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1

Semi automatic indexing of PostScript files using Medical Text Indexer in medical education.  

PubMed

At Albert Einstein College of Medicine a large part of online lecture materials contain PostScript files. As the collection grows it becomes essential to create a digital library to have easy access to relevant sections of the lecture material that is full-text indexed; to create this index it is necessary to extract all the text from the document files that constitute the originals of the lectures. In this study we present a semi automatic indexing method using robust technique for extracting text from PostScript files and National Library of Medicine's Medical Text Indexer (MTI) program for indexing the text. This model can be applied to other medical schools for indexing purposes. PMID:18694151

Mollah, Shamim Ara; Cimino, Christopher

2007-10-11

2

Statistical modeling of medical indexing processes for biomedical knowledge information discovery from text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overwhelming amount of published literature in the biomedical domain and the growing number of collabora- tions across scientic disciplines results in an increasing top- ical complexity of research articles. This represents an im- mense challenge for ecient biomedical knowledge discov- ery from text. We present a new graphical model, the so- called Topic-Concept Model, which extends the basic La-

Markus Bundschus; Mathaeus Dejori; Shipeng Yu; Volker Tresp; Hans-Peter Kriegel

3

Succinct Text Indexing with Wildcards  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A succinct text index uses space proportional to the text itself, say, two times n log? for a text of n characters over an alphabet of size ?. In the past few years, there were several exciting results leading to succinct indexes that support efficient pattern matching. In this paper we present the first succinct index for a text that contains wildcards. The space complexity of our index is (3 + o(1))n log? + O(?logn) bits, where ? is the number of wildcard groups in the text. Such an index finds applications in indexing genomic sequences that contain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), which could be modeled as wildcards.

Tam, Alan; Wu, Edward; Lam, Tak-Wah; Yiu, Siu-Ming

4

Efficient Index for Handwritten Text  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two indexing methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first index, word-level index, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level index is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level index, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level index is more accurate, but more costly than the word level index. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the index size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both indexes and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed indexes achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed indexes improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.

Kamel, Ibrahim

5

Obtaining Feedback for Indexing from Highlighted Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discussion of weighted index terms in information retrieval focuses on a method for adjusting index weights by processing text in digital libraries that has been highlighted by users. Considers weights in query processing; feedback sources; active reading while accessing digital documents; collaborative information retrieval; and improving index

Villarroel, Miguel; Fuente, Pablo de la; Pedrero, Alberto; Vegas, Jesus; Adiego, Joaquin

2002-01-01

6

[On two antique medical texts].  

PubMed

The two texts presented here--Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença [literally, "useful regime against pestilence"] and Modus curandi cum balsamo ["curing method using balm"]--represent the extent of Portugal's known medical library until circa 1530, produced in gothic letters by foreign printers: Germany's Valentim Fernandes, perhaps the era's most important printer, who worked in Lisbon between 1495 and 1518, and Germdo Galharde, a Frenchman who practiced his trade in Lisbon and Coimbra between 1519 and 1560. Modus curandi, which came to light in 1974 thanks to bibliophile José de Pina Martins, is anonymous. Johannes Jacobi is believed to be the author of Regimento proueytoso, which was translated into Latin (Regimen contra pestilentiam), French, and English. Both texts are presented here in facsimile and in modern Portuguese, while the first has also been reproduced in archaic Portuguese using modern typographical characters. This philological venture into sixteenth-century medicine is supplemented by a scholarly glossary which serves as a valuable tool in interpreting not only Regimento proueytoso but also other texts from the era. Two articles place these documents in historical perspective. PMID:17500134

Rosa, Maria Carlota

7

Automated indexing for full text information retrieval.  

PubMed Central

We report our experience with a statistically based method of generating sentence-level indexing based on identified UMLS concepts and query and vector-space models. We evaluated the system using the consensus markup of two domain experts as the gold standard. UMLS concepts identified both from HTML headings and in paragraph text were valuable in proposing markup. Using both sources of concepts, the model proposed the correct set of concepts in the form of a query prototype 71% of the time. The correct query prototype was ranked first or second in 79% of cases.

Berrios, D. C.

2000-01-01

8

Obtaining feedback for indexing from highlighted text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indexing techniques most commonly applied in information retrieval systems associate weights to the terms of documents; this association is carried out in order to quantify the term’s capacity for representing the document. Subsequently, these weights are used in query processing, playing an important role in the performance of the system. This work presents a method for the adjustment of

Miguel Villarroel; Pablo De La Fuente; Alberto Pedrero; Jesús Vegas; Joaquín Adiego

2002-01-01

9

The Algorithmic Processing of Structured Medical Text*  

PubMed Central

Algorithms are described which (1) separated specific medical terms from common English words, (2) assigned medical terms to their appropriate specialty (e.g. dermatology, cardiology), and (3) generated and measured the association of pairs of disease attributes in a corpus of structured medical text concerning diseases. The output of these algorithms is discussed in terms of the contributions they may make to the solution of three problems in medical text processing: the construction of knowledge bases about diseases, the querying of such knowledge bases, and the classification of journal articles relevant to diseases.

Blois, M.S.; Sherertz, D.D.; Tuttle, M.S.

1980-01-01

10

Automated assessment of medical training evaluation text.  

PubMed

Medical post-graduate residency training and medical student training increasingly utilize electronic systems to evaluate trainee performance based on defined training competencies with quantitative and qualitative data, the later of which typically consists of text comments. Medical education is concomitantly becoming a growing area of clinical research. While electronic systems have proliferated in number, little work has been done to help manage and analyze qualitative data from these evaluations. We explored the use of text-mining techniques to assist medical education researchers in sentiment analysis and topic analysis of residency evaluations with a sample of 812 evaluation statements. While comments were predominantly positive, sentiment analysis improved the ability to discriminate statements with 93% accuracy. Similar to other domains, Latent Dirichlet Analysis and Information Gain revealed groups of core subjects and appear to be useful for identifying topics from this data. PMID:23304426

Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei; Gladding, Sophia; Aylward, Michael; Borman-Shoap, Emily; Melton, Genevieve B

2012-11-03

11

Automated Assessment of Medical Training Evaluation Text  

PubMed Central

Medical post-graduate residency training and medical student training increasingly utilize electronic systems to evaluate trainee performance based on defined training competencies with quantitative and qualitative data, the later of which typically consists of text comments. Medical education is concomitantly becoming a growing area of clinical research. While electronic systems have proliferated in number, little work has been done to help manage and analyze qualitative data from these evaluations. We explored the use of text-mining techniques to assist medical education researchers in sentiment analysis and topic analysis of residency evaluations with a sample of 812 evaluation statements. While comments were predominantly positive, sentiment analysis improved the ability to discriminate statements with 93% accuracy. Similar to other domains, Latent Dirichlet Analysis and Information Gain revealed groups of core subjects and appear to be useful for identifying topics from this data.

Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei; Gladding, Sophia; Aylward, Michael; Borman-Shoap, Emily; Melton, Genevieve B.

2012-01-01

12

Automated identification of medical concepts and assertions in medical text.  

PubMed

This paper describes a machine learning, text processing approach that allows the extraction of key medical information from unstructured text in Electronic Medical Records. The approach utilizes a novel text representation that shares the simplicity of the widely used bag-of-words representation, but can also represent some form of semantic information in the text. The large dimensionality of this type of learning models is controlled by the use of a ?(1) regularization to favor parsimonious models. Experimental results demonstrate the accuracy of the approach in extracting medical assertions that can be associated to polarity and relevance detection. PMID:21347065

Rosales, Rómer; Farooq, Faisal; Krishnapuram, Balaji; Yu, Shipeng; Fung, Glenn

2010-11-13

13

Mining free-text medical records.  

PubMed Central

Text mining projects can be characterized along four parameters: 1) the demands of the market in terms of target domain and specificity and depth of queries; 2) the volume and quality of text in the target domain; 3) the text mining process requirements; and 4) the quality assurance process that validates the extracted data. In this paper, we provide lessons learned and results from a large-scale commercial project using Natural Language Processing (NLP) for mining the transcriptions of dictated clinical records in a variety of medical specialties. We conclude that the current state-of-the-art in NLP is suitable for mining information of moderate content depth across a diverse collection of medical settings and specialties.

Heinze, D. T.; Morsch, M. L.; Holbrook, J.

2001-01-01

14

Ancient medical texts, modern reading problems.  

PubMed

The word tradition has a very specific meaning in linguistics: the passing down of a text, which may have been completed or corrected by different copyists at different times, when the concept of authorship was not the same as it is today. When reading an ancient text the word tradition must be in the reader's mind. To discuss one of the problems an ancient text poses to its modern readers, this work deals with one of the first printed medical texts in Portuguese, the Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença, and draws a parallel between it and two related texts, A moche profitable treatise against the pestilence, and the Recopilaçam das cousas que conuem guardar se no modo de preseruar à Cidade de Lixboa E os sãos, & curar os que esteuerem enfermos de Peste. The problems which arise out of the textual structure of those books show how difficult is to establish a tradition of another type, the medical tradition. The linguistic study of the innumerable medieval plague treatises may throw light on the continuities and on the disruptions of the so-called hippocratic-galenical medical tradition. PMID:17308822

Rosa, Maria Carlota

2006-12-01

15

Word-based self-indexes for natural language text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inverted index supports efficient full-text searches on natural language text collections. It requires some extra space over the compressed text that can be traded for search speed. It is usually fast for single-word searches, yet phrase searches require more expensive intersections. In this article we introduce a different kind of index. It replaces the text using essentially the same

Antonio Fariña; Nieves R. Brisaboa; Gonzalo Navarro; Francisco Claude

2012-01-01

16

On Entropy-Compressed Text Indexing in External Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new trend in the field of pattern matching is to design indexing data structures which take space very close to that required by the indexed text (in entropy-compressed form) and also simultaneously achieve good query performance. Two popular indexes, namely the FM-index [Ferragina and Manzini, 2005] and the CSA [Grossi and Vitter 2005], achieve this goal by exploiting the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) [Burrows and Wheeler, 1994]. However, due to the intricate permutation structure of BWT, no locality of reference can be guaranteed when we perform pattern matching with these indexes. Chien et al. [2008] gave an alternative text index which is based on sparsifying the traditional suffix tree and maintaining an auxiliary 2-D range query structure. Given a text T of length n drawn from a ?-sized alphabet set, they achieved O(n log?)-bit index for T and showed that this index can preserve locality in pattern matching and hence is amenable to be used in external-memory settings. We improve upon this index and show how to apply entropy compression to reduce index space. Our index takes O(n(H k + 1)) + o(nlog?) bits of space where H k is the kth-order empirical entropy of the text. This is achieved by creating variable length blocks of text using arithmetic coding.

Hon, Wing-Kai; Shah, Rahul; Thankachan, Sharma V.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

17

Identification of inactive medications in narrative medical text.  

PubMed

Discontinued medications are frequently not removed from EMR medication lists - a patient safety risk. We developed an algorithm to identify inactive medications using in the text of narrative notes in the EMR. The algorithm was evaluated against manual review of 297 randomly selected notes. One in five notes documented inactive medications. Sensitivity and precision of 87.7% and 80.7%, respectively, on per-note basis and 66.3% and 80.0%, respectively, on per-medication basis. When medication names missing from the dictionary were excluded, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 91.4%. Using real clinical data, the algorithm identified inactive medications documented in the note but still listed as active on the patients medication list in more than one in ten notes. Documentation of inactive medications is common in narrative provider notes and can be computationally extracted. This technology could be employed in real-time patient care as well as for research and quality of care monitoring. PMID:18999079

Breydo, Eugene M; Chu, Julia T; Turchin, Alexander

2008-11-06

18

Identification of Inactive Medications in Narrative Medical Text  

PubMed Central

Discontinued medications are frequently not removed from EMR medication lists - a patient safety risk. We developed an algorithm to identify inactive medications using in the text of narrative notes in the EMR. The algorithm was evaluated against manual review of 297 randomly selected notes. One in five notes documented inactive medications. Sensitivity and precision of 87.7% and 80.7%, respectively, on per-note basis and 66.3% and 80.0%, respectively, on per-medication basis. When medication names missing from the dictionary were excluded, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 91.4%. Using real clinical data, the algorithm identified inactive medications documented in the note but still listed as active on the patient’s medication list in more than one in ten notes. Documentation of inactive medications is common in narrative provider notes and can be computationally extracted. This technology could be employed in real-time patient care as well as for research and quality of care monitoring.

Breydo, Eugene M.; Chu, Julia T.; Turchin, Alexander

2008-01-01

19

Semantic analysis of medical free texts.  

PubMed

The semantic interpretation of natural language utterances is usually based on a large number of transformation rules which map syntactic structures (parse trees) onto some kind of meaning representation. However, those interpretation rules exhibit an insufficient degree of abstraction so that the scalability and portability of such natural language processing systems is hard to maintain. In this paper, we introduce an approach that is able to cope with a wide variety of semantic interpretation patterns in medical free texts by applying a small inventory of abstract semantic interpretation schemata. These schemata address generalized graph configurations within syntactic dependency parse trees, which abstract away from specific syntactic constructions. PMID:11187590

Romacker, M; Hahn, U; Schulz, S; Klar, R

2000-01-01

20

New text indexing functionalities of the compressed suffix arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

New text indexing functionalities of the compressed suffix arrays are proposed. The compressed suffix array proposed by Grossi and Vitter is a space-efficient data structure for text indexing. It occupies only O(n) bits for a text of length n; however it also uses the text itself that occupies nlog2|A| bits for the alphabet A. In this paper we modify the

Kunihiko Sadakane

2003-01-01

21

An Algorithmic Framework for Compression and Text Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a unified algorithmic framework to obtain nearly optimal space bounds for text compression and compressed text indexing, apart from lower-order terms. For a text T of n symbols drawn from an alphabet §, our bounds are stated in terms of the hth-order empirical entropy of the text, Hh. In particular, we provide a tight analysis of the Burrows-Wheeler

Roberto Grossi; Ankur Gupta; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

22

High-order entropy-compressed text indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel implementation of compressed suffix arrays exhibiting new tradeoffs between search time and space occupancy for a given text (or sequence) of n symbols over an alphabet ?, where each symbol is encoded by lg|?| bits. We show that compressed suffix arrays use just nHh + ? bits, while retaining full text indexing functionalities, such as searching

Roberto Grossi; Ankur Gupta; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

2003-01-01

23

Complete Gini-Index Text (GIT) feature-selection algorithm for text classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recently introduced Gini-Index Text (GIT) feature-selection algorithm for text classification, through incorporating an improved Gini Index for better feature-selection performance, has some drawbacks. Specifically, the algorithm, under real-world experimental conditions, concentrates feature values to one point and be inadequate for selecting representative features. As such, good representative features cannot be estimated, and neither, moreover, can good performance be achieved

Heum Park; Soonho Kwon; Hyuk-Chul Kwon

2010-01-01

24

Approximate word-lattice indexing with text indexers: Time-Anchored Lattice Expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the problem of how to represent or approximate speech lattices to be indexed with existing text indexers. We present a method named time-anchored lattice expansion (TALE), which can be implemented by a standard text indexer (STI). On a 170- hour lecture set, we compare TALE with other lattice indexing methods: confusion networks, position-specific posterior lattices (PSPL), and time-based

Peng Yu; Yu Shi; Frank Seide

2008-01-01

25

Towards Spoken-Document Retrieval for the Enterprise: Approximate Word-Lattice Indexing with Text Indexers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Enterprise-scale search engines are generally designed for linear text. Linear text is suboptimal for audio search, where accuracy can be significantly improved if the search includes alternate recognition candidates, commonly represented as word lattices. We propose two methods to enable text indexers to approximately index lattices with little or no code change: \\

Frank Seide; Peng Yu; Yu Shi

2007-01-01

26

Self-Indexing Inverted Files for Fast Text Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Query processing costs on large text databases are dominated,by the need to retrieve and scan the inverted list of each query term. Here we show that query response time for conjunctive Boolean queries and for informal ranked queries can be dramatically reduced, at little cost in terms of storage, by the inclusion of an internal index in each inverted

Alistair Moat; Justin Zobel

27

Visualization index for image-enabled medical records  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widely use of healthcare information technology in hospitals, the patients' medical records are more and more complex. To transform the text- or image-based medical information into easily understandable and acceptable form for human, we designed and developed an innovation indexing method which can be used to assign an anatomical 3D structure object to every patient visually to store

Wenjie Dong; Weilin Zheng; Jianyong Sun; Jianguo Zhang

2011-01-01

28

Word-Lattice Based Spoken-Document Indexing with Standard Text Indexers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indexing the spoken content of audio recordings requires the use of automatic speech recognition, which is as of today not reliable. Unlike indexing text, we cannot reliably know from a speech recognizer whether a word is present or not at a given point in the audio; we can only obtain a probability for it. Making correct use of these probabilities

Peng Yu; Kit Thambiratnam; Frank Seide

2008-01-01

29

Text Indexing of Images Based on Graphical Image Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an alternative method for indexing images in an image database. The method consists of manually indexing a selected reference image, and then using retrieval by graphical content to automatically transfer the manually assigned index terms from the reference image to the images to be indexed. (AEF)

Patrick, Timothy B.; Sievert, MaryEllen C.; Popescu, Mihail

1999-01-01

30

Frequency and Content Analysis of CFS in Medical Text Books  

PubMed Central

Textbooks are a cornerstone in the training of medical staff and students, and they are an important source of references and reviews for these professionals. The objective of this study was to determine both the quantity and quality of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) information included in medical texts. After reviewing 119 medical textbooks from various medical specialties, we found that 48 (40.3%) of the medical textbooks included information on CFS. However, among the 129,527 total pages within these medical textbooks, the CFS content was presented on only 116.3 (.090%) pages. Other illnesses that are less prevalent, such as Multiple Sclerosis and Lyme disease, were more frequently represented in medical textbooks. These findings suggest that the topic of CFS is under-reported in published medical textbooks.

Jason, Leonard A.; Paavola, Erin; Porter, Nicole; Morello, Morgan L.

2013-01-01

31

Overlapping Statistical Segmentation for Effective Indexing of Japanese Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses statistical word indexing for Japanese information-retrieval systems and proposes a new method that uses statistics about characters to evaluate a bi-gram's likelihood of being a word boundary. Describes a new segmentation strategy that extracts some overlapping segments and results in higher retrieval effectiveness. (Author/LRW)

Ogawa, Yasushi; Matsuda, Toru

1999-01-01

32

A Graph Structured Text Field Index Based on Word Fragments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes an indexing technique based on overlapping word fragments as reference strings that are linked in a directed graph structure which makes possible exact match-, partial match-, and masked-partial match-retrieval and indicates search strategies for each case. Eight figures, two tables, and nine references are provided. (RBF)|

Kropp, D.; Walch, G.

1981-01-01

33

Indexation semi-automatique de textes : thésaurus et transducteurs  

Microsoft Academic Search

RÉSUMÉ. Cet article présente une méthode de classification ne nécess itant pas de phase d'ap- prentissage. Son but est d'améliorer l'indexation manuelle des documents textuels, une opéra- tion souvent menée au sein de certains systèmes d'informati on requérant un niveau de précision élevé. Le système, qui apporte une aide à l'indexeur humain,est semi-automatique. Par analo- gie à la terminologie utilisée

Laurent Kevers

2009-01-01

34

A blurring index for medical images.  

PubMed

This study was undertaken to investigate a useful image blurring index. This work is based on our previously developed method, the Moran peak ratio. Medical images are often deteriorated by noise or blurring. Image processing techniques are used to eliminate these two factors. The denoising process may improve image visibility with a trade-off of edge blurring and may introduce undesirable effects in an image. These effects also exist in images reconstructed using the lossy image compression technique. Blurring and degradation in image quality increases with an increase in the lossy image compression ratio. Objective image quality metrics [e.g., normalized mean square error (NMSE)] currently do not provide spatial information about image blurring. In this article, the Moran peak ratio is proposed for quantitative measurement of blurring in medical images. We show that the quantity of image blurring is dependent upon the ratio between the processed peak of Moran's Z histogram and the original image. The peak ratio of Moran's Z histogram can be used to quantify the degree of image blurring. This method produces better results than the standard gray level distribution deviation. The proposed method can also be used to discern blurriness in an image using different image compression algorithms. PMID:16283091

Chen, Tzong-Jer; Chuang, Keh-Shih; Chang, Jen-Hao; Shiao, Ya-Hui; Chuang, Chun-Chao

2006-06-01

35

Self-indexing inverted files for fast text retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Query-processing costs on large text databases are dominated by the need to retrieve and scan the inverted list of each query term. Retrieval time for inverted lists can be greatly reduced by the use of compression, but this adds to the CPU time required. Here we show that the CPU component of query response time for conjunctive Boolean queries and

Alistair Moffat; Justin Zobel

1996-01-01

36

Entropy-Based Incremental Indexing Term Selection Method for N-gram Full Text Search System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-gram indexing is the most popular algorithm for the full text search system where each index consists of serial N characters. Especially the full text search for Japanese text usually has the 2-gram characters index as base. The additional higher-gram index is expected to improve the performance. This paper presents the entropy-based method for mining additional indexing terms from DB in order to reduce the waste of AND operation for 2gram.

Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Saga, Ryosuke; Moriyama, Satoru; Tsuji, Hiroshi

37

Emotional Reading of Medical Texts Using Conversational Agents (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a prototype that helps visualizing the relative importance of sentences extracted from medical texts using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA). We propose to map rhetorical structures automatically recognized in the documents onto a set of communicative acts controlling the expression of an ECA. As a consequence, the ECA will dramatize a sentence to reflect its perceived

Gersende Georg; Catherine Pelachaud; Marc Cavazza

2008-01-01

38

Text mining for the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: medical text classification using informative feature selection  

PubMed Central

Objective The US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) collects spontaneous reports of adverse events following vaccination. Medical officers review the reports and often apply standardized case definitions, such as those developed by the Brighton Collaboration. Our objective was to demonstrate a multi-level text mining approach for automated text classification of VAERS reports that could potentially reduce human workload. Design We selected 6034 VAERS reports for H1N1 vaccine that were classified by medical officers as potentially positive (Npos=237) or negative for anaphylaxis. We created a categorized corpus of text files that included the class label and the symptom text field of each report. A validation set of 1100 labeled text files was also used. Text mining techniques were applied to extract three feature sets for important keywords, low- and high-level patterns. A rule-based classifier processed the high-level feature representation, while several machine learning classifiers were trained for the remaining two feature representations. Measurements Classifiers' performance was evaluated by macro-averaging recall, precision, and F-measure, and Friedman's test; misclassification error rate analysis was also performed. Results Rule-based classifier, boosted trees, and weighted support vector machines performed well in terms of macro-recall, however at the expense of a higher mean misclassification error rate. The rule-based classifier performed very well in terms of average sensitivity and specificity (79.05% and 94.80%, respectively). Conclusion Our validated results showed the possibility of developing effective medical text classifiers for VAERS reports by combining text mining with informative feature selection; this strategy has the potential to reduce reviewer workload considerably.

Nguyen, Michael D; Woo, Emily Jane; Markatou, Marianthi; Ball, Robert

2011-01-01

39

Automated de-identification of free-text medical records  

PubMed Central

Background Text-based patient medical records are a vital resource in medical research. In order to preserve patient confidentiality, however, the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires that protected health information (PHI) be removed from medical records before they can be disseminated. Manual de-identification of large medical record databases is prohibitively expensive, time-consuming and prone to error, necessitating automatic methods for large-scale, automated de-identification. Methods We describe an automated Perl-based de-identification software package that is generally usable on most free-text medical records, e.g., nursing notes, discharge summaries, X-ray reports, etc. The software uses lexical look-up tables, regular expressions, and simple heuristics to locate both HIPAA PHI, and an extended PHI set that includes doctors' names and years of dates. To develop the de-identification approach, we assembled a gold standard corpus of re-identified nursing notes with real PHI replaced by realistic surrogate information. This corpus consists of 2,434 nursing notes containing 334,000 words and a total of 1,779 instances of PHI taken from 163 randomly selected patient records. This gold standard corpus was used to refine the algorithm and measure its sensitivity. To test the algorithm on data not used in its development, we constructed a second test corpus of 1,836 nursing notes containing 296,400 words. The algorithm's false negative rate was evaluated using this test corpus. Results Performance evaluation of the de-identification software on the development corpus yielded an overall recall of 0.967, precision value of 0.749, and fallout value of approximately 0.002. On the test corpus, a total of 90 instances of false negatives were found, or 27 per 100,000 word count, with an estimated recall of 0.943. Only one full date and one age over 89 were missed. No patient names were missed in either corpus. Conclusion We have developed a pattern-matching de-identification system based on dictionary look-ups, regular expressions, and heuristics. Evaluation based on two different sets of nursing notes collected from a U.S. hospital suggests that, in terms of recall, the software out-performs a single human de-identifier (0.81) and performs at least as well as a consensus of two human de-identifiers (0.94). The system is currently tuned to de-identify PHI in nursing notes and discharge summaries but is sufficiently generalized and can be customized to handle text files of any format. Although the accuracy of the algorithm is high, it is probably insufficient to be used to publicly disseminate medical data. The open-source de-identification software and the gold standard re-identified corpus of medical records have therefore been made available to researchers via the PhysioNet website to encourage improvements in the algorithm.

Neamatullah, Ishna; Douglass, Margaret M; Lehman, Li-wei H; Reisner, Andrew; Villarroel, Mauricio; Long, William J; Szolovits, Peter; Moody, George B; Mark, Roger G; Clifford, Gari D

2008-01-01

40

Automatic extraction of relations between medical concepts in clinical texts  

PubMed Central

Objective A supervised machine learning approach to discover relations between medical problems, treatments, and tests mentioned in electronic medical records. Materials and methods A single support vector machine classifier was used to identify relations between concepts and to assign their semantic type. Several resources such as Wikipedia, WordNet, General Inquirer, and a relation similarity metric inform the classifier. Results The techniques reported in this paper were evaluated in the 2010 i2b2 Challenge and obtained the highest F1 score for the relation extraction task. When gold standard data for concepts and assertions were available, F1 was 73.7, precision was 72.0, and recall was 75.3. F1 is defined as 2*Precision*Recall/(Precision+Recall). Alternatively, when concepts and assertions were discovered automatically, F1 was 48.4, precision was 57.6, and recall was 41.7. Discussion Although a rich set of features was developed for the classifiers presented in this paper, little knowledge mining was performed from medical ontologies such as those found in UMLS. Future studies should incorporate features extracted from such knowledge sources, which we expect to further improve the results. Moreover, each relation discovery was treated independently. Joint classification of relations may further improve the quality of results. Also, joint learning of the discovery of concepts, assertions, and relations may also improve the results of automatic relation extraction. Conclusion Lexical and contextual features proved to be very important in relation extraction from medical texts. When they are not available to the classifier, the F1 score decreases by 3.7%. In addition, features based on similarity contribute to a decrease of 1.1% when they are not available.

Harabagiu, Sanda; Roberts, Kirk

2011-01-01

41

Privacy preserving index for encrypted electronic medical records.  

PubMed

With the development of electronic systems, privacy has become an important security issue in real-life. In medical systems, privacy of patients' electronic medical records (EMRs) must be fully protected. However, to combine the efficiency and privacy, privacy preserving index is introduced to preserve the privacy, where the EMR can be efficiently accessed by this patient or specific doctor. In the literature, Goh first proposed a secure index scheme with keyword search over encrypted data based on a well-known primitive, Bloom filter. In this paper, we propose a new privacy preserving index scheme, called position index (P-index), with keyword search over the encrypted data. The proposed index scheme is semantically secure against the adaptive chosen keyword attack, and it also provides flexible space, lower false positive rate, and search privacy. Moreover, it does not rely on pairing, a complicate computation, and thus can search over encrypted electronic medical records from the cloud server efficiently. PMID:24158427

Chen, Yu-Chi; Horng, Gwoboa; Lin, Yi-Jheng; Chen, Kuo-Chang

2013-10-26

42

Compressed Suffix Arrays and Suffix Trees with Applications to Text Indexing and String Matching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of online text, such as found on the World Wide Web and in online databases, motivates the need for space-efficient text indexing methods that support fast string searching. We model this scenario as follows: Consider a text T consisting of n symbols drawn from a fixed alphabet ?. The text T can be represented in n lg |?|

Roberto Grossi; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

2005-01-01

43

Compact Suffix Array -- A Space-Efficient Full-Text Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suffix array is a widely used full-text index that allows fast searches on the text. It is constructed by sorting all suffixes of the text in the lexicog raphic order and storing pointers to the suffixes in this order. Binary search is used for fast searche s on the suffix array. Compact suffix array is a compressed form of the

Veli Mäkinen

2003-01-01

44

Texting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|With the increasing ranks of cell phone ownership is an increase in text messaging, or texting. During 2008, more than 2.5 trillion text messages were sent worldwide--that's an average of more than 400 messages for every person on the planet. Although many of the messages teenagers text each day are perhaps nothing more than "how r u?" or "c u…

Tilley, Carol L.

