical article 1(1.3%) school of medicine. In general, results showed that 80 (30%) of key words have been used to complete the adjustment. Also, only 1(1.4%) had complete adjustment with all the MeSH key words and in 8 articles(11.4%) key words of had no adjustment with MeSH. Conclusion The results showed that only 17 articles could be retrieved if the search words are selected from the MeSH. In this case the expected 100% of published articles titles at this university the validity of exchange of research projects which is something noteworthy. The lack of correlation between number of authors and matching of Keywords with MeSH, may mean all of the papers’ authors did not take part in writing and it is understanding that only one author wrote the paper.

Kabirzadeh, Azar; Siamian, Hasan; Abadi, Ebrahim Bagherian Farah; Saravi, Benyamin Mohseni

2013-01-01

417

Research and Publication Patterns in Library and Information Science  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research and publication patterns of thirty-four topranking researchers in library and information science (LIS) in Africa were surveyed. The researchers produced 294 papers during the 1990–1995 period which were considered for this study. The findings reveal that majority of the researchers were from universities and were based mainly in Nigeria and South Africa. The principal research centres, however, were

L. O. Aina; N. P. Mooko

1999-01-01

418

SSHRC: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC), a federal research funding agency for higher education in the social sciences and humanities, aims to promote and enrich the social, cultural, and economic lives of Canadians. The expansive SSHRC Website provides information about the structure, people, and mission of the Council; news about current research supported by the SSHRC; guides to assist researchers identify fellowship and grant programs; policy documents and discussion papers; and a comprehensive list of human sciences sites, linking users to academic bodies, research databases, and other funding institutions. The entire site is searchable and is available in English or French.

419

Aptitude-Treatment Interaction Research in Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Identifies promising areas of aptitude-treatment interaction research (ATI), including research related to general ability, anxiety, prior achievement, and achievement motivation. Also provides general methodological ATI guidelines for science educators. (JN)

Koran, Mary Lou; Koran, John J., Jr.

1984-01-01

420

Drug Interactions between Antiretroviral Medications and Medications Used in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: Research Needs  

PubMed Central

Today substance dependence is one of the major public health problems in the world with millions of people abusing legal and illegal drugs. In addition, almost one-third of the world’s population suffers with one or more infections. Both drugs of abuse and infections are associated with serious medical and health consequences, some of which may be exacerbated by the occurrence of pharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interactions between medications used in the treatment of these conditions when they co-occur. This review briefly discusses issues surrounding clinical management related to drug interactions experienced by substance abusing patients. The emphasis of this paper is on the research needed to further study the extent, nature, and underlying molecular/genetic mechanism(s) of interactions between drugs of abuse, medications used in the treatment of drug addiction, and co-occurring infections.

Khalsa, Jag H.; Elkashef, Ahmed

2010-01-01

421

A survey on rate of media literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences' students using Iranian media literacy questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Media literacy is a 21st century approach to education. It provides a framework to access, analyze, evaluate, and create messages in a variety of forms - from print to video to the Internet. Also, it builds an understanding of the role of media in society as well as essential skills of inquiry and self-expression necessary for citizens of a democracy. The purpose of this research was to determine the rate of media literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences’ students using Iranian Media Literacy Questionnaire (IMLQ). Materials and Methods: This is a survey research in which the data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. Its validity and reliability were confirmed by Library and Information Sciences specialists and Chronbach's alpha (r = 0.89), respectively. Statistical population consisted of all students in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (7000 cases) and the samples were 364. Sampling method was random stratified sampling. Data were analyzed by descriptive (frequency distribution, mean) and inferential (T-test, ANOVA, and one-sample t-test) statistics through SPSS16 software. Results: The findings showed that the mean level of media literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences’ students was 3.20 ± 0.558 (higher than average). The highest mean was skill in avoiding confusion and focus on activates such as watching television, listening to radio, reading newspaper, and using internet; and the lowest mean was skill in membership and subscription in useful society networks. The mean of evaluation of media messages dimension was more than others. The lowest mean of dimensions was for selective and purposeful use of media with 2.99 ± 0.761. Comparison between gender, married status, educational degree, and college type and the rate of media literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences’ students showed no significant difference. Conclusion: The results showed that the rate of media literacy among Isfahan University of Medical Sciences’ students was higher than average. But students didn't have enough skill in membership and subscription in useful society networks and Skill in tracking news about your favorite artists and musicians. Generally, all students and education practitioners should pay special attention to factors affecting in improving media literacy as a basic capability in using media.

