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1

Automatic Indexing of Full Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Demonstrates efficiency of preparation of query description using semantic analyser method based on analysis of semantic structure of documents in field of automatic indexing. Results obtained are compared with automatic indexing results performed by traditional methods and results of indexing done by human indexers. Sample terms and codes are…

Jonak, Zdenek

1984-01-01

2

Compressed text indexes: From theory to practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A compressed full-text self-index represents a text in a compressed form and still answers queries efficiently. This represents a significant advancement over the (full-)text indexing techniques of the previous decade, whose indexes required several times the size of the text. Although it is relatively new, this algorithmic technology has matured up to a point where theoretical research is giving way

Paolo Ferragina; Rodrigo González; Gonzalo Navarro; Rossano Venturini

2008-01-01

3

NASA indexing benchmarks: evaluating text search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely-available search engines.A product of this research is a tool-kit capable of automatically indexing,

Sandra L. Esler; Michael L. Nelson

1997-01-01

4

NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

1997-01-01

5

Texts, Authoring and Reading in Medical Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Despite William Osler’s referring, over a century ago, to the patient as a ‘text’ and key work since (Daniel 1986, 1990; Leder\\u000a 1990), the notion may be new to some medical educators and needs to be carefully explained and explored. At first sight, the\\u000a word ‘text’ may seem a demeaning or reductive way to describe a patient’s presence, but doctors

Alan Bleakley; John Bligh; Julie Browne

6

GIPSY: Automated Geographic Indexing of Text Documents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an algorithm that automatically extracts words and phrases containing geographic place names or characteristics from a text document and uses them as input to database functions that use spatial reasoning to approximate statistically the geoposition referenced in the text. Preliminary results and future work are discussed. (28 references)…

Woodruff, Allison Gyle; Plaunt, Christian

1994-01-01

7

Mining free-text medical records.  

PubMed

Text mining projects can be characterized along four parameters: 1) the demands of the market in terms of target domain and specificity and depth of queries; 2) the volume and quality of text in the target domain; 3) the text mining process requirements; and 4) the quality assurance process that validates the extracted data. In this paper, we provide lessons learned and results from a large-scale commercial project using Natural Language Processing (NLP) for mining the transcriptions of dictated clinical records in a variety of medical specialties. We conclude that the current state-of-the-art in NLP is suitable for mining information of moderate content depth across a diverse collection of medical settings and specialties. PMID:11825190

Heinze, D T; Morsch, M L; Holbrook, J

2001-01-01

8

n-Gram-Based Indexing for Korean Text Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses indexing methods in Korean text retrieval and proposes a new indexing method based on n-grams which can handle compound nouns effectively without dictionaries and complex linguistic knowledge. Experimental results show that n-gram-based indexing is considerably faster than morpheme-based indexing, and also provides better retrieval…

Lee, Joon Ho; Cho, Hyun Yang; Park, Hyouk Ro

1999-01-01

9

Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish  

PubMed Central

Background Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Results Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Conclusions Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were able to filter out all improperly constructed noun phrases from the top of the list. Careful choice of noun phrases is crucial to the usefulness of the created terminological resource in applications such as lexicon construction or acquisition of semantic relations from texts.

2014-01-01

10

Efficient Single-Pass Index Construction for Text Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses index construction for text collections, reviews principal approaches to inverted indexes, analyzes their theoretical cost, and presents experimental results of the use of a single-pass inversion method on Web document collections. Shows that the single-pass approach is faster and does not require the complete vocabulary of the indexed

Heinz, Steffen; Zobel, Justin

2003-01-01

11

On Entropy-Compressed Text Indexing in External Memory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new trend in the field of pattern matching is to design indexing data structures which take space very close to that required by the indexed text (in entropy-compressed form) and also simultaneously achieve good query performance. Two popular indexes, namely the FM-index [Ferragina and Manzini, 2005] and the CSA [Grossi and Vitter 2005], achieve this goal by exploiting the Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT) [Burrows and Wheeler, 1994]. However, due to the intricate permutation structure of BWT, no locality of reference can be guaranteed when we perform pattern matching with these indexes. Chien et al. [2008] gave an alternative text index which is based on sparsifying the traditional suffix tree and maintaining an auxiliary 2-D range query structure. Given a text T of length n drawn from a ?-sized alphabet set, they achieved O(n log?)-bit index for T and showed that this index can preserve locality in pattern matching and hence is amenable to be used in external-memory settings. We improve upon this index and show how to apply entropy compression to reduce index space. Our index takes O(n(H k + 1)) + o(nlog?) bits of space where H k is the kth-order empirical entropy of the text. This is achieved by creating variable length blocks of text using arithmetic coding.

Hon, Wing-Kai; Shah, Rahul; Thankachan, Sharma V.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

12

Extracting medication information from clinical text  

PubMed Central

The Third i2b2 Workshop on Natural Language Processing Challenges for Clinical Records focused on the identification of medications, their dosages, modes (routes) of administration, frequencies, durations, and reasons for administration in discharge summaries. This challenge is referred to as the medication challenge. For the medication challenge, i2b2 released detailed annotation guidelines along with a set of annotated discharge summaries. Twenty teams representing 23 organizations and nine countries participated in the medication challenge. The teams produced rule-based, machine learning, and hybrid systems targeted to the task. Although rule-based systems dominated the top 10, the best performing system was a hybrid. Of all medication-related fields, durations and reasons were the most difficult for all systems to detect. While medications themselves were identified with better than 0.75 F-measure by all of the top 10 systems, the best F-measure for durations and reasons were 0.525 and 0.459, respectively. State-of-the-art natural language processing systems go a long way toward extracting medication names, dosages, modes, and frequencies. However, they are limited in recognizing duration and reason fields and would benefit from future research.

Solti, Imre; Cadag, Eithon

2010-01-01

13

Kidney Disease in Byzantine Medical Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most significant contribution of the great Byzantine physicians to the evolution of medicine is their effort to summarize all the medical knowledge of the Greco-Roman world, which included earlier sources in antiquity, lost forever in our days. The transition from ancient to medieval medicine included the adoption of Christian spiritual values, which took place in the early Byzantine period

Effie Poulakou-Rebelakou; Spyros G. Marketos

1999-01-01

14

CONCORD: A Word Index Generator for Arbitrary Text Strings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The CONCORD computer program creates a concordance for arbitrary text strings. These alphabetically ordered word indexes can be used as lookup tables for bibliographic, administrative, or scientific information and data. The program selects essential term...

J. E. Ramus

1975-01-01

15

Medical-Legal Reference Text for Practicing Physicians.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The document is designed to be an encyclopedic Medical-legal Reference text addressing medical-legal problems of physicians. Contents: The physician in the medical system; The physician as businessperson; Physician malpractice--breaching duties and causin...

1980-01-01

16

Automating the medication regimen complexity index  

PubMed Central

Objective To adapt and automate the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI) within the structure of a commercial medication database in the post-acute home care setting. Materials and Methods In phase 1, medication data from 89?645 electronic health records were abstracted to line up with the components of the MRCI: dosage form, dosing frequency, and additional administrative directions. A committee reviewed output to assign index weights and determine necessary adaptations. In phase 2 we examined the face validity of the modified MRCI through analysis of automatic tabulations and descriptive statistics. Results The mean number of medications per patient record was 7.6 (SD 3.8); mean MRCI score was 16.1 (SD 9.0). The number of medications and MRCI were highly associated, but there was a wide range of MRCI scores for each number of medications. Most patients (55%) were taking only oral medications in tablet/capsule form, although 16% had regimens with three or more medications with different routes/forms. The biggest contributor to the MRCI score was dosing frequency (mean 11.9). Over 36% of patients needed to remember two or more special instructions (eg, take on alternate days, dissolve). Discussion Medication complexity can be tabulated through an automated process with some adaptation for local organizational systems. The MRCI provides a more nuanced way of measuring and assessing complexity than a simple medication count. Conclusions An automated MRCI may help to identify patients who are at higher risk of adverse events, and could potentially be used in research and clinical decision support to improve medication management and patient outcomes.

McDonald, Margaret V; Peng, Timothy R; Sridharan, Sridevi; Foust, Janice B; Kogan, Polina; Pezzin, Liliana E; Feldman, Penny H

2013-01-01

17

Automated de-identification of free-text medical records  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Text-based patient medical records are a vital resource in medical research. In order to preserve patient confidentiality, however, the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires that protected health information (PHI) be removed from medical records before they can be disseminated. Manual de-identification of large medical record databases is prohibitively expensive, time-consuming and prone to error, necessitating

Ishna Neamatullah; Margaret M Douglass; Li-wei H Lehman; Andrew Reisner; Mauricio Villarroel; William J Long; Peter Szolovits; George B Moody; Roger G Mark; Gari D Clifford

2008-01-01

18

Text Indexing of Images Based on Graphical Image Content.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an alternative method for indexing images in an image database. The method consists of manually indexing a selected reference image, and then using retrieval by graphical content to automatically transfer the manually assigned index terms from the reference image to the images to be indexed. (AEF)

Patrick, Timothy B.; Sievert, MaryEllen C.; Popescu, Mihail

1999-01-01

19

Visualization index for image-enabled medical records  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the widely use of healthcare information technology in hospitals, the patients' medical records are more and more complex. To transform the text- or image-based medical information into easily understandable and acceptable form for human, we designed and developed an innovation indexing method which can be used to assign an anatomical 3D structure object to every patient visually to store indexes of the patients' basic information, historical examined image information and RIS report information. When a doctor wants to review patient historical records, he or she can first load the anatomical structure object and the view the 3D index of this object using a digital human model tool kit. This prototype system helps doctors to easily and visually obtain the complete historical healthcare status of patients, including large amounts of medical data, and quickly locate detailed information, including both reports and images, from medical information systems. In this way, doctors can save time that may be better used to understand information, obtain a more comprehensive understanding of their patients' situations, and provide better healthcare services to patients.

Dong, Wenjie; Zheng, Weilin; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

2011-03-01

20

Emotional Reading of Medical Texts Using Conversational Agents (Short Paper)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a prototype that helps visualizing the relative importance of sentences extracted from medical texts using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA). We propose to map rhetorical structures automatically recognized in the documents onto a set of communicative acts controlling the expression of an ECA. As a consequence, the ECA will dramatize a sentence to reflect its perceived

Gersende Georg; Catherine Pelachaud; Marc Cavazza

2008-01-01

21

Enhanced Free Text Access to Anatomically-Indexed Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our use of an existing re- source, the Mouse Anatomical Nomen- clature, to improve a symbolic interface to anatomically-indexed gene expression data. The goal is to reduce user effort in specifying anatomical structures of inter- est and increase precision and recall.

Gail Sinclair; Bonnie Webber; Duncan Davidson

2002-01-01

22

Overlapping Statistical Segmentation for Effective Indexing of Japanese Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses statistical word indexing for Japanese information-retrieval systems and proposes a new method that uses statistics about characters to evaluate a bi-gram's likelihood of being a word boundary. Describes a new segmentation strategy that extracts some overlapping segments and results in higher retrieval effectiveness. (Author/LRW)

Ogawa, Yasushi; Matsuda, Toru

1999-01-01

23

Entropy-Based Incremental Indexing Term Selection Method for N-gram Full Text Search System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-gram indexing is the most popular algorithm for the full text search system where each index consists of serial N characters. Especially the full text search for Japanese text usually has the 2-gram characters index as base. The additional higher-gram index is expected to improve the performance. This paper presents the entropy-based method for mining additional indexing terms from DB in order to reduce the waste of AND operation for 2gram.

Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Saga, Ryosuke; Moriyama, Satoru; Tsuji, Hiroshi

24

AViTExt: Automatic Video Text Extraction; A new Approach for video content indexing Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a spatial temporal video-text detection technique which proceed in two principal steps: potential text region detection and a filtering process. In the first step we divide dynamically each pair of consecutive video frames into sub block in order to detect change. A significant difference between homologous blocks implies the appearance of an important object which

B. Bouaziz; T. Zlitni; W. Mahdi

2008-01-01

25

Implementation of Emergency Medical Text Classifier for Syndromic Surveillance  

PubMed Central

Public health officials use syndromic surveillance systems to facilitate early detection and response to infectious disease outbreaks. Emergency department clinical notes are becoming more available for surveillance but present the challenge of accurately extracting concepts from these text data. The purpose of this study was to implement a new system, Emergency Medical Text Classifier (EMT-C), into daily production for syndromic surveillance and evaluate system performance and user satisfaction. The system was designed to meet user preferences for a syndromic classifier that maximized positive predictive value and minimized false positives in order to provide a manageable workload. EMT-C performed better than the baseline system on all metrics and users were slightly more satisfied with it. It is vital to obtain user input and test new systems in the production environment.

Travers, Debbie; Haas, Stephanie W.; Waller, Anna E.; Schwartz, Todd A.; Mostafa, Javed; Best, Nakia C.; Crouch, John

2013-01-01

26

Patient clustering with uncoded text in electronic medical records.  

PubMed

We propose a mixture model for text data designed to capture underlying structure in the history of present illness section of electronic medical records data. Additionally, we propose a method to induce bias that leads to more homogeneous sets of diagnoses for patients in each cluster. We apply our model to a collection of electronic records from an emergency department and compare our results to three other relevant models in order to assess performance. Results using standard metrics demonstrate that patient clusters from our model are more homogeneous when compared to others, and qualitative analyses suggest that our approach leads to interpretable patient sub-populations when applied to real data. Finally, we demonstrate an example of our patient clustering model to identify adverse drug events. PMID:24551361

Henao, Ricardo; Murray, Jared; Ginsburg, Geoffrey; Carin, Lawrence; Lucas, Joseph E

2013-01-01

27

Mathematics and Medical Indexes: A Life-Saving Connection.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In cases of trauma, medical indexes are used by paramedics to report the condition of the patient to the hospital. Presents a scenario in which students act as paramedics at the scene of an earthquake and use the index called capillary refill to report the severity of the trauma and predict probable survival. (MDH)

Crouse, Richard J.; Sloyer, Clifford W.

1993-01-01

28

Surrogate Subsets: A Free Space Management Strategy for the Index of a Text Retrieval System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new data structure and an associated strategy to be utilized by indexing facilities for text retrieval systemsThe paperstarts by reviewing some of the goals that may be considered when designing such an index and continues with a small survey of various current strategies. It then presents an indexing strategy referred to as surrogate subsets discussing its

Forbes J. Burkowski

1990-01-01

29

Text Mining from the Web for Medical Intelligence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global medical and epidemic surveillance is an essential function of Public Health agencies, whose mandate is to protect the public from major health threats. To perform this function effectively one requires timely and accurate med- ical information from a wide range of sources. In this work we present a freely ac- cessible system designed to monitor disease epidemics by analysing

Ralf STEINBERGER; Flavio FUART; Erik van der GOOT; Clive BEST; Peter von ETTER; Roman YANGARBER

2008-01-01

30

Non-indexed medical journals in the Web: new perspectives in the medical literature.  