2009-01-01

45

Optimal Embedding for Shape Indexing in Medical Image Databases  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the problem of indexing shapes in medical image databases. Shapes of organs are often indicative of disease, making shape similarity queries important in medical image databases. Mathematically, shapes with landmarks belong to shape spaces which are curved manifolds with a well defined metric. The challenge in shape indexing is to index data in such curved spaces. One natural indexing scheme is to use metric trees, but metric trees are prone to inefficiency. This paper proposes a more efficient alternative. We show that it is possible to optimally embed finite sets of shapes in shape space into a Euclidean space. After embedding, classical coordinate-based trees can be used for efficient shape retrieval. The embedding proposed in the paper is optimal in the sense that it least distorts the partial Procrustes shape distance. The proposed indexing technique is used to retrieve images by vertebral shape from the NHANES II database of cervical and lumbar spine x-ray images maintained at the National Library of Medicine. Vertebral shape strongly correlates with the presence of osteophytes, and shape similarity retrieval is proposed as a tool for retrieval by osteophyte presence and severity. Experimental results included in the paper evaluate (1) the usefulness of shape-similarity as a proxy for osteophytes, (2) the computational and disk access efficiency of the new indexing scheme, (3) the relative performance of indexing with embedding to the performance of indexing without embedding, and (4) the computational cost of indexing using the proposed embedding versus the cost of an alternate embedding. The experimental results clearly show the relevance of shape indexing and the advantage of using the proposed embedding.

Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D.; Fulbright, Robert K.; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

2010-01-01

46

Cornell medical index responses and mortality in a Polynesian population  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Cornell Medical Index (CMI) is a health questionnaire consisting of a somatic division, divided into 12 sections organized by organ systems, and a psychosocial division. It has been suggested that the CMI taps a dimension of the perception of illness before clinical measurements detect disease. However, this has not been confirmed in nonwestern populations. Our purpose was to determine

Douglas E. Crews; Jay D. Pearson

1988-01-01

47

The journal download immediacy index (DII): experiences using a Chinese full-text database  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relationships between the journal download immediacy index (DII) and some citation indicators are studied. The Chinese full-text\\u000a database CNKI is used for data collection. Results suggest that the DII can be considered as an independent indicator, but\\u000a that it also has predictive value for other indicators, such as a journal’s h-index. In case a journal cannot yet have an impact

Jin-kun WanPing-huan; Ping-huan Hua; Ronald Rousseau; Xiu-kun Sun

2010-01-01

48

Automatic Model Structuring from Text using BioMedical Ontology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bayesian Networks and Influence Diagrams are effective methods for structuring clinical problems. Constructing a relevant structure without the numerical probabilities in itself is a challenging task. In addition, due to the rapid rate of innovations and new findings in the biomedical domain, constructing a relevant graphical model becomes even more challenging. Building a model structure from text with minimum intervention

Rohit Joshi; Xiaoli Li; Sreeram Ramachandaran; Tze Yun Leong

49

Knowledge Management, Data Mining, and Text Mining in Medical Informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter we provide a broad overview of selected knowledge management, data mining, and text mining techniques and\\u000a their use in various emerging biomedical applications. It aims to set the context for subsequent chapters. We first introduce\\u000a five major paradigms for machine learning and data analysis including: probabilistic and statistical models, symbolic learning\\u000a and rule induction, neural networks, evolution-based

Hsinchun Chen; Sherrilynne S. Fuller; Carol Friedman; William Hersh

50

SCOUT: information retrieval from full-text medical literature.  

PubMed Central

SCOUT is an expert system designed to aid the practicing physician in searching a full-text database of biomedical literature for information in the domain of oncology. In the clinical setting, an information-retrieval system needs to provide only a few relevant documents that address a patient-specific query. SCOUT models the expertise of an oncologist and an information specialist in a probabilistic inference system; it applies expert heuristics both in selecting the best source of information for a particular question and in developing an effective, source-specific search statement that retrieves only a minimal number of pertinent documents.

Purcell, G. P.; Mar, D. D.

1992-01-01

51

Evaluation of Quranic text retrieval system based on manually indexed topics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effectiveness of a state of the art information retrieval (IR) system in the verse retrieval problem for Quranic text. The evaluation is based on manually indexed topics of the Quran that provides both the queries and the relevance judgments. Furthermore, the system is evaluated in both Malay and English environment. The performance of the system is

Ammar Mohammed Sultan; Azreen Azman; Rabiah Abdul Kadir; Muhamad Taufik Abdullah

2011-01-01

52

A categorization theorem on suffix arrays with applications to space efficient text indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we design succinct index structures for a text string T of n binary symbols to support efficient searching of a pattern P of length m. Motivated by the fact that the standard representation of suffix arrays uses n lg n bits which is more than the theoretical minimum, we present a theorem that characterizes a permutation as

Meng He; J. Ian Munro; S. Srinivasa Rao

2005-01-01

53

Compressed suffix arrays and suffix trees with applications to text indexing and string matching (extended abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proliferation of online text, such as on the World WideWeb and in databases, motivates the need for space-efficientindex methods that support fast search. Consider a text Tof n binary symbols to index. Given any query pattern P ofm binary symbols, the goal is to search for P in T quickly,with T being fully scanned only once, namely, when the

Roberto Grossi; Jeffrey Scott Vitter

2000-01-01

54

Content-based indexing for medical image databases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the large medical image databases system, a content-based indexing structure is often established from the image feature vectors so as to allow fast retrievals of medical images. However, these vectors will generally be having a high number of dimensions which will then result in poor indexing performance. In this paper, we investigate how to improve the search performance of the packed R-tree when its indices are of high dimensions. Two new algorithms are designed according to their different approaches in applying the idea of principal component analysis technique. The first algorithm performs a dominant dimension analysis globally, and selects the first few dominant dimensions for the packing steps. Further, the same set of dominant dimensions are used in calculating image similarities afterwards. The second algorithm is differed from the first one by re-applying the analysis at each tree node, and hence obtaining a better set of dominant dimensions of the image data under the sub-tree headed by the node. In developing the second algorithm, we have also considered how to reduce the calculations by utilizing the results of the tree nodes at lower levels. This paper reports the performance of the two algorithms with different data sets. The algorithms are tested with a set of random generated images, and a real medical image database of about 2,000 MRI. In the experiments, we observe a better retrieval performance in the second algorithm. Similar results are reported even when the data are highly randomized.

Cheung, Kin-Man; Ng, Vincent T.

1998-10-01

55

Semantic extraction and processing of medical records for patient-oriented visual index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To have comprehensive and completed understanding healthcare status of a patient, doctors need to search patient medical records from different healthcare information systems, such as PACS, RIS, HIS, USIS, as a reference of diagnosis and treatment decisions for the patient. However, it is time-consuming and tedious to do these procedures. In order to solve this kind of problems, we developed a patient-oriented visual index system (VIS) to use the visual technology to show health status and to retrieve the patients' examination information stored in each system with a 3D human model. In this presentation, we present a new approach about how to extract the semantic and characteristic information from the medical record systems such as RIS/USIS to create the 3D Visual Index. This approach includes following steps: (1) Building a medical characteristic semantic knowledge base; (2) Developing natural language processing (NLP) engine to perform semantic analysis and logical judgment on text-based medical records; (3) Applying the knowledge base and NLP engine on medical records to extract medical characteristics (e.g., the positive focus information), and then mapping extracted information to related organ/parts of 3D human model to create the visual index. We performed the testing procedures on 559 samples of radiological reports which include 853 focuses, and achieved 828 focuses' information. The successful rate of focus extraction is about 97.1%.

Zheng, Weilin; Dong, Wenjie; Chen, Xiangjiao; Zhang, Jianguo

2012-02-01

56

Full-text Indexing Of All Springer Astronomy And Physics Journals In The ADS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Springer, as a publisher of scientific and technical literature, has been collaborating with the ADS since the very beginning of the ADS Abstract Service. Once of the culminations of this collaboration was the scanning of all back issues of Solar Physics. We are now in the process of enabling full text searching of all Springer journals in Astronomy and Physics through the ADS. This agreement between Springer and the ADS will be based on a similar agreement between Springer and INSPIRE. That agreement allows full text searching of Springer High Energy Physics journals in SPIRES and its successor INSPIRE, a database of the High Energy Physics literature developed and managed by a collaboration between CERN, DESY, Fermilab, and SLAC. Springer will provide the full text of all the Astronomy and Physics journals to the ADS for indexing. Display of search results will include snippets of text that includes the search terms, to allow the user to immediately see the context of the searched terms in the articles. Such a full text search will allow greatly enhanced search functionality and should allow much more detailed and in-depth searches of the relevant literature at Springer, one of the largest publishers of scientific-technical literature. We are currently in the process to determine whether this full text search capability can be extended to scientific books as well.

Eichhorn, Guenther; Blom, H.; Accomazzi, A.

2011-05-01

57

A computerized representation of a medical school curriculum: integration of relational and text management software in database design.  

PubMed Central

We describe the development of a computer-based representation of the medical school curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Over the past seven years the Medical School's Office of Academic Affairs has employed both relational database and text management software to design an integrated curriculum database system. Depending on the function selected--exploring the curriculum, searching through course outlines, retrieving elective descriptions, identifying teaching faculty, or searching for specific topics--either text management or relational database management routines are activated in a manner transparent to the user. Initial evaluation of the system has been positive but highlights the need for a more robust biomedical language for use as a controlled vocabulary to index content. Efforts are now underway, with support from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to engage other interested schools in the U.S. and Canada in collaborating on further development of a system.

Mattern, W. D.; Wagner, J. A.; Brown, J. S.; Fisher-Neenan, L.

1991-01-01

58

Towards a multilingual morpheme thesaurus for medical free-text retrieval.  

PubMed

We introduce a methodology for the segmentation of complex compounds into medically plausible morphemes. A tool for thesaurus compilation and management is presented, and design principles for a multilingual morpheme thesaurus are outlined. Our goal is to enhance the quality of medical free-text retrieval by replacing lexically based through morpheme-based search procedures. PMID:10725027

Schulz, S; Romacker, M; Franz, P; Zaiss, A; Klar, R; Hahn, U

1999-01-01

59

The evaluation of parodontium in medical students of The Medical University of Bia?ystok according to CPITN index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of the study was the evaluation of parodontium according to Community Peridental Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN) index in 455 students of The Medical and Dentistry Department of The Medical Univer- sity of Bia?ystok. Material and methods: After the examination, the stu- dents filled a survey according to their own project concern- ing hygienic habits as well

Wawrzyn-Sobczak K; Stokowska W

2005-01-01

60

The Nature of Indexing: How Humans and Machines Analyze Messages and Texts for Retrieval. Part I: Research, and the Nature of Human Indexing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers the role of human intellectual indexing in the face of increasingly sophisticated automatic indexing techniques. Critiques the comparative research and explores the nature of human analysis of messages or texts and efforts to formulate rules to make human practice more predictable. (Author/LRW)

Anderson, James D.; Perez-Carballo, Jose

2001-01-01

61

The Stability of Cornell Medical Index Scores and Symptoms in a Military Population.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Cornell Medical Index items were sorted into categories revealing medical history, serious or not, and chronic symptoms amenable to change or not amenable. Over the period of recruit training, for 489 recruits, stability of these items was tested. Rec...

G. A. Clum D. M. Kole J. A. Plag A. Hoiberg

1970-01-01

62

Development and preliminary psychometric properties of a well-being index for medical students  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Psychological distress is common among medical students but manifests in a variety of forms. Currently, no brief, practical tool exists to simultaneously evaluate these domains of distress among medical students. The authors describe the development of a subject-reported assessment (Medical Student Well-Being Index, MSWBI) intended to screen for medical student distress across a variety of domains and examine its

Liselotte N Dyrbye; Daniel W Szydlo; Steven M Downing; Jeff A Sloan; Tait D Shanafelt

2010-01-01

63

Comparing Natural Language Processing Tools to Extract Medical Problems from Narrative Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help maintain a complete, accurate and timely Problem List, we are developing a system to automatically retrieve medical problems from free-text documents. This system uses Natural Language Processing to analyze all electronic narrative text documents in a patient's record. Here we evaluate and compare 3 different applications of NLP technology in our system: the first using MMTx (MetaMap Transfer)

Stéphane M. Meystre; Peter J. Haug

2005-01-01

64

Research on the construction of medical service quality evaluation index system in the perspective of patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper aims to use the theory of service quality evaluation and the method of mathematical statistics, initially establishes a medical service evaluation index system based on the archival research, experts consultation and patients communication. According to the prepared index system, the authors use questionnaire survey method to explore the major considered factors when patients evaluate the medical service quality,

Zhou Lu-lin; Chen Ying; Hu Xi-jian

2010-01-01

65

Prospects and limitations of full-text index structures in genome analysis  

PubMed Central

The combination of incessant advances in sequencing technology producing large amounts of data and innovative bioinformatics approaches, designed to cope with this data flood, has led to new interesting results in the life sciences. Given the magnitude of sequence data to be processed, many bioinformatics tools rely on efficient solutions to a variety of complex string problems. These solutions include fast heuristic algorithms and advanced data structures, generally referred to as index structures. Although the importance of index structures is generally known to the bioinformatics community, the design and potency of these data structures, as well as their properties and limitations, are less understood. Moreover, the last decade has seen a boom in the number of variant index structures featuring complex and diverse memory-time trade-offs. This article brings a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the most popular index structures and their recently developed variants. Their features, interrelationships, the trade-offs they impose, but also their practical limitations, are explained and compared.

Vyverman, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Fack, Veerle; Dawyndt, Peter

2012-01-01

66

A Corpus-Based Study of Cohesion in English Medical Texts and its Chinese Translation  

PubMed Central

Cohesion as an indispensable linguistic feature in discourse analysis and translation has aroused many researchers’ interest. To explore the regularity in shifting cohesive devices from English into Chinese our study was designed to analyze the similarities and differences of cohesive devices between English medical texts (EMTs) and their Chinese translation texts (CTTs). A parallel corpus consisting of 15 EMTs and 15 CTTs was established, each type of cohesive devices was identified, and paired t-test was run for statistic analysis. We have revealed that both EMTs and CTTS share more similarities than differences in the use of cohesive devices; the differences between them only exist in the employment of reference in terms of occurrence frequencies; the majority of cohesive devices are maintained in Chinese translation for precision, clarity and logicality. Our study will not only help medical students and medical workers but also shed light on EMP teaching and research.

Zhao, Jia; Yan, Wenli; Zhou, Yumei

2009-01-01

67

MedTxting: Learning based and Knowledge Rich SMS-style Medical Text Contraction  

PubMed Central

In mobile health (M-health), Short Message Service (SMS) has shown to improve disease related self-management and health service outcomes, leading to enhanced patient care. However, the hard limit on character size for each message limits the full value of exploring SMS communication in health care practices. To overcome this problem and improve the efficiency of clinical workflow, we developed an innovative system, MedTxting (available at http://medtxting.askhermes.org), which is a learning-based but knowledge-rich system that compresses medical texts in a SMS style. Evaluations on clinical questions and discharge summary narratives show that MedTxting can effectively compress medical texts with reasonable readability and noticeable size reduction. Findings in this work reveal potentials of MedTxting to the clinical settings, allowing for real-time and cost-effective communication, such as patient condition reporting, medication consulting, physicians connecting to share expertise to improve point of care.

Liu, Feifan; Moosavinasab, Soheil; Houston, Thomas K.; Yu, Hong

2012-01-01

68

Improving text retrieval for the routing problem using latent semantic indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is a novel approach to\\u000a information retrieval that attempts to model the\\u000a underlying structure of term associations by transforming\\u000a the traditional representation of documents as vectors of\\u000a weighted term frequencies to a new coordinate space where\\u000a both documents and terms are represented as linear\\u000a combinations of underlying semantic factors. In previous\\u000a research, LSI has produced a

David A. Hull

1994-01-01

69

Paraphrase acquisition from comparable medical corpora of specialized and lay texts.  

PubMed

Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrases was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected. PMID:18999095

Deléger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

2008-11-06

70

Combining Free Text and Structured Electronic Medical Record Entries to Detect Acute Respiratory Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe electronic medical record (EMR) contains a rich source of information that could be harnessed for epidemic surveillance. We asked if structured EMR data could be coupled with computerized processing of free-text clinical entries to enhance detection of acute respiratory infections (ARI).MethodologyA manual review of EMR records related to 15,377 outpatient visits uncovered 280 reference cases of ARI. We used

Sylvain DeLisle; Brett South; Jill A. Anthony; Ericka Kalp; Adi Gundlapallli; Frank C. Curriero; Greg E. Glass; Matthew Samore; Trish M. Perl

2010-01-01

71

MedSynDiKATe--design considerations for an ontology-based medical text understanding system.  

PubMed Central

MedSynDiKATe is a natural language processor for automatically acquiring knowledge from medical finding reports. The content of these documents is transferred to formal representation structures which constitute a corresponding text knowledge base. The general system architecture we present integrates requirements from the analysis of single sentences, as well as those of referentially linked sentences forming cohesive texts. The strong demands MedSynDiKATe poses to the availability of expressive knowledge sources are accounted for by two alternative approaches to (semi)automatic ontology engineering.

Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.; Schulz, S.

2000-01-01

72

Full-text Indexing Of All Springer Astronomy And Physics Journals In The ADS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Springer, as a publisher of scientific and technical literature, has been collaborating with the ADS since the very beginning of the ADS Abstract Service. Once of the culminations of this collaboration was the scanning of all back issues of Solar Physics. We are now in the process of enabling full text searching of all Springer journals in Astronomy and Physics

Guenther Eichhorn; H. Blom; A. Accomazzi

2011-01-01

73

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 3. Trematoda and Cestoda.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

74

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 4. Namatoda and Acanthocephala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

75

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 2. Protozoa.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

76

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 6, Section C: Treatment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

77

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 5. Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

78

Index-Free Full-Text Search Function Installed into Optical Disk Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical disk drive, equipped with additional SCSI commands for full-text search is developed. By hierarchical search architecture of parallel hardware, firmware and software, the system filters information almost at the disk-read speed. The basic search process is executed by a search engine sharing the function with a portion of the error-correcting LSI installed into the optical disk controller. The

Katsumi Murai; Yasushi Azumatani; Yuji Takagi; Yoshihisa Fukusima; Isao Satoh

1992-01-01

79

Development of a Medical Specialty Recurring Bibliography--Index of Rheumatology*†  

PubMed Central

The Index of Rheumatology is a newly-developed, recurring bibliography produced by the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System (MEDLARS) of the National Library of Medicine. It is published semimonthly by the American Rheumatism Association. This report describes preliminary testing of MEDLARS output, modification of MEDLARS Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and the computer formulation for retrieval of the bibliographic citations comprising the Index.

Ruhl, Mary Jane

1967-01-01

80

De-identification of primary care electronic medical records free-text data in Ontario, Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Electronic medical records (EMRs) represent a potentially rich source of health information for research but the free-text in EMRs often contains identifying information. While de-identification tools have been developed for free-text, none have been developed or tested for the full range of primary care EMR data Methods We used deid open source de-identification software and modified it for an Ontario context for use on primary care EMR data. We developed the modified program on a training set of 1000 free-text records from one group practice and then tested it on two validation sets from a random sample of 700 free-text EMR records from 17 different physicians from 7 different practices in 5 different cities and 500 free-text records from a group practice that was in a different city than the group practice that was used for the training set. We measured the sensitivity/recall, precision, specificity, accuracy and F-measure of the modified tool against manually tagged free-text records to remove patient and physician names, locations, addresses, medical record, health card and telephone numbers. Results We found that the modified training program performed with a sensitivity of 88.3%, specificity of 91.4%, precision of 91.3%, accuracy of 89.9% and F-measure of 0.90. The validations sets had sensitivities of 86.7% and 80.2%, specificities of 91.4% and 87.7%, precisions of 91.1% and 87.4%, accuracies of 89.0% and 83.8% and F-measures of 0.89 and 0.84 for the first and second validation sets respectively. Conclusion The deid program can be modified to reasonably accurately de-identify free-text primary care EMR records while preserving clinical content.

2010-01-01

81

Leveraging Rich Annotations to Improve Learning of Medical Concepts from Clinical Free Text  

PubMed Central

Information extraction from clinical free text is one of the key elements in medical informatics research. In this paper we propose a general framework to improve learning-based information extraction systems with the help of rich annotations (i.e., annotators provide the medical assertion as well as evidences that support the assertion). A special graphical interface was developed to facilitate the annotation process, and we show how to implement this framework with a state-of-the-art context-based question answering system. Empirical studies demonstrate that with about 10% longer annotation time, we can significantly improve the accuracy of the system. An approach to provide supporting evidence for test documents is also briefly discussed with promising preliminary results.

Yu, Shipeng; Farooq, Faisal; Krishnapuram, Balaji; Rao, Bharat

2011-01-01

82

Combining Free Text and Structured Electronic Medical Record Entries to Detect Acute Respiratory Infections  

PubMed Central

Background The electronic medical record (EMR) contains a rich source of information that could be harnessed for epidemic surveillance. We asked if structured EMR data could be coupled with computerized processing of free-text clinical entries to enhance detection of acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methodology A manual review of EMR records related to 15,377 outpatient visits uncovered 280 reference cases of ARI. We used logistic regression with backward elimination to determine which among candidate structured EMR parameters (diagnostic codes, vital signs and orders for tests, imaging and medications) contributed to the detection of those reference cases. We also developed a computerized free-text search to identify clinical notes documenting at least two non-negated ARI symptoms. We then used heuristics to build case-detection algorithms that best combined the retained structured EMR parameters with the results of the text analysis. Principal Findings An adjusted grouping of diagnostic codes identified reference ARI patients with a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 96% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 32%. Of the 21 additional structured clinical parameters considered, two contributed significantly to ARI detection: new prescriptions for cough remedies and elevations in body temperature to at least 38°C. Together with the diagnostic codes, these parameters increased detection sensitivity to 87%, but specificity and PPV declined to 95% and 25%, respectively. Adding text analysis increased sensitivity to 99%, but PPV dropped further to 14%. Algorithms that required satisfying both a query of structured EMR parameters as well as text analysis disclosed PPVs of 52–68% and retained sensitivities of 69–73%. Conclusion Structured EMR parameters and free-text analyses can be combined into algorithms that can detect ARI cases with new levels of sensitivity or precision. These results highlight potential paths by which repurposed EMR information could facilitate the discovery of epidemics before they cause mass casualties.

DeLisle, Sylvain; South, Brett; Anthony, Jill A.; Kalp, Ericka; Gundlapallli, Adi; Curriero, Frank C.; Glass, Greg E.; Samore, Matthew; Perl, Trish M.

2010-01-01

83

The Nature of Indexing: How Humans and Machines Analyze Messages and Texts for Retrieval. Part II: Machine Indexing, and the Allocation of Human versus Machine Effort.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of human intellectual indexing versus automatic indexing focuses on automatic indexing. Topics include keyword indexing; negative vocabulary control; counting words; comparative counting and weighting; stemming; words versus phrases; clustering; latent semantic indexing; citation indexes; bibliographic coupling; co-citation; relevance…

Anderson, James D.; Perez-Carballo, Jose

2001-01-01

84

Content-Based Indexing of Medical Images for Digital Radiology Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper concerns content-based image retrieval in medical domain considering the challenges of rapidly growing amounts\\u000a of medical data, permanent progress of computer-aided radiology and the development of global data exchange networks (like\\u000a Mammogrid). The aim of featured research was to propose effective content-based image retrieval algorithms in two approaches\\u000a to that problem. The first is medical images indexing for

Piotr Boninski; Artur Przelaskowski

2008-01-01

85

Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.  

PubMed Central

The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans.

Chute, C. G.; Yang, Y.; Evans, D. A.

1991-01-01

86

Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science  

PubMed Central

Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal.

Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

2011-01-01

87

The HIV Medication Self-Reported Nonadherence Reasons (SNAR) Index and Its Underlying Psychological Dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to report on the construction of the HIV Medication Self-Reported Nonadherence Reasons (SNAR) index and its psychological correlates. Data were derived from a sample of 193 Swedish HIV-seropositive women and men receiving antiretroviral medications. Participants who reported dosing and\\/or scheduling and\\/or dietary instructions nonadherence in the past 7 days were presented with a modified

Lena Nilsson Schönnesson; Michael W. Ross; Mark Williams

2004-01-01

88

Prototype for numerical aperture tester for step-index multimode specialty medical optical fiber  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prototype is to be designed, built, and evaluated for measuring the far-field and near-field numerical aperture (NA) values ranging from 0.10 to 0.65 for step-index multimode specialty medical optical fiber with various diameters ranging from 100 ?m to over 1000 ?m

B. J. Skutnik; M. B. Vollaro

2002-01-01

89

Effect of gender on correlation of anaemia with body mass index in medical students.  

PubMed

Nutritional anemia exists globally and cuts across all the sections of the population. Adolescent being formative years in life are more susceptible to nutritional anemia. Considerable changes in growth pattern, lifestyle, dietary habits & behavior are likely to influence the hemoglobin levels among male and females of high income group. Study was done to assess the level of anemia among medical students and it's relation to Body mass index (BMI) among medical students. 200 healthy medical students at the Himalayan Institute of Medical Sciences belonging to both the sexes were taken in the study. Following consent anthropometry was conducted using standard protocol. Body Mass Index of >/= 18.5 kg/m2 is used to define undernutrition. Hemoglobin was estimated in gram %. Statistical analyses was done using mean .Standard deviation, Student's t test, and was studied for effect of gender on correlation of anemia with BMI. 8% of the students of MBBS were found to be anemic (Hb <12 g%) with none of the boys having hemoglobin <12 g% .15.5% under nutrition was observed in the medical students with (25.75%) of girls having a BMI of <18.5 kg/m2. A negative association of hemoglobin was found with nutritional status (BMI) (r = -0.59; P = 0.24) in over weight and obese females students. Nutritional anemia and under nutrition exist among female medical students who are literate, and have free access to the nutritive diet in a good healthy environment. PMID:23362730

Saxena, Yogesh; Shrivastava, Abha; Saxena, Vartika

90

The nature of indexing: how humans and machines analyze messages and texts for retrieval - Part I: Research, and the nature of human indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Does human intellectual indexing have a continuing role to play in the face of increasingly sophisticated automatic indexing techniques? In this two-part essay, a computer scientist and long-time TREC partici- pant (P erez-Carballo) and a practitioner and teacher of human cataloging and indexing (Anderson) pursue this question by reviewing the opinions and research of leading experts on both sides of

James D. Anderson; José Pérez-Carballo

2001-01-01

91

Unsupervised method for extracting machine understandable medical knowledge from a large free text collection.  

PubMed

Definitions of medical concepts (e.g diseases, drugs) are essential background knowledge for researchers, clinicians and health care consumers. However, the rapid growth of biomedical research requires that such knowledge continually needs updating. To address this problem, we have developed an unsupervised pattern learning approach that extracts disease and drug definitions from automatically structured randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts. In addition, each extracted definition is semantically classified without relying on external medical knowledge. When used to identify definitions from 100 manually annotated RCT abstracts, our medical definition knowledge base has precision of 0.97, recall of 0.93, F1 of 0.94 and semantic classification accuracy of 0.96. PMID:20351945

Xu, Rong; Das, Amar K; Garber, Alan M

2009-11-14

92

A Model for Indexing Medical Documents Combining Statistical and Symbolic Knowledge.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To develop and evaluate an information processing method based on terminologies, in order to index medical documents in any given documentary context. METHODS: We designed a model using both symbolic general knowledge extracted from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) and statistical knowledge extracted from a domain of application. Using statistical knowledge allowed us to contextualize the general knowledge for every particular situation. For each document studied, the extracted terms are ranked to highlight the most significant ones. The model was tested on a set of 17,079 French standardized discharge summaries (SDSs). RESULTS: The most important ICD-10 term of each SDS was ranked 1st or 2nd by the method in nearly 90% of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: The use of several terminologies leads to more precise indexing. The improvement achieved in the model’s implementation performances as a result of using semantic relationships is encouraging.