Ashrafi-rizi, Hasan; Khorasgani, Zahra Ghazavi; Zarmehr, Fateme; Kazempour, Zahra

2014-01-01

422

76 FR 30370 - National Institute of General Medical Sciences; Meeting  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.375, Minority Biomedical Research Support; 93.821, Cell Biology and Biophysics Research; 93.859, Pharmacology, Physiology, and Biological Chemistry Research; 93.862, Genetics and...

2011-05-25

423

Education and research using experimental pigs in a medical school.  

PubMed

Medium-sized animals such as miniature pigs are considered to be important for education and training in medical schools to master the skills required in surgical treatment. Much still remains to be done to establish total management for animal experiments using pigs. Improvement of the effective utilization of pigs is also required from the economical and ethical points of view. We have been providing a support system at a facility for experimental animals in a medical school for 3 years, and herein we introduce our personal experiments as an instructional lecture. Before starting surgical training using live pigs, sufficient education concerning animal ethics and dry laboratory training was completed. Four kinds of miniature pigs have been used as experimental animals; porcine rearing pens have been improved and a postoperative care system has been implemented. Moreover, staff at the center offer a preoperative service of anesthesia for surgical education, training, and research. Chronic experiments have increased to represent 35% and 48% of experiments using pigs in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Experimental pigs have undergone secondary use after being killed to reduce the number of animals used in experiments. Sharing and reuse have allowed effective use of miniature pig tissues and cells for research, and have reduced the number of animals used. We recommend that researchers consider use of our total systems because they can improve the quality of medical education and research and facilitate effective use of tissues and cells by sharing and reuse among different departments. PMID:16998697

Tanaka, Hozumi; Kobayashi, Eiji

2006-01-01

424

Diversifying Science: Underrepresented Student Experiences in Structured Research Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Targeting four institutions with structured science research programs for undergraduates, this study focuses on how underrepresented\\u000a students experience science. Several key themes emerged from focus group discussions: learning to become research scientists,\\u000a experiences with the culture of science, and views on racial and social stigma. Participants spoke of essential factors for\\u000a becoming a scientist, but their experiences also raised complex

Sylvia Hurtado; Nolan L. Cabrera; Monica H. Lin; Lucy Arellano; Lorelle L. Espinosa

2009-01-01

425

Understanding the debate on medical education research: a sociological perspective.  

PubMed

Since the mid-1990s, a debate has taken place among medical education scholars regarding the forms that research should take and the roles it should play. Editors of major journals in medical education and prominent researchers in the domain have repeatedly addressed the issue and have attempted to define what medical education research should be. The goal of this article is to look at the debate from a sociological perspective and to outline the social factors shaping it. An analysis of the texts published since 1990 addressing the issue shows that the debates can be deconstructed in four topics: epistemology, methodology, the primary purpose of medical education research, and the "quality" of the projects carried out in the domain. However, the debates can also be amalgamated and synthesized using the concept of "field" as developed by sociologist Pierre Bourdieu. A "field" refers to the configuration of power relations among individuals, social groups, or institutions within a domain of activities. Scientific fields are typically structured around a "bipolar" opposition pattern. At one pole stand those individuals who promote greater collaboration with nonscientists as well as research aimed at responding to practical needs. At the opposite pole stand those individuals who aspire to achieve independence of the field from such external constraints. The use of the concept of "field" allows us to understand the debate from a larger perspective and to establish parallels with similar debates in other scientific fields. In doing so, we will have the opportunity to learn from the experience of these other fields and be more reflective about the debate in which we engage. PMID:15383350

Albert, Mathieu

2004-10-01

426

Emergency Medical Services Systems Research Projects, 1977. NCHSR Research Management Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document contains summaries of thirty-two research projects supported by the National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR) under authority of the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) Systems Act. (Focus of these research projects is to describe, explain, and predict the performance of more than 200 EMS systems being established under Title…

National Center for Health Services Research (DHEW/PHS), Hyattsville, MD.