PubMed

Many medical journals, publishing in national languages, meet serious financial problems and difficulties when they attempt to become indexed in the international indices. Obviously, this not only affects the scientific quality of non-indexed medical journals (NIMJs) but also affects the awareness of the scientific community of topics with apparently local but potentially broader scientific significance. This is a reality for over 100 Greek medical journals, none of which has a life longer than 30 years or more than 2000 subscribers. Among them, the 'Archives of Hellenic Medicine' (AHM) is published and sponsored by the Athens Medical Society (the oldest medical society in Greece founded in 1835). This peer-reviewed Journal is being published for 13 years, bimonthly, in Greek. Attempting to overcome the above mentioned problems and to be involved in the process of discovering the most effective way of scientific 'skywriting', 2 years ago, the AHM entered full-text in the Web and it was decided that up to 500% of its volume should be covered by English-language papers. As a result, the AHM are now included in the main Web lists of medical journals and their home page is linked in many academic pages having approximately 500 hits/month. Furthermore, 45 retrievals of AHM's English-language papers or English abstracts of Greek-language articles were reported by e-mail response from abroad. Considered apart from the paper-publishing, the expenses of the digital publishing of the AHM are about half of those of paper-publishing, as they were before the appearance of the Journal in the Web. Up to now, about 40% of the Journal's digital publishing cost is covered by advertisements included in its pages and by a modification of its paper-publishing policy. It is concluded that the international scientific community is not indifferent for information published in NIMJs. Medical national minorities working abroad express special interest for this type of information. The Web makes the NIMJs accessible to these potential readers, who would never have the chance to acquire them in their printed form. PMID:9506395

Germenis, A E; Kokkinides, P A; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

1997-11-01

31

Optimal Embedding for Shape Indexing in Medical Image Databases  

PubMed Central

This paper addresses the problem of indexing shapes in medical image databases. Shapes of organs are often indicative of disease, making shape similarity queries important in medical image databases. Mathematically, shapes with landmarks belong to shape spaces which are curved manifolds with a well defined metric. The challenge in shape indexing is to index data in such curved spaces. One natural indexing scheme is to use metric trees, but metric trees are prone to inefficiency. This paper proposes a more efficient alternative. We show that it is possible to optimally embed finite sets of shapes in shape space into a Euclidean space. After embedding, classical coordinate-based trees can be used for efficient shape retrieval. The embedding proposed in the paper is optimal in the sense that it least distorts the partial Procrustes shape distance. The proposed indexing technique is used to retrieve images by vertebral shape from the NHANES II database of cervical and lumbar spine x-ray images maintained at the National Library of Medicine. Vertebral shape strongly correlates with the presence of osteophytes, and shape similarity retrieval is proposed as a tool for retrieval by osteophyte presence and severity. Experimental results included in the paper evaluate (1) the usefulness of shape-similarity as a proxy for osteophytes, (2) the computational and disk access efficiency of the new indexing scheme, (3) the relative performance of indexing with embedding to the performance of indexing without embedding, and (4) the computational cost of indexing using the proposed embedding versus the cost of an alternate embedding. The experimental results clearly show the relevance of shape indexing and the advantage of using the proposed embedding.

Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D.; Fulbright, Robert K.; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

2010-01-01

32

Optimal embedding for shape indexing in medical image databases.  

PubMed

This paper addresses the problem of indexing shapes in medical image databases. Shapes of organs are often indicative of disease, making shape similarity queries important in medical image databases. Mathematically, shapes with landmarks belong to shape spaces which are curved manifolds with a well defined metric. The challenge in shape indexing is to index data in such curved spaces. One natural indexing scheme is to use metric trees, but metric trees are prone to inefficiency. This paper proposes a more efficient alternative. We show that it is possible to optimally embed finite sets of shapes in shape space into a Euclidean space. After embedding, classical coordinate-based trees can be used for efficient shape retrieval. The embedding proposed in the paper is optimal in the sense that it least distorts the partial Procrustes shape distance. The proposed indexing technique is used to retrieve images by vertebral shape from the NHANES II database of cervical and lumbar spine X-ray images maintained at the National Library of Medicine. Vertebral shape strongly correlates with the presence of osteophytes, and shape similarity retrieval is proposed as a tool for retrieval by osteophyte presence and severity. Experimental results included in the paper evaluate (1) the usefulness of shape similarity as a proxy for osteophytes, (2) the computational and disk access efficiency of the new indexing scheme, (3) the relative performance of indexing with embedding to the performance of indexing without embedding, and (4) the computational cost of indexing using the proposed embedding versus the cost of an alternate embedding. The experimental results clearly show the relevance of shape indexing and the advantage of using the proposed embedding. PMID:20163981

Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D; Fulbright, Robert K; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

2010-06-01

33

Semi-Supervised Maximum Entropy Based Approach to Acronym and Abbreviation Normalization in Medical Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text normalization is an important aspect of successful information retrieval from medical documents such as clinical notes, radiology reports and discharge summaries. In the medical domain, a significant part of the general problem of text normalization is abbreviation and acronym disambiguation. Numerous abbreviations are used routinely throughout such texts and knowing their meaning is critical to data retrieval from the

Sergey V. Pakhomov

2002-01-01

34

Lancet: a high precision medication event extraction system for clinical text  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis paper presents Lancet, a supervised machine-learning system that automatically extracts medication events consisting of medication names and information pertaining to their prescribed use (dosage, mode, frequency, duration and reason) from lists or narrative text in medical discharge summaries.DesignLancet incorporates three supervised machine-learning models: a conditional random fields model for tagging individual medication names and associated fields, an AdaBoost model

Zuofeng Li; Feifan Liu; Lamont Antieau; Yonggang Cao; Hong Yu

2010-01-01

35

PASTE: patient-centered SMS text tagging in a medication management system  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the performance of a system that extracts medication information and administration-related actions from patient short message service (SMS) messages. Design Mobile technologies provide a platform for electronic patient-centered medication management. MyMediHealth (MMH) is a medication management system that includes a medication scheduler, a medication administration record, and a reminder engine that sends text messages to cell phones. The object of this work was to extend MMH to allow two-way interaction using mobile phone-based SMS technology. Unprompted text-message communication with patients using natural language could engage patients in their healthcare, but presents unique natural language processing challenges. The authors developed a new functional component of MMH, the Patient-centered Automated SMS Tagging Engine (PASTE). The PASTE web service uses natural language processing methods, custom lexicons, and existing knowledge sources to extract and tag medication information from patient text messages. Measurements A pilot evaluation of PASTE was completed using 130 medication messages anonymously submitted by 16 volunteers via a website. System output was compared with manually tagged messages. Results Verified medication names, medication terms, and action terms reached high F-measures of 91.3%, 94.7%, and 90.4%, respectively. The overall medication name F-measure was 79.8%, and the medication action term F-measure was 90%. Conclusion Other studies have demonstrated systems that successfully extract medication information from clinical documents using semantic tagging, regular expression-based approaches, or a combination of both approaches. This evaluation demonstrates the feasibility of extracting medication information from patient-generated medication messages.

Johnson, Kevin B; Denny, Joshua C

2011-01-01

36

Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

Genuardi, Michael T.

1993-01-01

37

A Comparison of the Charlson Comorbidity Index Derived from Medical Record Data and Administrative Billing Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to compare the Charlson comorbidity index derived from medical record data (Chart Index) with the same index derived from billing data (ICD-9 Index) to determine how well each predicted inpatient and 30-day mortality, length of stay, and complications among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for carotid endarterectomy. Economic and time constraints have increased the need for

Stephanie M. Kieszak; W. Dana Flanders; Andrzej S. Kosinski; Clanton C. Shipp; Herbert Karp

1999-01-01

38

Using Bitmap Indexing Technology for Combined Numerical and TextQueries  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we describe a strategy of using compressedbitmap indices to speed up queries on both numerical data and textdocuments. By using an efficient compression algorithm, these compressedbitmap indices are compact even for indices with millions of distinctterms. Moreover, bitmap indices can be used very efficiently to answerBoolean queries over text documents involving multiple query terms.Existing inverted indices for text searches are usually inefficient forcorpora with a very large number of terms as well as for queriesinvolving a large number of hits. We demonstrate that our compressedbitmap index technology overcomes both of those short-comings. In aperformance comparison against a commonly used database system, ourindices answer queries 30 times faster on average. To provide full SQLsupport, we integrated our indexing software, called FastBit, withMonetDB. The integrated system MonetDB/FastBit provides not onlyefficient searches on a single table as FastBit does, but also answersjoin queries efficiently. Furthermore, MonetDB/FastBit also provides avery efficient retrieval mechanism of result records.

Stockinger, Kurt; Cieslewicz, John; Wu, Kesheng; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie

2006-10-16

39

An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

2010-03-01

40

Woman’s Milk in Anglo-Saxon and Later Medieval Medical Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Women’s early history provides a long tradition of attested textual evidence associating female bodily secretions with impurity,\\u000a particularly in relation to menstruation, childbirth, and sexual intercourse. But we notice among early medical texts the\\u000a mention of another female secretion, woman’s milk, and its use as a healing ingredient in medical recipes. This paper argues\\u000a that textual sources of woman’s milk

R. A. Buck

41

MedTxting: Learning based and Knowledge Rich SMS-style Medical Text Contraction  

PubMed Central

In mobile health (M-health), Short Message Service (SMS) has shown to improve disease related self-management and health service outcomes, leading to enhanced patient care. However, the hard limit on character size for each message limits the full value of exploring SMS communication in health care practices. To overcome this problem and improve the efficiency of clinical workflow, we developed an innovative system, MedTxting (available at http://medtxting.askhermes.org), which is a learning-based but knowledge-rich system that compresses medical texts in a SMS style. Evaluations on clinical questions and discharge summary narratives show that MedTxting can effectively compress medical texts with reasonable readability and noticeable size reduction. Findings in this work reveal potentials of MedTxting to the clinical settings, allowing for real-time and cost-effective communication, such as patient condition reporting, medication consulting, physicians connecting to share expertise to improve point of care.

Liu, Feifan; Moosavinasab, Soheil; Houston, Thomas K.; Yu, Hong

2012-01-01

42

Maximum entropy modeling for mining patient medication status from free text.  

PubMed Central

Using a classification scheme of patient medication status we sought to recognize and categorize medications mentioned in the unrestricted text of clinical documents generated in clinical practice. The categories refer to the patient's status with respect to the medication such as discontinuation, start or initiation, and continuation of a given medication. This categorization is performed with a machine learning technique, Maximum Entropy (ME), that is well suited to incorporating heterogeneous sources of information necessary for classifying patient's medication status. We use hand labeled training data to generate ME models and test 5 different training feature sets. Our results show that the most optimal feature set includes a combination of the following: two words preceding and following the mention of the drug, the subject of the sentence in which the drug mention occurs, the 2 words following the subject, and a binary feature vector of lexicalized semantic cues indicative of medication status or its change. The average predictive power of a model trained on these features is approximately 89%.

Pakhomov, Serguei V.; Ruggieri, Alexander; Chute, Christopher G.

2002-01-01

43

Combining visual features and text data for medical image retrieval using latent semantic kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a strategy to fuse visual features and unstructured-text data in a medical image retrieval system. The main goal of this work is to investigate whether the semantic information from text descriptions can be transfered to a visual similarity measure. Then, a system to search using the query-by-example paradigm is evaluated instead of a keyword-based search.

Juan C. Caicedo; Jose G. Moreno; Edwin A. Niño; Fabio A. González

2010-01-01

44

Identifying medical terms in patient-authored text: a crowdsourcing-based approach  

PubMed Central

Background and objective As people increasingly engage in online health-seeking behavior and contribute to health-oriented websites, the volume of medical text authored by patients and other medical novices grows rapidly. However, we lack an effective method for automatically identifying medical terms in patient-authored text (PAT). We demonstrate that crowdsourcing PAT medical term identification tasks to non-experts is a viable method for creating large, accurately-labeled PAT datasets; moreover, such datasets can be used to train classifiers that outperform existing medical term identification tools. Materials and methods To evaluate the viability of using non-expert crowds to label PAT, we compare expert (registered nurses) and non-expert (Amazon Mechanical Turk workers; Turkers) responses to a PAT medical term identification task. Next, we build a crowd-labeled dataset comprising 10?000 sentences from MedHelp. We train two models on this dataset and evaluate their performance, as well as that of MetaMap, Open Biomedical Annotator (OBA), and NaCTeM's TerMINE, against two gold standard datasets: one from MedHelp and the other from CureTogether. Results When aggregated according to a corroborative voting policy, Turker responses predict expert responses with an F1 score of 84%. A conditional random field (CRF) trained on 10?000 crowd-labeled MedHelp sentences achieves an F1 score of 78% against the CureTogether gold standard, widely outperforming OBA (47%), TerMINE (43%), and MetaMap (39%). A failure analysis of the CRF suggests that misclassified terms are likely to be either generic or rare. Conclusions Our results show that combining statistical models sensitive to sentence-level context with crowd-labeled data is a scalable and effective technique for automatically identifying medical terms in PAT.

MacLean, Diana Lynn; Heer, Jeffrey

2013-01-01

45

Indexing Aid Project: Research on Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Research is being conducted in the Indexing Aid Project, Automated Classification and Retrieval Program, Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, on the development of interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of...

S. M. Humphrey A. Kapoor D. Mendez M. Dorsey

1987-01-01

46

Paraphrase Acquisition from Comparable Medical Corpora of Specialized and Lay Texts  

PubMed Central

Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end, we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrasing was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected.

Deleger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

2008-01-01

47

Detecting earlier indicators of homelessness in the free text of medical records.  

PubMed

Early warning indicators to identify US Veterans at risk of homelessness are currently only inferred from administrative data. References to indicators of risk or instances of homelessness in the free text of medical notes written by Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers may precede formal identification of Veterans as being homeless. This represents a potentially untapped resource for early identification. Using natural language processing (NLP), we investigated the idea that concepts related to homelessness written in the free text of the medical record precede the identification of homelessness by administrative data. We found that homeless Veterans were much higher utilizers of VA resources producing approximately 12 times as many documents as non-homeless Veterans. NLP detected mentions of either direct or indirect evidence of homelessness in a significant portion of Veterans earlier than structured data. PMID:25000039

Redd, Andrew; Carter, Marjorie; Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew; Gundlapalli, Adi V

2014-01-01

48

Combining Free Text and Structured Electronic Medical Record Entries to Detect Acute Respiratory Infections  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe electronic medical record (EMR) contains a rich source of information that could be harnessed for epidemic surveillance. We asked if structured EMR data could be coupled with computerized processing of free-text clinical entries to enhance detection of acute respiratory infections (ARI).MethodologyA manual review of EMR records related to 15,377 outpatient visits uncovered 280 reference cases of ARI. We used

Sylvain DeLisle; Brett South; Jill A. Anthony; Ericka Kalp; Adi Gundlapallli; Frank C. Curriero; Greg E. Glass; Matthew Samore; Trish M. Perl

2010-01-01

49

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 7: Hosts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

50

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 5. Arthropoda and Miscellaneous Phyla.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

51

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 4. Namatoda and Acanthocephala.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

52

Knowledge-Based Machine Indexing from Natural Language Text: Knowledge Base Design, Development, and Maintenance.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a...