Avillach, Paul; Joubert, Michel; Fieschi, Marius

2007-01-01

93

The Effectiveness of the Smog Index in Determining the Reading Levels of Business and Distributive Education Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)

Schultheis, Robert A.; Anderson, Roberta

1982-01-01

94

[CISMeF: catalog and index of French-speaking medical sites].  

PubMed

The Internet has now become a major source of health information. The aim of CISMeF is to catalogue and index the main French-speaking sites and documents concerning health. This project was initiated by Rouen University Hospital. Its URL is http://www.chu-rouen.fr/cismef. CISMeF covers all areas of health care and medical sciences, and is indexed both alphabetically and according to subject. It was set up on a Sun workstation under the Sun UNIX operating system and is entirely based on static HTML. By May 1999, the number of sites and documents indexed was already over 6,500, with a mean of 75 new sites added each week. CISMeF is updated via a five-step process: resource collection, filtering, description, classification, and indexing. The Net Scoring criteria are used to assess the quality of health information on the Internet. These criteria concern eight categories: credibility, content, links, design, interactivity, quantitative aspects, ethics and accessibility. CISMeF uses two standard tools to organize information: the MeSH (medical subject heading) thesaurus from the Medline reference database (National Library of Medicine, USA) and the Dublin core metadata format. The sites and documents included in CISMeF are described using the following elements from the Dublin core project: title, author or creator, subject and keywords, description, publisher, date, resource type, format, identifier, and language. PMID:10377501

Darmoni, S J; Leroy, J P; Baudic, F; Douyère, M; Piot, J; Thirion, B

95

Service Code Search High Performance Medical Records Indexing on a Budget  

PubMed Central

Clinical researchers often need to select a patient population for a retrospective study or practice analysis. At our clinic, we were faced with an outdated indexing system that limited our ability to select patient populations. As an interim solution, we refurbished it into a text-based system that operates on a distributed computer network. In the process, we preserved and restored accessibility to the existing indexing information. This was done at minimum cost in hardware and programmer time. This paper describes the key components of the refurbished indexing system.

Floyd, Edwin T.; Kinser, J. Tom

1990-01-01

96

Use of severity-indexed medication error reports to improve quality.  

PubMed

A severity-indexed medication error reporting system using data from voluntary incident reports has provided enough information to target opportunities for quality improvement. Reports are ranked by severity and categorized by error type, system breakdown, drug category, and nursing unit. Specific reports are generated for review by different quality improvement committees in the hospital. Based on these data and the actions of these quality improvement committees, four problem areas in medication use have been identified. Recommendations for improvements have been made to solve problems with late IV antibiotic doses, narcotic errors, anticoagulant errors and transcription errors. Two of these initiatives have resulted in objective improvement. Two others are being actively pursued to resolve medication related problems. PMID:10132695

Schneider, P J; Hartwig, S C

1994-03-01

97

Morpheme-based, cross-lingual indexing for medical document retrieval.  

PubMed

The increasing availability of machine-readable medical documents is not really matched with the sophistication of currently used retrieval facilities to deal with a variety of critical natural language phenomena. Still most popular are string-matching methods which encounter problems for the medical sublanguage, in particular, concerning the wide-spread use of complex word forms such as noun compounds. We introduce a methodology for the segmentation of complex compounds into medically motivated morphemes. Given the sublanguage patterns in our data these morphemes derive from German, Greek and Latin roots. For indexing and retrieval purposes, such a morpheme dictionary may be further structured by defining the semantic relations among morpheme sets in order to build up a multilingual morpheme thesaurus. We present a tool for thesaurus compilation and management, and outline a methodology for the proper construction and maintenance of a multilingual morpheme thesaurus. PMID:10978912

Schulz, S; Hahn, U

2000-09-01

98

PICO element detection in medical text without metadata: Are first sentences enough?  

PubMed

Efficient identification of patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) components in medical articles is helpful in evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether first sentences of these components are good enough to train naive Bayes classifiers for sentence-level PICO element detection. We extracted 19,854 structured abstracts of randomized controlled trials with any P/I/O label from PubMed for naive Bayes classifiers training. Performances of classifiers trained by first sentences of each section (CF) and those trained by all sentences (CA) were compared using all sentences by ten-fold cross-validation. The results measured by recall, precision, and F-measures show that there are no significant differences in performance between CF and CA for detection of O-element (F-measure=0.731±0.009 vs. 0.738±0.010, p=0.123). However, CA perform better for I-elements, in terms of recall (0.752±0.012 vs. 0.620±0.007, p<0.001) and F-measures (0.728±0.006 vs. 0.662±0.007, p<0.001). For P-elements, CF have higher precision (0.714±0.009 vs. 0.665±0.010, p<0.001), but lower recall (0.766±0.013 vs. 0.811±0.012, p<0.001). CF are not always better than CA in sentence-level PICO element detection. Their performance varies in detecting different elements. PMID:23899909

Huang, Ke-Chun; Chiang, I-Jen; Xiao, Furen; Liao, Chun-Chih; Liu, Charles Chih-Ho; Wong, Jau-Min

2013-07-27

99

Transmission of classical medical texts through languages of the Middle-East.  

PubMed

Classical texts, i.e. Greek treatises on medicine, reached Western Europe during the Middle-Ages by few ways, mainly either directly from the Hellenistic world, or indirectly through versions in the languages of the Middle-East, especially [Syriac]-Arabic. The comparison between Greek manuscripts and translations may be useful for both correction and interpretation of texts. An extraordinary case may arise when the original Greek treatise is lost and only the Arabic version is available. This is the case of a Commentarium of Galen on the Hippocratic De aere aquis et locis: the treatise has recently been found in a manuscript (Tal'at, tibb 550) at the National Library, Cairo, and is the work of translators of the school of Hunayn ibn Ishâq (9th century), the Nestorian physician who had a skilled philological method of reconstruction of original Greek texts. Other relevant ways of transmission (Byzantine area-Spain mainly at the time of the Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenete, Arabian Africa-Salernum with Constantine the African) played an important role in the recovery of Classical Medicine in the Western World, through both Arabic-Muslim and Arabic-Hebrew physicians. PMID:11640111

Angeletti, L R

1990-01-01

100

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 6, Sections A-B: Subject Headings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

101

A probabilistic method for computing quantitative risk indexes from medical injuries compensation claims.  

PubMed

Background: The increasing demand of health care services and the complexity of health care delivery require Health Care Organizations (HCOs) to approach clinical risk management through proper methods and tools. An important aspect of risk management is to exploit the analysis of medical injuries compensation claims in order to reduce adverse events and, at the same time, to optimize the costs of health insurance policies. Objectives: This work provides a probabilistic method to estimate the risk level of a HCO by computing quantitative risk indexes from medical injury compensation claims. Methods: Our method is based on the estimate of a loss probability distribution from compensation claims data through parametric and non-parametric modeling and Monte Carlo simulations. The loss distribution can be estimated both on the whole dataset and, thanks to the application of a Bayesian hierarchical model, on stratified data. The approach allows to quantitatively assessing the risk structure of the HCO by analyzing the loss distribution and deriving its expected value and percentiles. Results: We applied the proposed method to 206 cases of injuries with compensation requests collected from 1999 to the first semester of 2007 by the HCO of Lodi, in the Northern part of Italy. We computed the risk indexes taking into account the different clinical departments and the different hospitals involved. Conclusions: The approach proved to be useful to understand the HCO risk structure in terms of frequency, severity, expected and unexpected loss related to adverse events. PMID:23615898

Dalle Carbonare, S; Folli, F; Patrini, E; Giudici, P; Bellazzi, R

2013-04-24

102

Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI). Conditions for medical students' learning in hospital and community placements.  

PubMed

The drive to quality-manage medical education has created a need for valid measurement instruments. Validity evidence includes the theoretical and contextual origin of items, choice of response processes, internal structure, and interrelationship of a measure's variables. This research set out to explore the validity and potential utility of an 11-item measurement instrument, whose theoretical and empirical origins were in an Experience Based Learning model of how medical students learn in communities of practice (COPs), and whose contextual origins were in a community-oriented, horizontally integrated, undergraduate medical programme. The objectives were to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in both hospital and community COPs and provide validity evidence to support using it to measure the quality of placements. The instrument was administered twice to students learning in both hospital and community placements and analysed using exploratory factor analysis and a generalizability analysis. 754 of a possible 902 questionnaires were returned (84% response rate), representing 168 placements. Eight items loaded onto two factors, which accounted for 78% of variance in the hospital data and 82% of variance in the community data. One factor was the placement learning environment, whose five constituent items were how learners were received at the start of the placement, people's supportiveness, and the quality of organisation, leadership, and facilities. The other factor represented the quality of training-instruction in skills, observing students performing skills, and providing students with feedback. Alpha coefficients ranged between 0.89 and 0.93 and there were no redundant or ambiguous items. Generalisability analysis showed that between 7 and 11 raters would be needed to achieve acceptable reliability. There is validity evidence to support using the simple 8-item, mixed methods Manchester Clinical Placement Index to measure key conditions for undergraduate medical students' experience based learning: the quality of the learning environment and the training provided within it. Its conceptual orientation is towards Communities of Practice, which is a dominant contemporary theory in undergraduate medical education. PMID:22234383

Dornan, Tim; Muijtjens, Arno; Graham, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Albert; Boshuizen, Henny

2012-01-11

103

Towards knowledge-based retrieval of medical images. The role of semantic indexing, image content representation and knowledge-based retrieval.  

PubMed

Medicine is increasingly image-intensive. The central importance of imaging technologies such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making, combined with the trend to store many "traditional" clinical images such as conventional radiographs, microscopic pathology and dermatology images in digital format present both challenges and an opportunities for the designers of clinical information systems. The emergence of Multimedia Electronic Medical Record Systems (MEMRS), architectures that integrate medical images with text-based clinical data, will further hasten this trend. The development of these systems, storing a large and diverse set of medical images, suggests that in the future MEMRS will become important digital libraries supporting patient care, research and education. The representation and retrieval of clinical images within these systems is problematic as conventional database architectures and information retrieval models have, until recently, focused largely on text-based data. Medical imaging data differs in many ways from text-based medical data but perhaps the most important difference is that the information contained within imaging data is fundamentally knowledge-based. New representational and retrieval models for clinical images will be required to address this issue. Within the Image Engine multimedia medical record system project at the University of Pittsburgh we are evolving an approach to representation and retrieval of medical images which combines semantic indexing using the UMLS Metathesuarus, image content-based representation and knowledge-based image analysis. PMID:9929345

Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A

1998-01-01

104

Development of multilingual medical reception support system with text-to-speech function to combine utterance data with voice synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for multilingual communication in Japan has increased. In the medical field, there exists a serious problem when it comes to communications between hospital staff and foreign patients. Currently, medical translators accompany patients to medical care facilities, and the number of requests for medical translators is increasing. However, medical translators cannot provide support at all times, especially in cases

Mai Miyabe; Takashi Yoshino

2010-01-01

105

The 4 score: an index for predicting a patient's non-medical hospital days.  

PubMed Central

Three hundred sixty-three patients representing two groups of consecutive medical admissions to a large city hospital were evaluated on admission to determine what factors might predict "non-medical" or social stay. Periodic follow-up determined when patients were ready for discharge and when their social stay began. A composite index, the 4-Score, was derived as a simple indicator of risk for subsequent social stay; it is defined as the number of positive answers to the questions: 1) Is the patient 80 years old or more? 2) Will the patient have to live somewhere new at discharge? 3) Is there any disorientation? AND 4) If so, is the disorientation chronic? Eighteen per cent of the total inpatient hospital days of this group of patients could be attributed to social stay. The 56 patients with a 4-Score of two or more on admission had on average a week each of social stay while the 307 patients with a score of less than two averaged only one social day each. Images FIGURE 2

Glass, R I; Mulvihill, M N; Smith, H; Peto, R; Bucheister, D; Stoll, B J

1977-01-01

106

Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors at the Forefront of Improving the Quality and Indexing Chances of its Member Journals  

PubMed Central

The article overviews some achievements and problems of Korean medical journals published in the highly competitive journal environment. Activities of Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE) are viewed as instrumental for improving the quality of Korean articles, indexing large number of local journals in prestigious bibliographic databases and launching new abstract and citation tracking databases or platforms (eg KoreaMed, KoreaMed Synapse, the Western Pacific Regional Index Medicus [WPRIM]). KAMJE encourages its member journals to upgrade science editing standards and to legitimately increase citation rates, primarily by publishing more great articles with global influence. Experience gained by KAMJE and problems faced by Korean editors may have global implications.

Suh, Chang-Ok; Oh, Se Jeong

2013-01-01

107

The validity of a rheumatoid arthritis medical records-based index of severity compared with the DAS28  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this work was to assess the convergent validity of a previously developed rheumatoid arthritis medical records-based index of severity (RARBIS) by comparing it with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). This study was conducted in subjects within the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS). We selected 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the

Masayo Sato; Sebastian Schneeweiss; Richard Scranton; Jeffrey N Katz; Michael E Weinblatt; Jerry Avorn; Gladys Ting; Nancy A Shadick; Daniel H Solomon

2006-01-01

108

Comparison of Information Content of Structured and Narrative Text Data Sources on the Example of Medication Intensification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare information obtained from narrative and structured electronic sources using anti-hypertensive medication intensification as an example clinical issue of interest. Design: A retrospective cohort study of 5,634 hypertensive patients with diabetes from 2000 to 2005. Measurements: The authors determined the fraction of medication intensification events documented in both narrative and structured data in the electronic medical record. The

ALEXANDER TURCHIN; MARIA SHUBINA; E UGENE BREYDO; MERRI L. PENDERGRASS; JONATHAN S. EINBINDER

2010-01-01

109

Research Paper: Comparison of Information Content of Structured and Narrative Text Data Sources on the Example of Medication Intensification  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo compare information obtained from narrative and structured electronic sources using anti-hypertensive medication intensification as an example clinical issue of interest.DesignA retrospective cohort study of 5,634 hypertensive patients with diabetes from 2000 to 2005.MeasurementsThe authors determined the fraction of medication intensification events documented in both narrative and structured data in the electronic medical record. The authors analyzed the relationship between

Alexander Turchin; Maria Shubina; Eugene Breydo; Merri L. Pendergrass; Jonathan S. Einbinder

2009-01-01

110

Discourse structures in medical reports--watch out! The generation of referentially coherent and valid text knowledge bases in the MEDSYNDIKATE system.  

PubMed

The automatic analysis of medical narratives currently suffers from neglecting text structure phenomena such as referential relations between discourse units. This has unwarranted effects on the descriptional adequacy of medical knowledge bases automatically generated from texts. The resulting representation bias can be characterized in terms of incomplete, artificially fragmented and referentially invalid knowledge structures. We focus here on four basic types of textual reference relations, viz. pronominal and nominal anaphora, textual ellipsis and metonymy and show how to deal with them in an adequate text parsing device. Since the types of reference relations we discuss show an increasing dependence on conceptual background knowledge, we stress the need for formally grounded, expressive conceptual representation systems for medical knowledge. Our suggestions are based on experience with MEDSYNDIKATE, a medical text knowledge acquisition system designed to properly deal with various sorts of discourse structure phenomena. PMID:10075128

Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

1999-01-01

111

EFFECTIVENESS OF A PROGRAMED TEXT IN TEACHING GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS, A SOURCE BOOK ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMED MATERIALS FOR USE IN A CLINICAL DISCIPLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A STUDY TO DETERMINE WHETHER PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION COULD BE USED TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH GYNECOLOGIC NEOPLASMS TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS. TWO PROGRAMED TEXTS WERE PREPARED--(1) A "CONTENT" TEXT, AN 830-FRAME LINEARLY PROGRAMED TEXT DESIGNED TO REPLACE CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM TEACHING OF…

WILDS, PRESTON L.; ZACHERT, VIRGINIA

112

EFFECTIVENESS OF A PROGRAMED TEXT IN TEACHING GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS, A SOURCE BOOK ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMED MATERIALS FOR USE IN A CLINICAL DISCIPLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A STUDY TO DETERMINE WHETHER PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION COULD BE USED TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH GYNECOLOGIC NEOPLASMS TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS. TWO PROGRAMED TEXTS WERE PREPARED--(1) A "CONTENT" TEXT, AN 830-FRAME LINEARLY PROGRAMED TEXT DESIGNED TO REPLACE CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM TEACHING OF…

WILDS, PRESTON L.; ZACHERT, VIRGINIA

113

Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and infant ponderal index at birth in the Swedish Medical Birth Register, 1991-1992.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on infant body proportion. METHODS: The ponderal index, defined as birthweight divided by crown-heel length cubed, was examined in 207,607 infants from the Swedish Medical Birth Register for 1991 and 1992. RESULTS: Infant ponderal index was used as the outcome variable in an ordinary least squares continuous regression, which included early pregnancy smoking status, gestational age, and birthweight among the predictors. Ponderal index increased by 0.030 (+/- 0.0014) among infants of moderate smokers and by 0.040 (+/- 0.0017) among infants of heavy smokers, showing a dose response. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking differentially alters the trajectory of weight vs length growth in the fetus.

Lindley, A A; Gray, R H; Herman, A A; Becker, S

2000-01-01

114

Using the Healthy Eating Index (hei) to rate the Diets of First Year Medical Students  

Microsoft Academic Search

LEARNING OUTCOME: To use the HEI to compare the dietary quality of first year medical students (MSI) with that of a representative sample of the US population participating in the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals.The first year of medical school is especially busy and stressful, and many MSI complain that they don't have the time to eat well

B. J. Scott; J. A. Krenkel; S. T. SUeor

1996-01-01

115

Emergency Medical Services Evaluation: Index of Injury/Illness Severity; Final Report and Executive Summary.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Though the ultimate goal of this project is directed to the development of an index of severity from readily available data that would be predictive of patient outcome, the investigators found that significant fundamental research was required before an i...

C. G. Cayten J. Senior N. Herrmann R. Staroscik W. Evans

1979-01-01

116

What's on the News? The Use of Media Texts in Exams of Clinical Biochemistry for Medical and Nutrition Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Health-related popular articles are easily found among media sources. With the increasing popularity of the internet, medical information--full of misconceptions--has become easily available to the lay people. The ability to recognize misconceptions may require good biomedical knowledge. In this sense, we decided to use articles from the internet…

Oliveira, Julia Martins; Mesquita, Diego Martins; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

2010-01-01

117

Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI). Conditions for Medical Students' Learning in Hospital and Community Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The drive to quality-manage medical education has created a need for valid measurement instruments. Validity evidence includes the theoretical and contextual origin of items, choice of response processes, internal structure, and interrelationship of a measure's variables. This research set out to explore the validity and potential utility of an…

Dornan, Tim; Muijtjens, Arno; Graham, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Albert; Boshuizen, Henny

2012-01-01

118

Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI). Conditions for Medical Students' Learning in Hospital and Community Placements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The drive to quality-manage medical education has created a need for valid measurement instruments. Validity evidence includes the theoretical and contextual origin of items, choice of response processes, internal structure, and interrelationship of a measure's variables. This research set out to explore the validity and potential utility of an…

Dornan, Tim; Muijtjens, Arno; Graham, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Albert; Boshuizen, Henny

2012-01-01

119

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Special Publication No. 6. Subject: Nematoda and Nematode Diseases. Part 1. Supergenera, Genera, Species, and Subspecies: A-B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the section of the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology is to make available the bibliographic records on nematoda and nematode diseases of animals that have accumulated in the parasite files of the Index-Catalogue during the p...

M. A. Doss D. T. Hanfman

1981-01-01

120

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Special Publication Number 6. Subject: Nematoda and Nematode Diseases. Part 2. Supergenera, Genera, Species, and Subspecies: C-E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this section of the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology is to make available the bibliographic records on Nematoda and nematode diseases of animals that have accumulated in the parasite files of the Index-Catalogue during the ...

M. A. Doss D. T. Hanfman

1983-01-01

121

The medication appropriateness index at 20: where it started, where it has been, and where it may be going.  

PubMed

Potentially inappropriate prescribing for older adults is a major public health concern. While there are multiple measures of potentially inappropriate prescribing, the medication appropriateness index (MAI) is one of the most common implicit approaches published in the scientific literature. The objective of this narrative review is to describe findings regarding the MAI's reliability, comparison of the MAI with other quality measures of potentially inappropriate prescribing, its predictive validity with important health outcomes, and its responsiveness to change within the framework of randomized controlled trials. A search restricted to English-language literature involving humans aged 65+ years from January 1992 to June 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the search term 'medication appropriateness index'. A manual search of the reference lists from identified articles and the authors' article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to identify additional articles. A total of 26 articles were identified for inclusion in this narrative review. The main findings were that the MAI has acceptable inter- and intra-rater reliability, it more frequently detects potentially inappropriate prescribing than a commonly used set of explicit criteria, it predicts adverse health outcomes, and it is able to demonstrate the positive impact of interventions to improve this public health problem. We conclude that the MAI may serve as a valuable tool for measuring potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults. PMID:24062215

Hanlon, Joseph T; Schmader, Kenneth E

2013-11-01

122

Increased Hatha yoga experience predicts lower body mass index and reduced medication use in women over 45 years  

PubMed Central

Background: Yoga has been shown to have many short-term health benefits, but little is known about the extent to which these benefits accrue over a long time frame or with frequent practice. Aims: The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which body mass index (BMI) and medication use in a sample of female yoga practitioners over 45 years varied according to the length and frequency of yoga practice. Materials and Methods: We administered online surveys to 211 female yoga practitioners aged 45 to 80 years. We used regression analyses to evaluate the relationship of extent of yoga experience to both BMI and medication use after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. We also conducted comparisons with 182 matched controls. Results: Participants had practiced yoga for as long as 50 years and for up to 28 hours per week. There were significant inverse relationships between yoga experience and both BMI and medication load. These significant relationships remained after accounting for age and lifestyle factors. When we computed yoga experience in terms of total calendar years, without accounting for hours of practice, significant relationships did not remain. However, there was no obesity in the 49 participants with more than 25 years of yoga practice. Yoga practitioners were less likely than non-practitioners to use medication for metabolic syndrome, mood disorders, inflammation, and pain. Conclusions: A long-term yoga practice was associated with little or no obesity in a non-probability sample of women over 45 years. Relationships showed a dose-response effect, with increased yoga experience predicting lower BMI and reduced medication use.

Moliver, N; Mika, EM; Chartrand, MS; Burrus, SWM; Haussmann, RE; Khalsa, SBS

2011-01-01

123

Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations  

PubMed Central

Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia.

Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

2012-01-01

124

Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): a pilot trial of an interactive text-messaging intervention for medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations.  

PubMed

Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492

Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Link, Peter C; Bradshaw, Kristen R; Holden, Jason L

2011-11-10

125

Text Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page defines and describes text structure, or how the information within a written text is organized. It explains the benefits of teaching students to identify and analyze text structures within text and describes an instructional sequence in which students read examples of different text structures and then write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. The site includes definitions and examples of five common text structures, and graphic organizers that can be used with each type of text. Links to additional resources and research citations are included.

2012-01-01

126

Two Doctors' Documenting Practices: How the indexical centering of medical records integrates the encoding, communication and coordination of patient care  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores how doctors use documents to share their knowledge within and across work settings. I suggest that the current literature on medical documents suffers from an unnecessary divide approaching medical information systems as encoding and storage devices, communication devices, or coordination devices. I argue that linguistic analysis of document practices may allow us to integrate those three perspectives.

Carsten Svarrer Østerlund

127

Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung  Im Blickpunkt dieses Artikels stehen die Funktionsweise und die Einsatzpotenziale des Text Mining. Text Mining läuft in einem mehrstufigen Prozess ab, dessen einzelne Schritte knapp vorgestellt werden. Der Fokus liegt hierbei auf der Datenaufbereitung, bei der mittels Techniken des Natural Language Processing Terme aus den zugrunde liegenden Texten extrahiert werden.

Hajo Hippner; René Rentzmann

2006-01-01

128

Text Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)|

Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

2002-01-01

129

Citation Analysis of the Korean Journal of Urology From Web of Science, Scopus, Korean Medical Citation Index, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar.  

PubMed

The Korean Journal of Urology began to be published exclusively in English in 2010 and is indexed in PubMed Central/PubMed. This study analyzed a variety of citation indicators of the Korean Journal of Urology before and after 2010 to clarify the present position of the journal among the urology category journals. The impact factor, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), impact index, Z-impact factor (ZIF, impact factor excluding self-citation), and Hirsch Index (H-index) were referenced or calculated from Web of Science, Scopus, SCImago Journal & Country Ranking, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI), KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar. Both the impact factor and the total citations rose rapidly beginning in 2011. The 2012 impact factor corresponded to the upper 84.9% in the nephrology-urology category, whereas the 2011 SJR was in the upper 58.5%. The ZIF in KoMCI was one fifth of the impact factor because there are only two other urology journals in KoMCI. Up to 2009, more than half of the citations in the Web of Science were from Korean researchers, but from 2010 to 2012, more than 85% of the citations were from international researchers. The H-indexes from Web of Science, Scopus, KoMCI, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar were 8, 10, 12, 9, and 18, respectively. The strategy of the language change in 2010 was successful from the perspective of citation indicators. The values of the citation indicators will continue to increase rapidly and consistently as the research achievement of authors of the Korean Journal of Urology increases. PMID:23614057

Huh, Sun

2013-04-16

130

Citation Analysis of the Korean Journal of Urology From Web of Science, Scopus, Korean Medical Citation Index, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar  

PubMed Central

The Korean Journal of Urology began to be published exclusively in English in 2010 and is indexed in PubMed Central/PubMed. This study analyzed a variety of citation indicators of the Korean Journal of Urology before and after 2010 to clarify the present position of the journal among the urology category journals. The impact factor, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), impact index, Z-impact factor (ZIF, impact factor excluding self-citation), and Hirsch Index (H-index) were referenced or calculated from Web of Science, Scopus, SCImago Journal & Country Ranking, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI), KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar. Both the impact factor and the total citations rose rapidly beginning in 2011. The 2012 impact factor corresponded to the upper 84.9% in the nephrology-urology category, whereas the 2011 SJR was in the upper 58.5%. The ZIF in KoMCI was one fifth of the impact factor because there are only two other urology journals in KoMCI. Up to 2009, more than half of the citations in the Web of Science were from Korean researchers, but from 2010 to 2012, more than 85% of the citations were from international researchers. The H-indexes from Web of Science, Scopus, KoMCI, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar were 8, 10, 12, 9, and 18, respectively. The strategy of the language change in 2010 was successful from the perspective of citation indicators. The values of the citation indicators will continue to increase rapidly and consistently as the research achievement of authors of the Korean Journal of Urology increases.

2013-01-01

131

Medical Malpractice: Physician and Hospital Experience. Abstract, Executive Summary, Final Report and Index of Tables and Charts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Medical malpractice is a significant problem facing the health care delivery system in the United States. The recent creation of a federally-funded data base composed of malpractice experience is based on the assumption that a population of 'bad apple' ph...

M. I. Taragin

1997-01-01

132

Satellite vegetation index data as a tool to forecast population dynamics of medically important mosquitoes at military installations in the continental United States.  

PubMed

The United States faces many existing and emerging mosquito-borne disease threats, such as West Nile virus and Rift Valley fever. An important component of strategic prevention and control plans for these and other mosquito-borne diseases is forecasting the distribution, timing, and abundance of mosquito vector populations. Populations of many medically important mosquito species are closely tied to climate, and historical climate-population associations may be used to predict future population dynamics. Using 2003-2005 U.S. Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine mosquito surveillance data, we looked at populations of several known mosquito vectors of West Nile virus, as well as possible mosquito vectors of Rift Valley fever virus, at continental U.S. military installations. We compared population changes with concurrent patterns for a satellite-derived index of climate (normalized difference vegetation index) and observed instances of population changes appearing to be direct responses to climate. These preliminary findings are important first steps in developing an automated, climate-driven, early warning system to flag regions of the United States at elevated risk of mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:18700603

Britch, Seth C; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Anyamba, Assaf; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Maloney, Francis A; Cobb, Kristin; Stanwix, Erin; Humphries, Jeri; Spring, Alexandra; Pagac, Benedict; Miller, Melissa

2008-07-01

133

Byzantine medical manuscripts: towards a new catalogue, with a specimen for an annotated checklist of manuscripts based on an index of Diels' Catalogue.  