427

A CYCLOTRON CONCEPT TO SUPPORT ISOTOPE PRODUCTION FOR SCIENCE AND MEDICAL APPLICATIONS  

SciTech Connect

In August of 2009, the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) recommended a variable-energy, high-current multi-particle accelerator for the production of medical radioisotopes. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a technical concept for a 70 MeV dual-extraction multi-particle cyclotron that will meet the needs identified in the NSAC report. The cyclotron, which will be located at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF), will operate on a 24/7 basis and will provide approximately 6000 hours per year of quality beam time for both the production R&D and production of medical and industrial radioisotopes. The proposed cyclotron will be capable of accelerating dual beams of 30 to 70 MeV H at up to 750 A, and up to 50 A of 15-35 MeV D , 35 MeV H2, and 70 MeV -particles. In dual-extraction H mode, a total of 750 A of 70 MeV protons will be provided simultaneously to both HRIBF and Isotope Production Facility. The isotope facility will consist of two target stations: a 2 water-cooled station and a 4 water-cooled high-energy-beam research station. The multi-particle capability and high beam power will enable research into new regimes of accelerator-produced radioisotopes, such as 225Ac, 211At, 68Ge, and 7B. The capabilities of the accelerator will enable the measurement of excitation functions, thick target yield measurements, research in high-power-target design, and will support fundamental research in nuclear and radiochemistry.

Egle, Brian [ORNL; Mirzadeh, Saed [ORNL; Tatum, B Alan [ORNL; Varma, Venugopal Koikal [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Bradley, Eric Craig [ORNL; Burgess, Thomas W [ORNL; Aaron, W Scott [ORNL; Binder, Jeffrey L [ORNL; Beene, James R [ORNL; Saltmarsh, Michael John [ORNL

2013-01-01

428

Summaries of FY 1990 research in the chemical sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary book is published annually to provide information on research supported by the Department of Energy's Division of Chemical Sciences, which is one of five Divisions of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. These...

1990-01-01

429

Summaries of FY 1988 Research in the Chemical Sciences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This summary book is published annually to provide information on research supported by the Department of Energy's Division of Chemical Sciences, which is one of six Divisions of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences in the Office of Energy Research. These ...

1988-01-01

430

How Prevention Science Can Inform Service-Learning Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prevention science, like service learning, is a relatively young field. However, in a short period of time, prevention has made significant progress in its scientific maturation, while SL research has lagged behind. Prevention science has made rapid progress because of its recognition of a multistage research cycle, reliance on interdisciplinary work, and success in developing strong university-community partnerships. Given the

Keith R. Aronson

431

ORGANIZATION RESEARCH AND ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING: TOWARDS A DESIGN SCIENCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research into organizational learning and knowledge management tends to be based on science and the humanities. Science helps to understand organized systems by uncovering laws and forces that determine their characteristics, functioning and outcomes. Research drawing on the humanities helps to understand, and critically reflect on, the human experience of actors inside organized systems. This paper argues that scholars operating

Georges Romme

432

Handbook of Research Design in Mathematics and Science Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book attempts to clarify the nature of principles that govern the effective use of merging new research designs in mathematics and science education. A primary goal is to describe several of the most important types of research design that have been pioneered recently by mathematics and science educators, have distinctive characteristics when…

Kelly, Anthony E., Ed.; Lesh, Richard A., Ed.

433

Information Science Research Agenda in Slovakia: History and Emerging Vision.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents research and education in library and information science in Slovakia as an example of the history, present state, and future of information science research and collaboration in central European countries. Highlights include: the professional experience in the region since 1990, structural changes, examples of these changes, recent…

Steinerova, Jela

2003-01-01

434

US (United States) Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory Annual Progress Report FY1981.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Annual Progress Report, Fiscal Year 1981, summarizes research performed by the US Army Medical Bioengineering Research and Development Laboratory in projects authorized by The Surgeon General, US Army, and the Commander, US Army Medical Research and D...