M. T. Genuardi

1993-01-01

53

Prospects and limitations of full-text index structures in genome analysis  

PubMed Central

The combination of incessant advances in sequencing technology producing large amounts of data and innovative bioinformatics approaches, designed to cope with this data flood, has led to new interesting results in the life sciences. Given the magnitude of sequence data to be processed, many bioinformatics tools rely on efficient solutions to a variety of complex string problems. These solutions include fast heuristic algorithms and advanced data structures, generally referred to as index structures. Although the importance of index structures is generally known to the bioinformatics community, the design and potency of these data structures, as well as their properties and limitations, are less understood. Moreover, the last decade has seen a boom in the number of variant index structures featuring complex and diverse memory-time trade-offs. This article brings a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the most popular index structures and their recently developed variants. Their features, interrelationships, the trade-offs they impose, but also their practical limitations, are explained and compared.

Vyverman, Michael; De Baets, Bernard; Fack, Veerle; Dawyndt, Peter

2012-01-01

54

Automatically Detecting Medications and the Reason for their Prescription in Clinical Narrative Text Documents  

PubMed Central

An important proportion of the information about the medications a patient is taking is mentioned only in narrative text in the electronic health record. Automated information extraction can make this information accessible for decision-support, research, or any other automated processing. In the context of the “i2b2 medication extraction challenge,” we have developed a new NLP application called Textractor to automatically extract medications and details about them (e.g., dosage, frequency, reason for their prescription). This application and its evaluation with part of the reference standard for this “challenge” are presented here, along with an analysis of the development of this reference standard. During this evaluation, Textractor reached a system-level overall F1-measure, the reference metric for this challenge, of about 77% for exact matches. The best performance was measured with medication routes (F1-measure 86.4%), and the worst with prescription reasons (F1-measure 29%). These results are consistent with the agreement observed between human annotators when developing the reference standard, and with other published research.

Meystre, Stephane M.; Thibault, Julien; Shen, Shuying; Hurdle, John F.; South, Brett R.

2011-01-01

55

Computer-Assisted, Programmed Text, and Lecture Modes of Instruction in Three Medical Training Courses: Comparative Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The present study of 700 medical trainees in three different career fields was conducted to reduce the data gap in medical training on the following major questions: (a) Do computer-assisted instruction, programmed text, and lecture differ in instructiona...

G. M. Deignan B. R. Seager M. Kimball N. S. Horowitz

1980-01-01

56

Computer-Assisted, Programmed Text, and Lecture Modes of Instruction in Three Medical Training Courses: Comparative Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report contains a comparative analysis of the differential effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), programmed instructional text (PIT), and lecture methods of instruction in three medical courses--Medical Laboratory, Radiology, and Dent...

G. M. Deignan

1980-01-01

57

Representing Medical Knowledge in the Form of Structured Text: The Development of Current Disease Descriptions*  

PubMed Central

As part of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) initiative, some 900 diseases have been described using “structured text.” Structured text is words and short phrases entered under labelled contexts. Vocabulary is not controlled. The contexts comprise a template for the disease description. The structured text is both manipulable by machine and readable by humans. Use of the template was natural, and only a few problems arose in using the template. Instructions to disease description composers must be explicit in definitions of the contexts. Diseases to be described are chosen, after clustering related diseases, according to the distinctions that physicians practicing in the area under question believe are important. Limiting disease descriptions to primitive observations and to entities otherwise described within the corpus appears to be both feasible and desirable.

Nelson, Stuart J.; Sherertz, David D.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Tuttle, Mark S.

1989-01-01

58

Combining Free Text and Structured Electronic Medical Record Entries to Detect Acute Respiratory Infections  

PubMed Central

Background The electronic medical record (EMR) contains a rich source of information that could be harnessed for epidemic surveillance. We asked if structured EMR data could be coupled with computerized processing of free-text clinical entries to enhance detection of acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methodology A manual review of EMR records related to 15,377 outpatient visits uncovered 280 reference cases of ARI. We used logistic regression with backward elimination to determine which among candidate structured EMR parameters (diagnostic codes, vital signs and orders for tests, imaging and medications) contributed to the detection of those reference cases. We also developed a computerized free-text search to identify clinical notes documenting at least two non-negated ARI symptoms. We then used heuristics to build case-detection algorithms that best combined the retained structured EMR parameters with the results of the text analysis. Principal Findings An adjusted grouping of diagnostic codes identified reference ARI patients with a sensitivity of 79%, a specificity of 96% and a positive predictive value (PPV) of 32%. Of the 21 additional structured clinical parameters considered, two contributed significantly to ARI detection: new prescriptions for cough remedies and elevations in body temperature to at least 38°C. Together with the diagnostic codes, these parameters increased detection sensitivity to 87%, but specificity and PPV declined to 95% and 25%, respectively. Adding text analysis increased sensitivity to 99%, but PPV dropped further to 14%. Algorithms that required satisfying both a query of structured EMR parameters as well as text analysis disclosed PPVs of 52–68% and retained sensitivities of 69–73%. Conclusion Structured EMR parameters and free-text analyses can be combined into algorithms that can detect ARI cases with new levels of sensitivity or precision. These results highlight potential paths by which repurposed EMR information could facilitate the discovery of epidemics before they cause mass casualties.

DeLisle, Sylvain; South, Brett; Anthony, Jill A.; Kalp, Ericka; Gundlapallli, Adi; Curriero, Frank C.; Glass, Greg E.; Samore, Matthew; Perl, Trish M.

2010-01-01

59

Two h-Index Benchmarks for Evaluating the Publication Performance of Medical Informatics Researchers  

PubMed Central

Background The h-index is a commonly used metric for evaluating the publication performance of researchers. However, in a multidisciplinary field such as medical informatics, interpreting the h-index is a challenge because researchers tend to have diverse home disciplines, ranging from clinical areas to computer science, basic science, and the social sciences, each with different publication performance profiles. Objective To construct a reference standard for interpreting the h-index of medical informatics researchers based on the performance of their peers. Methods Using a sample of authors with articles published over the 5-year period 2006–2011 in the 2 top journals in medical informatics (as determined by impact factor), we computed their h-index using the Scopus database. Percentiles were computed to create a 6-level benchmark, similar in scheme to one used by the US National Science Foundation, and a 10-level benchmark. Results The 2 benchmarks can be used to place medical informatics researchers in an ordered category based on the performance of their peers. A validation exercise mapped the benchmark levels to the ranks of medical informatics academic faculty in the United States. The 10-level benchmark tracked academic rank better (with no ties) and is therefore more suitable for practical use. Conclusions Our 10-level benchmark provides an objective basis to evaluate and compare the publication performance of medical informatics researchers with that of their peers using the h-index.

Arbuckle, Luk; Jonker, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kevin

2012-01-01

60

Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.  

PubMed Central

Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching.

Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.

1984-01-01

61

Text mining of the classical medical literature for medicines that show potential in diabetic nephropathy.  

PubMed

Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808

Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie C L; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

2014-01-01

62

Howard Hughes Medical Institute: Science Education News Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) offers a wide range of educational programs. Part of its work is getting out the word about its own research projects and outreach efforts. On this site, visitors can read short news articles exploring everything from the nature of human evolution and natural selection to fellowship programs. Visitors can browse throughout the offerings chronologically and also look at the important resources on the right-hand side of the page. Here they will find the HHMI On The Web, which features direct links to the BioInteractive web site and Becoming a Scientist, which features 11 HHMI scientists talking about their successes in their fields. The site is rounded out by a link that allows users to sign up for news alerts via email.

2012-04-06

63

Efficient Automatic Text Location Method and Content-Based Indexing and Structuring of Video Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient automatic text detection and location method for video documents is proposed and its application for the content-based retrieval of video is presented and discussed. Target frames are selected at fixed time intervals from shots detected by a scene-change detection method. For each selected frame, segmentation by color clustering is performed around color peaks using a color histogram. For

Hae-Kwang Kim

1996-01-01

64

Index-Free Full-Text Search Function Installed into Optical Disk Drive  

Microsoft Academic Search

An optical disk drive, equipped with additional SCSI commands for full-text search is developed. By hierarchical search architecture of parallel hardware, firmware and software, the system filters information almost at the disk-read speed. The basic search process is executed by a search engine sharing the function with a portion of the error-correcting LSI installed into the optical disk controller. The

Katsumi Murai; Yasushi Azumatani; Yuji Takagi; Yoshihisa Fukusima; Isao Satoh

1992-01-01

65

Ranking the whole MEDLINE database according to a large training set using text indexing  

PubMed Central

Background The MEDLINE database contains over 12 million references to scientific literature, with about 3/4 of recent articles including an abstract of the publication. Retrieval of entries using queries with keywords is useful for human users that need to obtain small selections. However, particular analyses of the literature or database developments may need the complete ranking of all the references in the MEDLINE database as to their relevance to a topic of interest. This report describes a method that does this ranking using the differences in word content between MEDLINE entries related to a topic and the whole of MEDLINE, in a computational time appropriate for an article search query engine. Results We tested the capabilities of our system to retrieve MEDLINE references which are relevant to the subject of stem cells. We took advantage of the existing annotation of references with terms from the MeSH hierarchical vocabulary (Medical Subject Headings, developed at the National Library of Medicine). A training set of 81,416 references was constructed by selecting entries annotated with the MeSH term stem cells or some child in its sub tree. Frequencies of all nouns, verbs, and adjectives in the training set were computed and the ratios of word frequencies in the training set to those in the entire MEDLINE were used to score references. Self-consistency of the algorithm, benchmarked with a test set containing the training set and an equal number of references randomly selected from MEDLINE was better using nouns (79%) than adjectives (73%) or verbs (70%). The evaluation of the system with 6,923 references not used for training, containing 204 articles relevant to stem cells according to a human expert, indicated a recall of 65% for a precision of 65%. Conclusion This strategy appears to be useful for predicting the relevance of MEDLINE references to a given concept. The method is simple and can be used with any user-defined training set. Choice of the part of speech of the words used for classification has important effects on performance. Lists of words, scripts, and additional information are available from the web address .

Suomela, Brian P; Andrade, Miguel A

2005-01-01

66

Use of General-purpose Negation Detection to Augment Concept Indexing of Medical Documents  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To test the hypothesis that most instances of negated concepts in dictated medical documents can be detected by a strategy that relies on tools developed for the parsing of formal (computer) languages—specifically, a lexical scanner (“lexer”) that uses regular expressions to generate a finite state machine, and a parser that relies on a restricted subset of context-free grammars, known as LALR(1) grammars. Methods: A diverse training set of 40 medical documents from a variety of specialties was manually inspected and used to develop a program (Negfinder) that contained rules to recognize a large set of negated patterns occurring in the text. Negfinder's lexer and parser were developed using tools normally used to generate programming language compilers. The input to Negfinder consisted of medical narrative that was preprocessed to recognize UMLS concepts: the text of a recognized concept had been replaced with a coded representation that included its UMLS concept ID. The program generated an index with one entry per instance of a concept in the document, where the presence or absence of negation of that concept was recorded. This information was used to mark up the text of each document by color-coding it to make it easier to inspect. The parser was then evaluated in two ways: 1) a test set of 60 documents (30 discharge summaries, 30 surgical notes) marked-up by Negfinder was inspected visually to quantify false-positive and false-negative results; and 2) a different test set of 10 documents was independently examined for negatives by a human observer and by Negfinder, and the results were compared. Results: In the first evaluation using marked-up documents, 8,358 instances of UMLS concepts were detected in the 60 documents, of which 544 were negations detected by the program and verified by human observation (true-positive results, or TPs). Thirteen instances were wrongly flagged as negated (false-positive results, or FPs), and the program missed 27 instances of negation (false-negative results, or FNs), yielding a sensitivity of 95.3 percent and a specificity of 97.7 percent. In the second evaluation using independent negation detection, 1,869 concepts were detected in 10 documents, with 135 TPs, 12 FPs, and 6 FNs, yielding a sensitivity of 95.7 percent and a specificity of 91.8 percent. One of the words “no,” “denies/denied,” “not,” or “without” was present in 92.5 percent of all negations. Conclusions: Negation of most concepts in medical narrative can be reliably detected by a simple strategy. The reliability of detection depends on several factors, the most important being the accuracy of concept matching.

Mutalik, Pradeep G.; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Nadkarni, Prakash M.

2001-01-01

67

Climacteric hormone therapy in medical and lay texts in Finland from 1955 to 1992.  

PubMed

The "social shaping of technologies" approach holds that a technology is both socially embedded and that it shapes the social environment. The aim of this study was to investigate how hormone therapy use during the climacterium and subsequently was socially shaped in texts published in the main Finnish medical journals and lay magazines during 1955-1992. In these two arenas physicians, especially gynecologists, played the major role in the debate and their professional knowledge on hormone therapy was mixed with their views on women's status and roles, the quality of life and fears about aging when they were promoting hormone use, especially in the lay magazines. This type of argument for the promotion of hormone use persisted in the most recent texts, despite the availability of substantial evidence both for the against of hormone therapy. Overall, the texts clearly favored the benefits of the therapy. Three periods of differing orientation can be discerned. Attitudes towards hormone therapy tended to be cautious from 1955 through the 1970s, more enthusiastic in the 1980s, and mixed at the start of the 1990s. In the most recent texts critical comments came from individual women who had used the therapy or decided not to, including female physicians and other professionals. The results suggest that hormone therapy is socially embedded, but may also shape perceptions and the understanding of women's aging. The social shaping of the technology approach may improve our understanding of the development of health policy towards women at and after the age of the climacterium. PMID:9226798

Topo, P

1997-09-01

68

The Structure and Predictive Ability of the Cornell Medical Index for a Normal Sample.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A principle components analysis of the items of the Cornell Medical Index using a sample of 1,046 participants in the U.S. Antarctic Research Program yielded 11 major interpretable factors. Two health criterion measures were available for a subsample of 1...

G. E. Seymour

1976-01-01

69

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology, Supplement 15. Authors: A to Z,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a revision of the Author Catalogue of the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology, consisting of Parts 1-18, was published during the period 1932-1952. Beginning in 1953, a series of supplements designed to publish the backlog was ...

J. M. Humphrey D. B. Segal

1965-01-01

70

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 19, Part 1. Authors A to Z,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A revision of the Author Catalog of the Index-Catalog of Medical and Veterinary Zoology, consisting of Parts 1 to 18, was published during the period 1932-52. Beginning in 1953, a series of supplements designed to publish the backlog was initiated. Since ...