PubMed

Greek manuscripts containing medical texts were inventoried at the beginning of the 20th century by a team of philologists under the direction of Hermann Diels. The resulting catalogue, however useful it was when new and still is today, needs to be updated not only because some manuscripts have been destroyed, certain collections and single items have changed location, new shelfmark systems have been sometimes adopted and cataloguing has made substantial progress, but also because in Diels' time the concept of ancient medicine was limited, the method used in compiling data was not standardized and, in a time of manual recording and handling of information, mistakes could not be avoided. The present article is an introduction to a new catalogue of Greek medical manuscripts. In the first part, it surveys the history of the heuristic and cataloguing of Greek medical manuscripts from the 16th century forward; in the second part, it highlights the problems in Diels' catalogue and describes the genesis and methods of the new catalogue, together with the plan for its completion; and in the third part, it provides a sample of such a new catalogue, with a list of the Greek medical manuscripts in the libraries of the United Kingdom and Ireland. PMID:20349553

Touwaide, Alain

2009-01-01

134

The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement >5.9 kPa Fibroscan) were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (>5.9 kPa). In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875) presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

Kim, Earl; Kang, Yunkoo; Hahn, Seungmin; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Young Nyun

2013-01-01

135

Adaptive color histogram indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we develop an indexing scheme for medical images. In general, for a given medical image, there are objects which are clinically important amongst the rest. We name the objects as the dominant objects. Our proposed index is composed of three parts: (1) dominant objects in images are located; (2) each image will have an associated R-tree which is constructed by its dominant objects; and (3) an R-tree that clusters similar images together. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the index developed, we use images of skin lesions as the image data. Our initial experiments give promising results for image retrieval.

Ng, Vincent; Cheung, David W.; Fu, Ada

1995-11-01

136

Hierarchies of Indices for Text Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses indexes for text databases and presents an efficient implementation of an index for text searching called PAT array, or suffix array, where the database is stored on secondary storage devices such as magnetic or optical disks. Additional hierarchical index structures and searching algorithms are proposed that improve searching time, and…

Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; And Others

1996-01-01

137

Automatic text decomposition using text segments and text themes  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the widespread use of full-text information retrieval,passage-retrieval techniques are becoming increasinglypopular. Larger texts can then be replacedby important text excerpts, thereby simplifying the retrievaltask and improving retrieval effectiveness. Passagelevelevidence about the use of words in local contextsis also useful for resolving language ambiguities and improvingretrieval output.Two main text decomposition strategies are introducedin this study, including a...

Gerard Salton; Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Mandar Mitra

1996-01-01

138

Mobile.net: Mobile Telephone Text Messages to Encourage Adherence to Medication and to Follow up With People With Psychosis: Methods and Protocol for a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Two-Armed Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Schizophrenia is a high-cost, chronic, serious mental illness. There is a clear need to improve treatments and expand access to care for persons with schizophrenia, but simple, tailored interventions are missing. Objective To evaluate the impact of tailored mobile telephone text messages to encourage adherence to medication and to follow up with people with psychosis at 12 months. Methods Mobile.Net is a pragmatic randomized trial with inpatient psychiatric wards allocated to two parallel arms. The trial will include 24 sites and 45 psychiatric hospital wards providing inpatient care in Finland. The participants will be adult patients aged 18–65 years, of either sex, with antipsychotic medication (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification 2011) on discharge from a psychiatric hospital, who have a mobile phone, are able to use the Finnish language, and are able to give written informed consent to participate in the study. The intervention group will receive semiautomatic system (short message service [SMS]) messages after they have been discharged from the psychiatric hospital. Patients will choose the form, content, timing, and frequency of the SMS messages related to their medication, keeping appointments, and other daily care. SMS messages will continue to the end of the study period (12 months) or until participants no longer want to receive the messages. Patients will be encouraged to contact researchers if they feel that they need to adjust the message in any way. At all times, both groups will receive usual care at the discretion of their team (psychiatry and nursing). The primary outcomes are service use and healthy days by 12 months based on routine data (admission to a psychiatric hospital, time to next hospitalization, time in hospital during this year, and healthy days). The secondary outcomes are service use, coercive measures, medication, adverse events, satisfaction with care, the intervention, and the trial, social functioning, and economic factors. Data will be collected 12 months after baseline. The outcomes are based on the national health registers and patients’ subjective evaluations. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 27704027; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN27704027 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/69FkM4vcq)

Hatonen, Heli; Adams, Clive E

2012-01-01

139

Physician. A metapaedogogical text.  

PubMed

It has generally been thought that the short treatise Physician was written for the beginning medical student and as such it has been criticized for being so superficial as to be worthless for producing anything but an empty charade of a physician. There are also numerous cruces in the text on which scholars have failed to come to any consensus. This paper argues that by taking the audience of the treatise to be the beginning instructor rather than the beginning student the tone of and information included in the treatise can be seen to be appropriate and the textual cruces can all be explained with little or no amendment by the same hypothesis. PMID:21560569

Dean-Jones, Lesley

2010-01-01

140

Inverted files for text search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology underlying text search engines has advanced dramatically in the past decade. The development of a family of new index representations has led to a wide range of innovations in index storage, index construction, and query evaluation. While some of these developments have been consolidated in textbooks, many specific techniques are not widely known or the textbook descriptions are

Justin Zobel; Alistair Moffat

2006-01-01

141

Probabilistic latent semantic indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domain-specific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In

Thomas Hofmann

1999-01-01

142

Machine-Aided Indexing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntactic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for MAI are discussed. (Author)

C. R. Jacobs

1972-01-01

143

Dynamic Entropy-Compressed Sequences and Full-Text Indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given a sequence of n bits with binary zero-order entropy H0, we present a dynamic data structure that requires nH0 + o(n) bits of space, which is able of performing rank and select, as well as in- serting and deleting bits at arbitrary positions, in O(log n) worst-case time. This extends previous results by Hon et al. (ISAAC 2003) achieving

Veli Mäkinen; Gonzalo Navarro

2006-01-01

144

Dynamic entropy-compressed sequences and full-text indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We give new solutions to the Searchable Partial Sums with Indels problem. Given a sequence of n k-bit numbers, we present a structure taking kn + o(kn) bits of space, able of performing operations sum, search, insert, and delete, all in O(log n) worst-case time, for any k = O(log n). This extends previous results by Hon et al. [2003c

Veli Mäkinen; Gonzalo Navarro

2008-01-01

145

Automatic segmentation of clinical texts.  

PubMed

Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054

Apostolova, Emilia; Channin, David S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Furst, Jacob; Lytinen, Steven; Raicu, Daniela

2009-01-01

146

A Recent Advance in the Automatic Indexing of the Biomedical Literature  

PubMed Central

The volume of biomedical literature has experienced explosive growth in recent years. This is reflected in the corresponding increase in the size of MEDLINE®, the largest bibliographic database of biomedical citations. Indexers at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) need efficient tools to help them accommodate the ensuing workload. After reviewing issues in the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH® terms) to biomedical text, we focus more specifically on the new subheading attachment feature for NLM’s Medical Text Indexer (MTI). Natural Language Processing, statistical, and machine learning methods of producing automatic MeSH main heading/subheading pair recommendations were assessed independently and combined. The best combination achieves 48% precision and 30% recall. After validation by NLM indexers, a suitable combination of the methods presented in this paper was integrated into MTI as a subheading attachment feature producing MeSH indexing recommendations compliant with current state-of-the-art indexing practice.

Neveol, Aurelie; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Mork, James G.; Aronson, Alan R.

2009-01-01

147

A recent advance in the automatic indexing of the biomedical literature.  

PubMed

The volume of biomedical literature has experienced explosive growth in recent years. This is reflected in the corresponding increase in the size of MEDLINE, the largest bibliographic database of biomedical citations. Indexers at the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) need efficient tools to help them accommodate the ensuing workload. After reviewing issues in the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to biomedical text, we focus more specifically on the new subheading attachment feature for NLM's Medical Text Indexer (MTI). Natural Language Processing, statistical, and machine learning methods of producing automatic MeSH main heading/subheading pair recommendations were assessed independently and combined. The best combination achieves 48% precision and 30% recall. After validation by NLM indexers, a suitable combination of the methods presented in this paper was integrated into MTI as a subheading attachment feature producing MeSH indexing recommendations compliant with current state-of-the-art indexing practice. PMID:19166973

Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E; Humphrey, Susanne M; Mork, James G; Aronson, Alan R

2008-12-30

148

The Text Encoding Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: why bother with electronic texts?. Document Analysis: defining the essentials of your texts. Markup and the Basics of SGML. Introduction to the TEI. TEI Lite. Tagging a Text2Introduction. Why do electronic texts at all?. Why bother with markup?. The steps of a project:--- clarify goals--- select sample and analyse documents--- specify markup policy--- encode the texts--- enrich, reuse, retarget,

C. M. Sperberg-mcqueen

1995-01-01

149

Immigration Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Striving to become the "immigration resource directory on the net," the Immigration Index is a newly launched Website dedicated to news and information about immigration worldwide. Along with breaking headlines from a variety of news sources about immigration-related issues such as asylum, migration, trafficking and women, and much more, the site contains a fully annotated collection of links to immigration materials all around the World Wide Web. Only a month old, some of the categories in the Index's hierarchy still need some filling in. In time, however, the Immigration Index promises to become an invaluable resource for interested parties.

150

UK Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The UK Index provides a searchable index of resources in or about the United Kingdom. The Quick Reference section offers links to News Resources in the UK such as the BBC, weather information, UK record charts, and UK related USENET newsgroups. The Foreign & Commonwealth Office provides good advice for travelers. The search engine allows the selection of categories such as arts or business to restrict the search to pages included in one category or a combination of categories.

151

Word sense disambiguation by selecting the best semantic type based on Journal Descriptor Indexing: Preliminary experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experiment was performed at the National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) in word sense disambiguation (WSD) using the Journal Descriptor Indexing (JDI) methodology. The motivation is the need to solve the ambiguity prob- lem confronting NLM's MetaMap system, which maps free text to terms corresponding to concepts in NLM's Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) Metathe- saurus®. If the text maps

Susanne M. Humphrey; Willie J. Rogers; Halil Kilicoglu; Dina Demner-fushman; Thomas C. Rindflesch

2006-01-01

152

Indexing Degenerate Strings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we give the first, to our knowledge, structure and corresponding algorithm for indexing of factors of DNA and RNA sequences, where the text is degenerate i.e. contain sets of characters. The presented structure indexes so called k-factors, the factors of the degenerate text whose length does not exceed a given constant k. Our solution is based on the application of finite automata, the index is represented by Truncated Generalized Factor Automaton (TGFA). The size of TGFA is bounded from up by linear function of the length of text and it enables to find list occ(u) of all occurrences of for a given pattern u in degenerate text x~ in time |u|+|occ(u)|

Vorá?ek, Michal; Vagner, Ladislav; Flouri, Tomáš

2007-12-01

153

METER: MEasuring TExt Reuse  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present results from the METER (MEasuring TExt Reuse) project whose aim is to explore issues pertaining to text reuse and derivation, especially in the context of newspapers using newswire sources. Although the reuse of text by journalists has been studied in linguistics, we are not aware of any investigation using existing computational methods for this particular

Paul Clough; Robert Gaizauskas; Scott S. L. Piao; Yorick Wilks

2001-01-01

154

Text-Translation Alignment  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a

Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen

1993-01-01

155

Texting on the Move  

MedlinePLUS

KidsHealth > Teens > Staying Safe > Driving > Texting on the Move Print A A A Text Size What's in this article? (click to view) What's the Big Deal? ... on something other than the road. In fact, driving while texting (DWT) can be more dangerous than driving under ...

156

Finding text in images  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many applications in which the automatic detection and recognition of text embedded in images isuseful. These applications include multimedia systems, digital libraries, and Geographical Information Systems.When machine generated text is printed against clean backgrounds, it can be converted to a computer readbleform (ASCII) using current Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology. However, text is often printedagainst shaded or textured

Victor Wu; R. Manmatha; Edward M. Riseman

1997-01-01

157

Lightweight Structured Text Processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text is a popular storage and distribution format for information, partly due to generic text-processing tools like Unix grep and sort. Unfortunately, ex- isting generic tools make assumptions about text format (e.g., each line is a record) that limit their applicability. Custom-built tools are one alterna- tive, but they require substantial time investment and programming expertise. We describe a new

Robert C. Miller; Brad A. Myers

1999-01-01

158

TextImages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those persons who do their own website design will find TextImages most useful. Developed by Stefan Trost, this helpful tool allows users to integrate text written on images into their websites. Visitors can create single text images with this application, along with a wide range of pictures. Visitors also have the ability to precisely adjust the writing, design, format, style, colors, fonts, margins, and spacing as they see fit. The tool is particularly useful for those who want headings or other recurring text to look the same regardless of browser or available fonts. This version is compatible with Windows 7, XP, and Vista.

Trost, Stefan

2012-03-30

159

INDEXING MECHANISM  

DOEpatents

A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

Kock, L.J.

1959-09-22

160

Composing Texts, Composing Lives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)|

Perl, Sondra

1994-01-01

161

The Perfect Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…

Russo, Ruth

1998-01-01

162

Solar Energy Project: Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

163

Solar Energy Project: Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

164

Symbol ranking text compressors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. In 1951 Shannon estimated the entropy of English text by giving human subjects a sample of text and asking them to guess the next letters. He found, in one example, that 79% of the attempts were correct at the first try, 8% needed two attempts and 3% needed 3 attempts. By regarding the number of attempts

P. Fenwick

1997-01-01

165

Symbol Ranking Text Compression  

Microsoft Academic Search

In his work on the information content of English text in 1951, Shannon described a method of recoding the input text, a technique which has apparently lain dormant for the ensuing 45 years. Whereas traditional compressors exploit symbol frequencies and symbol contexts, Shannon's method adds the concept of \\

Peter Fenwick

1996-01-01

166

labelling - text only [C-AGMT  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. -16- MEDICATION GUIDE Mifeprex (MIF-eh-prex) (mifepristone) Read this information carefully before taking Mifeprex and misoprostol. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

167

Contextual models of clinical publications for enhancing retrieval from full-text databases.  

PubMed

Conventional methods for retrieving information from the medical literature are imprecise and inefficient. Information retrieval systems employ unmanageable indexing vocabularies or use full-text representations that overwhelm the user with irrelevant information. This paper describes a document representation designed to improve the precision of searching in textual databases without significantly compromising recall. The representation augments simple text word representations with contextual models that reflect recurring semantic themes in clinical publications. Using this representation, a searcher may indicate both the terms of interest and the contexts in which they should occur. The contexts limit the potential interpretations of text words, and thus form the basis for more precise searching. In this paper, we discuss the shortcomings of traditional retrieval systems and describe our context-based representation. Improved retrieval performance with contextual models is illustrated by example, and a more extensive study is proposed. We present an evaluation of the contextual models as an indexing scheme, using a variation of the traditional inter-indexer consistency experiments, and we demonstrate that contextual indexing is reproducible by minimally trained physicians and medical students. PMID:8563412

Purcell, G P; Shortliffe, E H

1995-01-01

168

Draft Label Text - Provenge  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... nausea, and feeling cold. Your doctor may recommend or administer calcium to prevent or treat these side effects. If you have ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/cellulargenetherapyproducts

169

Planning Coherent Multisentential Text,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Though most text generators are capable of simply stringing together more than one sentence, they cannot determine which order will ensure a coherent paragraph. A paragraph is coherent when the information in successive sentences follows some pattern of i...

E. H. Hovy

1988-01-01

170

Text Segmentation by Topic  

Microsoft Academic Search

. We investigate the problem of text segmentation by topic.Applications for this task include topic tracking of broadcast speech dataand topic identification in full-text databases. Researchers have tackledsimilar problems before but with different goals. This study focuses ondata with relatively small segment sizes and for which within-segmentsentences have relatively few words in common making the problem challenging.We present a method

Jay M. Ponte; W. Bruce Croft

1997-01-01

171

Anchor Text Extraction for Academic Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anchor text plays a special important role in improving the performance of general Web search, due to the fact that it is relatively ob- jective description for a Web page by poten- tially a large number of other Web pages. Academic Search provides indexing and search functionality for academic articles. It may be desirable to utilize anchor text in aca-

Shuming Shi; Fei Xing; Mingjie Zhu; Zaiqing Nie; Ji-Rong Wen

2009-01-01

172

Text Retrieval Conference (TREC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) is an annual event that supports "research within the information retrieval community by providing the infrastructure necessary for large-scale evaluation of text retrieval methodologies." Proceedings of the conference covering all twelve years of its history are available on the TREC homepage. As TREC has evolved, it has added several focus areas that span new and different topics in information retrieval. These tracks mainly examine methods of searching and filtering different types of data, including genomic records, digital video, and data that is given in multiple languages.

2001-01-01

173

Text Encoding Initiative  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is an "international and interdisciplinary standard that helps libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars represent all kinds of literary and linguistic texts for online research and teaching." The site offers information about the TEI consortium; recommendations for the encoding of textual material in various languages; TEI Tutorials that provide introductory and advanced teaching materials, presentations, and user case studies; a history archive of TEI publications and working papers; and much more. This site is primarily for individuals who already possess some knowledge of material encoding.

2001-01-01

174

Senses and Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the question of whether it is possible tosense-tag systematically, and on a large scale, and how we shouldassess progress so far. That is to say, how to attach each occurrenceof a word in a text to one and only one sense in a dictionary – aparticular dictionary of course, and that is part of the problem. Thepaper

Yorick Wilks

1997-01-01

175

Representation for Narrative Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report lists and describes the new linguistic information which has been implemented in the TERSE(Text Reduction System) system. The software for this deliverable has been delivered and is present on the Symbolics workstation at NRL. The TERSE system...

1988-01-01

176

Taming the Wild Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

Allyn, Pam

2012-01-01

177

Reflections of Older Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overseas teaching assignment in 1961 led one educator to visit St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin where he came upon an effigy of Richard Whately and realized that Whately had written a text used in many American universities. The educator especially recalled that Whately had said "Encourage your students." He also wrote that the audience…

Reid, Loren

178

Lyell's Geological Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, while referring to Charles Lyell' ``Elements of Geology'', it was found that the Yale Library copy, of date September 12, 1839, had been sent by the publishers to Benjamin Silliman. This was the first American edition from the first London edition as published by Kay Bros., Philadelphia, with 316 pages and 295 figures in the text. After one hundred

G. R. Wieland

1940-01-01

179

STEM Careers Cursive Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

180

Understanding Antidepressant Medications  

MedlinePLUS

... to Z Index Follow FDA FDA Voice Blog Enter Search terms Search the FDA Archive Home Food Drugs Medical ... is no longer maintained and may be outdated. Enter Search terms For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section ...

181

Clandestine E-Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Edited and maintained by Gianluca Mori of the University of Turin-Vercelli, this site currently hosts the full texts (in French) of seventeen French clandestine manuscripts from the early enlightenment. As Mori notes, the treatises share an anti-Christian attitude, but beyond that their philosophical inspiration varies, "leading sometimes either to a deist (Examen de la religion) or to an atheist position (Meslier's Memoire, Freret's Lettre de Thrasybule a Leucippe)." The treatises are offered in HTML format, some with related links. Links are also provided to several texts on other servers and to related resources. Users may register for email notification of updates to the site, which is also available in French and Italian.

182

Metamemory for narrative text  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment, we investigated metamemory for narrative text passages. Subjects read two stories and made memory predictions\\u000a for the idea units in one and rated the importance of ideas in the other. Half of the subjects were asked to recall the story\\u000a immediately after reading the passages and half were asked to recall 1 week later; half received passages

Ruth H. Maki; Sharon Swett

1987-01-01

183

Technology of Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of information is stored in databases, in intranets or in Internet. This information is organised in documents\\u000a or in text documents. The difference depends on the fact if pictures, tables, figures, and formulas are included or not. The\\u000a common problem is to find the desired piece of information, a trend, or an undiscovered pattern from these sources.

Ari Visa

2001-01-01

184

Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation- handling, can essentially be considered solved

Pierre Zweigenbaum; Dina Demner-fushman; Hong Yu; Kevin B. Cohen

2007-01-01

185

Internet Sacred Text Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The world's philosophical and religious traditions have found a fine home at the Internet Sacred Text Archive, which, as the homepage notes, is "a quiet place in cyberspace devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship." Working together with a number of colleagues and volunteers, JB Hare has compiled this vast archive of sacred and philosophical texts from a number of public-domain sources and placed them on the site. What makes the site so intriguing is that Hare has placed detailed information about the sources and standards that have been deployed for each separate project, which will be of great interest to scholars. While the entire site can be searched, there is much to be learned by looking through the topics listed on the main page, which range from Atlantis to Zoroastrianism. Each separate topic contains a number of accurately transcribed (and some times, translated) primary and secondary documents, such as first-hand collections of oral traditions. For persons looking for their own copy of the material contained on the site, a CD-ROM is available for purchase as well.

1997-01-01

186

Ergito: Virtual Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.

2000-01-01

187

New Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 23, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the release of a new Air Quality Index, which is used by state and local agencies for reporting on daily air quality to the public, especially in major cities. The new Index has been revised to enhance public understanding of air quality and associated health effects, and it reflects updated health information on several pollutants. In addition to the full text of the new AQI Rule (105 p.), several related documents are offered at the site. These include the AQI fact sheet, Air Quality Guide, Ozone Health Effects Booklet, and Guideline for Reporting of Daily Air Quality.

Standards., United S.

188

Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

189

Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

190

ResearchIndex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the NEC Research Institute, ResearchIndex was created to improve the dissemination, functionality, usability, and efficiency of online scientific literature by demonstrating and providing "algorithms, techniques, and software that can be used in other digital libraries." The current demonstration database indexes over 150,000 computer science articles containing over 2 million citations. Searchable by keyword only, database returns feature several options. Users can review a list of citations to a given paper with links to the full text articles (Postscript or .pdf format), view related articles, and sign up to have new citations for selected articles emailed to them. In the future, users should also be able to review a dynamically created and continuously updated bibliography. Additional resources at the site include a collection of papers about citation indexing, digital libraries, Web analysis, and neural networks. Users may also submit papers to the database and subscribe to be notified when additional databases become available at the site.

191

UMLS Content Views Appropriate for NLP Processing of the Biomedical Literature vs. Clinical Text  

PubMed Central

Identification of medical terms in free text is a first step in such Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks as automatic indexing of biomedical literature and extraction of patients’ problem lists from the text of clinical notes. Many tools developed to perform these tasks use biomedical knowledge encoded in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. We continue our exploration of automatic approaches to creation of subsets (UMLS content views) which can support NLP processing of either the biomedical literature or clinical text. We found that suppression of highly ambiguous terms in the conservative AutoFilter content view can partially replace manual filtering for literature applications, and suppression of two character mappings in the same content view achieves 89.5% precision at 78.6% recall for clinical applications.

Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G.; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Aronson, Alan R.

2010-01-01

192

UMLS content views appropriate for NLP processing of the biomedical literature vs. clinical text.  

PubMed

Identification of medical terms in free text is a first step in such Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks as automatic indexing of biomedical literature and extraction of patients' problem lists from the text of clinical notes. Many tools developed to perform these tasks use biomedical knowledge encoded in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. We continue our exploration of automatic approaches to creation of subsets (UMLS content views) which can support NLP processing of either the biomedical literature or clinical text. We found that suppression of highly ambiguous terms in the conservative AutoFilter content view can partially replace manual filtering for literature applications, and suppression of two character mappings in the same content view achieves 89.5% precision at 78.6% recall for clinical applications. PMID:20152935

Demner-Fushman, Dina; Mork, James G; Shooshan, Sonya E; Aronson, Alan R

2010-02-10

193

Acquiring meaning for French medical terminology: contribution of morphosemantics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Morphologically complex words, and particularly neoclassical compounds, form more than 60% of the neologisms in the bio- medical field. Guessing their definitions and grouping them into semantic classes by means of lexical relations are thus two cru- cial improvements for handling these words, e.g., for informa- tion retrieval, indexing and text understanding applications. This paper describes a morphosemantic linguistic-based parser

Fiammetta Namera; Pierre Zweigenbaumb; Fiammetta Namer; Pierre Zweigenbaum

194

MENELAS: an access system for medical records using natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of Menelas is to provide better access to the information contained in natural language patient discharge summaries, through the design and implementation of a pilot system able to access medical reports through natural languages. A first, experimental version of the Menelas indexing prototype for French has been assembled. Its function is to encode free text PDSs into

Pierre Zweigenbaum

1994-01-01

195

Text Classification for Healthcare Information Support  

Microsoft Academic Search

Healthcare information support (HIS) is essential in managing, gathering, and disseminating information for healthcare decision\\u000a support through the Internet. To support HIS, text classification (TC) is a key kernel. Upon receiving a text of healthcare\\u000a need (e.g. symptom description from patients) or healthcare information (e.g. information from medical literature and news),\\u000a a text classifier may determine its corresponding categories (e.g.

Rey-long Liu

2007-01-01

196

Organizing, Indexing, and Retrieving Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the literature that examines new capabilities and new problems associated with online catalogs, online searching of bibliographic databases, indexing, full text retrieval, and expert systems. The need for research that focuses on individual needs and that adopts an integrated approach which views indexing and retrieval as interrelated…

Fidel, Raya

1989-01-01

197

Gender differences in alpha-[(11)C]MTrp brain trapping, an index of serotonin synthesis, in medication-free individuals with major depressive disorder: a positron emission tomography study.  

PubMed

Women are at higher risk than men for developing major depressive disorder (MDD), but the mechanisms underlying this higher risk are unknown. Here, we report proportionally normalized alpha-[(11)C]methyl-L-tryptophan brain trapping constant (alpha-[(11)C]MTrp K*(N)), an index of serotonin synthesis, in 25 medication-free individuals with MDD and in 25 gender- and age-matched healthy subjects who were studied using positron emission tomography (PET). Comparisons of alpha-[(11)C]MTrp K*(N) values between the men and women were conducted at the voxel and cluster levels using Statistical Parametric Mapping 2 (SPM2) analysis. In addition, the alpha-[(11)C]MTrp K*(N) values on both sides of the brain were extracted and compared to identify the left to right differences, as well as the gender differences. Women with MDD displayed higher alpha-[(11)C]MTrp K*(N) than men in the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), parahippocampal gyrus, precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and occipital lingual gyrus. In a matched group of normal subjects the gender differences were opposite from those found in MDD patients. Significant hemispheric differences in fronto-limbic structures between men and women with MDD were also observed. The K*(N) extracted from the volumes identified in MDD patients and in male and female normal subjects suggested no significant differences between males and females. In conclusion, depressed women have higher serotonin synthesis in multiple regions of the prefrontal cortex and limbic system involved with mood regulation, as compared with depressed men. Gender differences in brain serotonin synthesis may be related to higher risk for MDD in women. PMID:20630715

Frey, Benicio N; Skelin, Ivan; Sakai, Yojiro; Nishikawa, Masami; Diksic, Mirko

2010-07-13

198

Lecture video segmentation and indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Video structuring and indexing are two crucial processes for multi-media document understanding and information retrieval. This paper presents a novel approach in automatic structuring and indexing lecture videos for an educational video system. By structuring and indexing video content, we can support both topic indexing and semantic querying of multimedia documents. In this paper, our goal is to extract indices of topics and link them with their associated video and audio segments. Two main techniques used in our proposed approach are video image analysis and video text analysis. Using this approach, we obtain accuracy of over 90.0% on our test collection.