J. N. Albertson

1981-01-01

435

77 FR 41431 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center...Impact of Clinical Research Training and Medical Education at the Clinical Center...Office of Clinical Research Training and Education, and the Clinical...

2012-07-13

436

Can research on science learning and instruction inform standards for science education?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We contrast the current science education reform effort with the reforms of the 1960s and suggest how the current effort could be enhanced. We identify insights from recent research that we believe can inform the reform process, in particular, to reach all science students and also impart a cohesive view of science. We propose an “alternative models” view of scientific

Marcia C. Linn; Andy diSessa; Roy D. Pea; Nancy B. Songer

1994-01-01

437

[Confidentiality of data in medical-scientific research with humans].  

PubMed

The bill on Medical-Scientific Studies of Humans states that researchers should protect the privacy of test subjects to the extent possible. The right to privacy is also laid down in the Data Protection Act and the Medical Contract Act. Data gathered in the context of medical-scientific studies of humans should relate to the problem to be investigated, as set forth in the protocol. They must have been obtained legitimately-with the test subject's permission- and must as a matter of principle not be used for any other purpose than the study as a part of which they have been obtained. The data should be protected adequately, e.g. by encoding, and may be placed at other people's disposal only after permission from the test subject. Once research data have been processed in such a way that they can no longer reveal the test subject's identity, the latter's right to inspect them is cancelled. Furthermore, the test subject cannot assert his power of destruction regarding any parts of his file relating to the study. He must be so informed before-hand. Study results should be published in such a way that they cannot reveal individual identities. Every study protocol should include an 'information section' on the confidentiality of the data. It might be considered to draw up a code of behaviour regarding protection of privacy in medical-scientific studies of humans. PMID:9380138

Dute, J C

1997-05-31

438

Trends of Science Education Research: An Automatic Content Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used scientometric methods to conduct an automatic content analysis on the development trends of science education research from the published articles in the four journals of International Journal of Science Education, Journal of Research in Science Teaching, Research in Science Education, and Science Education from 1990 to 2007. The multi-stage clustering technique was employed to investigate with what topics, to what development trends, and from whose contribution that the journal publications constructed as a science education research field. This study found that the research topic of Conceptual Change & Concept Mapping was the most studied topic, although the number of publications has slightly declined in the 2000's. The studies in the themes of Professional Development, Nature of Science and Socio-Scientific Issues, and Conceptual Chang and Analogy were found to be gaining attention over the years. This study also found that, embedded in the most cited references, the supporting disciplines and theories of science education research are constructivist learning, cognitive psychology, pedagogy, and philosophy of science.

Chang, Yueh-Hsia; Chang, Chun-Yen; Tseng, Yuen-Hsien

2010-08-01

439

Perspectives on electronic medical records adoption: electronic medical records (EMR) in outcomes research  

PubMed Central

Health information technology (HIT) is engineered to promote improved quality and efficiency of care, and reduce medical errors. Healthcare organizations have made significant investments in HIT tools and the electronic medical record (EMR) is a major technological advance. The Department of Veterans Affairs was one of the first large healthcare systems to fully implement EMR. The Veterans Health Information System and Technology Architecture (VistA) began by providing an interface to review and update a patient’s medical record with its computerized patient record system. However, since the implementation of the VistA system there has not been an overall substantial adoption of EMR in the ambulatory or inpatient setting. In fact, only 23.9% of physicians were using EMRs in their office-based practices in 2005. A sample from the American Medical Association revealed that EMRs were available in an office setting to 17% of physicians in late 2007 and early 2008. Of these, 17% of physicians with EMR, only 4% were considered to be fully functional EMR systems. With the exception of some large aggregate EMR databases the slow adoption of EMR has limited its use in outcomes research. This paper reviews the literature and presents the current status of and forces influencing the adoption of EMR in the office-based practice, and identifies the benefits, limitations, and overall value of EMR in the conduct of outcomes research in the US.

Belletti, Dan; Zacker, Christopher; Mullins, C Daniel

2010-01-01

440

Nurturing educational research at Dartmouth Medical School: the synergy among innovative ideas, support faculty, and administrative structures.  