D. B. Segal J. M. Humphrey S. J. Edwards M. D. Kirby M. L. Walker

1974-01-01

71

Text Fusion Watermarking in Medical Image with Semi-reversible for Secure Transfer and Authentication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, the transmission of digitized medical information has become very convenient due to the generality of Internet. Internet has created the biggest benefit to achieve the transmission of patient information efficiently. However, it is easier that the hackers can grab or duplicate the digitized information on the Internet. This will cause the following problems of medical security and copyright protection.

P. Viswanathan; P. Venkata Krishna

2009-01-01

72

Description and advantages of an index-driven medical knowledge base.  

PubMed

In the FRAMEMED system design, the inherent attributes of its concepts are expressed in the hierarchical lists of its 26 Elements (e.g., Agents, Clinical Manifestations, Diseases, Tests, etc.). These concepts, contained in regular structures, are then alphabetized by phrase (and synonym), forming a combined index in which the user may quickly find a concept either alphabetically or hierarchically. Stored in the structures of the index are pointers to four types of knowledge records: 1) Descriptive (definition); 2) Relational (incidental attributes); 3) Conditional (rules); and 4) Procedural (how to). In contrast to the index which is stored in regular structures for rapid access (like relational databases), the knowledge records are stored in free text (variable length) and may include pointers to imaging and audio records. A particular feature of the FRAMEMED system is careful attention to modifiers, an aspect usually not emphasized in other systems. In trying to structure the free text describing a patient encounter, for example, the major concepts such as cough, fever, stiff neck, etc., are relatively easy to code (although a common system has not yet been agreed upon). The devil lies in the modifiers such as 'history of', 'severe,' 'constant,' 'absent,' 'left,' 'abnormal,' etc., particularly when there is concatenation of modifiers modifying modifiers. Our Relational records (in our knowledge base) and our Chronological Medical Records (CMR) in our patient record have the same format, namely, a title, several related items, and a date/author. For example, our disease profile (Relational record) for 'Influenza' might include 'cough,' 'fever,' and 'stiff neck.' The CMR of a particular patient encounter might include the same items. The only differences would be the title (disease name for the disease profile, date for the CMR, and the omission of the redundant date in the date/author line of the CMR). Each related item in either of these records is expressed in a four-part string, namely: 1) Relation; 2) Code; 3) Phrase; and 4) Comment. Modifiers (common ASCII symbols) are structured into each of these parts. For example, if the patient did not have 'cough,' the default '+' in the Relation would be edited to a '-', while 'history of' cough would be '>'. Each Relation can be graded (on a 5-level scale) for both importance and frequency. The Code for a test can carry the result suffix, '+ positive/high,' '-negative/low,' '# abnormal (qualitatively)', or '1 unremarkable/normal.' Topological information, such as '/left,' can be appended to a Code. If the cough is getting worse, its code can have the suffix, '<'. The standardized Phrases associated with the Codes come from the hierarchical lists of the index section described earlier. Phrases are not stored, being rematched to the codes as needed for user display. This practice not only saves memory space but allows a CMR encounter recorded in one language to be displayed in another second language subsequently, requiring only the existence of the hierarchical code/phrase in the second language. A free-text Comment is allowed for any related item in a Relational record or CMR, to allow the doctor to add important nuances such as 'worse on arising' or for a numeric result such as a test result or a thermometer reading. Some structuring can be accommodated in the Comment by introducing symbols such as '> relieved by,' followed by a list containing entries such as 'antacids.' Time can be sturctured through symbol lists such as '@-2 mo' representing '2 months previously.' Because Relational records in the knowledge ase and patient encoutner records in the CMR both display findings in hierarchical order; all similar items (e.g., Agents, Clinical Manifestations, Tests, Procedures, etc.) occur together and in an unique order. (abstract truncated) PMID:8591595

Bishop, C W; Ewing, P D

1995-01-01

73

The medical treatment of depression, 1991–1996: productive inefficiency, expected outcome variations, and price indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the price of treating episodes of acute phase major depression over the 1991–1996 time period. We combine data from a large retrospective medical claims data base (MarketScan, from the Medstat Group) with clinical literature and expert clinical opinion elicited from a two-stage Delphi procedure. This enables us to construct a variety of treatment price indexes that include variations

Ernst R. Berndt; Anupa Bir; Susan H. Busch; Richard G. Frank; Sharon-Lise T. Normand

2002-01-01

74

Medical image collection indexing: Shape-based retrieval using KD-trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity to retrieve images containing objects with shapes similar to a query shape is desirable in medical image databases. We propose a similarity measure and an indexing mechanism for non-rigid comparison of shape which adds this capability to image databases.The (dis)-similarity measure is based on the observations that: (1) the geometry of the same organ in different subjects is

G. P. Robinson; H. D. Tagare; J. S. Duncan; C. C. Jaffe

1996-01-01

75

Initiating Hehe [see text] medical system of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine to realize health cycle of human beings.  

PubMed

This paper suggests a novel approach concerning the medical treatment of human beings, which appears to be economically and practically superior to either biomedicine or traditional medicine. A brand new medical system-Hehe [see text] medicine, has been proposed based on a preventive-biomedical-psycho-social treatment model. This is characterized by a dual approach in which life nurturing is consistently practised and medical treatment is applied when necessary in order to maintain a healthy life. Its core value would facilitate the self-restoration to health and self-adaptation to nature through health cultivation and medical means. Medical services would be firstly provided to the prevention of potential disease germinating in the human body, and clinical medical treatment would be the last resort of systematic medical practice. This paper discusses not only this new concept but also the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine and biomedicine, especially how both medical systems compare in cognitive style, on a cultural level, and on a technical level. PMID:22139547

Wang, Jie-Hua

2011-12-01

76

Improved de-identification of physician notes through integrative modeling of both public and private medical text  

PubMed Central

Background Physician notes routinely recorded during patient care represent a vast and underutilized resource for human disease studies on a population scale. Their use in research is primarily limited by the need to separate confidential patient information from clinical annotations, a process that is resource-intensive when performed manually. This study seeks to create an automated method for de-identifying physician notes that does not require large amounts of private information: in addition to training a model to recognize Protected Health Information (PHI) within private physician notes, we reverse the problem and train a model to recognize non-PHI words and phrases that appear in public medical texts. Methods Public and private medical text sources were analyzed to distinguish common medical words and phrases from Protected Health Information. Patient identifiers are generally nouns and numbers that appear infrequently in medical literature. To quantify this relationship, term frequencies and part of speech tags were compared between journal publications and physician notes. Standard medical concepts and phrases were then examined across ten medical dictionaries. Lists and rules were included from the US census database and previously published studies. In total, 28 features were used to train decision tree classifiers. Results The model successfully recalled 98% of PHI tokens from 220 discharge summaries. Cost sensitive classification was used to weight recall over precision (98% F10 score, 76% F1 score). More than half of the false negatives were the word “of” appearing in a hospital name. All patient names, phone numbers, and home addresses were at least partially redacted. Medical concepts such as “elevated white blood cell count” were informative for de-identification. The results exceed the previously approved criteria established by four Institutional Review Boards. Conclusions The results indicate that distributional differences between private and public medical text can be used to accurately classify PHI. The data and algorithms reported here are made freely available for evaluation and improvement.

2013-01-01

77

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Supplement 24, Part 6, Sections A-B: Subject Headings.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology provides in-depth coverage of the world's literature on human and animal parasitology. It covers parasitic protozoa, helminths, certain arthropods (ticks, mites, insects, copepods, isopods, linguatulid...

S. J. Edwards M. W. Hood J. H. Shaw J. D. Rayburn M. D. Kirby

1982-01-01

78

Selected List of Medical and Public Health Reference Books, Abstracts, and Indexes Prepared for the Arab Republic of Egypt.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A list of medical and public health reference books, abstracts, and indexes is presented. Items were selected to reflect significant Egyptian health problems as well as to provide basic coverage of the field. Health problems and conditions covered include...

1980-01-01

79

Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.  

PubMed

Digitalization of audiovisual resources and network capability offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has developed MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The goal of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable efficient retrieval from digital archives or the filtering of audiovisual broadcasts on the Internet. How could this kind of technology be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on the Dublin Core standard and compliant to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and the UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform which enables encoding and gives access to audiovisual resources in streaming mode. PMID:15694622

Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

2005-03-01

80

Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.  

PubMed

Digitalization of audio-visual resources combined with the performances of the networks offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in the scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has been developing MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The good of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable fast efficient retrieval from digital archives or filtering audiovisual broadcasts on the internet. How this kind of technologies could be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on Dublin Core standard and complaint to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform with enables to encode and give access to audio-visual resources in streaming mode. PMID:14664072

Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

2003-01-01

81

[Health check by CMI (Cornell Medical Index) on radiation workers in a nuclear energy plant].  

PubMed

In the nuclear energy industry, plants are located far from urban areas and the working environments are generally separate from each other for radiation protection purposes. A health check on radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry was carried out using the Cornell Medical Index questionnaire. As a control study, radiation and non-radiation workers in the other working fields were investigated in the same manner. The results showed that the health status of radiation workers in the nuclear energy industry is similar to that of the workers in other working fields. PMID:4023469

Tsuchiya, T; Norimura, T; Sudo, S; Hashimoto, T

1985-06-01

82

Evaluation of DEFINDER: a system to mine definitions from consumer-oriented medical text  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present DEFINDER, a rule-based system that mines cons umer-oriented full text articles in order to extract definitions and the terms they define. This research is part of Digital Library Project at Columbia University, entitled PERSIVAL (PErsonalized Retrieval and Summarization of Image, Video and Language resources) [5]. One goal of the project is to present information to

Judith L. Klavans; Smaranda Muresan

2001-01-01

83

Electronic Documentation Support Tools and Text Duplication in the Electronic Medical Record  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to ease the burden of electronic note entry on physicians, electronic documentation support tools have been developed to assist in note authoring. There is little evidence of the effects of these tools on attributes of clinical documentation, including document quality. Furthermore, the resultant abundance of duplicated text and…

Wrenn, Jesse

2010-01-01

84

Hypothetical influence of non-indexed Spanish medical journals on the impact factor of the Journal Citation Reports-indexed journals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study is to analyze the hypothetical changes in the 2002 impact factor (IF) of the biomedical journals\\u000a included in the Science Citation Index-Journal Citation Reports (SCI-JCR) by also taking into account cites coming from 83 non-indexed Spanish journals on different medical specialties.\\u000a A further goal of the study is to identify the subject categories of the

Rafael Aleixandre-benavent; Juan Carlos Valderrama Zurián; Alberto Miguel-dasit; Adolfo Alonso Arroyo; Miguel Castellano Gómez

2007-01-01

85

The Effectiveness of the Smog Index in Determining the Reading Levels of Business and Distributive Education Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)

Schultheis, Robert A.; Anderson, Roberta

1982-01-01

86

Looking back to move forward: using history, discourse and text in medical education research: AMEE guide no. 73.  

PubMed

As medical education research continues to diversify methodologically and theoretically, medical education researchers have been increasingly willing to challenge taken-for-granted assumptions about the form, content and function of medical education. In this AMEE guide we describe historical, discourse and text analysis approaches that can help researchers and educators question the inevitability of things that are currently seen as 'natural'. Why is such questioning important? By articulating our assumptions and interrogating the 'naturalness' of the status quo, one can then begin to ask why things are the way they are. Researchers can, for example, ask whether the models of medical education organization and delivery that currently seem 'natural' to them have been developed in order to provide the most benefit to students or patients--or whether they have, rather, been developed in ways that provide power to faculty members, medical schools or the medical profession as a whole. An understanding of the interplay of practices and power is a valuable tool for opening up the field to new possibilities for better medical education. The recognition that our current models, rather than being 'natural', were created in particular historical contexts for any number of contingent reasons leads inexorably to the possibility of change. For if our current ways of doing things are not, in fact, inevitable, not only can they be questioned, they can be made better; they can changed in ways that are attentive to whom they benefit, are congruent with our current beliefs about best practice and may lead to the production of better doctors. PMID:23259609

Kuper, Ayelet; Whitehead, Cynthia; Hodges, Brian David

2013-01-01

87

Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index: a new index for evaluating at-risk elderly medical patients1-3  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients at risk of malnutrition and related morbidity and mortality can be identified with the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI). However, this index remains limited for elderly patients be- cause of difficulties in establishing their normal weight. Objective: Therefore, we replaced the usual weight in this formula by ideal weight according to the Lorentz formula (WLo), creating a new index

Olivier Bouillanne; Gilles Morineau; Claire Dupont; Isabelle Coulombel; Jean-Pierre Vincent; Ioannis Nicolis; Simone Benazeth; Luc Cynober; Christian Aussel

88

Applicability of a previously validated readmission predictive index in medical patients in Singapore: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Background Hospital readmissions are serious and costly events, and readmission rates are considered to be an indicator of quality in health care management. Several models to identify patients at risk of unplanned readmissions have been developed in Western countries, but little is known about their performance in other countries. This paper reports the possible utility of one such model developed in Canada, the LACE index, in patients in a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Methods We used administrative data from Singapore General Hospital for patients admitted between 1st January 2006 and 31st December 2010. Data such as demographic and clinical data including disease codes were extracted. The patient cohort was divided into two groups with a LACE index of 10 as the cutoff. Multivariate logistic regression analysis models were used to compare the outcomes between the two groups of patients with adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, year of discharge, intensive care unit admission, and admission ward class. Results Overall, 127 550 patients were eligible for analysis. Patients with a LACE index ? 10 had a higher risk of 30-day unplanned readmission after index discharge (odds ratio [OR]: 4.37; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.18-4.57). After adjustment, the risk remained significant (OR: 4.88; 95% CI: CI 4.57-5.22). The C-statistic for the adjusted model was 0.70 (P < 0.001). Similar results were shown for 90-day unplanned readmission and emergency visits after the same adjustment. Conclusion The use of the LACE index may have significant application in identifying medical patients at high risk of readmission and visits to the Emergency Department in Singapore.

2013-01-01

89

Automated Detection of Systematic Off-label Drug Use in Free Text of Electronic Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Off-label use of a drug occurs when it is used in a manner that deviates from its FDA label. Studies estimate that 21% of prescriptions are off-label, with only 27% of those uses supported by evidence of safety and efficacy. We have developed methods to detect population level off-label usage using computationally efficient annotation of free text from clinical notes to generate features encoding empirical information about drug-disease mentions. By including additional features encoding prior knowledge about drugs, diseases, and known usage, we trained a highly accurate predictive model that was used to detect novel candidate off-label usages in a very large clinical corpus. We show that the candidate uses are plausible and can be prioritized for further analysis in terms of safety and efficacy.