Ma, Di; Agam, Gady

2012-01-01

199

Medication Guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. DX-88 (ecallantide) 27 November 2009 1. I 4.1.3 Draft Label - KALBITOR Medication Guide KALBITOR&J (KAL-bi-tor) ( ecallan tide) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

200

Generic Substitution of Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Controversy regarding generic substitution of narrow therapeutic index drugs, especially antiepileptic drugs, has become a big debate lately. Some states are considering passing laws that will restrict the generic substitution of these narrow therapeutic index drugs. In fact, some states have already modified their laws to limit switching and generic substitution of these medications, requiring patient and prescriber consent before

Mays Putrus

201

MEDICATION DEFERRAL LIST  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Page 2. MEDICATION DEFERRAL LIST ... Once the medication has been cleared from your blood, you may donate again. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

202

Celebrex Medication Guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) (See the end of this Medication Guide for a list of prescription NSAID ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

203

Zidovudine Medication Errors  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Division of Medication Errors Prevention and Analysis Page 2. Method for Identification of Cases • AERS database query – Medication error HLGT ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

204

Full Text Journal Subscriptions: An Evolutionary Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides an overview of companies offering Web accessible subscriptions to full text electronic versions of scientific, technical, and medical journals (Academic Press, Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier, Highwire Press, Information Quest, Institute of Physics, Johns Hopkins University Press, OCLC, OVID, Springer, and SWETS). Also lists guidelines for…

Luther, Judy

1997-01-01

205

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

206

Automatically classifying case texts and predicting outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work on a computer program called SMILE + IBP (SMart Index Learner Plus Issue-Based Prediction) bridges case-based reasoning\\u000a and extracting information from texts. The program addresses a technologically challenging task that is also very relevant\\u000a from a legal viewpoint: to extract information from textual descriptions of the facts of decided cases and apply that information\\u000a to predict the outcomes of new cases.

Kevin D. Ashley; Stefanie Brüninghaus

2009-01-01

207

Predicting text entry speed on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model for predicting expert text entry rates for several input methods on a 12-key mobile phone keypad. The model includes a movement component based on Fitts' law and a linguistic component based on digraph, or letter-pair, probabilities. Predictions are provided for one-handed thumb and two-handed index finger input. For the traditional multi-press method or the lesser-used two-key

Miika Silfverberg; I. Scott MacKenzie; Panu Korhonen

2000-01-01

208

Recent Developments in Natural Language Text Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT This paper reports on some,recent developments,in our natural language text retrieval system. The system uses advanced,natural language processing techniques to enhance,the,effectiveness of,term-based document retrieval. The backbone,of our system is a traditional statistical engine which,builds inverted index files from pre-processed documents, and then searches and ranks the documents,in response,to user queries. Natural language processing is used to (1) preprocess the

Tomek Strzalkowski; Jose Perez Carballo

1993-01-01

209

Qualaquin medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... QUALAQUIN® is a prescription medication used to treat malaria (uncomplicated) caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

210

Crestor: Medication Error Review  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Subject: BPCA / PREA: Postmarketing Medication Error Review Drug Name(s): Crestor (Rosuvastatin Calcium) Tablets ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

211

A New Generic Indexing Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of

Michael Freeston

1996-01-01

212

Indexing Similar DNA Sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires ?(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ? N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

213

Using LSI for Text Classification in the Presence of Background Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents work that uses Latent Semantic\\u000a Indexing (LSI) for text classification. However, in\\u000a addition to relying on labeled training data, we improve\\u000a classification accuracy by also using unlabeled data and\\u000a other forms of available ``background\\

Sarah Zelikovitz; Haym Hirsh

2001-01-01

214

Index Funds Online  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Matthew Roberts recently released Index Funds Online in response to the lack of index investment fund information on the Internet. Site features include the market performance newsletter Indexing Quarterly, background and definitional information on major US Indexes such as the S&P 500, and a library of new and interesting financial Websites, articles, and book reviews. Links to current index performance figures are also provided as well as a simple site search system and index fund discussion board.

215

Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress  

PubMed Central

It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year.

Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

2008-01-01

216

High performance biomedical time series indexes using salient segmentation.  

PubMed

The advent of remote and wearable medical sensing has created a dire need for efficient medical time series databases. Wearable medical sensing devices provide continuous patient monitoring by various types of sensors and have the potential to create massive amounts of data. Therefore, time series databases must utilize highly optimized indexes in order to efficiently search and analyze stored data. This paper presents a highly efficient technique for indexing medical time series signals using Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH). Unlike previous work, only salient (or interesting) segments are inserted into the index. This technique reduces search times by up to 95% while yielding near identical search results. PMID:23367072

Woodbridge, Jonathan; Mortazavi, Bobak; Bui, Alex A T; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

2012-01-01

217

Text mining for the biocuration workflow.  

PubMed

Molecular biology has become heavily dependent on biological knowledge encoded in expert curated biological databases. As the volume of biological literature increases, biocurators need help in keeping up with the literature; (semi-) automated aids for biocuration would seem to be an ideal application for natural language processing and text mining. However, to date, there have been few documented successes for improving biocuration throughput using text mining. Our initial investigations took place for the workshop on 'Text Mining for the BioCuration Workflow' at the third International Biocuration Conference (Berlin, 2009). We interviewed biocurators to obtain workflows from eight biological databases. This initial study revealed high-level commonalities, including (i) selection of documents for curation; (ii) indexing of documents with biologically relevant entities (e.g. genes); and (iii) detailed curation of specific relations (e.g. interactions); however, the detailed workflows also showed many variabilities. Following the workshop, we conducted a survey of biocurators. The survey identified biocurator priorities, including the handling of full text indexed with biological entities and support for the identification and prioritization of documents for curation. It also indicated that two-thirds of the biocuration teams had experimented with text mining and almost half were using text mining at that time. Analysis of our interviews and survey provide a set of requirements for the integration of text mining into the biocuration workflow. These can guide the identification of common needs across curated databases and encourage joint experimentation involving biocurators, text mining developers and the larger biomedical research community. PMID:22513129

Hirschman, Lynette; Burns, Gully A P C; Krallinger, Martin; Arighi, Cecilia; Cohen, K Bretonnel; Valencia, Alfonso; Wu, Cathy H; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Dowell, Karen G; Huala, Eva; Lourenço, Anália; Nash, Robert; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Wiegers, Thomas; Winter, Andrew G

2012-04-18

218

ADHD Medications  

MedlinePLUS

Managing ADHD With Medication Just about everyone has trouble concentrating or paying attention in class from time to time. ... to develop new medications for ADHD. Continue Are ADHD Medications Safe? Most experts agree that ADHD medications ...

219

FDA Safety Update: Asthma Medications  

MedlinePLUS

... to Z Index Follow FDA FDA Voice Blog Enter Search terms Search the FDA Archive Home Food Drugs Medical ... is no longer maintained and may be outdated. Enter Search terms For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section ...

220

Texts in Homes and Communities.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper considers how children's text making is shaped by the environment in which the texts are made. By considering texts made in classrooms and texts made in homes, the paper explores how classrooms and homes interact with children's (6-7 year old boys) reflective processes as they create artifacts--drawings, models, and writings. The paper…

Pahl, Kate

221

Nucleic acid indexing  

DOEpatents

A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

2001-01-01

222

Nucleic acid indexing  

DOEpatents

A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

1999-01-01

223

Litterature: Retour au texte (Literature: Return to the Text).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Choice of texts for use in French language instruction is discussed. It is argued that the text's format (e.g., advertising, figurative poetry, journal article, play, prose, etc.) is instrumental in bringing attention to the language in it, and this has implications for the best uses of different text types. (MSE)|

Noe, Alfred

1993-01-01

224

LPB CP eTextBook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A pdf file that can be read using the free Abode Acrobat Reader or, for more functionality, with Acrobat Pro ($). The eBook's figures, equations, sections, chapters, index, table of contents, code listings, glossary, animations and executable codes (both Applets and Python programs) are linked, much like in a Web document. There are also links to video-based lectures covering most topics in the text, as well as to the slides used in the lectures. Section 1.2 of the text discusses how to use the various electronic features. Some movies are encapsulated into the text and some equations are linked to their xml forms (which can be imported into Maple or Mathematica for manipulation).

Landau, Rubin

225

Using multi-terminology indexing for the assignment of MeSH descriptors to health resources in a French online catalogue.  

PubMed

Background: To assist with the development of a French online quality-controlled health gateway(CISMeF), an automatic indexing tool assigning MeSH descriptors to medical text in French was created. The French Multi-Terminology Indexer (FMTI) relies on a multi-terminology approach involving four prominent medical terminologies and the mappings between them. Objective: In this paper,we compare lemmatization and stemming as methods to process French medical text for indexing. We also evaluate the multi-terminology approach implemented in F-MTI. Methods: The indexing strategies were assessed on a corpus of 18,814 resources indexed manually. Results: There is little difference in the indexing performance when lemmatization or stemming is used. However, the multi-terminology approach outperforms indexing relying on a single terminology in terms of recall.Conclusion: F-MTI will soon be used in the CISMeF production environment and in a Health MultiTerminology Server in French. PMID:18998933

Pereira, Suzanne; Névéol, Aurélie; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Serrot, Elisabeth; Joubert, Michel; Darmoni, Stéfan J

2008-11-06

226

Medicoeconomic Index for Photo-Induced Skin Cancers  

PubMed Central

Like in every type of cancer, in skin cancer the efficiency of the medical treatment is very important. In the present paper, a Bayesian model for the management of this disease is given, and a medical index to measure the effectiveness of treatment from medical, economical, and quality of life point of view is presented, taking into account some of the patients characteristics.

Chiorean, Ioana; Lupsa, Liana; Neamtiu, Luciana; Crisan, Maria

2012-01-01

227

Text information extraction in images and video: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text data present in images and video contain useful information for automatic annotation, indexing, and structuring of images. Extraction of this information involves detection, localization, tracking, extraction, enhancement, and recognition of the text from a given image. However, variations of text due to differences in size, style, orientation, and alignment, as well as low image contrast and complex background make

Keechul Jung; Kwang In Kim; Anil K. Jain

2004-01-01

228

Text comprehension, memory, and learning.  

PubMed

People are often able to reproduce a text quite well but are unable to use the information in the text for other purposes. Factors that help people to reproduce a text have been studied for some time. This article explores ways that enable people to learn from texts. Content overlap between a text and the reader's prior knowledge is identified as one factor, and methods are proposed to identify whether a text is suitable for readers with given background knowledge. For readers with low background knowledge, a text should be as coherent and explicit as possible to facilitate learning. However, data are presented to show that for readers with adequate background knowledge, texts with coherence gaps that stimulate constructive activities are in fact better for learning. PMID:8203801

Kintsch, W

1994-04-01

229

Dangers of Texting While Driving  

MedlinePLUS

... While Driving Guide Print Email The Dangers of Texting While Driving "Putting the brakes on the distracted driving epidemic ... 12th Street, SW Washington, DC 20554 Print Out Texting While Driving Guide (pdf) Related Information Filter NTT DOCOMO USA ...

230

ProTEXT Print Job  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... For motavizumab, MedImmune has included specific text in the package insert which describes recommendations for safety monitoring and product ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

231

Meaning Representation and Text Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

starts with a'world'state, represented by structures of an application program (e. g., an expert system) that has text generation needs and an impetus to produce a natu-ral language text. The output of generation is a natural language text. The generation process involves the tasks of a) delimiting the content of the eventual text, b) plano ning its structure, c) selecting

Christine Defrise; Sergei Nirenburg

1990-01-01

232

ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.  

SciTech Connect

Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-07-01

233

Parsumist: A Persian text summarizer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid growth of online information services causes the problem of information explosion. Automatic text summarization techniques are essential for dealing with this problem. The process of compacting a source document to reduce complexity and length, retaining the most important information is called text summarization. This paper introduces PARSUMIST; a text summarization system for Persian documents. It can generate generic

Mehrnoush SHAMSFARD; Tara AKHAVAN; Mona ERFANI JOURABCHI

2009-01-01

234

What is this text about?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most work in text retrieval aims at presenting the information held by several texts in order to give entry clues towards these texts and to allow a navigation between them. Besides, a lesser interest is dedicated to the definition of principles for accessing content of single documents. As most information retrieval systems return documents from an initial request made of

Nicolas Hernandez; Brigitte Grau

2003-01-01

235

Slippery Texts and Evolving Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…

Mackey, Margaret

2007-01-01

236

Text detection for video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textual information brings important semantic clues in video content analysis. We describe a method for detection and representation of text in video segments. The method consists of seven steps: channel separation, image enhancement, edge detection, edge filtering, character detection, text box detection, and text line detection. Our results show that this method can be applied to English as well as

Lalitha Agnihotri; Nevenka Dimitrova

1999-01-01

237

Choosing Software for Text Processing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be manufactured for OCLC by IBM are mentioned. (EJS)|

Mason, Robert M.

1983-01-01

238

Text prediction systems: a survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text prediction is one of the most widely used techniques to enhance the communication rate in augmentative and alternative communication. Prediction systems are traditionally used by people with disabilities (e.g. people with motor and speech impairments). However, new applications, such as writing short text messages via mobile phones, have recently appeared. A vast amount of heterogeneous text prediction methods and

Nestor Garay-vitoria; Julio Abascal

2006-01-01

239

Text Editing in Chemistry Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…

Ngu, Bing Hiong; Low, Renae; Sweller, John

2002-01-01

240

Multilingual Text Analysis for Text-to-Speech Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model of text analysis for text-to-speech (TTS) syn- thesis based on weighted finite-state transducers, which serves as the text-analysis module of the multilingual Bell Labs TTS system. The transducers are constructed using a lexical toolkit that allows declarative descriptions of lexicons, morphological rules, numeral- expansion rules, and phonological rules, inter alia. To date, the model has been

Richard Sproat

1996-01-01

241

Ergometric score systems after myocardial infarction: Prognostic performance of the Duke Treadmill Score, Veterans Administration Medical Center Score, and of a novel score system, GISSI-2 Index, in a cohort of survivors of acute myocardial infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background The aims of the study were to evaluate the performance of the Duke Treadmill Score (DTS) and the Veteran Affairs Medical Center Score (VAMCS) in predicting 6-month death in GISSI-2 study survivors of acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents, and to develop a simple predictive scoring system from the same database. Methods Patients of the GISSI-2 study (n

Massimo Villella; Alessandro Villella; Luigi Santoro; Eugenio Santoro; Maria Grazia Franzosi; Aldo Pietro Maggioni

2003-01-01

242

Encoding standards for large text resources: The Text Encoding Initiative  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is an international project established in 1988 to develop guidelines for the preparation and interchange of electronic texts for research, and to satisfy a broad range of uses by the language industries more generally. The need for standardized encoding practices has become inxreasingly critical as the need to use and, most importantly, reuse vast amounts

Nancy Ide

1994-01-01

243

Text Categorisation of Racist Texts Using a Support Vector Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The automatic processing of text is a major challenge because of the increasing availability of textual informa- tion and the need to organise and manage such information effectively and efficiently. Automatic Text Categori- sation is one of a number of functions we would like to have available to us and involves the assignment of one or more predefined categories to

Edel P. Greevy; Alan F. Smeaton

2004-01-01

244

Preparing Clinical Text for Use in Biomedical Research  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 57 different types of clinical annotations construct a patient's medical record. The annotations include radiology reports, discharge summaries, and surgical and nursing notes. Hospitals typically produce millions of text-based medical records over the course of a year. These records are essential for the delivery of care, but many are underutilized or not utilized at all for clinical research. The

John Pestian; Lukasz Itert; Charlotte Anderson; Wlodzislaw Duch

2006-01-01

245

Maximizing text-mining performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the advent of centralized data warehouses, where\\u000a data might be stored as electronic documents or as text\\u000a fields in databases, text mining has increased in\\u000a importance and economic value. One important goal in text\\u000a mining is automatic classification of electronic\\u000a documents. Computer programs scan text in a document and\\u000a apply a model that assigns the document to one or

Sholom M. Weiss; Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; David E. Johnson; Frank J. Oles; Thilo Goetz; Thomas Hampp

1999-01-01

246

An automated Computerized Severity Index.  

PubMed Central

The Computerized Severity Index (CSI) is a commercially available scoring system for hospital inpatients. Trained abstractors review the patient's paper medical record and enter the diagnoses and relevant physiological attributes. The HELP (Health Evaluation through Logical Processing) System at LDS Hospital stores patient data in discrete codes. This paper describes the development of an automatic interface between the standalone, personal-computer-based severity system and the mainframe-based hospital information system. The interface scores patient severity without the need for manual chart review. Severity scores from the automated and manual methods were identical for 70% of 222 general medical patients scored retrospectively. An evaluation of the causes for differing scores between the two methods is presented.

Gibson, R. F.; Haug, P. J.

1994-01-01

247

Botox (Medical)  

MedlinePLUS

... Eye Glossary Current News How to Help Botox (Medical) Share with a friend Botox (Medical) A link to this article will be included ... list. Close without sharing. Give Us Feedback Botox (Medical) Your name First Name MI Laast Name Your ...

248

Abortion - medical  

MedlinePLUS

Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

249

TextArc: An Alternate Way to View a Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.

2002-01-01

250

Indexed Bibliography on Tracking.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document comprises a bibliography about tracking and related literature, with corresponding documentation in the form of indexed author and subject listings. Indexing was performed to enhance its utility as a reference. Topical subjects were distingu...

S. P. Schipani

1990-01-01

251

Audio Indexing for Efficiency  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

1978-01-01

252

Glycemic Index and Diabetes  

MedlinePLUS

... food? Is the GI a better tool than carbohydrate counting? Glycemic index examples of foods. What is ... The glycemic index, or GI, measures how a carbohydrate-containing food raises blood glucose. Foods are ranked ...

253

Text mining for technology monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable part of scientific and technological knowledge is coded in writing. In this context, automated text categorization can be regarded as a promising tool particularly for patent data analysis. In a real-life example, we show that automated text categorization can closely resemble the time-consuming categorisation job of an expert. By comparing different algorithms we reveal systematic differences in their

Thorsten Teichert; Marc-Andre Mittermayer

2002-01-01

254

Text Segmentation Using Exponential Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a new statistical ap- proach to partitioning text automatically into coherent segments. Our approach en- lists both short-range and long-range lan- guage models to help it sniff out likely sites of topic changes in text. To aid its search, the system consults a set of simple lexical hints it has learned to associate with the presence of

Doug Beeferman; Adam L. Berger; John D. Lafferty

1997-01-01

255

Algorithm for Training Text Classifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to cheaply train text classifiers is critical to their use in information retrieval, content analysis, natural language processing, and other tasks involving data which is partly or fully textual. An algorithm for sequential sampling during machine learning of statistical classifiers was developed and tested on a newswire text categorization task. This method, which we call uncertainty sampling, reduced

David D. Lewis; William A. Gale

256

DISFLUENCIES IN COMPREHENDING ARGUMENTATIVE TEXTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, we examine university students' ability to comprehend authentic argumentative texts and factors that influence their application of this skill. Participants read several relatively lengthy arguments and identified the main claim and reasons. Experiment 1 shows that participants are not skilled at identifying key elements from an argumentative text (only 30% accuracy). The performance of participants of all

MEREDITH LARSON; M. ANNE BRITT; AARON A. LARSON

2004-01-01

257

The encoding of spoken texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a great deal of variation in the encoding of spoken texts in electronic form, both with respect to the types of features represented and the way particular features are rendered. This paper surveys problems in the electronic representation of speech and presents the solutions proposed by the Text Encoding Initiative. The special tags needed for the encoding of

Stig Johansson

1995-01-01

258

Text Messaging During Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. Background: In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Method: Forty participants engaged

Frank A. Drews; Hina Yazdani; Celeste N. Godfrey; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

2009-01-01

259

Symbolic representation of text documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel method of representing a text document by the use of interval valued symbolic features. A method of classification of text documents based on the proposed representation is also presented. The newly proposed model significantly reduces the dimension of feature vectors and also the time taken to classify a given document. Further, extensive experimentations are conducted

D. S. Guru; B. S. Harish; S. Manjunath

2010-01-01

260

Automatic Structuring of Written Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

?? Abstract. This paper deals with automatic structuring and sentence boundary labelling in natural language texts. We describe the imple- mented structure tagging algorithm and heuristic rules that are used for automatic or semiautomatic labelling. Inside the detected sentence the algorithm performs a decomposition to clauses and then marks the parts of text which do not form a sentence, i.e.

Marek Veber; Ales Horák; Rostislav Julinek; Pavel Smrz

1999-01-01

261

Text mining with conceptual graphs  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for conceptual clustering of a collection of texts represented with conceptual graphs is presented. It uses an incremental strategy to construct the cluster hierarchy and incorporates some characteristics attractive for text mining purposes. For instance, it considers the structural information of the graphs, uses domain knowledge to detect the clusters with generalized descriptions, and uses a user-defined similarity

M. Montes-Y-Gomez; A. Gelbukh; A. Lopez-Lopez; R. Baeza-Yates

2001-01-01

262

TEXT MINING WITH CONCEPTUAL GRAPHS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for conceptual clustering of a collection of texts represented with conceptual graphs is presented. It uses the incremental strategy to construct the clus- ter hierarchy and incorporates some characteristics attractive for text mining proposes. For instance, it considers the structural information of the graphs, uses domain knowledge to detect the clusters with generalized descriptions, and uses a user-defined

M. MONTES-Y-GÓMEZ; A. GELBUKH; A. LÓPEZ-LÓPEZ; R. BAEZA-YATES

263

From text to speech summarization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present approaches used in text summarization, showing how they can be adapted for speech summarization and where they fall short. Informal style and apparent lack of structure in speech mean that the typical approaches used for text summarization must be extended for use with speech. We illustrate how features derived from speech can help determine summary

Kathleen McKeown; Julia Hirschberg; Michel Galley; Sameer Maskey

2005-01-01

264

Text Summarization Using Lexical Chains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text summarization addresses both the problem of selecting the most important portions of text and the problem of generating coherent summaries. We present in this paper the summarizer of the University of Lethbridge at DUC 2001, which is based on an efficient use of lexical chains.

Meru Brunn; Yllias Chali; Christopher J. Pinchak

2001-01-01

265

Indexing of Feminist Periodicals  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last twelve years there has been a phenomenal increase in the number of periodicals focusing on women's studies and feminism. Initially these titles were ignored by most indexing and abstracting services. The earliest indexing, by the Alternative Press Index and Women Studies Abstracts appeared in 1971 and 1972. Since 1975 there has been a marked increase in the

Mary Alice Sanguinetti

1984-01-01

266

Dow Jones Internet Indexes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Dow Jones Indexes has created the Dow Jones Internet Index (DJII) to bring "an ordered perspective" to "the seeming chaos of Internet stocks." The new index includes companies that generate a minimum of 50 percent of their revenues from the Internet. Complete documentation of DJII components, data, historical values, and news are provided on-site.

267

Indexing multiversion databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecient management of multiversion data with branched evolution is crucial for many applications. It requires databa- se designers aware of tradeos among index structures and policies. This paper defines a framework and an analysis method for understanding the behavior of dierent indexing policies. Given data and query characteristics the analysis allows determining the most suitable index structure. The analysis

Khaled Jouini; Geneviève Jomier

2007-01-01

268

Generalized Partial Indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the use of generalized par- tial indexes for efficient query processing. We propose that partial indexes be built on those portions of the database that are statistically likely to be the most useful for query processing. We identify three classes of statistical infor- mation, and two levels at which it may be available. We describe indexing strategies

Praveen Seshadri; Arun N. Swami

1995-01-01

269

Kaiser's Systematic Indexing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a system of subject indexing developed by Julius Kaiser (1868-1927) which is based on "concretes" and "processes" to govern the form of subject headings and subdivisions. Elements of amplification, guides for the subject index, and criticism of Kaiser's systematic indexing are noted. Five sources are given. (EJS)|

Rodriguez, Robert D.

1984-01-01

270

Visualizing Unstructured Text Sequences Using Iterative Visual Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a keyword-based information visualization technique for unstructured text sequences. The text sequence\\u000a data comes from nursing narratives records, which are mostly text fragments with incomplete and unreliable grammatical structures.\\u000a Proper visualization of such text sequences can reveal patterns and trend information rooted in the text records, and has\\u000a significant applications in many fields such as medical informatics

Qian You; Shiaofen Fang; Patricia Ebright

2007-01-01

271

Effective Patient Communication: Improving on Medication ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Effective Patient Communication: ... Start Med Guide with description of medication, indication ... judgment about prescription medications ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

272

Text Mining in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

273

Segmentation of Text and Non-text in On-Line Handwritten Patient Record Based on Spatio-Temporal Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Note taking is a common way for physicians to collect information from their patients in medical inquiries and diagnoses.\\u000a Many times, when describing the pathology in medical records, a physician also draws diagrams and\\/or anatomical sketches along\\u000a with the free-text narratives. The ability to understand unstructured handwritten texts and drawings in patient record could\\u000a lead to implementation of automated patient

Rattapoom Waranusast; Peter Haddawy; Matthew N. Dailey

2009-01-01

274

Pseudo-Anchor Text Extraction for Vertical Search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anchor text plays a special important role in improving the performance of general Web search. The importance of anchor text comes from the fact that it is fairly objective description for a Web page by potentially a large amount of other Web pages. Vertical search provides indexing and search functionality for objects in a certain domain, and is becoming an

Shuming Shi; Fei Xing; Mingjie Zhu; Zaiqing Nie; Ji-Rong Wen

2006-01-01

275

Detecting Text Areas and Decorative Elements in Ancient Manuscripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

An approach for the detection of decorative elements - such as initials and headlines - and text regions, focused on ancient manuscripts, is presented. Due to their age, ancient manuscripts suffer from degradation and staining as well as ink is faded-out over the time. Identifying decorative elements and text regions allows indexing a manuscript and serves as input for Optical

Angelika Garz; Markus Diem; Robert Sablatnig

2010-01-01

276

Extraction of Text Objects in Video Documents: Recent Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text extraction in video documents, as an important research field of content-based information indexing and retrieval, has been developing rapidly since 1990s. This has led to much progress in text extraction, performance evaluation, and related applications. By reviewing the approaches proposed during the past five years, this paper introduces the progress made in this area and discusses promising directions for

Jing Zhang; Rangachar Kasturi

2008-01-01

277

An implementation of the trigram phrase matching method for text similarity problems.  

PubMed

The representation of texts by term vectors with element values calculated by a TFIDF method yields to significant results in text similarity problems, such as finding related documents in bibliographic or full-text databases and identifying MeSH concepts from medical texts by lexical approach and also harmonizing journal citation in ISI/SciELO references and normalizing author's affiliation in MEDLINE. Our work considered "trigrams" as the terms (elements) of a term vector representing a text, according to the Trigram Phrase Matching published by the NLM's Indexing Initiative and its logarithmic Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency method for term weighting. Trigrams are overlapping 3-char strings from a text, extracted by a couple of rules, and a trigram matching method may improve the probability of identifying synonym phrases or similar texts. The matching process was implemented as a simple algorithm, and requires a certain amount of computer resources. An efficiency-focused C-programming was adopted. In addition, some heuristic rules improved the efficiency of the method and made it feasible a regular "find your scientific production in SciELO collection" information service. We describe an implementation of the Trigram Matching method, the software tool we developed and a set of experimental parameters for the above results. PMID:15747904

Tardelli, Adalberto O; Anção, Meide S; Packer, Abel L; Sigulem, Daniel

2004-01-01

278

Medical scribes.  

PubMed

Medical scribes and electronic health records (EHRs) are increasingly being introduced into ambulatory clinics with variable outcomes. Characteristics of a successful implementation of medical scribes are described. Tips for optimization of the composition and presentation of the EHR as well as medical processes associated with medical documentation are presented. PMID:23373160

Baugh, Reginald; Jones, James E; Trott, K; Takyi, Valerie E; Abbas, Jihad T

279

Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A machine-aided indexing (MAI) system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. Grammatical errors do not exceed five per cent of the output, so human screening is satisfactorily low. The system could potentially scale up t...

P. H. Klingbiel

1973-01-01

280

Alex Catalog of Electronic Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This catalog, maintained by Eric Lease Morgan, a systems librarian at North Carolina State University, specializes in American literature, English literature, and philosophy. Alex is particularly helpful because the search interface allows researchers to both look for documents and search the content of those documents. Users first search standard fields such as author, title, or publication date; then they can search the content of documents they select from their returns list. Though returns in content searches would be more convenient were they hyperlinked to the complete record for the text, such a search nonetheless has obvious utility for someone writing on, for example, flower imagery in Shakespearian sonnets or Emerson's vision of democracy. Another nice feature of the catalog is the ability to convert documents to .pdf files on-the-fly (with the font and spacing customizable). Alternately, users can download the whole collection of American or English literature or philosophy texts and the tools to search the texts.