PubMed

In recent years, Dartmouth Medical School has increased its commitment to educational research within the school, and in collaboration with other schools across the country. Passionate faculty members with ideas and expertise in particular curricular areas are one critical component needed for a successful educational research program. Other components include an atmosphere that fosters research collaborations and mentoring, and various types of institutional support structures. This same model has effectively supported basic science and clinical research for decades. Because of the complexities involved in studying medical education, Dartmouth Medical School has invested in support structures for educational grant and manuscript development, financial support for pilot projects and partial salary support for investigators and key staff members, and other support targeted toward specific research projects. Ultimately, the goal is to use the results of the school's educational research projects to improve the curriculum through cycles of hypothesis development and testing, providing evidence for subsequent curricular change. When some research findings are relevant and applicable for use in other medical schools, that is an additional benefit of the educational research process. In this report, the authors describe the development of Dartmouth Medical School's infrastructure for supporting educational research, which has helped to accelerate the educational research productivity teaching faculty now enjoy. The authors also address some of the challenges that they anticipate in the near future. PMID:15383357

Nierenberg, David W; Carney, Patricia A

2004-10-01

441

Applying Propensity Score Methods in Medical Research: Pitfalls and Prospects  

PubMed Central

The authors review experimental and nonexperimental causal inference methods, focusing on assumptions for the validity of instrumental variables and propensity score (PS) methods. They provide guidance in four areas for the analysis and reporting of PS methods in medical research and selectively evaluate mainstream medical journal articles from 2000 to 2005 in the four areas, namely, examination of balance, overlapping support description, use of estimated PS for evaluation of treatment effect, and sensitivity analyses. In spite of the many pitfalls, when appropriately evaluated and applied, PS methods can be powerful tools in assessing average treatment effects in observational studies. Appropriate PS applications can create experimental conditions using observational data when randomized controlled trials are not feasible and, thus, lead researchers to an efficient estimator of the average treatment effect.

Luo, Zhehui; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Bradley, Cathy J.

2012-01-01

442

Teaching medical students basic neurotransmitter pharmacology using primary research resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We designed a seminar where small groups of students worked on different neurotransmitters before contributing information to a plenary session. Student feedback suggested that when the information was largely novel, students learned considerably more. Crucially, this improvement in knowledge was seen even when they had not directly studied a particular transmitter in their work groups, suggesting a shared learning experience. Moreover, the majority of students reported that using primary research papers was easy and useful, with over half stating that they would use them in future study.

2010-10-01

443

Materials Research Science and Engineering Centers (MRSEC)  

NSF Publications Database

... centers in materials research. MRSECs address fundamental materials research topics of intellectual ... in materials research. II. PROGRAM DESCRIPTION MRSECs are supported by NSF to undertake materials ...

444

We need to take a fresh look at medical research  

PubMed Central

Every human being has a vast store of knowledge about health and sickness and the ability to draw conclusions on the basis of this knowledge. Yet science research continues to be based largely on `objective studies' conducted by academics and to look down on `subjective' studies. The belief that `pure' objective science is highest and subjective information is lowest, inculcated by the way science is taught in schools, deters doctors from communicating information based on personal experience lest it be decried - as it certainly will be - as scientifically worthless. Alternative medicine with its open, flexible approach to the whole person, has something to teach conventional medicine. And doctors must pay more attention to what their patients can tell them. There is no rational justification for accepting the factual information that people give (in a case history) while disregarding what they have to say about their condition. Old-style science is particularly inept in helping doctors deal with psychosomatic problems. What is needed is a new `science of the subjective' which would be truly appropriate to the subject of study, the whole human being. There is a commentary on this paper by Sir Douglas Black, President of the Royal College of Physicians.