Jung, Kenneth; LePendu, Paea; Shah, Nigam

2013-01-01

90

Subject Indexes vs. Original Documents as Research Sources: A Comparative Account of Text Construction and Use for Academic Libraries.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An adaptation of Heilprin's model of the path of propagation of human messages is used to explore the truism that more experienced academic researchers tend to go directly to the published literature, while less experienced researchers may rely more on such secondary sources as indexes and other library reference and bibliographic services. The…

Eichman, Thomas Lee

91

Improving sensitivity of machine learning methods for automated case identification from free-text electronic medical records  

PubMed Central

Background Distinguishing cases from non-cases in free-text electronic medical records is an important initial step in observational epidemiological studies, but manual record validation is time-consuming and cumbersome. We compared different approaches to develop an automatic case identification system with high sensitivity to assist manual annotators. Methods We used four different machine-learning algorithms to build case identification systems for two data sets, one comprising hepatobiliary disease patients, the other acute renal failure patients. To improve the sensitivity of the systems, we varied the imbalance ratio between positive cases and negative cases using under- and over-sampling techniques, and applied cost-sensitive learning with various misclassification costs. Results For the hepatobiliary data set, we obtained a high sensitivity of 0.95 (on a par with manual annotators, as compared to 0.91 for a baseline classifier) with specificity 0.56. For the acute renal failure data set, sensitivity increased from 0.69 to 0.89, with specificity 0.59. Performance differences between the various machine-learning algorithms were not large. Classifiers performed best when trained on data sets with imbalance ratio below 10. Conclusions We were able to achieve high sensitivity with moderate specificity for automatic case identification on two data sets of electronic medical records. Such a high-sensitive case identification system can be used as a pre-filter to significantly reduce the burden of manual record validation.

2013-01-01

92

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases. Part 11. Hosts: Genera A-L,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The catalog is based on records published in the Index-Catalog of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases. Host names, with few exceptions, are listed as given by the author of the record. When there is a question of ide...

M. A. Doss M. M. Farr

1969-01-01

93

[Searching French institutional health information sources: catalogue and index of French-language medical sites (CISMeF)].  

PubMed

The Catalogue and index of French-language medical sites (CISMeF) is a medical portal that provides users with results as pertinent as possible according to their requirements, expectations, and context of use. Indexing and single-term research are based on theMedical subject headings(MeSH) thesaurus. The integration of new medical terminology for indexing the catalogue's resources is intended to minimize false-negatives during searches and to contextualize the users' needs. The creation of a drug information portal makes more targeted research possible, with numerous entries according to user (physicians, pharmacists, chemists, and pharmacologists). For simplicity's sake, the catalogue's index of resources by different nomenclatures is not entirely displayed. The choice of display is left to the user, with MeSH only as the default. These multi-nomenclature tools should be applicable as well to electronic patient records. In this case, the objective is to improve patient care by better searches and identification of the information required during consultations and hospitalization. PMID:19762200

Sakji, Saoussen; Thirion, Benoît; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

2009-10-01

94

Longitudinal analysis of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer using natural language processing of medical record text  

PubMed Central

Objectives To test the feasibility of using text mining to depict meaningfully the experience of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, to identify novel pain phenotypes, and to propose methods for longitudinal visualization of pain status. Materials and methods Text from 4409 clinical encounters for 33 men enrolled in a 15-year longitudinal clinical/molecular autopsy study of metastatic prostate cancer (Project to ELIminate lethal CANcer) was subjected to natural language processing (NLP) using Unified Medical Language System-based terms. A four-tiered pain scale was developed, and logistic regression analysis identified factors that correlated with experience of severe pain during each month. Results NLP identified 6387 pain and 13?827 drug mentions in the text. Graphical displays revealed the pain ‘landscape’ described in the textual records and confirmed dramatically increasing levels of pain in the last years of life in all but two patients, all of whom died from metastatic cancer. Severe pain was associated with receipt of opioids (OR=6.6, p<0.0001) and palliative radiation (OR=3.4, p=0.0002). Surprisingly, no severe or controlled pain was detected in two of 33 subjects’ clinical records. Additionally, the NLP algorithm proved generalizable in an evaluation using a separate data source (889 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) discharge summaries). Discussion Patterns in the pain experience, undetectable without the use of NLP to mine the longitudinal clinical record, were consistent with clinical expectations, suggesting that meaningful NLP-based pain status monitoring is feasible. Findings in this initial cohort suggest that ‘outlier’ pain phenotypes useful for probing the molecular basis of cancer pain may exist. Limitations The results are limited by a small cohort size and use of proprietary NLP software. Conclusions We have established the feasibility of tracking longitudinal patterns of pain by text mining of free text clinical records. These methods may be useful for monitoring pain management and identifying novel cancer phenotypes.

Heintzelman, Norris H; Taylor, Robert J; Simonsen, Lone; Lustig, Roger; Anderko, Doug; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Childs, Lois C; Bova, George Steven

2013-01-01

95

Sedative Medication Use: Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Associations with Body Mass Index Using Population-Level Data  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of and identify sociodemographic risk factors for sedative medication use in the general Canadian population, and to examine the association between sedative medication use and body mass index (BMI). Design: Cross-sectional study Setting: Canadian population Participants: Participants from the 1994-2003 Canadian national health surveys, the National Population Health Survey (NPHS) and the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS). For the 2003 CCHS, n = 134,072, ages 12-80+ years. Interventions: Not applicable Measurements and Results: The overall prevalence of sedative medication use in Canada in 2003 was 5.5%, having more than doubled since 1994. Notable rises in sedative medication use have occurred among men, non-elderly, and obese individuals. After adjusting for potential sociodemographic and health status confounders, including psychiatric comorbidities, the odds of sedative use were significantly greater among morbidly obese (BMI ? 35 kg/m2) men (OR = 1.89, 95%CI = 1.02-3.53) and underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) women (OR = 2.11, 95%CI = 1.26-3.53). Conclusions: The use of sedative medications has substantially risen among the general Canadian population, and among particular population subgroups. The greater odds of sedative medication use found among morbidly obese men may reflect the presence of underlying obstructive sleep apnea, which may in turn serve to explain in part the known relationship between sedative medications and mortality. The increase in sedative medications coupled with their known adverse health associations raises potential public health concerns. Citation: Vozoris NT; Leung RS. Sedative medication use: prevalence, risk factors, and associations with body mass index using population-level data. SLEEP 2011;34(7):869-874.

Vozoris, Nicholas T.; Leung, Richard S.

2011-01-01

96

Multi-terminology indexing for the assignment of MeSH descriptors to medical abstracts in French  

PubMed Central

Background: To facilitate information retrieval in the biomedical domain, a system for the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings to documents curated by an online quality-controlled health gateway was implemented. The French Multi-Terminology Indexer (F-MTI) implements a multiterminology approach using nine main medical terminologies in French and the mappings between them. Objective: This paper presents recent efforts to assess the added value of (a) integrating four new terminologies (Orphanet, ATC, drug names, MeSH supplementary concepts) into F-MTI’s knowledge sources and (b) performing the automatic indexing on the titles and abstracts (vs. title only) of the online health resources. Methods: F-MTI was evaluated on a CISMeF corpus comprising 18,161 manually indexed resources. Results: The performance of F-MTI including nine health terminologies on CISMeF resources with Title only was 27.9% precision and 19.7% recall, while the performance on CISMeF resources with Title and Abstract is 14.9 % precision (?13.0%) and 25.9% recall (+6.2%). Conclusion: In a few weeks, CISMeF will launch the indexing of resources based on title and abstract, using nine terminologies.

Pereira, Suzanne; Sakji, Saoussen; Neveol, Aurelie; Kergourlay, Ivan; Kerdelhue, Gaetan; Serrot, Elisabeth; Joubert, Michel; Darmoni, Stefan J.

2009-01-01

97

What's on the News? The Use of Media Texts in Exams of Clinical Biochemistry for Medical and Nutrition Students  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Health-related popular articles are easily found among media sources. With the increasing popularity of the internet, medical information--full of misconceptions--has become easily available to the lay people. The ability to recognize misconceptions may require good biomedical knowledge. In this sense, we decided to use articles from the internet…

Oliveira, Julia Martins; Mesquita, Diego Martins; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

2010-01-01

98

Audit of Compliance with Standards Governing Combined DNA Index System Activities at the Tarrant County Medical Examiner's Office Tarrant County, Texas.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Department of Justice Office of the Inspector General (OIG), Audit Division, has completed an audit of compliance with standards governing Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) activities at the Tarrant County Medical Examiners Office Laboratory (Laborato...

2011-01-01

99

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Special Publication Number 6. Subject: Nematoda and Nematode Diseases. Part 2. Supergenera, Genera, Species, and Subspecies: C-E.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this section of the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology is to make available the bibliographic records on Nematoda and nematode diseases of animals that have accumulated in the parasite files of the Index-Catalogue during the ...

M. A. Doss D. T. Hanfman

1983-01-01

100

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Special Publication No. 6. Subject: Nematoda and Nematode Diseases. Part 1. Supergenera, Genera, Species, and Subspecies: A-B.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the section of the Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology is to make available the bibliographic records on nematoda and nematode diseases of animals that have accumulated in the parasite files of the Index-Catalogue during the p...

M. A. Doss D. T. Hanfman

1981-01-01

101

Emergency Victim Care. A Training Manual for Emergency Medical Technicians. Module 14. Appendix I: Communicating with Deaf and Hearing Impaired Patients. Appendix II: Medical Terminology. Appendix III: EMS Organizations. Appendix IV: Legislation (Ohio). Glossary of Terms. Index. Revised.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This training manual for emergency medical technicians, one of 14 modules that comprise the Emergency Victim Care textbook, contains appendixes, a glossary, and an index. The first appendix is an article on communicating with deaf and hearing-impaired patients. Appendix 2, the largest section in this manual, is an introduction to medical

Ohio State Dept. of Education, Columbus. Div. of Vocational Education.

102

A Comparison of Two Approaches to Text Processing: Facilitating Chart Reviews of Radiology Reports in Electronic Medical Records  

PubMed Central

Chart review is central to health services research. Text processing, which analyzes free-text fields through automated methods, can facilitate this process. We compared precision and accuracy of NegEx and SQLServer 2008 Free-Text Search in identifying acute fractures in radiology reports. The term “fracture” was included in 23,595 radiology reports from the Veterans Aging Cohort Study. Four hundred reports were randomly selected and manually reviewed for acute fractures to establish a gold standard. Reports were then processed by SQLServer and NegEx. Results were compared to the gold standard to determine accuracy, precision, recall, and F-statistic. NegEx and the gold standard identified acute fractures in 13 reports. SQLServer identified 2 in a report-based analysis (precision: 1.00; accuracy: 0.97; recall: 0.15; F-statistic: 0.26), and 12 in a sentence-by-sentence analysis (precision: 1.00; recall: 0.92; accuracy: 0.92; F-statistic: 0.96). Text-processing tools utilizing basic database or programming skills are comparable, precise, and accurate in identifying reports for review.

Womack, Julie A; Scotch, Matthew; Gibert, Cynthia; Chapman, Wendy; Yin, Michael; Justice, Amy C; Brandt, Cynthia

2010-01-01

103

World Biomedical Journals, 1951-60: A Study of the Relative Significance of 1,388 Titles Indexed in Current List of Medical Literature*  

PubMed Central

This study is an application of the relationship of serial articles published to serial articles cited, developed in theory in the author's “Statistical Bibliography in the Health Sciences” (Bulletin 50: 450-461, July 1962). A ranked list of the indexes of significance of most of the serials indexed in Current List of Medical Literature was derived and erected from 21,000 citations secured in a random sampling of 1962 and 1961 biomedical journals regularly received in the Yale Medical Library. The author measures the gross indexing effectiveness of Current List against his indexes of significance, offers his method and results as means to reach objective standards for indexing and abstracting, and projects his results as measures of general value of the serials analyzed.

Raisig, L. Miles

1966-01-01

104

The validity of a rheumatoid arthritis medical records-based index of severity compared with the DAS28.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to assess the convergent validity of a previously developed rheumatoid arthritis medical records-based index of severity (RARBIS) by comparing it with the 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28). This study was conducted in subjects within the Brigham and Women's Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS). We selected 100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) from the BRASS with DAS28 scores equally distributed in four quartiles. The medical records were reviewed to calculate the RARBIS, which includes indicators from the following categories: prior surgical history, radiologic and laboratory findings, clinical and functional status, and extra-articular manifestations. The Spearman correlation between the RARBIS and the DAS28 was assessed in the total study population and in relevant subgroups. We re-weighted on subscales and recalculated the RARBIS score. This was performed based on findings of correlations between the DAS28 and subscales; and also the result from a multiple linear regression with the DAS28 (as a dependent variable) and five subscales (as independent variables). The mean RARBIS was 4.36 (range 0-11). Among the total study cohort, the RARBIS was moderately correlated with the DAS28 (r = 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23-0.56). In subgroup analyses, including age, gender, rheumatoid factor status, and disease duration, we found no statistically significant differences in the correlations. After re-weighting, the correlation between the RARBIS and the DAS28 was somewhat improved (r = 0.48, 95% CI 0.31-0.62). In conclusion, the RARBIS correlated moderately well with the DAS28 in this population. The RARBIS has both face and convergent validity for patients with RA and relevant subgroups and may have application for medical records studies in patients with RA. PMID:16542499

Sato, Masayo; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Scranton, Richard; Katz, Jeffrey N; Weinblatt, Michael E; Avorn, Jerry; Ting, Gladys; Shadick, Nancy A; Solomon, Daniel H

2006-01-01

105

How Twitter Is Studied in the Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed  

PubMed Central

Background Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. Objective This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Methods Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper’s title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. Results As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that researchers are starting to use knowledge discovery methods and data mining techniques to understand vast quantities of tweets: the study of Twitter is becoming quantitative research. Conclusions This work is to the best of our knowledge the first overview study of medical related research based on Twitter and related microblogging. We have used 5 dimensions to categorize published medical related research on Twitter. This classification provides a framework within which researchers studying development and use of Twitter within medical related research, and those undertaking comparative studies of research, relating to Twitter in the area of medicine and beyond, can position and ground their work.

2013-01-01

106

Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations  

PubMed Central

Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia.

Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

2012-01-01

107

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases. Part 6. Supergenera and Genera N-Q,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The section of the 'Index-Catalog of Medical and Veterinary Zoology' is a revision of Stiles' and Hassall's 'Trematoda and Trematode Diseases'. (U.S. Public Health Service, Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 37). The period covered is from the genesis of th...