281

Finding text in color images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

1998-04-01

282

Text Classification using String Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach for categorizing text\\u000a documents based on the use of a special kernel. The kernel\\u000a is an inner product in the feature space generated by all\\u000a subsequences of length k. A subsequence is any ordered\\u000a sequence of k characters occurring in the text though not\\u000a necessarily contiguously. The subsequences are weighted by\\u000a an exponentially decaying factor

Huma Lodhi; Craig Saunders; John Shawe-Taylor; Nello Cristianini; Christopher J. C. H. Watkins

2002-01-01

283

Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining  

PubMed Central

Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database.

Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei

2012-01-01

284

Biomarker identification using text mining.  

PubMed

Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989

Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei

2012-11-11

285

Development and Evaluation of a Triage Index for Penetrating Trauma.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several new severity scores, the Triage Score, the Triage Index, and Trauma Score, were evaluated for patients with penetrating injuries. The scores, are composed of measures easily obtained by either medical or paramedical personnel using noninvasive tec...

W. J. Sacco H. R. Champion

1981-01-01

286

Interpreting Texts in Classroom Contexts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes a series of instructional episodes in an 11th-grade classroom discussing J.D. Salinger's short story "The Laughing Man." Presents and discusses the "Text and Context" model for the negotiation of interpretations in classroom contexts. Offers suggestions for developing interpretive classroom communities. (SR)|

Unrau, Norman J.; Ruddell, Robert B.

1995-01-01

287

Postmodern Texts and Emotional Audiences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chabot Davis analyzes contemporary texts that bond together two seemingly antithetical sensibilities: the sentimental and the postmodern. Ranging across multiple media and offering a methodological union of textual analysis and reception study, Chabot Davis presents case studies of audience responses. Chabot Davis argues that sentimental postmodernism deepened leftist political engagement by moving audiences to identify emotionally with people across the

Kimberly Chabot Davis

2007-01-01

288

Emotions in nondirected text learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies examined the influence of emotions on nondirected learning. Nondirected learning is conceptualized as learning which occurs in the absence of external prompts, reinforcements, or specific instruction. In Study 1, one of two expository texts was given to ninety-two undergraduate subjects for the ostensible purpose of obtaining attitudinal and emotional ratings. Two separate measures of motivational and emotional factors

RICHARD M. RYAN; JAMES P. CONNELL; ROBERT W. PLANT

1990-01-01

289

Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)|

Hewitt Julia

2000-01-01

290

Acquiring Disambiguation Rules from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components

Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

291

Solar Concepts: A Background Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

Gorham, Jonathan W.

292

Transformation and Text: Journal Pedagogy.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One intention that an instructor had for her new course called "Writing and Healing: Women's Journal Writing" was to make apparent the power of self-written text to transform the writer. She asked her students--women studying women writing their lives and women writing their own lives--to write three pages a day and to focus on change. The…

Ellis, Carol

293

Automatic Detection of Text Genre  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the text databases available to users become larger and more heterogeneous, genre becomes increasingly important for computational linguistics as a complement to topical and structural principles of classification. We propose a theory of genres as bundles of , which correlate with various surface cues, and argue that genre detection based on surface cues is as successful as detection based

Brett Kessler; Geoffrey Nunberg; Hinrich Schuetze

1997-01-01

294

Clustering Concept Hierarchies from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to learning taxonomies or concept hierarchies from text. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis, a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. Our approach is based on the distributional hypothesis, i.e. that nouns or terms are similar to the extent to which they share

Philipp Cimiano; Andreas Hotho

295

Reading Instruction and Text Difficulty  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An observational study investigated the influence of text difficulty (independent, instructional, or frustration level) on the reading experiences of students in grades 1-3 in two schools for the deaf. Participants included 12 students who are deaf or hard of hearing and 5 educators. The most significant findings were twofold. First, students…

Donne, Vicki

2011-01-01

296

Critical Edition of Sanskrit Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

A critical edition takes into account all the different known versions of the same text in order to show the differ- ences between any two distinct versions. The construction of a critical edition is a long and, sometimes, tedious work. Some software that help the philologist in such a task have been available for a long time for the European

Marc Csernel; François Patte

2008-01-01

297

Text-independent speaker identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe current approaches to text-independent speaker identification based on probabilistic modeling techniques. The probabilistic approaches have largely supplanted methods based on comparisons of long-term feature averages. The probabilistic approaches have an important and basic dichotomy into nonparametric and parametric probability models. Nonparametric models have the advantage of being potentially more accurate models (though possibly more fragile) while parametric models

H. Gish; M. Schmidt

1994-01-01

298

Predictive Encoding in Text Compression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)

Raita, Timo; Teuhola, Jukka

1989-01-01

299

Boosting based text and non-text region classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layout analysis is a crucial process for document image understanding and information retrieval. Document layout analysis depends on page segmentation and block classification. This paper describes an algorithm for extracting blocks from document images and a boosting based method to classify those blocks as machine printed text or not. The feature vector which is fed into the boosting classifier consists of a four direction run-length histogram, and connected components features in both background and foreground. Using a combination of features through a boosting classifier, we obtain an accuracy of 99.5% on our test collection.

Xie, Binqing; Agam, Gady

2011-01-01

300

Nizoral medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionMEDICATION GUIDE NIZORAL® (ketoconazole) Tablets ... Some people who were treated with ketoconazole the active ingredient in NIZORAL ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

301

Estazolam medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking to ... you did anything during the night. ... fully awake and do an activity that you do not know ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

302

Linzess medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... LINZESS is a prescription medication used in adults to treat • irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) • a type of constipation called ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

303

Adasuve medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... MEDICATION GUIDE ADASUVE™ (AD-uh-soov) (loxapine) ... have or have had seizures (convulsions) • drink alcohol or use street drugs ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

304

Rozerem Medication Guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... This Medication Guide does not take the place of ... and do an activity that you do not know you ... you may not remember that you did anything during ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

305

Onglyza medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... if you will be starting or stopping certain other types of medications, such as antibiotics, or medicines that treat fungus or HIV/AIDS, because your ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

306

Boniva medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. MEDICATION GUIDE Boniva® (bon-EE-va) (ibandronate) ... What are the ingredients in BONIVA? Active ingredient: ibandronate sodium ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

307

MEDICATION DEFERRAL LIST  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... There is concern that "Mad Cow Disease" is transmitted by transfusion. ... and Ticlid are medications that can decrease the chance of a heart attack or ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

308

Xeljanz medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. MEDICATION GUIDE XELJANZ (ZEL' JANS') (tofacitinib) ... What are the ingredients in XELJANZ? Active ingredient: tofacitinib citrate ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

309

Moving Objects Indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For querying large amounts of moving objects, a key problem is to create efficient indexing structures that make it possible to effectively answer various types of queries. Traditional spatial indexing approaches cannot be used because the locations of moving objects are highly dynamic, which leads to frequent updates of index structures, which in turn will cause huge overheads. In this chapter, we first introduce a few of the underlying spatial index structures including the R-tree, Grid File, and Quad-tree. Then, we propose the indexing methods for moving objects in Euclidean space and in spatial networks. Finally, we describe techniques that index the past, present, and anticipated future positions of moving objects.

Chen, Jidong; Meng, Xiaofeng

310

Searching the medical literature.  

PubMed

Medical literature searches have become more complex because of the increasing amount of published material and the multiple available databases indexing those publications. Although newly graduated physicians may have received some training in literature searching as part of a medical school curriculum, most clinicians have received no formal training in this skill. In today's world of evidence-based medicine, access to published data is crucial, and the importance of a systematic approach to searching cannot be overemphasized. A brief review of searching techniques can greatly increase productivity while using the MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica, Science Citation Index, and other databases. Similarly, knowing the options available for remote access to databases and electronic delivery of articles can expedite the task of accessing publications. PMID:15123924

Smith, Cheri G; Herzka, Andrea S; Wenz, James F

2004-04-01

311

Eco-Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Eco-Index, a project of the Rainforest Alliance, is "a searchable almanac of current and past conservation projects in Mesoamerica, with project descriptions, goals, achievements, lessons learned, and more." With current, well-presented features covering a range of biodiversity conservation issues, Eco-Index offers an excellent way for conservation researchers and practitioners to keep abreast of activity in their field. Users are encouraged to add their own project descriptions to the Eco-Index database. Available in English or Spanish.

312

The Healthy Eating Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To develop an index of overall diet quality.Design The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed based on a 10-component system of five food groups, four nutrients, and a measure of variety in food intake. Each of the 10 components has a score ranging from 0 to 10, so the total possible index score is 100.Methods\\/subjects Data from the 1989

EILEEN T KENNEDY; JAMES OHLS; STEVEN CARLSON; KATHRYN FLEMING

1995-01-01

313

Comparing syntactic complexity in medical and non-medical corpora.  

PubMed Central

With the growing use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques as solutions in Medical Informatics, the need to quickly and efficiently create the knowledge structures used by these systems has grown concurrently. Automatic discovery of a lexicon for use by an NLP system through machine learning will require information about the syntax of medical language. Understanding the syntactic differences between medical and non-medical corpora may allow more efficient acquisition of a lexicon. Three experiments designed to quantify the syntactic differences in medical and non-medical corpora were conducted. The results show that the syntax of medical language shows less variation than non-medical language and is likely simpler. The differences were great enough to question the applicability of general language tools on medical language. These differences may reduce the difficulty of some free text machine learning problems by capitalizing on the simpler nature of narrative medical syntax.

Campbell, D. A.; Johnson, S. B.

2001-01-01

314

Syntactic tools for text watermarking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper explores the morphosyntactic tools for text watermarking and develops a syntax-based natural language watermarking scheme. Turkish, an agglutinative language, provides a good ground for the syntax-based natural language watermarking with its relatively free word order possibilities and rich repertoire of morphosyntactic structures. The unmarked text is first transformed into a syntactic tree diagram in which the syntactic hierarchies and the functional dependencies are coded. The watermarking software then operates on the sentences in syntax tree format and executes binary changes under control of Wordnet to avoid semantic drops. The key-controlled randomization of morphosyntactic tool order and the insertion of void watermark provide a certain level of security. The embedding capacity is calculated statistically, and the imperceptibility is measured using edit hit counts.

Meral, Hasan M.; Sevinç, Emre; Ünkar, Ersin; Sankur, Bülent; Özsoy, A. S.; Güngör, Tunga

2007-02-01

315

Price Theory: An Intermediate Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

David D. Friedman, Professor of Law at Santa Clara University, has made his textbook, "Price Theory: An Intermediate Text" available on the web. The book focuses on trying to teach students the "economic way of thinking" and the "analytical core of economics -- price theory." Topics covered include consumer choice, market structure and economic efficiency. Price Theory also contains chapters on less conventional topics such as the political marketplace, the economics of law and law breaking; and the economics of love and marriage.

Friedman, David D.

1990-01-01

316

Multilingual Authoring Using Feedback Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are obvious reasons for trying to automate the production of multilingual documentation, especially for routine subject-matter in restricted domains (e.g. technical instructions). Two approaches have been adopted: Machine Translation (MT) of a source text, and Multilingual Natural Language Generation (M-NLG) from a knowledge base. For MT, information extraction is a major difficulty, since the meaning must be derived by

Richard Power; Donia Scott

1998-01-01

317

Decision Support via Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing volume of textual data presents genuine, modern day challenges that traditional decision support systems, focused\\u000a on quantitative data processing, are unable to address. The costs of competitive intelligence, customer experience metrics,\\u000a and manufacturing controls are escalating as organizations are buried in piles of open-ended responses, news articles and\\u000a documents. The emerging field of text mining is capable of

Josh Froelich; Sergei Ananyan

318

Guidance for Industry - Indexing Structured Product Label  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Indexing refers to the insertion of machine-readable tags, which do not appear in actual printed labeling, that enable users with clinical decision ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation

319

Human Development Index Data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This data set traces the varying patterns of national progress in recent decades, documenting impressive long-term Human Development Index (HDI) gains even in most low-income countries. The data set also includes three innovative new measurements: the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), the Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). The data set is available in both CSV and SDMX file formats and contains more than 100 indicators that measure quality of life for all UN member states.

Nations, United

320

Probabilistic Approaches for Modeling Text Structure and Their Application to Text-to-Text Generation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Since the early days of generation research, it has been acknowledged that modeling the global structure of a document is\\u000a crucial for producing coherent, readable output. However, traditional knowledge-intensive approaches have been of limited\\u000a utility in addressing this problem since they cannot be effectively scaled to operate in domain-independent, large-scale applications.\\u000a Due to this difficulty, existing text-to-text generation systems rarely

Regina Barzilay

2010-01-01

321

Practical vision based degraded text recognition system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published techniques. The system successfully produced impressive OCR accuracies (90% -to- 93%) using customized systems generated by our development framework in two industrial OCR applications: water bottle label text recognition and concrete slab plate text recognition. The system was also trained for the Arabic language alphabet, and demonstrated extremely high recognition accuracy (99%) for Arabic license name plate text recognition with processing times of 10 seconds. The accuracy and run times of the system were compared to conventional and many states of art methods, the proposed system shows excellent results.

Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

2011-02-01

322

Psychophysiological Patterns During Cell Phone Text Messaging: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the psychohysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college\\u000a students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper\\u000a trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis\\/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature\\u000a from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of

I-Mei Lin; Erik Peper

2009-01-01

323

Text from corners: a novel approach to detect text and caption in videos.  

PubMed

Detecting text and caption from videos is important and in great demand for video retrieval, annotation, indexing, and content analysis. In this paper, we present a corner based approach to detect text and caption from videos. This approach is inspired by the observation that there exist dense and orderly presences of corner points in characters, especially in text and caption. We use several discriminative features to describe the text regions formed by the corner points. The usage of these features is in a flexible manner, thus, can be adapted to different applications. Language independence is an important advantage of the proposed method. Moreover, based upon the text features, we further develop a novel algorithm to detect moving captions in videos. In the algorithm, the motion features, extracted by optical flow, are combined with text features to detect the moving caption patterns. The decision tree is adopted to learn the classification criteria. Experiments conducted on a large volume of real video shots demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed approaches and the real-world system. Our text and caption detection system was recently highlighted in a worldwide multimedia retrieval competition, Star Challenge, by achieving the superior performance with the top ranking. PMID:20729170

Zhao, Xu; Lin, Kai-Hsiang; Fu, Yun; Hu, Yuxiao; Liu, Yuncai; Huang, Thomas S

2010-08-19

324

Processing DNA molecules as text  

PubMed Central

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is the DNA-equivalent of Gutenberg’s movable type printing, both allowing large-scale replication of a piece of text. De novo DNA synthesis is the DNA-equivalent of mechanical typesetting, both ease the setting of text for replication. What is the DNA-equivalent of the word processor? Biology labs engage daily in DNA processing—the creation of variations and combinations of existing DNA—using a plethora of manual labor-intensive methods such as site-directed mutagenesis, error-prone PCR, assembly PCR, overlap extension PCR, cleavage and ligation, homologous recombination, and others. So far no universal method for DNA processing has been proposed and, consequently, no engineering discipline that could eliminate this manual labor has emerged. Here we present a novel operation on DNA molecules, called Y, which joins two DNA fragments into one, and show that it provides a foundation for DNA processing as it can implement all basic text processing operations on DNA molecules including insert, delete, replace, cut and paste and copy and paste. In addition, complicated DNA processing tasks such as the creation of libraries of DNA variants, chimeras and extensions can be accomplished with DNA processing plans consisting of multiple Y operations, which can be executed automatically under computer control. The resulting DNA processing system, which incorporates our earlier work on recursive DNA composition and error correction, is the first demonstration of a unified approach to DNA synthesis, editing, and library construction. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-010-9059-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Shabi, Uri; Kaplan, Shai; Linshiz, Gregory; BenYehezkel, Tuval; Buaron, Hen; Mazor, Yair

2010-01-01

325

Identifying issue frames in text.  

PubMed

Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909

Sagi, Eyal; Diermeier, Daniel; Kaufmann, Stefan

2013-07-16

326

Primary Students and Informational Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone who has spent time looking into science books with young children has no doubt experienced the endless questions that the information and visuals in the books can stimulate. Can snakes climb trees? How do frogs hide from predators? Why do volcanoes erupt? Books prompt questions, which can lead to further reading about and investigations of science topics. Whether from a textbook or a nonfiction trade book, informational text can be the fuel that sparks curiosity about and interest in science, thus contributing to the development of science attitudes.

Yopp, Hallie K.; Yopp, Ruth H.

2006-11-01

327

CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.

1997-01-01

328

Classification of Cancer Stage from Free-text Histology Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article investigates the classification of a patient's lung cancer stage based on analysis of their free-text medical reports. The system uses natural language processing to transform the report text, including identification of UMLS terms and detection of negated findings. The transformed report is then classified using statistical machine learning techniques. A support vector machine is trained for each stage

Iain McCowan; Darren Moore; Mary-Jane Fry

2006-01-01

329

TIGR Drosophila Gene Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Genomic Resources (TIGR) placed online the Drosophila Gene Index (version 1.1) in 1999. The index is searchable by nucleotide or protein sequence, identifier (TC, ET, EST, GB), tissue, or gene product name. Note that this resource is available free of charge "only to researchers at non-profit institutions using it for non-commercial purposes."

330

HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

331

HUMAN USE INDEX  

EPA Science Inventory

Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

332

Indexing Transitional Knowledge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various indexes have been proposed to mark when a child is on the verge of acquiring new knowledge. This article described a new method for indexing this point of transition, which is based on the specificity of children's verbal explanations. The degree to which children were specific in their verbal explanations was related to whether they benefited from instruction. In

Theresa Graham; Michelle Perry

1993-01-01

333

Indexing Editorial Cartoons.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses access to editorial cartoons, including the importance and worth of editorial cartoons; sources, including newspapers, museums, and special cartoon collections; indexing and classification; subject access; indexing by illustrator and subject; technology and access, including digital data; access to special collections; and access to…

Chapple-Sokol, Angie

1996-01-01

334

Generalization for Estrada Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper the Estrada index of Hermite matrix is firstly defined and investigated. In fact this is a natural generalization of Estrada, distance Estrada and Laplacian Estrada indices. Thus all properties about them can be handled by this new index.

Güngör, A. Dilek; Çevik, A. Sinan; Karpuz, Eylem G.; Ate?, Firat; Cangül, I. Naci

2010-09-01

335

Text Text Revolution: A Game That Improves Text Entry on Mobile Touchscreen Keyboards  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Mobile devices often utilize touchscreen keyboards for text input. However, due to the lack of tactile feedback and generally\\u000a small key sizes, users often produce typing errors. Key-target resizing, which dynamically adjusts the underlying target areas\\u000a of the keys based on their probabilities, can significantly reduce errors, but requires training data in the form of touch\\u000a points for intended keys.

Dmitry Rudchenko; Tim Paek; Eric Badger

336

Medical futility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physicians may employ the concept of medical futility to justify a decision not to pursue certain treatments that may be requested\\u000a or demanded by patients or surrogates. Medical futility means that the proposed therapy should not be performed because available\\u000a data show that it will not improve the patient’s medical condition. Medical futility remains ethically controversial for several\\u000a reasons. Some

James L. Bernat

2005-01-01

337

SENT: semantic features in text  

PubMed Central

We present SENT (semantic features in text), a functional interpretation tool based on literature analysis. SENT uses Non-negative Matrix Factorization to identify topics in the scientific articles related to a collection of genes or their products, and use them to group and summarize these genes. In addition, the application allows users to rank and explore the articles that best relate to the topics found, helping put the analysis results into context. This approach is useful as an exploratory step in the workflow of interpreting and understanding experimental data, shedding some light into the complex underlying biological mechanisms. This tool provides a user-friendly interface via a web site, and a programmatic access via a SOAP web server. SENT is freely accessible at http://sent.dacya.ucm.es.

Vazquez, Miguel; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Chagoyen, Monica; Tirado, Francisco; Carazo, Jose Maria; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

2009-01-01

338

Southeast Asian images and Texts project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast Asian Images and Text, a joint production of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, the General Library System, and the Division of Information Technology at the University of Wisconsin, is the beginning of an attempt to provide an "interactive multimedia database" including hyptertext bibliographic references and descriptive text for each multimedia item. The project is in its first phase: a searchable collection of images from the Philippines. Future plans include expansion of this collection to over 6,000 images and digital sound and video archives. The power of the site is its search capability, which offers keyword, atlas, and multiple field search. There are also 6 predefined searches that allow users to take a "virtual tour" through the collection, and a searchable inverted index of cataloging terms used in the development of the site. The site is accompanied by an essay on the development of photography in the Philippines, which demonstrates the integration of the project into multidisciplinary studies on the Philippines.

Mccoy, Alfred W.

1996-01-01

339

Index for Designation of Health Services Scarcity Areas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research conducted by the University of Wisconsin on an index of medically underserved areas is described. In August 1973, a group at the University of Wisconsin was asked to develop criteria for determining areas in the U.S. which were medically underser...

1974-01-01

340

Medical Device Safety  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety - Section Contents ... Medical Product Safety Network Emergency Situations (Medical Devices) - Medical Device Safety Search the Medical Device Safety Section Medical ...

341

Text documents as social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

2012-02-01

342

On confinement index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The smallest integer t for which the Wilson loop Wt fails to exhibit area law is known as the confinement index of a given field theory. The confinement index provides us with subtle information on the vacuum properties of the system. We study the behavior of the Wilson and 't Hooft loops and compute the confinement index in a wide class of N=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. All possible electric and magnetic screenings are taken into account. The results found are consistent with the ? periodicity, and whenever such a check is available, with the factorization property of Seiberg-Witten curves.

Konishi, Kenichi; Ookouchi, Yutaka

2010-03-01

343

Of Mania: introduction (Classic text no. 57).  

PubMed

Classic Text no. 57 is meant to illustrate the way in which the old, pre-1800 clinical notion of mania was transformed into its current counterpart. In Classical times, the term 'mania' had been used to refer to three orders of objects: medical (as featured in this introduction and in the Classic text), theological (two Greek deities) (Smith, 1870) and epistemological. In regard to the last, a mania of 'divine'origin is mentioned by Plato in the Phaedrus, as a way to gain full knowledge, i.e., to journey from the sensible world to the ideal or intelligible world.By the end of the nineteenth century, however, the clinical category 'mania' had changed its referent completely: it now named a different symptom-cluster, was inscribed in a novel nosological frame, and was explained by new mechanisms. This metamorphosis took about sixty years to complete, and the extract reprinted below instances the way in which such a process took place within English alienism. PMID:15104084

Berrios, G E

2004-03-01

344

Extraction of Text Objects in Image and Video Documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of digital image and video is increasing rapidly. To help users navigate libraries of image and video, Content Based Information Retrieval (CBIR) system that can automatically index image and video documents are needed. However, due to the semantic gap between low-level machine descriptors and high-level semantic descriptors, the existing CBIR systems are still far from perfect. Text embedded

Jing Zhang

2012-01-01

345

The Index of Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students explore the refraction of light at the boundary between materials: they learn about the refractive indices of various materials and measure the index of refraction of plastic or gelatin.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

346

Audio Indexing for Individualization  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Article describes a new development in indexing audiotapes called Zimdex. The system was developed in response to the problem of individualizing review materials for candidates studying the mathematics of life insurance. (Author/HB)

Rahmlow, Harold F.; And Others

1973-01-01

347

Vegetation Index for Europe.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The calculation of a Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) from NOAA AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data using spectral channels 1 and 2 is reported. NOAA AVHRR data are useful for land surface properties of importance in global and mesosca...

M. Eckardt W. Tonn

1992-01-01

348

Indexing the Human Genome.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this taped lecture methodologies for first-level analysis of human gene products are described and evaluated as tools required for indexing the human genome. In particular, he explores the utility of the technqiue of two dimensional gel electrophoresis...

1994-01-01

349

CAD Centre - Index Searcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A searchable index of the CAD Centre, a postgraduate teaching and research unit in design manufacture and engineering management, with research focused on design methods and computer support of the design process for engineering applications.

2007-10-11

350

Techniques for video indexing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data model for long objects (such as video files) is introduced, to support general referencing structures, along with various system implementation strategies. Based on the data model, various indexing techniques for video are then introduced. A set of basic functionalities is described, including all the frame level control, indexing, and video clip editing. We show how the techniques can be used to automatically index video files based on closed captions with a typical video capture card, for both compressed and uncompressed video files. Applications are presented using those indexing techniques in security control and viewers' rating choice, general video search (from laser discs, CD ROMs, and regular disks), training videos, and video based user or system manuals.

Chen, C.-Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Liu, Larry J.; Chang, Martin C.

1996-01-01

351

Natural Language Processing Versus Content-Based Image Analysis for Medical Document Retrieval  

PubMed Central

One of the most significant recent advances in health information systems has been the shift from paper to electronic documents. While research on automatic text and image processing has taken separate paths, there is a growing need for joint efforts, particularly for electronic health records and biomedical literature databases. This work aims at comparing text-based versus image-based access to multimodal medical documents using state-of-the-art methods of processing text and image components. A collection of 180 medical documents containing an image accompanied by a short text describing it was divided into training and test sets. Content-based image analysis and natural language processing techniques are applied individually and combined for multimodal document analysis. The evaluation consists of an indexing task and a retrieval task based on the “gold standard” codes manually assigned to corpus documents. The performance of text-based and image-based access, as well as combined document features, is compared. Image analysis proves more adequate for both the indexing and retrieval of the images. In the indexing task, multimodal analysis outperforms both independent image and text analysis. This experiment shows that text describing images can be usefully analyzed in the framework of a hybrid text/image retrieval system.

Neveol, Aurelie; Deserno, Thomas M.; Darmoni, Stefan J.; Guld, Mark Oliver; Aronson, Alan R.

2009-01-01

352

Measuring the representativeness of index terms in literary texts: an experiment on the Quran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concept hierarchy is a hierarchically organized collection of domain concepts. It is particularly useful in many applications such as information retrieval, document browsing and document classification. One of the important tasks in the construction of concept hierarchy is the identification of suitable terms with appropriate size of domain vocabulary. One way of achieving such a size is by using term

Hayati Abd Rahman; Shahrul Azman Noah; Hector Jimenez-Salazar

2008-01-01

353

Ranking the whole MEDLINE database according to a large training set using text indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The MEDLINE database contains over 12 million references to scientific literature, with about 3\\/4 of recent articles including an abstract of the publication. Retrieval of entries using queries with keywords is useful for human users that need to obtain small selections. However, particular analyses of the literature or database developments may need the complete ranking of all the references

Brian P. Suomela; Miguel A. Andrade

2005-01-01

354

Medication Guides for Certain Prescription Products  

MedlinePLUS

... to Z Index Follow FDA FDA Voice Blog Enter Search terms Search the FDA Archive Home Food Drugs Medical ... is no longer maintained and may be outdated. Enter Search terms For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section ...

355

Medical Subject Headings: Tree Structures, 1993.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All Medical Subject Headings currently in use by the National Library of Medicine's indexers, catalogers, and searchers are arranged in a hierarchical manner showing relationships between broader and narrower terms. Included are geographic descriptors as ...

1992-01-01

356

The Bibliographical Star Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Bibliographical Star Index (BSI) is a bibliographical survey of astrophysical papers on stars that were published in 12 journals from 1950 to 1972 or have been published in about 40 journals since 1972. Difficulties that prevented complete coverage of the stellar literature are discussed, along with limitations of and errors in the BSI. The contents of the BSI for the period from 1950 to 1978 are summarized, and the availability of the index is briefly noted.

Ochsenbein, F.

357

The nurse stress index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of the Nurse Stress Index (NSI): a self-report method of identifying sources of stress for groups of senior nurses (from sister\\/charge nurse level upwa30-item Index was shown to have acceptable levels of internal reliability (alpha =0.90) and split-half reliability (coefficient = 0.89). Content validity was ensured by involving nurses throughout the development, however, a number

Philip E. Harris

1989-01-01

358

Calculating a Biodiversity Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.

359

Medical Assistants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For a concise summary of the medical assistant profession the Medical Assistants entry in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook is must read. The site covers topics ranging from the nature of the profession, working conditions, earnings, and more. The section on training, qualifications and advancement will be of special interest to medical assistant faculty and students. The section on sources of addition information will also be a good launching point for anyone seeking additional online resources.