Simnett, John David

1982-01-01

445

CONNECTING PRE-MARKETING CLINICAL RESEARCH AND MEDICAL PRACTICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Objectives: To identify core issues that contribute to the gap between,pre-marketing clinical research and practice as seen from the perspective of medical practice, as well as possible changes and potential barriers for closing this gap. Methods: Interviews with 47 physicians and pharmacists,who were liaised to drug regulation through their role in the pre- and post-marketing shaping of new cardiovascular

Nicolien F. Wieringa; Jules L. Peschar; Petra Denig; Pieter A. de Graeff; Rein Vos

2003-01-01

446

Distribution of Medical Research Articles on the World Wide Web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-eight percent of 51 polled medical editors felt that published research articles should be available to the public on the World Wide Web at no charge, after a mean time from publication of 1.4 years for viewing and 1.9 years for printing. Public libraries or other government institutions could be allowed to assume the responsibility of housing and distributing the

Kevin T. Kavanagh

2003-01-01

447

THE INFLUENCE OF MEDICAL SCIENCE ON KEATS'S THOUGHT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the influence of Keats's medical training and knowledge on his poems and letters, an influence that has usually been ignored or denied. While a fair amount of attention has been focused on the immediate biographical facts of Keats's five-year apprenticeship to the surgeon Thomas Hammond and his year of training at Guy's Hospital, very little has been

DONALD CRICHLOW GOELLNICHT

1981-01-01

448

The Influence of Medical Science on Keats's Thought  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation examines the influence of Keats's medical training and knowledge on his poems and letters, an influence that has usually been ignored or denied. While a fair amount of attention has been focused on the immediate biographical facts of Keats's five-year apprenticeship to the surgeon Thomas Hammond and his year of training at Guy's Hospital, very little has been

Donald Crichlow Goellnicht

1981-01-01

449

Predictors of Success: Medical Laboratory Associate in Science Degree Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hospitals and healthcare facilities in the United States are facing serious shortages of medical laboratory personnel, which, if not addressed, stand to negatively impact patient care. The problem is compounded by a reduction in the numbers of academic programs and resulting decrease in the number of graduates to keep up with the increase in industry demands. Given these challenges, the

Nilia M Madan

2012-01-01

450

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis A among Students Enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2011  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Hepatitis A is often asymptomatic in children, however it can become a serious disease in adults. For countries that do not have a universal vaccination strategy targeted vaccination for high risk groups is recommended. Health workers could be at a higher risk of infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) compared to the general population. The aim of this study is to investigate the seroprevalence of hepatitis A among enrolled students in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2011. METHODS This study included all students enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences during 2011. We checked serum samples for anti-HAV antibody and participants completed a simple questionnaire. RESULTS SFrom 1864 health sciences students enrolled in Tehran University of Medical Sciences, 1813 samples were analyzed for anti-HAV IgG antibody. The results showed that 970 (53.5%) were seronegative, 722 (39.8%) were seropositive, and 121 (6.7%) were equivocal. There were significantly higher seropositive results for males (54%) compared to females (37%; RR = 1.46; 95% CI: 1.31-1.62). CONCLUSION The seroprevalence of HAV among enrolled medical science students is considerably lower than previous reports from Iran. Targeted vaccination for health sciences students prior to exposure should be seriously considered.

Rabiee, Anahita; Nikayin, Sina; Hashemi, Seyed Reza; Mohaghegh, Mostafa; Amini, Marzieh; Rabiee, Roozbeh; Merat, Shahin

2013-01-01

451

Approaches of researches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with the historical review of medical geography in the world, in Poland and in Ukraine. There are different approaches in medical geography: according to the research subject (ecological and economic approaches) and according to the current affairs of research (approach concerns sexuality, the age of the population and accordingly, accessibility of health care services to the population). To the author's mind, the most perspective approaches in medical geography in Poland and Ukraine are as follows: - integrative - dedicated to the health status of the population in connection with the quality and life level; - mathematical-statistical - connected with the problem of synthetic indexes of health status of the populations and factors influencing it, and with the problem of economic value of health and life of the population; - social-economic - the analysis of the influence of socioeconomic factors (such as wealth measure, rate of unemployment, work conditions and others) on public health; - ecological - connected with the researches dedicated to the analysis of environmental impact on public health status of the population; - demographical - the analysis of demographical factors of forming public health status; - social-psychological - health culture of the population, perception of the own health/morbidity and health care systems existing in different countries.