M. A. Doss K. F. Roach M. M. Farr V. L. Breen

1967-01-01

108

A validation study of the Whitely Index, the Illness Attitude Scales, and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale in general medical and general practice patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Whitely Index (WI), the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS), and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SAS). The study population consisted of 130 general medical outpatients, 113 general practice patients, and 204 subjects from the general population. The factorial structure of the IAS appeared to consist of two subscales,

Anne E. M. Speckens; Philip Spinhoven; Peter P. A. Sloekers; Jan H. Bolk; Albert M. van Hemert

1996-01-01

109

Index-Catalogue of Medical and Veterinary Zoology. Subjects: Trematoda and Trematode Diseases. Part 5. Supergenera and Genera H-M,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The section of the 'Index-Catalog of Medical and Veterinary Zoology' is a revision of Stiles' and Hassall's 'Trematoda and Trematode Diseases' (U.S. Public Health Service, Hygienic Laboratory Bulletin No. 37). The period covered is from the genesis of the...

M. A. Doss K. F. Roach M. M. Farr V. L. Breen

1966-01-01

110

Automatic indexing  

SciTech Connect

Automatic indexing has been a critical technology as more full-text data becomes available online. The paper discusses issues for automatic indexing of different types of full-text and also presents a survey of much of the current research into new techniques for automatic indexing.

Harman, D.

1992-09-01

111

Effect of a medical food on body mass index and activities of daily living in patients with Alzheimer's disease: secondary analyses from a randomized, controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN\\/SETTING\\/PARTICIPANTS\\/INTERVENTION \\/MEASUREMENTS: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter, proof-of-concept study with a similarly designed and exploratory 12-week extension period. Patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score of

P. J. Kamphuis; F. R. J. Verhey; M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; J. W. R. Twisk; S. H. N. Swinkels; P. Scheltens

2011-01-01

112

Mobile phone text message reminders of antipsychotic medication: is it time and who should receive them? A cross-sectional trust-wide survey of psychiatric inpatients  

PubMed Central

Background Poor adherence to antipsychotic medication is a widespread problem, and the largest predictor of relapse in patients with psychosis. Electronic reminders are increasingly used to improve medication adherence for a variety of medical conditions, but have received little attention in the context of psychotic disorders. We aimed to explore the feasibility and acceptability of including short message service (SMS) medication reminders in the aftercare plan of service users discharged from inpatient care on maintenance antipsychotic medication. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, trust-wide survey in the inpatient units of the Oxleas National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust in the UK between June 29 and August 3, 2012. Using a self-report questionnaire and the Drug Attitude Inventory, we examined inpatient attitudes towards antipsychotic drugs, past adherence to antipsychotic medication, frequency of mobile phone ownership, and interest in receiving SMS medication reminders upon discharge from the ward. Predictors of a patient’s interest in receiving electronic reminders were examined using simple logistic regression models. Results Of 273 inpatients, 85 met eligibility criteria for the survey, showed decisional capacity, and agreed to participate. Of the 85 respondents, over a third (31-35%) admitted to have forgotten to take/collect their antipsychotic medication in the past, and approximately half (49%) to have intentionally skipped their antipsychotics or taken a smaller dose than prescribed. Male patients (55%), those with negative attitudes towards antipsychotics (40%), and those unsatisfied with the information they received on medication (35%) were approximately 3 to 4 times more likely to report past intentional poor adherence. The large majority of respondents (80-82%) reported having a mobile phone and knowing how to use SMS, and a smaller majority (59%) expressed an interest in receiving SMS medication reminders after discharge. No variable predicted a patient’s interest in receiving electronic reminders of antipsychotics. Conclusions Automatic SMS reminders of antipsychotic medication were acceptable to the majority of the survey respondents as an optional service offered upon discharge from inpatient care. Automatic electronic reminders deserve further investigation as a flexible, minimally invasive, cost-effective and broadly applicable tool that can potentially improve antipsychotic adherence and clinical outcomes.

2014-01-01

113

Text Structure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web page defines and describes text structure, or how the information within a written text is organized. It explains the benefits of teaching students to identify and analyze text structures within text and describes an instructional sequence in which students read examples of different text structures and then write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. The site includes definitions and examples of five common text structures, and graphic organizers that can be used with each type of text. Links to additional resources and research citations are included.

2012-01-01

114

Citation Analysis of the Korean Journal of Urology From Web of Science, Scopus, Korean Medical Citation Index, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar.  

PubMed

The Korean Journal of Urology began to be published exclusively in English in 2010 and is indexed in PubMed Central/PubMed. This study analyzed a variety of citation indicators of the Korean Journal of Urology before and after 2010 to clarify the present position of the journal among the urology category journals. The impact factor, SCImago Journal Rank (SJR), impact index, Z-impact factor (ZIF, impact factor excluding self-citation), and Hirsch Index (H-index) were referenced or calculated from Web of Science, Scopus, SCImago Journal & Country Ranking, Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI), KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar. Both the impact factor and the total citations rose rapidly beginning in 2011. The 2012 impact factor corresponded to the upper 84.9% in the nephrology-urology category, whereas the 2011 SJR was in the upper 58.5%. The ZIF in KoMCI was one fifth of the impact factor because there are only two other urology journals in KoMCI. Up to 2009, more than half of the citations in the Web of Science were from Korean researchers, but from 2010 to 2012, more than 85% of the citations were from international researchers. The H-indexes from Web of Science, Scopus, KoMCI, KoreaMed Synapse, and Google Scholar were 8, 10, 12, 9, and 18, respectively. The strategy of the language change in 2010 was successful from the perspective of citation indicators. The values of the citation indicators will continue to increase rapidly and consistently as the research achievement of authors of the Korean Journal of Urology increases. PMID:23614057

Huh, Sun

2013-04-01

115

Optimal Document-Indexing Vocabulary for MEDLINE.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of MEDLINE document indexing focuses on a study that assessed the use of free text, Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), and a variety of combination retrieval strategies. Prior research involving free text and controlled vocabularies is reviewed, and results of the study indicate that MeSH does have an important role in text retrieval.…

Srinivasan, Padmini

1996-01-01

116

Text Mining.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

Trybula, Walter J.

1999-01-01

117

Medical image categorization with MedIC and MedGIFT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Images play an important role in medical diagnostics and treatment planning. Whereas medical text retrieval, analysis, and reuse have been practiced for many years, much less is known on the storage and reuse of images in a context other than a single patient, although several medical teaching files with images exist. The aim of automatic image indexing\\/retrieval is to provide

Filip Florea; Henning Müller; Alexandrina Rogozan; Antoine Geissbuhler; Stèfan Darmoni

118

Text Sets.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

2002-01-01

119

Cardioankle vascular index evaluations revealed that cotreatment of ARB Antihypertension medication with traditional Chinese medicine improved arterial functionality.  

PubMed

Qian Yang He Ji (QYHJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of Digitalis purpurea, Uncaria gambir, Fructus tribuli terrestris, and Ligustrum lucidum. Here, we explored whether combining an antihypertensive angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy with QYHJ can improve the arterial functionality of hypertensive patients. One hundred and eight hypertensive patients were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group (n = 53) was treated with ARB and the other group (n = 55) was treated with ARB combined with QYHJ. Each of the 2 groups included 3 subgroups (pure hypertension, hypertension with diabetes, and hypertension with coronary heart disease) and was further divided into patients with and without complications. The cardioankle vascular index and intima-media thickness and pulse pressure were the outcome evaluation parameter. Combined QYHJ and ARB treatment reduced the values of cardioankle vascular index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure to significantly lower levels than ARB treatment alone did in hypertension patients after 6 months of treatment. ARB improves hypertension, but a combined QYHJ treatment can additionally ameliorate the arterial functionality not only in solely hypertensive patients but also in hypertensive patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease complications. QYHJ coapplication might be a choice to further improve the arterial functionality during an ARB hypertension treatment. PMID:23188130

Xu, Yan; Yan, Hua; Yao, Min J; Ma, Jie; Jia, Jun M; Ruan, Fen X; Yao, Zeng C; Huang, Hua M; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ting; Lv, Hua; Endler, Alexander M

2013-05-01

120

Validity, responsiveness and the minimal clinically important difference for the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in an older acute medical population  

PubMed Central

Background The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) is a new mobility instrument that overcomes the limitations of existing instruments. It is the first mobility instrument that accurately measures the mobility of all older adults. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed report of investigations of the validity, responsiveness to change and minimal clinically important difference (MCID) of the DEMMI during its development in an older acute medical population. Methods This study was conducted using a head to head comparison design in two independent samples of older acute medical patients (development sample, n = 86; validation sample, n = 106). Consecutive patients (? 65 years) were assessed using the DEMMI, Barthel Index (BI) and Hierarchical Assessment of Balance and Mobility (HABAM) within 48 hours of hospital admission and discharge. Convergent and discriminant validity were investigated using Spearman's rho and known groups validity was investigated using a independent t test to compare DEMMI scores for patients who were discharged to home compared to inpatient rehabilitation. Criterion and distribution based methods were employed for estimating instrument responsiveness to change and the MCID. Results Significant moderate to high correlations were identified between DEMMI and BI scores (r = 0.76 and r = 0.68) and DEMMI and HABAM scores (r = 0.91 and r = 0.92) in both samples. In both samples, DEMMI scores for patients who were discharged to home were significantly higher than for patients discharged to inpatient rehabilitation and provided evidence of known groups validity. Patients who were discharged to inpatient rehabilitation (n = 8) had a mean DEMMI score of 50.75 (sd = 11.29) at acute hospital discharge compared to patients who were discharged to home (n = 70) with a mean DEMMI score of 62.14 (sd = 18.41). MCID estimates were similar across samples using distribution and criterion based methods. The MCID for the DEMMI was 10 points on the 100 point interval scale. The DEMMI was significantly more responsive to change than the BI using criterion and distribution based methods in the validation sample. Conclusion This study has validated the DEMMI in two independent samples of older acute medical patients. Estimates of its responsiveness and MCID have also been established. This study confirms that the DEMMI overcomes the limitations of the BI and HABAM and provides an advanced method for objectively assessing mobility for older acute medical patients.

2010-01-01

121

The efficacy of aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood nonalcoholic steatohepatitis for medical practice  

PubMed Central

Purpose Childhood obesity is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and it has become one of the most common causes of childhood chronic liver diseases which significant as a cause of liver related mortality and morbidity in children in the United States. The development of simpler and easier clinical indices for medical practice is needed to identify advanced hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD instead of invasive method like liver biopsy. FibroScan and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) have been proposed as a simple and noninvasive predictor to evaluate hepatic fibrosis in several liver diseases. APRI could be a good alternative to detect pathologic change in childhood NAFLD. The purpose of this study is to validate the efficacy of APRI for assessing hepatic fibrosis in childhood NAFLD based on FibroScan. Methods This study included 23 children with NAFLD who underwent FibroScan. Clinical, laboratory and radiological evaluation including APRI was performed. To confirm the result of this study, 6 patients received liver biopsy. Results Factors associated with hepatic fibrosis (stiffness measurement >5.9 kPa Fibroscan) were triglyceride, AST, alanine aminotransferase, platelet count, APRI and collagen IV. In multivariate analysis, APRI were correlated with hepatic fibrosis (>5.9 kPa). In receiver operating characteristics curve, APRI of meaningful fibrosis (cutoff value, 0.4669; area under the receiver operating characteristics, 0.875) presented sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 66%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 64%. Conclusion APRI might be a noninvasive, simple, and readily available method for medical practice to predict hepatic fibrosis of childhood NAFLD.

Kim, Earl; Kang, Yunkoo; Hahn, Seungmin; Lee, Mi Jung; Park, Young Nyun

2013-01-01

122

PPG's Safety and Health Index System: A 10Year Update of an In-Plant Hazardous Materials Identification System and Its Relationship to Finished Product Labeling, Industrial Hygiene, and Medical Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Safety and Health Index System (SHIS) has developed beyond its initial role as an in-plant labeling system. It has evolved into a classification scheme to rank the hazards found in the workplace and is useful in prioritizing industrial hygiene monitoring programs, installation of engineering controls, and implementation of medical monitoring for chronic hazards. In addition to providing objective criteria

B. J. HENRY; K. L. SCHAPER

1990-01-01

123

Block Addressing Indices for Approximate Text Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses indexing in large text databases, approximate text searching, and space-time tradeoffs for indexed text searching. Studies the space overhead and retrieval times as functions of the text block size, concludes that an index can be sublinear in space overhead and query time, and applies the analysis to the Web. (Author/LRW)

Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

2000-01-01

124

Geochemistry Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site is the index of a book used in a geochemistry course taught by W. M. White at Cornell University. There are 15 chapters and a table of contents available. All of the chapters are large PDF files and take some time to download. Figures and exercises accompany the text.

White, William M.; Department Of Earth And Atmospheric Sciences, Cornell U.

125

An integrated medical record and data system for primary care. Part 3: the diagnostic index manual and computer methods and applications.  

PubMed

Manual and computer versions of the diagnostic of the index-E-Book are described. Methods for establisment and maintenance of both indexes are given and the relative merits of each are delineated. Uses of diagnostic indexes are presented which are appropriate to solo and group practices. The role of the diagnostic index in curriculum development within a family practice training setting is also illustrated. PMID:886284

Froom, J; Culpepper, L; Boisseau, V

1977-07-01

126

Population Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/

1986-01-01

127

Hierarchies of Indices for Text Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses indexes for text databases and presents an efficient implementation of an index for text searching called PAT array, or suffix array, where the database is stored on secondary storage devices such as magnetic or optical disks. Additional hierarchical index structures and searching algorithms are proposed that improve searching time, and…

Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; And Others

1996-01-01

128

Health Information Text Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Millions of people search online for medical text, but these texts are often too complicated to understand. Readability evaluations are mostly based on surface metrics such as character or words counts and sentence syntax, but content is ignored. We compared four types of documents, easy and difficult WebMD documents, patient blogs, and patient educational material, for surface and content-based metrics. The documents differed significantly in reading grade levels and vocabulary used. WebMD pages with high readability also used terminology that was more consumer-friendly. Moreover, difficult documents are harder to understand due to their grammar and word choice and because they discuss more difficult topics. This indicates that we can simplify many documents by focusing on word choice in addition to sentence structure, however, for difficult documents this may be insufficient.

Leroy, Gondy; Eryilmaz, Evren; Laroya, Benjamin T.

2006-01-01

129

List of Journals Indexed for Medline 2008.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE is a continuation of the List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus. Coverage in the List of Journals Indexed for MEDLINE includes all titles currently indexed with Medical Subject Headings (MeSH (Trade Name)) in NL...