2006-11-01

360

Medical confidence.  

PubMed Central

If medical confidentiality is not observed patients may well be reluctant to disclose information to their doctors or even to seek medical advice. Therefore, argues the author, it is of the utmost importance that doctors strive to protect medical confidentiality, particularly now when it is under threat not only in this country but also overseas. The profession must cease to regard ethical issues to do with confidentiality, and indeed to do with all areas of medical practice, as abstract phenomena requiring no justification. If it does not then it will come under increasing and justified criticism from the community it serves.

Havard, J

1985-01-01

361

Using Indexes as "Memory Assists."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports findings of two research projects conducted at Temple University that investigated the usefulness of indexes as "memory assists" in locating specific items: title searching in the Social Science Index and the Humanities Index and author searches in those indexes and the Social Science Citation Index. Comparative performances are tabulated.…

Clever, Elaine C.

1979-01-01

362

Chemical Index to Fitness.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Studies accomplished under this contract included both independent studies at the Harbor-USLA Medical Center, Torrance, CA 90509, and collaborative studies of Navy personnel conducted with the Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA. The focus of thes...

R. T. Rubin

1980-01-01

363

Predictive validity of the nursing severity index in patients with musculoskeletal disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior studies have not examined the validity of severity of illness instruments in patients at low risk for mortality. We, therefore, examined the predictive validity of a newly developed instrument, the Nursing Severity Index in 5347 adult medical and surgical patients with musculoskeletal diagnoses admitted to an academic medical center in 1985–1988. The Index is based on aggregating 34 clinical

Gary E. Rosenthal; Edward J. Halloran; Marylou Kiley; C. Seth Landefeld

1995-01-01

364

Journals for Academic Veterinary Medical Libraries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This annual price study is the seventh derived from the Basic List of Veterinary Serials, 2d edition. The basic list is in three parts-core veterinary medical serials, an adjunct list of serials in the biomedical and life sciences, and relevant indexing and abstracting services. The Faxon Company supplied prices for all years. With this seventh study, indexing on a base

David C. Anderson

1993-01-01

365

[Changes in medical indicators during heliogeophysical disturbances].  

PubMed

Influence of heliogeophysical factors on medical indexes is studied. Relationship between changes of these indexes and solar flares, magnetic and ionospheric storms is analyzed. Possibility of forecasting the biotropic effects by using the starting of heliogeophysical events as predictions is showed. Comparisons between calculations and experimental data are provided. Reasonable agreement was obtained. PMID:7495908

Sergeenko, N P; Kuleshova, V P

366

Medication reviews  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a formalization of medication review by pharmacists in all settings of care. This article describes the different types of medication review provided in primary care in the UK National Health Service (NHS), summarizes the evidence of effectiveness and considers how such reviews might develop in the future. Medication review is, at heart, a diagnostic intervention which aims to identify problems for action by the prescriber, the clinican conducting the review, the patient or all three but can also be regarded as an educational intervention to support patient knowledge and adherence. There is good evidence that medication review improves process outcomes of prescribing including reduced polypharmacy, use of more appropriate medicines formulation and more appropriate choice of medicine. When ‘harder’ outcome measures have been included, such as hospitalizations or mortality in elderly patients, available evidence indicates that whilst interventions could improve knowledge and adherence they did not reduce mortality or hospital admissions with one study showing an increase in hospital admissions. Robust health economic studies of medication reviews remain rare. However a review of cost-effectiveness analyses of medication reviews found no studies in which the cost of the intervention was greater than the benefit. The value of medication reviews is now generally accepted despite lack of robust research evidence consistently demonstrating cost or clinical effectiveness compared with traditional care. Medication reviews can be more effectively deployed in the future by targeting, multi-professional involvement and paying greater attention to medicines which could be safely stopped.

Blenkinsopp, Alison; Bond, Christine; Raynor, David K

2012-01-01

367

Internet Corruption Perception Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Corruption Perception Index is provided by Transparency International and Goettingen University, Germany. The goal of the site to "rank countries by the extent of corruption in public administration." The ranking can then be used to help assess country risks. The Internet Corruption Perception Index is published annually and is based on "surveys undertaken by Gallup International, the World Competitiveness Yearbook, assessments by Political & Economic Risk Consultancy in Hong Kong, DRI/McGraw Hill Global Risk Service, Political Risk Services in Syracuse, USA, and data gathered from internet sources directly." The index for 1997 covers 52 countries, including both developed and developing countries. Recently added to the site is the report on the bribery propensity of leading exporting nations; this section investigates the "propensity to pay bribes for the acquisition of contracts in international trade." At the site, visitors can provide their own input on a country's bribery propensity.

1997-01-01

368

Negative acoustic index metamaterial  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acoustic metamaterials utilizing periodic deep subwavelength resonators can attain negative acoustic properties unavailable in nature. We have developed a negative acoustic index metamaterial for water that combines Helmholtz and rod-spring resonators to control effective bulk modulus and mass density, respectively. Effective properties extracted from full-wave simulations of our metamaterial show that negative real components of bulk modulus and density occur simultaneously, resulting in a negative real component of the acoustic index. Experimental measurements on a sample of this metamaterial confirm that the real components of the acoustic index and bulk modulus attain negative values, but the density does not become negative. The primary causes of this are identified and potential solutions are presented.

Fok, L.; Zhang, X.

2011-06-01

369

Sustainability index for Taipei  

SciTech Connect

Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years.

Lee, Y.-J. [Taoyuan City Government, No. 7, Hsien Fu Road, Taoyuan City, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: yungjaanlee@pchome.com.tw; Huang Chingming [Guangzhou Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: michael@everwin.com.tw

2007-08-15

370

Nuclear standards: Master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflect the current status of the standard (see legend). The ''Nuclear Energy Standards KWIC Index'' of NE standards, also published by the Performance Assurance Project Office, should be consulted for information on standards when the assigned numbers are not known.

Not Available

1987-01-30

371

Nuclear Standards Master Index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standard writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remark column which reflects the current status of the standard (see legend). This January 1984 issue covers July through December 1983. The Nuclear Energy Standards KWIC Index of NE standards, also published by the Nuclear Standards Program Information Center, should be consulted for information on standards when the assigned numbers are not known.

Not Available

1984-01-20

372

TIGR Drosophila Gene Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

TIGR, The Institute for Genomic Research, has announced the release of the Drosophila Gene Index (DGI). The Drosophila Gene Index, which may be searched by Nucleotide or Protein Sequence, Identifier (TC, ET, EST, GB) Tissue, cDNA Library Name or cDNA Library Identifier(cat#), or Gene Product Name, contains some 50,500 total sequences (ET, EST, TC, and singletons). Data may be requested free of charge by "researchers at non-profit institutions using it for non-commercial purposes;" instructions are provided on-site.

1999-01-01

373

"Free Full Text Articles": Where to Search for Them?  

PubMed Central

References form the backbone of any medical literature. Presently, because of high inflation, it is very difficult for any library/organization/college to purchase all journals. The condition is even worse for an individual person, such as private practitioners. The solution lies in the free availability of full-text articles. Here, the authors share their experiences about the accessibility of free full-text articles.

Singh, Ashish; Singh, Manish; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Deepti; Singh, Pratibha; Sharma, Abhishek

2011-01-01

374

A comprehensive method for multilingual video text detection, localization, and extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. This paper performs a detailed analysis of multilingual text characteristics, including English

Michael R. Lyu; Jiqiang Song; Min Cai

2005-01-01

375

Enriching text with images and colored light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

2008-01-01

376

Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this interactive activity adapted from Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health by the U.S. EPA, learn about common pollutants in the air we breathe, their health effects, and how their levels are reported.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-03-21

377

Gradient-Index Optics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

SAIC has performed an effort to advance the state of the art in gradient-index (GRIN) nanolayered polymer optics. The goal of this study was to take significant risks off the table with regard to practical high-performance GRIN optical designs. The DARPA ...

N. Shatz

2010-01-01

378

Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Air Quality Index (AQI) site contains tutorials about the difference between clean and dirty air, what the AQI is and the colors and numbers used to describe it, the effect of air pollution on health, and what people can do about pollution. There are also online games, which test understanding of the tutorials and a section containing teacher materials.

379

On indexing mobile objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show how to index mobile objects in one and two di- mensions using efficient dynamic external memory data structures. The problem is motivated by real life appli- cations in traffic monitoring, intelligent navigation and mobile communications domains. For the l-dimensional case, we give (i) a dynamic, external memory algo- rithm with guaranteed worst case performance and lin- ear space

George Kollios; Dimitrios Gunopulos; Vassilis J. Tsotras

1999-01-01

380

Miller Indexes Examples Animation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 3-D animation is a visualization of the Miller indices (Miller indexes) showing approximately 24 various possible planes. The 3 intercepts are shown along with the plane notation. This would be useful for understanding reciprocal lattice vectors, specifically in crystallographic studies for electrical engineering.

2009-07-22

381

A Social Capital Index  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; Del Pozo, Mónica

2011-09-01

382

Landscape development intensity index.  

PubMed

The condition of landscapes and the ecological communities within them is strongly related to levels of human activity. Human-dominated land uses and especially the intensity of the uses can affect adjacent ecological communities through direct, secondary, and cumulative impacts. Using land use data and a development-intensity measure derived from energy use per unit area, an index of Landscape Development Intensity (LDI) can be calculated for watersheds of varying sizes to estimate the potential impacts from human-dominated activities that are experienced by ecological systems within those watersheds. The intended use of the LDI is as an index of the human disturbance gradient (the level of human induced impacts on the biological, chemical, and physical processes of surrounding lands or waters). The LDI can be used at the scale of river, stream, or lake watersheds or at the smaller scale of individual isolated wetland watersheds. Based on land uses and land cover, the LDI can be applied using available GIS land use/land cover data, aerial photographs, or field surveys. A description of data needs and methods for calculating an LDI index and several applications of the index as a land use based ranking scheme of the human disturbance gradient for watersheds are given. PMID:15736887

Brown, Mark T; Vivas, M Benjamin

2005-02-01

383

Negative acoustic index metamaterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic metamaterials utilizing periodic deep subwavelength resonators can attain negative acoustic properties unavailable in nature. We have developed a negative acoustic index metamaterial for water that combines Helmholtz and rod-spring resonators to control effective bulk modulus and mass density, respectively. Effective properties extracted from full-wave simulations of our metamaterial show that negative real components of bulk modulus and density occur

L. Fok; X. Zhang

2011-01-01

384

Nuclear standards master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available

1985-07-24

385

Nuclear Standards Master Index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available

1983-01-01

386

Nuclear Standards master index  

SciTech Connect

This index provides a complete list, organized by standard numbers, of all assigned NE numbers, their title, issue date, amendment number and date, issue date of the superseded standard if any, standards writer/cognizant engineer, DOE/cognizant engineer, and a remarks column which reflects the current status of the standard.

Not Available

1986-07-01

387

Leaf area index measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leaf area index (LAI) is a key structural characteristic of forest ecosystems because of the role of green leaves in controlling many biological and physical processes in plant canopies. Accurate LA1 estimates are required in studies of ecophysiology , atmosphere-ecosystem interactions, and global change. The objective of this paper is to evaluate LA1 values obtained by several research teams using

Jing M. Chen; Paul Steven Plummer; M. Rich; Stith T. Gower; John M. Norman

1997-01-01

388

Index: FOI Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This cumulative index provides a listing, by topic, of the following Freedom of Information Center reports: reports 1 through 340, summary papers S1 through S38, and opinion papers 001 through 0017. Subject titles include, among many others, "Academic Freedom,""Book Censorship,""Consumer Protection,""Gag Orders,""Press Councils,""TV News," and…

Atkins, Jeanni

389

Biographical Index of Astronomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Wilhelm Brüggenthies; Wolfgang R. Dick

2005-01-01

390

Indexes of Biographies  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website allows the learner to choose an important person who contributed to science, alphabeticallly or chronologically. This index contains many people who not only contributed to astronomy but to the other sciences as well as mathematics. For each person there is an account of his or her life, educational background, and famous works.

Usa

2004-07-16

391

Practical modified Gini index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Gini index is the most common method for estimating the level of income inequality in countries. In this article, we suggest a simple modification that takes into account the moderating effect of in-kind government benefits. Unlike other studies that use micro-level data that are rarely available for many countries or over a period of time, the proposed Modified Gini

Miki Malul; Daniel Shapira; Amir Shoham

2013-01-01

392

Medical pleuroscopy.  

PubMed

There has been an exciting expansion in the practice of medical pleuroscopy in recent years. As technology has become more available and confidence in the use of equipment has grown, medical thoracoscopy has become a core diagnostic and therapeutic tool in pleural disease care. Despite this, many areas of medical pleuroscopy practice remain conspicuously devoid of well-established evidence. More knowledge is needed in those areas where there is currently a degree of equipoise. Many areas where pleuroscopy currently has a marginal role require high-quality randomized trials be undertaken with a view to informing future practice and guidelines. PMID:23993819

Bhatnagar, Rahul; Maskell, Nick A

2013-06-18

393

The COPD Helplessness Index  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. Methods: We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. Results: The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach ? = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P < .001). Higher CHI scores were associated with worse generic (Short Form-12, Physical Component Summary Score) and respiratory-specific (Airways Questionnaire 20) health-related quality of life, greater depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety (all P < .001). Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P < .001). After also controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index ? median (hazard ratio = 1.35; P = .01), but not among subjects with higher BODE Index values (hazard ratio = 0.93; P = .34). Conclusions: The CHI is an internally consistent and valid measure, concurrently associated with health status and predictively associated with COPD exacerbations. The CHI may prove a useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes.

Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

2010-01-01

394

Medical Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

Barker, M. C. J.

1996-01-01

395

Medication Errors  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... The DMEPA also works closely with federal partners, patient safety organizations such as Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), standard ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/drugsafety/medicationerrors

396

Cardiac Medications  

MedlinePLUS

... Prinivil, Zestril) Moexipril (Univasc) Perindopril (Aceon) Quinapril (Accupril) Ramipril (Altace) Trandolapril (Mavik) What the Medication Does Expands ... include: Acebutolol (Sectral) Atenolol (Tenormin) Betaxolol ... (Ziac) Bisoprolol (Zebeta) Carteolol (Cartrol) Metoprolol (Lopressor, Toprol ...

397

Medical nanobots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Researchers working in medical nanorobotics are creating technologies that could lead to novel health-care applications, such as new ways of accessing areas of the human body that would otherwise be unreachable without invasive surgery.

Kirk L. Kroeker

2009-01-01

398

Clinical / Medical  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... Clinical / Medical, Diabetes Mellitus: Developing Drugs and Therapeutic Biologics for Treatment and Prevention (PDF - 265KB), Draft Guidance, 03 ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/guidancecomplianceregulatoryinformation/guidances

399

Medication Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... in people who have open-angle glaucoma. Side Effects In initial studies, between 5% and 15% of people who used this medication reported a gradual change in eye color, due to an increased amount of brown pigment ...

400

Medical Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)|

Barker, M. C. J.

1996-01-01

401

Medical Assistants  

MedlinePLUS

... Schedule patient appointments Prepare blood for laboratory tests Electronic health records (EHRs) are changing medical assistants' jobs. ... also learns how to code both paper and electronic health records and how to record patient information. ...

402

Medication Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Medication calculation needs to be completed accurately for proper patient treatment. In this section you will need to review and improve your medication math. Understanding math: Math and Culture Refresher: Take the amount of fluid in the bottle and times that by the dose ordered. Then divide this number by the amount of drug in the bottle. This will give you the volume of the drug that you need to administer. Diagram of formulas Math Formulas Math ...

Joey

2008-10-16

403

Medical marijuana.  

PubMed

The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. George Sowell was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned Sowell's conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits. PMID:11366533

1999-04-30

404

An index of factorial simplicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An index of factorial simplicity, employing the quartimax transformational criteria of Carroll, Wrigley and Neuhaus, and Saunders, is developed. This index is both for each row separately and for a factor pattern matrix as a whole. The index varies between zero and one. The problem of calibrating the index is discussed.

Henry F. Kaiser

1974-01-01

405

Fiber optic refractive index monitor  

DOEpatents

A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01

406

Medical Device Recalls  

MedlinePLUS

... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device ... Learn more about medical device recalls here . - Recent Medical Device Recalls Listed by date posted on FDA website. ...

407

Automatic annotation of multilingual text collections with a conceptual thesaurus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Automatic annotation of documents,with controlled vocabulary terms (descriptors) from a conceptual ,thesaurus is not only useful for document ,indexing ,and ,re- trieval. The mapping ,of texts ,onto the same thesaurus furthermore allows to es- tablish links between ,similar documents. This is also a substantial requirement of the Semantic Web. This paper presents analmost,language-independent system that maps,documents,written in different languages,onto

Bruno Pouliquen; Ralf Steinberger; Camelia Ignat

2006-01-01

408

FTSE US ACTIVEBETA INDEX SERIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

FTSE US ACTIVEBETA INDEX SERIES PERFORMANCE (USD TOTAL RETURN) The FTSE US ActiveBeta Index Series offers an efficient, transparent and cost-effective capture of the systematic sources of active equity returns, and provides the ability to capture them either independently or in combination. The Index Series comprises the FTSE US ActiveBeta Momentum Index, the FTSE US ActiveBeta Value Index and the

409

Clinical text classification under the Open and Closed Topic Assumptions.  

PubMed

This paper investigates multi-topic aspects in automatic classification of clinical free text in comparison with general text. In this paper, we facilitate two different views on multi-topics: the Closed Topic Assumption (CTA) and the Open Topic Assumption (OTA). Experimental results show that the characteristics of multi-topic assignments in the Computational Medicine Centre (CMC) Medical NLP Challenge Data is strongly OTA-oriented but general text Reuters-21578 is characterised in the middle of the OTA and CTA spectrum. PMID:19623772

Sasaki, Yutaka; Rea, Brian; Ananiadou, Sophia

2009-01-01

410

Medieval Feminist Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The librarians and scholars who maintain the Medieval Feminist Index (MFI) compile citations for journal articles, book reviews, and essays relating to women, sexuality, and gender during the Middle Ages (450 CE to 1500 CE). Currently, MFI contains over 2500 citations from over 350 journals and essay collections, covering publications in English, French, German, and Spanish from 1994 through 1997. The entire MFI is searchable by title, author, subject, source, and date. In addition to these standard search fields, the descriptive indexing provides searchable fields for geographic region, century, and article type to facilitate detailed cross-field searches. Searching the MFI is quite simple, but users should note the following peculiarities: vague or allusive titles are appended with a summary sentence to enhance description; subject headings are controlled by a customized thesaurus, which can be viewed but not browsed; and some full citation records supply abstracts, but abstracts are not searchable by keyword.

411

CHI_PET: Computerized hierarchical indexing of petrological information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

CHI_PET is a utility, written in DbaseIV programming language, which indexes petrological and geological information in a database. The process is completely automatic and computer driven, making a comprehensive search of free-text fields for geological information, testing for 10,500 petrological and geological terms contained in current geological dictionaries. The utility uses a hierarchical index structure which has 369 components representing major headings and subheadings within the index structure given in Tomkeieff's "Dictionary of Petrology". The hierarchical structure is significant because it allows for synonymous scientific terms and provides for the recognition of subset relations. The free-text fields are treated with a record-optimized search/match procedure, with successful index strikes accumulated up the hierarchical structure. Dead words such as 'and, the' and nonsignificant characters such as ' + - /' are ignored. The process generates an index vector which shows the geological composition of each record. A database for a Rock Collection of 50,000 rocks was indexed at a rate of 2500 records per hour. An equivalent geological index would have required years of work to prepare manually. The CHI_PET process is convenient to use, and the resultant index vector also is easy to address, update, and use for retrieval. Output uses of the index vectors include: ad hoc reports for rocks that pass a selection sieve of specified index categories; an index for a suite of rocks; pseudocluster diagrams showing the index composition for a suite of rocks. A layout of the enhanced index structure is given, along with listings of the Dbase programs, and samples of output products. With minor modification to the CHI_PET utility, any hierarchical structure of index terms can be used to index free text fields in databases.

Barron, L. M.

1993-08-01

412

[Modified overcrowd index in emergency room].  

PubMed

Introduction: Overcrowd of emergency rooms affects efficiency and quality of medical care. Objectives: To describe the mathematical-computational system modified overcrowd index which measures in real time and in four levels of warnings (non crowded, crowded, overcrowded and extreme overcrowded) emergency room saturation in a network of hospitals, from only seven simple variables (number of available beds, physicians and nurses, number of patients in the waiting room, in medical consultation and admitted for further evaluation, as well as number of critically ill patients admitted). Materials and methods: The modified overcrowd index was exhaustively tested with 245,280 virtual transactions from seven hospitals in an uninterrupted schedule basis simulating hourly surveillance for four years. Results: From 224 episodes of overcrowd, 216 (97%) where correctly identified and verified by the network of hospitals warnings, its time series also provided useful information about available personnel and resource distribution within the hospital network. Conclusions: Modified overcrowd index is an efficient tool detecting emergency room overcrowd outbreaks in a network of hospitals. PMID:23999633

Polanco-González, Carlos; Castañón-González, Jorge Alberto; Buhse, Thomas; Samaniego-Mendoza, José Lino; Arreguín-Nava, Rocío; Villanueva-Martínez, Sebastián

413

Health Index Plus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Health Index Plus, a consumer health information CD-ROM database, was field-tested by staff and patrons at a public library in Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. Ease-of-use, database content and quality, and appropriateness for audience were evaluated. Overall, patrons found the database simple to use. The contents focus on topics of popular interest and provide access 10 scientific material that is normally not available

Catherine Alloway; Edward Cool; Sherry Feintuch; Carol Giblin

1992-01-01

414

The Long Island Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a multi-faceted approach that combines analysis of existing statistical data, original research, survey data, and comparative\\u000a case studies, the Long Island Index has helped to clarify the complex dynamics of the region and succeeded in reaching a wide audience including leaders who\\u000a shape regional policy. This chapter explores the nature of the target area, Long Island, defining the characteristics

Ann Golob

415

Brovana medication guide  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... 166 • To report side effects, call 1-877-737-7226. 167 • For medical information, call 1-800-739-0565. Page 5 of 9 Reference ID: 2899192 Page 6. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

416

Healing Medical Architecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This text is very different from the ones we expect to listen to in such a conference. In fact, this lecture deals with neither equipment nor procedures promoting the latest medical techniques in curing diseases. On the contrary it encourages us to look a...

E. Tzouriadou-Teske

2001-01-01

417

Medication (for Vestibular Disorders)  

MedlinePLUS

... Exercise Medication Surgical Procedures Types of Vestibular Disorders Medication Can Medication Help Me Feel Better? The use of medication in treating vestibular disorders depends on whether the ...

418

Using the Fleming index of dysphagia to establish prevalence  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Fleming index of dysphagia was used to determine the prevalence of dysphagia in patients in a long-term, neuropsychiatric\\u000a medical center. Prevalence varied by section, with the ventilator-dependent patients having the highest rate and the chemical-dependent\\u000a patients having the lowest. The Fleming index appears to be a quick and useful instrument to identify patients who are at\\u000a risk of dysphagic

Kristine A. Layne; Diane S. Losinski; Pamela M. Zenner; Judy A. Ament

1989-01-01

419

Are Islamic Indexes more Volatile than Conventional Indexes? Evidence from Dow Jones Indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine whether global or local events are important drivers in causing major shifts and excessive volatility in Islamic indexes than in conventional indexes. We apply an iterative cumulative sum of squares (ICSS) algorithm to identify structural breaks in the volatility of several major Dow Jones Islamic and conventional indexes over the period 1996-2009. The results show that both indexes

Amélie Charles; Olivier Darné; Adrian Pop

2012-01-01

420

Research and exploration of text mining technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduced the text excavation's research condition, has analyzed the text excavation basic concept and the technology, summarized the text excavation process, the commonly used algorithm, the text classification, the text cluster, the connection analysis, the tendency forecast and so on, pointed out that the algorithm the insufficiency, has forecast the text excavation futurology question and the direction.

Cao Lijun; Yu Hongkui; Li Yuxiang; Liu Xiyin

2010-01-01

421

Automatic indexing of scanned documents: a layout-based approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Archiving official written documents such as invoices, reminders and account statements in business and private area gets more and more important. Creating appropriate index entries for document archives like sender's name, creation date or document number is a tedious manual work. We present a novel approach to handle automatic indexing of documents based on generic positional extraction of index terms. For this purpose we apply the knowledge of document templates stored in a common full text search index to find index positions that were successfully extracted in the past.

Esser, Daniel; Schuster, Daniel; Muthmann, Klemens; Berger, Michael; Schill, Alexander

2012-01-01

422

Little Words Can Make a Big Difference for Text Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most information retrieval systems use stopword lists and\\u000a stemming algorithms. However, we have found that\\u000a recognizing singular and plural nouns, verb forms,\\u000a negation, and prepositions can produce dramatically\\u000a different text classification results. We present results\\u000a from text classification experiments that compare\\u000a relevancy signatures, which use local linguistic context,\\u000a with corresponding indexing terms that do not. In two\\u000a different domains, relevancy

Ellen Riloff

1995-01-01

423

Presentations: Preventing Medication Errors Through Good ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text Version... Page 2. Preventing Medication Errors Through Good Labeling Practices – Panel 2 June 24, 2010 ... Page 7. Preventing Medication Errors Through ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/newsevents

424

Pediatric Labeling for Medical Countermeasures: Anthrax ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text VersionPage 1. Pediatric Labeling for Medical Countermeasures: Anthrax Examples John Alexander, MD, MPH Medical Team Leader, ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

425

New Medical Devices: Invention, Development and Use,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reference text for health professionals and the medical device industry presents 11 expert overview papers on innovations in the development of medical devices in the rapidly changing health care environment. The papers are grouped among three principal...

K. B. Ekelman

1988-01-01

426

NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES PANEL OF THE MEDICAL ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... PANEL OF THE MEDICAL DEVICES ADVISORY COMMITTEE TO ... Foundation for Medical Care Denver ... and Associates Consulting Roseville, MN ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

427

MEDICAL FILING REVIEW MEMORANDUM OF ORIGINAL ...  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Antitrypsin Deficiency Program, National Jewish Medical and ... Alpha One Foundation Research Professor ... 452 Medical Science Building, Gainesville ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts

428

Division of Medical Imaging Products Transfer Applications  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionPage 1. Division of Medical Imaging Products INDs to DMIP ... 018058 Page 2. Division of Medical Imaging Products INDs to ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/aboutfda/centersoffices

429

Medical Biofilms  

PubMed Central

For more than two decades, Biotechnology and Bioengineering has documented research focused on natural and engineered microbial biofilms within aquatic and subterranean ecosystems, wastewater and waste-gas treatment systems, marine vessels and structures, and industrial bioprocesses. Compared to suspended culture systems, intentionally engineered biofilms are heterogeneous reaction systems that can increase reactor productivity, system stability, and provide inherent cell: product separation. Unwanted biofilms can create enormous increases in fluid frictional resistances, unacceptable reductions in heat transfer efficiency, product contamination, enhanced material deterioration, and accelerated corrosion. Missing from B&B has been an equivalent research dialogue regarding the basic molecular microbiology, immunology, and biotechnological aspects of medical biofilms. Presented here are the current problems related to medical biofilms; current concepts of biofilm formation, persistence, and interactions with the host immune system; and emerging technologies for controlling medical biofilms.

2009-01-01

430

Information Activities in Medical Library : Tokyo Women's Medical College Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.

Nishioka, Masayuki

431

Consistent Partition and Labelling of Text Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  This paper presents a text block extraction algorithm that takes as its input a set of text lines of a given document, and\\u000a partitions the text lines into a set of text blocks, where each text block is associated with a set of homogeneous formatting\\u000a attributes, e.g. text-alignment, indentation. The text block extraction algorithm described in this paper is probability

Jisheng Liang; Ihsin T. Phillips; Robert M. Haralick

2000-01-01

432

29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

433

Using latent semantic indexing for information filtering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is an information retrieval method that organizes information into a semantic structure that takes advantage of some of the implicit higher-order associations of words with text objects. The resulting structure reflects the major associative patterns in the data while ignoring some of the smaller variations that may be due to idiosyncrasies in the word usage of

Peter W. Foltz

1990-01-01

434

Hawaiian Bird Bibliography. Part II. Keyword Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bird bibliography has a keyword index which is composed of both title and content text words, within some context. Title keywords are listed alphabetically and may be located simply by browsing; context is provided by adjacent portions of the title. C...