Pantylej, Wiktoria

2008-01-01

452

Accelerating Medical Research using the Swift Workflow System  

PubMed Central

Both medical research and clinical practice are starting to involve large quantities of data and to require large-scale computation, as a result of the digitization of many areas of medicine. For example, in brain research – the domain that we consider here – a single research study may require the repeated processing, using computationally demanding and complex applications, of thousands of files corresponding to hundreds of functional MRI studies. Execution efficiency demands the use of parallel or distributed computing, but few medical researchers have the time or expertise to write the necessary parallel programs. The Swift system addresses these concerns. A simple scripting language, SwiftScript, provides for the concise high-level specification of workflows that invoke various application programs on potentially large quantities of data. The Swift engine provides for the efficient execution of these workflows on sequential computers, parallel computers, and/or distributed grids that federate the computing resources of many sites. Last but not least, the Swift provenance catalog keeps track of all actions performed, addressing vital bookkeeping functions that so often cause difficulties in large computations. To illustrate the use of Swift for medical research, we describe its use for the analysis of functional MRI data as part of a research project examining the neurological mechanisms of recovery from aphasia after stroke. We show how SwiftScript is used to encode an application workflow, and present performance results that demonstrate our ability to achieve significant speedups on both a local parallel computing cluster and multiple parallel clusters at distributed sites.

STEF-PRAUN, Tiberiu; CLIFFORD, Benjamin; FOSTER, Ian; HASSON, Uri; HATEGAN, Mihael; SMALL, Steven L.; WILDE, Michael; ZHAO, Yong

2009-01-01

453

Research highlights in engineering sciences, fiscal year 1982  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Engineering Sciences Directorate of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is responsible for developing and maintaining the engineering science resources needed to perform Laboratory programs and to establish expertise in new scientific, engineering, and technical areas of interest to the Laboratory. Highlights from several research efforts carried out in FY 1981 by the Engineering Sciences Divisions at Los Alamos are described. The diversity of these efforts illustrates the variety of research being conducted within the Directorate in support of programs and under the auspices of the Laboratory Director's supporting research and development program. Research on the following subjects is summarized: nuclear reactors; magnetic fusion; explosives; computing systems; electronics; and systems analysis.

1982-04-01

454

Chemistry - the lingua franca of the medical and biological sciences.  

PubMed

Despite a large cultural difference between chemists and biologists, chemistry is becoming the common language for all the biological sciences. Now the challenge is to teach the language of scientific achievement to the public and to our representatives in Washington. PMID:8807820

Kornberg, A

1996-01-01

455

Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy - among them are critical listening and reading of various sources, multi-media presentations and representations, effective debate and argument, quality explanation and the role of information and communication technologies/environments.

Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

2003-06-01

456

Penalised regression splines: theory and application to medical research.  

PubMed

Generalised additive models (GAMs) allow for flexible functional dependence of a response variable on covariates. The aim of this article is to provide an accessible overview of GAMs based on the penalised likelihood approach with regression splines. In contrast to the classical backfitting, the penalised likelihood framework taken here provides researchers with an efficient computational method for automatic multiple smoothing parameter selection, which can determine the functional form of any relationship from the data. We illustrate through an example how the use of this methodology can help to gain insights into medical research. PMID:18815162

Marra, Giampiero; Radice, Rosalba

2010-04-01

457

Research.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In May of 1999, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences hosted a conference on ways to improve the scientific quality of educational research. In medicine, thanks to work 40 years ago by 2 researchers, Howard Hyatt and Frederick Mosteller, the commitment of medical professionals to base their diagnoses and prescriptions on clinical trials in…

Raudenbush, Stephen

458

Medical faculty use of the journal literature, publishing productivity and the size of health sciences library journal collections.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This 1990-1991 study explored the relationship between the size of health sciences library journal collections and the number of different journals cited by medical school faculty in departments of biochemistry and medicine. METHODS: Two regression equations, including variables associated with a national stratified sample of 622 faculty who published articles during those two years, were used to explore factors correlated with variations in faculty use of the journal literature and faculty publishing productivity. RESULTS: Results suggest that, after controlling for other variables in the models, neither the number of different journals those faculty cited, nor the number of articles they published, had statistically significant correlations with the number of journals in the health sciences library collection. CONCLUSION: The traditional view that the size of an academic health sciences library's journal collection is a good measure of how well that library is positioned to support faculty research may not be entirely accurate.

Byrd, G D