2008-01-01

130

Inverted files for text search engines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technology underlying text search engines has advanced dramatically in the past decade. The development of a family of new index representations has led to a wide range of innovations in index storage, index construction, and query evaluation. While some of these developments have been consolidated in textbooks, many specific techniques are not widely known or the textbook descriptions are

Justin Zobel; Alistair Moffat

2006-01-01

131

Directed Activities Related to Text: Text Analysis and Text Reconstruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper describes Directed Activities Related to Text (DART), procedures that were developed and are used in the Reading for Learning Project at the University of Nottingham (England) to enhance learning from texts and that fall into two broad categories: (1) text analysis procedures, which require students to engage in some form of analysis of…

Davies, Florence; Greene, Terry

132

756 Association Between Cardiometabolic Risk Factors and Body Mass Index Based on Diagnosis and Treatment Codes in an Electronic Medical Record Database  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Managed care organizations (MCOs) have access to treatment and diagnosis information from administrative claims data but generally have limited or no access to clinical information about laboratory values or biometric values such as body mass index (BMI) or waist circum- ference. Thus, MCOs are generally unable to identify overweight patients with cardiometabolic risk factors that put them at a

AMCP HeAdqu Arters; Cathryn A. Carroll; Shawn Burke; Richard A. Zabinski; Judith A. Cahill; Jean Brown; William K. Fleming; Robert S. Gregory; Robert McMahan; Pete Penna; Diana Brixner; Sameer R. Ghate; Rami Ben-Joseph; Norman V. Carroll; Shamima Khan; Robert Sylvester; David Scott; Bruce Pitts

2008-01-01

133

Indexing Images.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

Rasmussen, Edie M.

1997-01-01

134

Text What?! What Is Text Rendering?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text rendering is a method of deconstructing text that allows students to make decisions regarding the importance of the text, select the portions that are most meaningful to them, and then share it with classmates--all without fear of being ridiculed. The research on students constructing meaning from text is clear. In order for knowledge to…

Davis-Haley, Rachel

2004-01-01

135

Automatic Text Processing for Spanish Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work focuses on some aspects of automatic text processing by using a metric named po defined in a working prototype WIB (Web Intelligent Browser). The word weighting generated by this metric is defined with morphosyntactic considerations and allows the categorization of text words in fuzzy clusters. This weighting could also be used as a model of the original text

M. D. L. De Luise; Mariana Soffer

2008-01-01

136

A Recent Advance in the Automatic Indexing of the Biomedical Literature  

PubMed Central

The volume of biomedical literature has experienced explosive growth in recent years. This is reflected in the corresponding increase in the size of MEDLINE®, the largest bibliographic database of biomedical citations. Indexers at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) need efficient tools to help them accommodate the ensuing workload. After reviewing issues in the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH® terms) to biomedical text, we focus more specifically on the new subheading attachment feature for NLM’s Medical Text Indexer (MTI). Natural Language Processing, statistical, and machine learning methods of producing automatic MeSH main heading/subheading pair recommendations were assessed independently and combined. The best combination achieves 48% precision and 30% recall. After validation by NLM indexers, a suitable combination of the methods presented in this paper was integrated into MTI as a subheading attachment feature producing MeSH indexing recommendations compliant with current state-of-the-art indexing practice.

Neveol, Aurelie; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Mork, James G.; Aronson, Alan R.

2009-01-01

137

Hindi Survival Guide. (Text)  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Survival Guide contains words and phrases which are useful during contingency operations and emergencies. The phrasebook is divided into several sections such as: military expressions, medical phrases, locations, transportation terminology, numbers, c...

2005-01-01

138

Automatic Video Text Localization and Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text in videos contains much semantic information that can be used for video indexing and summarization. In this paper, we design an integrated algorithm of locating horizontal text based on corner point detection and color clustering. First, we get candidate text regions by using the method based on corner point detection, and then identify candidate text regions and refine the

Ge Guo; Jin Jin; Xijian Ping; Tao Zhang

2007-01-01

139

Text File Display Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

Vavrus, J. L.

1986-01-01

140

About Reformulation in Full-Text IRS.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes different kinds of reformulations used in information retrieval systems where full text databases are accessed through natural language queries. Tests of these reformulations on large full text databases managed by the Syntactic and Probabilistic Indexing and Retrieval of Information in Texts (SPIRIT) system are described, and an expert…

Debili, Fathi; And Others

1989-01-01

141

A new approach for video text detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text detection is fundamental to video information retrieval and indexing. Existing methods cannot handle well those texts with different contrast or embedded in a complex background. To handle these difficulties, this paper proposes an efficient text detection approach, which is based on invariant features, such as edge strength, edge density, and horizontal distribution. First, it applies edge detection and uses

Michael R. Lyu; Jiqiang Song; Min Cai

2002-01-01

142

Untangling Text Data Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities for data mining from large text collections are virtually untapped. Text expresses a vast, rich range of information, but encodes this information in a form that is difficult to decipher automatically. Perhaps for this reason, there has been little work in text data mining to date, and most people who have talked about it have either conflated it

Marti A. Hearst

1999-01-01

143

Text chat in action  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synchronous text communication is becoming recognized as a valuable workplace communication medium yet some studies of group text chat indicate that its properties can lead to interactional incoherence. We consider this issue through a detailed analytic examination of text chat transcripts by showing how participants manage their interactions through considering multiple threads, turn taking and topic change. We reveal the

Jacki O'Neill; David Martin

2003-01-01

144

A Text Editor Design.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A design for a text editor is developed and described so that it may easily be implemented without further development of the design. The editor avoids movement of text in memory by allowing the text to be stored non-contiguously. The editor provides comm...

J. M. Kai

1974-01-01

145

Full-Text Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of the literature on full-text databases provides information on search strategy, performance measurement, and the benefits and limitations of full text compared to bibliographic database searching. Various use studies and uses of full-text databases are also listed. (21 references) (LAE)

Siddiqui, Moid A.

1991-01-01

146

Evaluating Text Categorization I  

Microsoft Academic Search

While certain standard procedures are widely used for evalu- ating text retrieval systems and algorithms, the sarne is not true for text categorization. Omission of important data from reports is common and methods of measuring effectiveness vary widely. This )'ms m~de judging the relative merits of techniques for text categorization dif~.cult and has disguised important research is- sues. In this

David D. Lewis

1991-01-01

147

Oxford Text Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The well-established Oxford Text Archive can now be accessed via its new web site, a redesign intended to improve navigation, functionality, and to utilize the SGML metadata available for all texts. Users can also now conduct full text searches. Founded in 1976 and based in the Humanities Computing Unit of Oxford University Computing Services, the Oxford Text Archive houses selected academic submissions for the purpose of preserving "high-quality electronic texts for research and teaching." Scholars and other interested users have access to more than 2500 resources in over 25 different languages. The OTA encourages new submissions of quality, scholarly electronic resources.

148

MENELAS: an access system for medical records using natural language  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall goal of Menelas is to provide better access to the information contained in natural language patient discharge summaries, through the design and implementation of a pilot system able to access medical reports through natural languages. A first, experimental version of the Menelas indexing prototype for French has been assembled. Its function is to encode free text PDSs into

Pierre Zweigenbaum

1994-01-01

149

Persian Text Watermarking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Digital watermarking applies to variety of media including image, video, audio and text. Because of the nature of digital\\u000a text, its watermarking methods are special. Moreover, these methods basically depend on the script used in the text. This\\u000a paper reviews application of digital watermarking to Farsi (Persian) and similar scripts (like Arabic, Urdu and Pashto) which\\u000a are substantially different from

Ali Asghar Khodami; Khashayar Yaghmaie

2006-01-01

150

TextImages  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Those persons who do their own website design will find TextImages most useful. Developed by Stefan Trost, this helpful tool allows users to integrate text written on images into their websites. Visitors can create single text images with this application, along with a wide range of pictures. Visitors also have the ability to precisely adjust the writing, design, format, style, colors, fonts, margins, and spacing as they see fit. The tool is particularly useful for those who want headings or other recurring text to look the same regardless of browser or available fonts. This version is compatible with Windows 7, XP, and Vista.

Trost, Stefan

2012-03-30

151

Text File Comparator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

Kotler, R. S.

1983-01-01

152

Editing Images of Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The paper describes Image EMACS, a text editor for binary document images which illustrates an alternative to the format conversion paradigm. The goal of Image EMACS is to allow images to text to be created and manipulated as if they were conventional tex...

S. C. Bagley G. E. Kopec

1992-01-01

153

Towards Text Knowledge Engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a methodology for automating the maintenance of domain-specific taxonomies based on natural language text understanding. A given ontology is incrementally updated as new concepts are acquired from real-world texts. The acqui- sition process is centered around the linguistic and conceptual \\

Udo Hahn; Klemens Schnattinger

1998-01-01

154

Workbook-Text Combination.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Science Work-A-Text" combines a text and workbook approach to studying/teaching grades 1-6 elementary science. Five major themes (living things; health/nutrition; planet earth; the universe; matter and energy) are covered at each grade level. Major focus of the series is on reading and content rather than process. (Author/SK)

Shaw, Eddie

1982-01-01

155

Internet Web Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

_Internet Web Text_ links users to information about Internet orientation, guides, reference materials, browsing and exploring tools, subject- and word-oriented searching tools, and information about connecting with people.

156

Parallel text search methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comparison of recently proposed parallel text search methods to alternative available search strategies that use serial processing machines suggests parallel methods do not provide large-scale gains in either retrieval effectiveness or efficiency.

Gerard Salton; Chris Buckley

1988-01-01

157

Dialogue with a Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Argues that literature instruction should enable readers to find the connections between their experience and the literary work. Explains how discussions can be guided to focus on students' reactions, perceptions, and associations with a text. (MM)

Probst, Robert E.

1988-01-01

158

Teaching Expository Text Structures  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks. In this article, the authors present an activity using a modified form of the sentence completion or "fill-in-the-blanks" worksheet that reinforces students' fluency with expository text structure and context.

Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David; Montelongo, Jose'; Berber-Jimenez, Lola

2006-02-01

159

Optimal Document-Indexing Vocabulary for MEDLINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

The indexing vocabulary is an important determinant of success in text retrieval. Researchers have compared the effectiveness of indexing using free-text and controlled vocabularies in a variety of text contexts. A number of studies have investigated the relative merits of free-text, MeSH and UMLS Metathesaurus indexing vocabularies for MEDLINE document indexing. Most of these studies conclude that controlled vocabularies offer

Padmini Srinivasan

1996-01-01

160

Text Exchange System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

1986-01-01

161

UMLS Concept Indexing for Production Databases  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To explore the feasibility of using the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus as the basis for a computational strategy to identify concepts in medical narrative text preparatory to indexing. To quantitatively evaluate this strategy in terms of true positives, false positives (spuriously identified concepts) and false negatives (concepts missed by the identification process). Methods: Using the 1999 UMLS Metathesaurus, the authors processed a training set of 100 documents (50 discharge summaries, 50 surgical notes) with a concept-identification program, whose output was manually analyzed. They flagged concepts that were erroneously identified and added new concepts that were not identified by the program, recording the reason for failure in such cases. After several refinements to both their algorithm and the UMLS subset on which it operated, they deployed the program on a test set of 24 documents (12 of each kind). Results: Of 8,745 matches in the training set, 7,227 (82.6 percent ) were true positives, whereas of 1,701 matches in the test set, 1,298 (76.3 percent) were true positives. Matches other than true positive indicated potential problems in production-mode concept indexing. Examples of causes of problems were redundant concepts in the UMLS, homonyms, acronyms, abbreviations and elisions, concepts that were missing from the UMLS, proper names, and spelling errors. Conclusions: The error rate was too high for concept indexing to be the only production-mode means of preprocessing medical narrative. Considerable curation needs to be performed to define a UMLS subset that is suitable for concept matching.

Nadkarni, Prakash; Chen, Roland; Brandt, Cynthia

2001-01-01

162

Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation- handling, can essentially be considered solved

Pierre Zweigenbaum; Dina Demner-fushman; Hong Yu; Kevin B. Cohen

2007-01-01

163

Reflections of Older Texts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overseas teaching assignment in 1961 led one educator to visit St. Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin where he came upon an effigy of Richard Whately and realized that Whately had written a text used in many American universities. The educator especially recalled that Whately had said "Encourage your students." He also wrote that the audience…

Reid, Loren

164

Visualizing Informational Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.

Fries-Gaither, Jessica

2011-03-01

165

Polymorphous Perversity in Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

2012-01-01

166

Access methods for text  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares text retrieval methods intended for office systems. The operational requirements of the office environment are discussed, and retrieval methods from database systems and from information retrieval systems are examined. We classify these methods and examine the most interesting representatives of each class. Attempts to speed up retrieval with special purpose hardware are also presented, and issues such

Christos Faloutsos

1985-01-01

167

Evaluating Attitudes from Texts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In this paper an example is given how the theory of knowledge graphs and the theory of social atoms can be used to evaluate the attitudes that actors have with respect to each other as far is evident from a text.

C. Hoede

1999-01-01

168

Text Steganography in chat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Invention of the Internet and its spread in the world changes various aspects of human life. In addition, Internet changed human relations. Chat is one of the new aspects which invented after the Internet and is welcomed by users, especially by young people. In chat rooms, people talk with each other using text messages. Because of the need for quick

M. Hassan Shirali-Shahreza

2007-01-01

169

Summarizing Expository Texts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

2010-01-01

170

STEM Careers Cursive Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.

Wpsu

2009-11-10

171

New generic indexing technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

Freeston, Michael

1996-01-01

172

Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

173

The Texting Principal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The author was appointed principal of a large, urban comprehensive high school in spring 2008. One of the first things she had to figure out was how she would develop a connection with her students when there were so many of them--nearly 2,000--and only one of her. Texts may be exchanged more quickly than having a conversation over the phone,…

Kessler, Susan Stone

2009-01-01

174

TRMM Gridded Text Products  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

Stocker, Erich Franz

2007-01-01

175

Text detection and segmentation in complex color images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text is a very powerful index in content-based image and video indexing. We propose a new text detection and segmentation algorithm that is especially designed for being applied to color images with complicated background. Our goal is to minimize the number of false alarms and to binarize efficiently the detected text areas so that they can be processed by standard

C. Garcia; X. Apostolidis

2000-01-01

176

New Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 23, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the release of a new Air Quality Index, which is used by state and local agencies for reporting on daily air quality to the public, especially in major cities. The new Index has been revised to enhance public understanding of air quality and associated health effects, and it reflects updated health information on several pollutants. In addition to the full text of the new AQI Rule (105 p.), several related documents are offered at the site. These include the AQI fact sheet, Air Quality Guide, Ozone Health Effects Booklet, and Guideline for Reporting of Daily Air Quality.

Standards., United S.

177

ADHD Medications  

MedlinePLUS

Managing ADHD With Medication Just about everyone has trouble concentrating or paying attention in class from time to time. ... to develop new medications for ADHD. Continue Are ADHD Medications Safe? Most experts agree that ADHD medications ...

178

Medication Guide  

MedlinePLUS

... before starting any new medication. First-Line Medications: Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) These medications are called "first- ... they might try a "second-line" medication instead. Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) helps smokers quit by reducing ...