W. E. Banko

1978-01-01

435

INDEX OF MEMORANDA OF INTERPRETATION (Ma) ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

Text Version... Ma-54 Use of Whey in Grade “A” Milk and Milk Products Sec. 9 2/3/1975 Inactive See Ma-64 Ma-INDEX ... Sec. 7 3/14/1975 Inactive See Ma-64 Sup. ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/food/guidanceregulation

436

Scentindex: Conceptually Reorganizing Subject Indexes for Reading  

Microsoft Academic Search

A great deal of analytical work is done in the context of reading, in digesting the semantics of the material, the identification of important entities, and capturing the relationship between entities. Visual analytic environments, therefore, must encompass reading tools that enable the rapid digestion of large amount of reading material. Other than plain text search, subject indexes, and basic highlighting,

Ed H. Chi; Lichan Hong; Julie Heiser; Stuart K. Card

2006-01-01

437

A probabilistic model for Latent Semantic Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dimension reduction methods, such as Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), when ap- plied to semantic space built upon text collections, improve information retrieval, infor- mation ltering and word sense disambiguation. A new dual probability model based on the similarity concepts is introduced to provide deeper understanding of LSI. Se- mantic associations can be quantitatively characterized by their statistical signicance, the likelihood.

Chris H. Q. Ding

2005-01-01

438

Software Maintainability Index Revisited  

SciTech Connect

For many years now, software practitioners have been collecting metrics from source code in an effort to better understand the software they are developing or changing. Maintainability Index (MI) is a composite metric that incorporates a number of traditional source code metrics into a single number that indicates relative maintainability. As originally proposed by Oman and Hagemeister, the MI is comprised of weighted Halstead metrics (effort or volume), McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity, lines of code (LOC), and number of comments [1, 2]. Two equations were presented: one that considered comments and one that did not.

Welker, Kurt Dean

2001-08-01

439

Index Nominum Genericorum (ING)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Index Nominum Genericorum is a collaborative project of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) and the Smithsonian Institution. ING was formed to bring all generic names of plants together in a single list, revealing homonymy between groups. This searchable database includes bibliographic citations, as well as information about the "typification and nomenclatural status" of generic names. For researchers or students of taxonomic botany, this site provides a useful, though highly specific, service. Note that the on-line version of ING will be modified to reflect new listings and taxonomic changes.

1996-01-01

440

Wan2tlk?: everyday text messaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texting--using a mobile phone to send text messages--has become a form of mass communication. Building on studies that described how British teenagers have incorporated text messaging into their lives, we examine the purposes and nature of the conversations themselves. We also present findings that suggest that teenagers do not have many simultaneous multiple conversations via text messaging; end most text

Rebecca E. Grinter; Margery Eldridge

2003-01-01

441

E-Texts in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A May 2007 Congressional advisory committee found that average full-time undergraduates spent between $700 and $1,000 on textbooks in 2003-2004 and that from 1987-2004, textbook prices at four-year public colleges rose 109 percent compared to a rise in the Consumer Price Index of 65 percent. Higher education is transitioning from atoms…

Hannon, Charles

2008-01-01

442

Constructing Suffix Arrays of Large Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, Sadakane [12] proposes a new fast andmemory efficient algorithm for sorting suffixes of a textin lexicographic order. It is important to sort suffixesbecause an array of indexes of suffixes is called suffixarray and it is a memory efficient alternative ofthe suffix tree. Sorting suffixes is also used for theBurrows-Wheeler transformation in the Block Sortingtext compression, therefore fast sorting algorithms

K. Sadakane; H. Imai

1998-01-01

443

Case-Based Reasoning from Text Documents (Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many domains where case-based reasoning has been applied beneficially, cases are available as texts. Examples are legal reasoning (Aleven, 1997) and helpdesk systems (Lenz & Burkhard, 1997), but also ethical reasoning (Ashley & McLaren, 1995), medical applications and question-answering systems (Burke, et.al., 1997). Representing these cases in a structured way, so that they can be used in a case-

Stefanie Brüninghaus

444

PEDINFO: An Index of the Pediatric Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site gathers pointers to Internet resources for pediatricians and others interested in pediatrics. As the editor of the site points out, the only criterion for inclusion in this index is, "Would this resource be of use to a pediatrician?" Sections include: conditions and diseases, subspecialties and areas of study, institutions, education, publications, software, Internet exploration, parenting, and information on the PEDINFO mailing list on pediatric medical informatics. A search engine for the entire site is available. A notable resource is the "Help" page, which is a guide to finding pediatric information on the Internet, not just on this particular site.

1997-01-01

445

Medical Instrumentation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students will discuss the special considerations that must be made when dealing with the human body, and will gain an appreciation for the amazing devices that have improved our quality of life. They will also explore how 'Form Fits Function'. This lesson should serve as a starting point for students to begin to ponder how the medical devices in their everyday lives actually work.

Techtronics Program

446

Medical imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is now a wide choice of medical imaging to show both focal and diffuse pathologies in various organs. Conventional radiology with plain films, fluoroscopy and contrast medium have many advantages, being readily available with low-cost apparatus and a familiarity that almost leads to contempt. The use of plain films in chest disease and in trauma does not need emphasizing,

L. Kreel

1991-01-01

447

Medical genetics  

SciTech Connect

This book presents a discussion of medical genetics for the practitioner treating or counseling patients with genetic disease. It includes a discussion of the relationship of heredity and diseases, the chromosomal basis for heredity, gene frequencies, and genetics of development and maldevelopment. The authors also focus on teratology, somatic cell genetics, genetics and cancer, genetics of behavior.

Nora, J.J.; Fraser, F.C.

1989-01-01

448

Medical Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent progress in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic-resonance imaging (nmr or mri), computer tomography (CT with X-rays), and positron-emission tomography (PET scanning using short-lived radioactive nuclei) has been impressive. Two areas where diagnostic tools lacked behind have been tomography of the blood vessels of the brain and of the bronchi.

Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

449

Are Good Texts Always Better? Interactions of Text Coherence, Background Knowledge, and Levels of Understanding in Learning from Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Two experiments investigated the role of text coherence in junior high school students' comprehension of science texts. Found that text coherence improved readers' comprehension, but also that giving readers with sufficient background knowledge an incoherent text that forced them to infer unstated relations engaged them in compensatory…

McNamara, Danielle S.; And Others

1996-01-01

450

Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

Hung, Jui-long

2012-01-01

451

Use of Text Messaging by Navy Recruiters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In Summer 2008, Navy recruiters were invited to participate in the first known survey conducted through cell phone text message. Recruiters received two text message questions, one about their use of text messaging for contacting potential applicants and ...

E. M. Clewis Z. A. Uriell

2009-01-01

452

Index Sets and Vectorization  

SciTech Connect

Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

Keasler, J A

2012-03-27

453

Medical Device Review at CBER  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... ways, several different times, trying to describe the areas that they ... SLIDE 51 This concludes the presentation, "Medical Device Review at CBER". ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/biologicsbloodvaccines/internationalactivities

454

On Indexation and Contract Length.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the effects of wage indexation on macroeconomic fluctuations in a model which highlights the joint determination of two contract characteristics: contract length and an indexing parameter. Within the framework developed by this ana...

J. A. Gray

1976-01-01

455

Characterizing Reading Comprehension of Mathematical Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares reading comprehension of three different texts: two mathematical texts and one historical text. The two\\u000a mathematical texts both present basic concepts of group theory, but one does it using mathematical symbols and the other only\\u000a uses natural language. A total of 95 upper secondary and university students read one of the mathematical texts and the historical\\u000a text.

Magnus Österholm

2006-01-01

456

Refractive index of alcohol nonionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Refractive index is a rapid and consistent method of analysis for alcohols and nonionics from normal alcohols and ethylene\\u000a oxide. Correlations of refractive index with hydroxyl number of alcohols and nonionics are excellent and measurement error\\u000a is considerably lower for refractive index. Refractive index affords a measurement of the amount of ethylene oxide in nonionics\\u000a and can be used as

D. R. Weimer; L. D. Lindemuth; W. L. Groves

1967-01-01

457

Parallelization of FM-Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

A parallel design and implementation of FM-index is presented in this paper. In applications, the performance of the FM-index is crucial, which is a self-contained, highly compressed indexing algorithm. With the popularity of multi-core processors, parallel computing allows the FM-index to run faster by performing multiple computations simultaneously when possible. Our approach works by splitting input data into overlapping blocks

Di Zhang; Yunquan Zhang; Shengfei Liu; Xiaodi Huang

2008-01-01

458

The 0wned Price Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

'Tis the season when we musically celebrate the 12 days of Christmas while quietly rejoicing that there are fewer days of Christmas than there are bottles of beer on the wall. 'Tis also the season for us to visit the Owned Price Index (OPI), our index of underground economy prices. The OPI mimics the PNI Christmas index - the price

Daniel E. Geer Jr.; Daniel G. Conway

2009-01-01

459

A universal image quality index  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new universal objective image quality index, which is easy to calculate and applicable to various image processing applications. Instead of using traditional error summation methods, the proposed index is designed by modeling any image distortion as a combination of three factors: loss of correlation, luminance distortion, and contrast distortion. Although the new index is mathematically defined and

Zhou Wang; Alan C. Bovik

2002-01-01

460

Ontology-Guided Feature Engineering for Clinical Text Classification  

PubMed Central

In this study we present novel feature engineering techniques that leverage the biomedical domain knowledge encoded in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to improve machine-learning based clinical text classification. Critical steps in clinical text classification include identification of features and passages relevant to the classification task, and representation of clinical text to enable discrimination between documents of different classes. We developed novel information-theoretic techniques that utilize the taxonomical structure of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to improve feature ranking, and we developed a semantic similarity measure that projects clinical text into a feature space that improves classification. We evaluated these methods on the 2008 Integrating Informatics with Biology and the Bedside (I2B2) obesity challenge. The methods we developed improve upon the results of this challenge’s top machine-learning based system, and may improve the performance of other machine-learning based clinical text classification systems. We have released all tools developed as part of this study as open source, available at http://code.google.com/p/ytex

Garla, Vijay N.; Brandt, Cynthia

2012-01-01

461

BIRAM: a content-based image retrieval framework for medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the medical field, digital images are becoming more and more important for diagnostics and therapy of the patients. At the same time, the development of new technologies has increased the amount of image data produced in a hospital. This creates a demand for access methods that offer more than text-based queries for retrieval of the information. In this paper is proposed a framework for the retrieval of medical images that allows the use of different algorithms for the search of medical images by similarity. The framework also enables the search for textual information from an associated medical report and DICOM header information. The proposed system can be used for support of clinical decision making and is intended to be integrated with an open source picture, archiving and communication systems (PACS). The BIRAM has the following advantages: (i) Can receive several types of algorithms for image similarity search; (ii) Allows the codification of the report according to a medical dictionary, improving the indexing of the information and retrieval; (iii) The algorithms can be selectively applied to images with the appropriated characteristics, for instance, only in magnetic resonance images. The framework was implemented in Java language using a MS Access 97 database. The proposed framework can still be improved, by the use of regions of interest (ROI), indexing with slim-trees and integration with a PACS Server.

Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

2006-03-01

462

On the reading of readings of texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Materialist criticism treats literary texts as essentially in process, as being open to continual (socially determined) recreation. Critical readings of texts are as obviously ideologically determined as the critical production of texts, to the point where the critic can be seen at times to be ‘recreating’ the text in order to make it fit a set of ideologically determined moral

David Maughan

1984-01-01

463

The limited benefits of rereading educational texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though rereading is a study method commonly used by students, theoretical disagreement exists regarding whether rereading a text significantly enhances the representation and retention of the text’s contents. In four experiments, we evaluated the effectiveness of rereading relative to a single reading in a context paralleling that faced by students in the classroom. Participants read educational texts (textbook chapters or

Aimee A. Callender; Mark A. McDaniel

2009-01-01

464

On the Psychological Reality of Text Types.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Text type is proposed as a psychologically valid construct. Previous research has suggested that text type may play a role in a reader's comprehension and memory for a text. Two experiments were conducted to explore the psychological reality of text types...

A. Munro K. A. Lutz L. Gordon

1979-01-01

465

Interpreting Comparative Constructions in Biomedical Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a methodology using underspecified semantic interpretation to process comparative constructions in MEDLINE citations, concentrating on two structures that are prevalent in the research literature reporting on clinical trials for drug therapies. The method exploits an existing semantic processor, SemRep, which constructs predications based on the Unified Medical Language System. Results of a preliminary evaluation were recall of 70%,

Marcelo Fiszman; Dina Demner-Fushman; Francois M. Lang; Philip Goetz; Thomas C. Rindflesch

2007-01-01

466

Indexed Ideational Shifts in the "Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office of the United States Army."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores to what extent the germ theory, when it was still a relatively new idea, is evident in the bibliographic records in the "Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office of the United States Army" (Index Cat), the largest medical bibliographical tool ever published. Data suggest that scientists are quick to apply the new…

Lussky, Joan

2003-01-01

467

Indexed Ideational Shifts in the "Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office of the United States Army."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores to what extent the germ theory, when it was still a relatively new idea, is evident in the bibliographic records in the "Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office of the United States Army" (Index Cat), the largest medical bibliographical tool ever published. Data suggest that scientists are quick to apply the new…

Lussky, Joan

2003-01-01

468

Migrant Integration Policy Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The European Union has long been concerned with looking at how migrants are integrated into various member states (and several non-EU countries), and this visually delightful and well-thought out site is a great resource for researchers and policy analysts. Drawing on a wide range of data sources, the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) covers policy areas like long-term residence, access to nationality, and political participation. After looking over the "About" section, visitors should be comfortable enough to dive right in. Visitors may wish to start by using the interactive mapping and charting function to look at how various countries are performing in terms of integration, and then move on to the "Key Findings" section which offers some summary statistics on the six policy areas covered here. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive email updates and information via an RSS feed.

469

Gradient index polymer optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, fabrication, and properties of one of a new class of gradient-index lenses are reported. The lens is an f/2.25 GRIN singlet based on a nanolayered polymer composite material, designed to correct for spherical aberration. The light gathering and focusing properties of the polymer lens are compared to a homogeneous BK7 glass singlet with a similar f-number. The modulation transfer function of the polymer GRIN lens exceeded that of the homogeneous glass lens at all spatial frequencies and was as much as 3 times better at 5 cyc/mm. The weight of the polymer lens was approximately an order of magnitude less than the homogeneous glass lens.

Beadie, G.; Fleet, E.; Rosenberg, A.; Lane, Paul A.; Shirk, James S.; Kamdar, A. R.; Ponting, M.; Hiltner, A.; Baer, E.

2008-08-01

470

Medication errors.  

PubMed

Medication errors cause substantial harm to patients. We need good methods for counting errors, and we need to know how errors defined in different ways and ascertained by different methods are related to the harm that patients suffer. As errors arise within the complex and poorly designed systems of hospital and primary care, analysis of the factors that lead to error, for example by failure mode and effects analysis, may encourage better designs and reduce harms. There is almost no information on the best ways to train prescribers to be safe or to design effective computerized decision support to help them, although both are important in reducing medication errors and should be investigated. We also need to know how best to provide patients with the data they need to be part of initiatives for safer prescribing. PMID:22360355

Ferner, Robin E

2012-06-01

471

Medical imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diagnostic medical imaging is a fundamental part of the practice of modern medicine and is responsible for the expenditure of considerable amounts of capital and revenue monies in healthcare systems around the world. Much research and development work is carried out, both by commercial companies and the academic community. This paper reviews briefly each of the major diagnostic medical imaging techniques—X-ray (planar and CT), ultrasound, nuclear medicine (planar, SPECT and PET) and magnetic resonance. The technical challenges facing each are highlighted, with some of the most recent developments. In terms of the future, interventional/peri-operative imaging, the advancement of molecular medicine and gene therapy are identified as potential areas of expansion.

Elliott, Alex

2005-07-01

472

Medication errors  

PubMed Central

Medication errors cause substantial harm to patients. We need good methods for counting errors, and we need to know how errors defined in different ways and ascertained by different methods are related to the harm that patients suffer. As errors arise within the complex and poorly designed systems of hospital and primary care, analysis of the factors that lead to error, for example by failure mode and effects analysis, may encourage better designs and reduce harms. There is almost no information on the best ways to train prescribers to be safe or to design effective computerized decision support to help them, although both are important in reducing medication errors and should be investigated. We also need to know how best to provide patients with the data they need to be part of initiatives for safer prescribing.

Ferner, Robin E

2012-01-01

473

Medical tourism.  

PubMed

Searches of the literature or Internet using the term "medical tourism" produce two sets of articles: travel for the purpose of delivering health care or travel for the purpose of seeking health care. The first usage primarily appears in the medical literature and is beyond the scope of this article, which focuses on travel to seek health care. Still, there are some aspects these two topics have in common: both are affected by ease and speed of international travel and communication associated with globalization, and both raise questions about continuity of care as well as issues related to cultural, language, and legal differences; both also raise questions about ethics. This article describes some of the motivating factors, contributing elements, and challenges in elucidating trends, as well as implications for clinicians who provide pretravel advice and those who care for ill returning travelers. PMID:19061760

Reed, Christie M

2008-11-01

474

Scientific Texts in Contest, 1600–1800  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent decades, the role of canonical texts in major literary civilizations has been a subject of much debate. Some regard\\u000a canonical texts as the essence of a civilization. Others stress the selected nature of these texts, arguing that the formation\\u000a of authoritative texts is a power process which serves the interests of the elite who control these texts. This

Chu Pingyi

475

SMIL 3.0 smilText  

Microsoft Academic Search

The functionality described in these modules provide a new media type for use in SMIL presentations. This functionality is called smilText. Unlike other media types defined in the media object module, all of which are synonyms of the ref element, the smilText modules provide a text container element with an explicit content model for defining timed text. The smilText modules

D. C. A. Bulterman; K. S. Mullender; S. Cruz-Lara

2008-01-01

476

Medical manslaughter.  

PubMed

On November 29, 2011 Dr Conrad Murray was sentenced to four years in prison after being convicted of the involuntary manslaughter of Michael Jackson. Expert witness statements indicated that Murray's actions were an "extreme departure from the standard of care", particularly with regard to (1) inappropriately treating insomnia with a surgical anaesthetic (propofol); (2) failing to acquire sufficiently informed consent; (3) administering propofol without the necessary monitoring equipment; (4) delaying contacting the emergency services; and (5) making ineffective resuscitation efforts. Further medical evidence argued that Murray's care of Jackson contained "17 egregious violations", defined as acts that posed a foreseeable danger to the patient's life. These deficiencies, it was stated, constituted gross negligence. Such events might seem remote from daily medical practice in Ireland. However, medical errors resulting in patient death are reported to be unfortunately frequent, even if such fatalities are rarely as dramatic, or as public, as that of Michael Jackson. Medical care is not necessarily straightforward, and any treatment outcome is dependent on clinician skill, the nature of the intervention, and on the pathological condition of the patient. Regardless of these latter two factors, a poor outcome still may occur through physician omissions or the commission of errors or violations. Merry and McCall Smith distinguish between errors and violations on the following basis: (1) errors are not deliberate, and result in unintentional actions and consequences; (2) violations, on the other hand, entail a deliberate deviation from accepted rules or norms. It was alleged that much of Dr Murray's professional conduct in this case fell into the latter category. PMID:23472376

Lyons, B

2013-01-01

477

Solar index generation and delivery  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

Lantz, L.J.

1980-01-01

478

Medical Countermeasures Initiative and Regulatory Science  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... Emergency Medical Countermeasures Enterprise ... Advanced development core services partnerships ... 2. Advance MCM Regulatory Science ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

479

List of Antidepressant Drugs with Medication Guides  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

Text VersionList of Antidepressant Drugs with Medication Guides •Anafranil (clomipramine) •Asendin (amoxapine) •Aventyl (nortriptyline) •Celexa (citalopram ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/drugs/drugsafety

480

Representational Indeterminancy and Enterprise Search: The Importance of Subject Indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposed research examines the impact that adding context – via the use of subject indexes – to a query has on search results. This design science research is motivated by the need for a solution to the well-documented failure of enterprise search. Preliminary experimental data is presented that indicates that the use of subject indexes to augment full-text search

Gregory Schymik

2009-01-01

481

Automatic Indexing and Content-Based Retrieval of Captioned Images  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of textual and photographic information in an integrated text\\/image database environment is being explored. Specifically, our research group has developed an automatic indexing system for captioned pictures of people; the indexing information and other textual information is subsequently used in a content-based image retrieval system. Our approach presents an alternative to traditional face identification systems; it goes beyond

Rohini K. Srihari

1995-01-01

482

The refractive index of human hemoglobin in the visible range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because the refractive index of hemoglobin in the visible range is sensitive to the hemoglobin concentration, optical investigations of hemoglobin are important for medical diagnostics and treatment. Direct measurements of the refractive index are, however, challenging; few such measurements have previously been reported, especially in a wide wavelength range. We directly measured the refractive index of human deoxygenated and oxygenated hemoglobin for nine wavelengths between 400 and 700 nm for the hemoglobin concentrations up to 140 g l-1. This paper analyzes the results and suggests a set of model functions to calculate the refractive index depending on the concentration. At all wavelengths, the measured values of the refractive index depended on the concentration linearly. Analyzing the slope of the lines, we determined the specific refraction increments, derived a set of model functions for the refractive index depending on the concentration, and compared our results with those available in the literature. Based on the model functions, we further calculated the refractive index at the physiological concentration within the erythrocytes of 320 g l-1. The results can be used to calculate the refractive index in the visible range for arbitrary concentrations provided that the refractive indices depend on the concentration linearly.

Zhernovaya, O.; Sydoruk, O.; Tuchin, V.; Douplik, A.

2011-07-01

483

Full-Text State Statutes and Legislation on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This meta-index gathers links to Web, gopher, telnet, and ftp sites that contain the full text of state statutes, state constitutions, and other legislative resources. Of course, results of your searches depend on what each state has made available, and each state offers a different searching mechanism. Some entries have been annotated, particularly where instructions are necessary (as in the case of telnet sessions, or when a certain plug-in is required for viewing). There is also a supplementary page with links to resources related to state legislation, such as executive orders and administrative rules.

1998-01-01

484

ATTACHMENT IN TEXT AND ADDITIONAL TABLES  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

Text Version... LIST OF IN-TEXT AND ADDITIONAL ... ALL TABLES FOUND IN AMENDMENT 14 AND ADDITIONAL TABLES NOT SHOWN IN THE NARRATIVE) ... More results from www.fda.gov/downloads/advisorycommittees/committeesmeetingmaterials

485

Getting Students Engaged in Nonfiction Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes how to help students engage with nonfiction text by asking questions, identifying facts, making connections, and reflecting on the text. A template for use with students is included.

Allen, Tracey; Reeson, Clarissa

486

Annotating Sanskrit Texts Based on Sabdabodha Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though Sanskrit has a huge repository of texts as well as well discussed grammar formalism, we still neither have a full fledged\\u000a parser for Sanskrit based on this formalism nor do we have any annotated text.

K. V. Ramkrishnamacharyulu

2009-01-01

487

Keyboards redux: fast mobile text entry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most common style of text entry using a mobile phone's number pad is multitap, where multiple letters are mapped to the same key. We discuss twiddler chording, blind typing, and mini qwerty keyboards etc., for fast mobile text entry.

Thad Starner

2004-01-01

488

Tracking with text-based messages  

Microsoft Academic Search

As an initial research prototype, TextTrack demonstrates the feasibility of applying multiple hypothesis tracking concepts from radar signal processing to natural-language text tracking and correlation problems

C. Alberola; G. V. Cybenko

1999-01-01

489

TextLearner System: Reading Learning Comprehension.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The goal of DARPA's Reading Learning Comprehension seedling was to determine the feasibility of autonomous knowledge acquisition through the analysis of text. This report describes the results of that effort by detailing the capabilities of the TextLearne...

J. Curtis M. Witbrock J. Baxter P. Wagner B. Aldag

2006-01-01

490

Teens' Antisocial Texts May Foretell Bad Behavior  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Teens' Antisocial Texts May Foretell Bad Behavior But teenagers also use ... Violence FRIDAY, Sept. 13 (HealthDay News) -- Teens who text about bad behaviors such as drug use or ...

491

Natural scene text location oriented Chinese environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural scene text location is the precondition of the text recognition, a fast and effective technique is proposed for text location oriented Chinese environment. First, the color edge of the image is detected in consideration of the stroke directions of Chinese characters, then the collection of candidate text blocks is obtained by post-processing; Second, because text differs from non-text in texture, local binary pattern (LBP) operator is employed to extract the texture feature of candidate text block, then feed them into SVM classifier for verification, thus a great number of non-text blocks are excluded, and a higher accuracy rate is obtained. Finally, the algorithm is tested on our database, which includes 1000 images, and experimental results show that the proposed algorithm works well and very robust under the conditions of uneven lighting, blurring, and low contrast etc.

Liu, Xiaopei; Lu, Zhaoyang; Li, Jing

2011-04-01

492

You Can Say That Again!: Text Compression  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity helps students learn how computers "compress" text by identifying repeating patterns of letters, words, and phrases. Students use poems or nursery rhymes as their source text, draw boxes around repeating parts, and use arrows to point to earlier parts of the text that can be used to "uncompress" the text. The boxes and arrows are then related to the numbers that computers use in compression. An extension has students try compressing a much longer story, "The Three Little Pigs."

Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike; Adams, Robyn; Mckenzie, Jane

2005-01-01

493

Automated Non-Alphanumeric Symbol Resolution in Clinical Texts  

PubMed Central

Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols (‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’) were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for ‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’ were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems.

Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B.

2011-01-01

494

Automated non-alphanumeric symbol resolution in clinical texts.  

PubMed

Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols ('+', '-', '/', and '#') were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for '+', '-', '/', and '#' were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems. PMID:22195157

Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B

2011-10-22

495

The voices of the medical record  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical record, as a managerial, historic, and legal document, serves many purposes. Although its form may be well established and many of the cases documented in it ‘routine’ in medical experience, what is written in the medical record nevertheless records decisions and actions of individuals. Viewed as an interpretive ‘text’, it can itself become the object of interpretation. This

Suzanne Poirier; Daniel J. Brauner

1990-01-01

496

Tag Based Models of English Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of compressing English text is important both because of the ubiquity of English as a target for compression and because of the light that compression can shed on the structure of English. English text is examined in conjunction with additional information about the parts of speech of each word in the text (these are referred to as “tags”).

W. J. Teahan; John G. Cleary

1998-01-01

497

Speaking Kapampangan. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This text is an elementary-intermediate level text designed to teach conversational Kapampangan, the language spoken in the Pampanga-Tarlac area of the central plain of Luzon in the Philippines. The purpose of the text is to acquaint the learner with the vocabulary and basic structures necessary for participation in everyday conversations. The…

Mirikitani, Leatrice T.

498

Dialogue-based Visualization for Quranic Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visualization is a human cognitive activity and is not something that a computer does. A good visualization for Quranic text enables us to communicate the content with clarity, precision, and efficiency. Being a large information source, a visualization system for Quranic text is required. This paper proposes AQILAH, dialogue-based information visualization for Quranic text. AQILAH facilitates the interaction and rearrange

Aida Mustapha

499

Knowledge Representation for Commonsense Reasoning with Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 NAIVE SEMANTICS The reader of a text actively constructs a rich picture of the objects, events, and situation described. The text is a vague, insufficient, and ambiguous indicator of the world that the writer intends to depict. The reader draws upon world knowledge to disambiguate and clar-ify the text, selecting the most plausible interpretation from among the

Kathleen Dahlgren; Joyce P. McDowell; Edward P. Stabler Jr.

1989-01-01

500

Topic Structure Representation and Text Recall.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College subjects were required to read and recall an expository text. They recalled information about fewer topics if they were randomly ordered and the introductory paragraph was uninformative. Subjects recalled information about more topics if the text contained topic sentences. Readers used representation of a text's topic structure to guide…

Lorch, Robert F., Jr.; Lorch, Elizabeth Pugzles

1985-01-01