179

ResearchIndex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sponsored by the NEC Research Institute, ResearchIndex was created to improve the dissemination, functionality, usability, and efficiency of online scientific literature by demonstrating and providing "algorithms, techniques, and software that can be used in other digital libraries." The current demonstration database indexes over 150,000 computer science articles containing over 2 million citations. Searchable by keyword only, database returns feature several options. Users can review a list of citations to a given paper with links to the full text articles (Postscript or .pdf format), view related articles, and sign up to have new citations for selected articles emailed to them. In the future, users should also be able to review a dynamically created and continuously updated bibliography. Additional resources at the site include a collection of papers about citation indexing, digital libraries, Web analysis, and neural networks. Users may also submit papers to the database and subscribe to be notified when additional databases become available at the site.

180

Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

1999-01-01

181

Text retrieval from early printed books  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a text indexing and retrieval technique that does not rely on word segmentation and is tolerant to errors in character segmentation. The method is designed to process early printed documents and we evaluate it on the well known Latin Gutenberg Bible. The approach relies on two main components. First, character objects (in most cases corresponding to individual characters)

Simone Marinai

2009-01-01

182

Extracting information from free text radiology reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

  \\u000a We describe a system designed to extract and structure the information contained in free text radiology reports. The system\\u000a uses natural language processing techniques to transform free text descriptions into structured information units that can\\u000a be used to index and provide access to image databases. To provide access to the results of the system we developed a unique\\u000a user

David B. Johnson II; Ricky K. Taira; Alfonso F. Cardenas; Denise R. Aberle

1997-01-01

183

[The birth stool in texts of classical tradition].  

PubMed

The author presents a collection of texts from Antiquity and from the Middle Ages to give an idea of the kind and incidence of references to the birth stool in medical and non-medical texts. The medieval texts are derived--at least indirectly--from classical sources, too. The mention of the birth stool is a marginal issue in medical as well as non-medical texts. In German-speaking culture areas, the widespread knowledge of the birth stool cannot be traced back to earlier than the beginning of the 16th century. PMID:9483875

Reus, W A

1997-01-01

184

Full Text Journal Subscriptions: An Evolutionary Process.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides an overview of companies offering Web accessible subscriptions to full text electronic versions of scientific, technical, and medical journals (Academic Press, Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier, Highwire Press, Information Quest, Institute of Physics, Johns Hopkins University Press, OCLC, OVID, Springer, and SWETS). Also lists guidelines for…

Luther, Judy

1997-01-01

185

The Aberystwyth Index Languages Test  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effectiveness and efficiency of five index languages in the subject area of library and information science are compared. Full details of the text and retrieval results are presented. (17 references) (Author/NH)

Keen, E. Michael

1973-01-01

186

Term-Weighting Approaches in Automatic Text Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the experimental evidence that indicates that text indexing systems based on the assignment of appropriately weighted single terms produce retrieval results superior to those obtained with more elaborate text representations, and provides baseline single term indexing models with which more elaborate content analysis procedures can be…

Salton, Gerard; Buckley, Christopher

1988-01-01

187

Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

2014-01-01

188

Text mining for the biocuration workflow  

PubMed Central

Molecular biology has become heavily dependent on biological knowledge encoded in expert curated biological databases. As the volume of biological literature increases, biocurators need help in keeping up with the literature; (semi-) automated aids for biocuration would seem to be an ideal application for natural language processing and text mining. However, to date, there have been few documented successes for improving biocuration throughput using text mining. Our initial investigations took place for the workshop on ‘Text Mining for the BioCuration Workflow’ at the third International Biocuration Conference (Berlin, 2009). We interviewed biocurators to obtain workflows from eight biological databases. This initial study revealed high-level commonalities, including (i) selection of documents for curation; (ii) indexing of documents with biologically relevant entities (e.g. genes); and (iii) detailed curation of specific relations (e.g. interactions); however, the detailed workflows also showed many variabilities. Following the workshop, we conducted a survey of biocurators. The survey identified biocurator priorities, including the handling of full text indexed with biological entities and support for the identification and prioritization of documents for curation. It also indicated that two-thirds of the biocuration teams had experimented with text mining and almost half were using text mining at that time. Analysis of our interviews and survey provide a set of requirements for the integration of text mining into the biocuration workflow. These can guide the identification of common needs across curated databases and encourage joint experimentation involving biocurators, text mining developers and the larger biomedical research community.

Hirschman, Lynette; Burns, Gully A. P. C; Krallinger, Martin; Arighi, Cecilia; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Valencia, Alfonso; Wu, Cathy H.; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Dowell, Karen G.; Huala, Eva; Lourenco, Analia; Nash, Robert; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Wiegers, Thomas; Winter, Andrew G.

2012-01-01

189

Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

2013-03-01

190

Automatic Video Text Detection and Localization Based on Coarseness Texture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video text recognition is crucial to the research in all video indexing and summarization and has been used in video semantics analysis. Video text detection and localization is important for video text recognition. In this paper we present a new approach to implement video text detection and localization. In the text detection, we perform motion detection in 30 frames to

Xiaodong Huang

2012-01-01

191

Medical Assistants  

MedlinePLUS

... uses. Medical assistants should not be confused with physician assistants , who examine, diagnose, and treat patients under a ... learn their skills through on-the-job training. Physicians or other medical assistants may teach a new assistant medical terminology, the ...

192

Medication Treatments  

MedlinePLUS

... medications are used to treat certain symptoms of Fragile X syndrome, as shown in the chart below. The NICHD ... of these medications in treating the symptoms of Fragile X syndrome, or for other conditions for which the medications ...

193

Predicting text entry speed on mobile phones  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a model for predicting expert text entry rates for several input methods on a 12-key mobile phone keypad. The model includes a movement component based on Fitts' law and a linguistic component based on digraph, or letter-pair, probabilities. Predictions are provided for one-handed thumb and two-handed index finger input. For the traditional multi-press method or the lesser-used two-key

Miika Silfverberg; I. Scott MacKenzie; Panu Korhonen

2000-01-01

194

Text retrieval from early printed books  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrieving text from early printed books is particularly difficult because in these documents, the words are very close one\\u000a to the other and, similarly to medieval manuscripts, there is a large use of ligatures and abbreviations. To address these\\u000a problems, we propose a word indexing and retrieval technique that does not require word segmentation and is tolerant to errors\\u000a in

Simone Marinai

2011-01-01

195

Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts (For Parents)  

MedlinePLUS

Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts KidsHealth > Parents > General Health > Your Kid's Body > Body Mass Index (BMI) Charts Print A A A Text Size ... the same age. Now they have another tool: body mass index (BMI). BMI is a calculation that uses height ...

196

A Texture Index: Measuring Texture in Discourse.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Devises and validates an index of texture to be used to accurately analyze texts of developing writers as an aid in improving readability. An index reflecting conjunction, conjunctive reach, specificity, connectivity, topic, and topic shift was created. Results were a perfect correlation in rankings produced by the index and judges. (32…

Roseberry, Robert L.

1995-01-01

197

MEDICAL "DEPRIVATION."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL

SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.

198

Medical Matrix  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Medical Matrix is a Web resource that offers a database of Internet clinical medicine resources. Medical Matrix categorizes resources by disease, specialty, and other interest areas. It is designed as a "home page" for a physician's or healthworker's computer. Medical Matrix is a project of the Internet Working Group of the American Medical Informatics Association.

199

Indexing Consistency and Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

200

Text databases: a survey of text models and systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text models focus on the manipulation of textual data. They describe texts by their structure, operations on the texts, and constraints on both structure and operations. In this article common characteristics of machine readable texts in general are outlined. Subsequently, ten text models are introduced. They are described in terms of the datatypes that they support, and the operations defined

Arjan Loeffen

1994-01-01

201

Automatic Text Decomposition and Structuring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text similarity measurements are used to determine relationships between natural-language texts and text excerpts. The resulting linked hypertext maps can be broken down into text segments and themes used to identify different text types and structures, leading to improved information access and utilization. Examples are provided for text

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1996-01-01

202

Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress  

PubMed Central

It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year.

Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

2008-01-01

203

Mining correlated bursty topic patterns from coordinated text streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on text mining has almost exclusively focused on a single stream. However, we often have available mul- tiple text streams indexed by the same set of time points (called coordinated text streams), which oer new opportu- nities for text mining. For example, when a major event happens, all the news articles published by dieren t agen- cies in

Xuanhui Wang; Chengxiang Zhai; Xiao Hu; Richard Sproat

2007-01-01

204

Text Detection, Localization and Segmentation in Compressed Videos  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video text information plays an important role in semantic-based video analysis, indexing and retrieval. Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. Text-based video analysis, browsing and retrieval are usually carried out in the following for steps: video text detection, localization, segmentation and recognition. Videos are commonly stored in compressed formats where MPEG coding techniques are adopted.

Xueming Qian; Guizhong Liu

2006-01-01

205

An automatic performance evaluation protocol for video text detection algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text presented in the videos provides important supplemental information for video indexing and retrieval. Many efforts have been made for text detection in videos. However, there is still lack of performance evaluation pr otocols for video text detection. In this paper, we propose an objective and comprehensive performance evaluation protocol for video text detection algorithms. The protocol includes a positive

Xian-sheng Hua; Liu Wenyin; Hong-Jiang Zhang

2004-01-01

206

A New Method for Handwritten Scene Text Detection in Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are many video images where hand written text may appear. Therefore handwritten scene text detection in video is essential and useful for many applications for efficient indexing, retrieval etc. Also there are many video frames where text line may be multi-oriented in nature. To the best of our knowledge there is no work on handwritten text detection in video,

Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Anjan Dutta; Umapada Pal; Chew Lim Tan

2010-01-01

207

Text detection, localization, and tracking in compressed video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video text information plays an important role in semantic-based video analysis, indexing and retrieval. Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. Usually, the fundamental steps of text-based video analysis, browsing and retrieval consist of video text detection, localization, tracking, segmentation and recognition. Video sequences are commonly stored in compressed formats where MPEG coding techniques are often

Xueming Qian; Guizhong Liu; Huan Wang; Rui Su

2007-01-01

208

Text Particles Multiband Fusion for Robust Text Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texts in images and videos usually carry important information for visual content understanding and retrieval. Two main restrictions exist in the state-of-the-art text detection algorithms: weak contrast and text-background variance. This paper presents a robust text detection method based on text parti- cles (TP) multi-band fusion to solve there problems. Firstly, text particles are generated by their local binary pattern

Pengfei Xu; Rongrong Ji; Hongxun Yao; Xiaoshuai Sun; Tianqiang Liu; Xianming Liu

2008-01-01

209

A Video Text Detection Method Based on Key Text Points  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This paper proposes a novel video text detection method based on the key text points. For text detection, the keyframes is\\u000a decomposed by wavelet transform. The key text points (KTPs) are determined by three resulting high-frequency subbands, and\\u000a merged by the morphological operations. The anti-texture-direction-projection method is proposed for text line localization\\u000a and verification. A fast text tracking scheme is

Zhi Li; Guizhong Liu; Xueming Qian; Chen Wang; Yana Ma; Yang Yang

2010-01-01

210

Text quality estimation in video  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text quality can significantly affect the results of text detection and recognition in digital video. In this paper we address the problem of estimating text quality. The quality of text that appears in video is often much lower than that in document images, and can be degraded by factors such as low resolution, background variation, uneven lighting, motion of the text and camera, and in the case of scene text, projection from 3D. Features based on text resolution, background noise, contrast, illumination and texture are selected to describe the text quality, normalized and fed into a trained RBF network to estimate the text quality. The performance using different training schemes are compared.

Li, Huiping; Doermann, David S.

2001-12-01

211

Text Mining with Information Extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text mining concerns looking for patterns in unstructured text. The related task of Informa- tion Extraction (IE) is about locating specific items in natural-language documents. This paper presents a framework for text mining, called DISCOTEX (Discovery from Text EXtraction), using a learned information extraction system to transform text into more structured data which is then mined for interesting relationships. The

Raymond J. Mooney; Un Yong Nahm

2002-01-01

212

Guiding Students through Expository Text with Text Feature Walks  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Text Feature Walk is a structure created and employed by the authors that guides students in the reading of text features in order to access prior knowledge, make connections, and set a purpose for reading expository text. Results from a pilot study are described in order to illustrate the benefits of using the Text Feature Walk over…

Kelley, Michelle J.; Clausen-Grace, Nicki

2010-01-01

213

The moral difference or equivalence between continuous sedation until death and physician-assisted death: word games or war games?: a qualitative content analysis of opinion pieces in the indexed medical and nursing literature.  

PubMed

Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical-ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of "slow euthanasia." A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD and PAD. Arguments pro and contra a moral difference refer basically to the same ambiguous themes, namely intention, proportionality, withholding artificial nutrition and hydration, and removing consciousness. This demonstrates that the debate is first and foremost a semantic rather than a factual dispute, focusing on the normative framework of CSD. Given the prevalent ambiguity, the debate on CSD appears to be a classical symbolic struggle for moral authority. PMID:23180260

Rys, Sam; Deschepper, Reginald; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc; Atkinson, Douglas; Bilsen, Johan

2012-06-01

214

Medical Illustration  

MedlinePLUS

... demanding and time-honored method of visual communication. Job description Through the medical graphics they create, medical illustrators ... in preparing prosthetics for patients or in preparing models for instructional purposes. In addition to the production ...

215

Medical Transcriptionists  

MedlinePLUS

... have an understanding of medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, grammar, and word-processing software. Pay The median ... must become familiar with medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, diagnostic procedures, pharmacology, and treatment assessments. Their ability ...

216

Medication Errors  

MedlinePLUS

... Design Control Reviewers - Medical Device Use-Safety: Incorporating Human Factors Engineering into Risk Management (PDF - 1.1MB) Draft ... Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff - Applying Human Factors and Usability Engineering to Optimize Medical Device Design - ? - ...

217

Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

White, Sheida

2012-01-01

218

Flexible Text Display with Lector  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lector, an X11 application for flexible text interaction, is described. Lector was originally devised as a simple, rapid formatter for the display of online text databases. It was then discovered that Lector exhibited useful capabilities for a wide range of text applications. The ways in which Lector distinguishes between content and tags in descriptively marked-up text and achieves flexible interaction

Darrell R. Raymond

1992-01-01

219

Text Complexity and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

220

The Challenge of Challenging Text  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

2012-01-01

221

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods  

SciTech Connect

Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

2013-05-28

222

XQuery Full Text Implementation in BaseX  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

BaseX is an early adopter of the upcoming XQuery Full Text Recommendation. This paper presents some of the enhancements made to the XML database to fully support the language extensions. The system’s data and index structures are described, and implementation details are given on the XQuery compiler, which supports sequential scanning, index-based, and hybrid processing of full-text queries. Experimental analysis and an insight into visual result presentation of query results conclude the presentation.

Grün, Christian; Gath, Sebastian; Holupirek, Alexander; Scholl, Marc H.

223

Indexing Consistency and Quality.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

224

Nucleic acid indexing  

DOEpatents

A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA) [Bellevue, WA

1999-01-01

225

Nucleic acid indexing  

DOEpatents

A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI) [Madison, WI; Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA) [Bellevue, WA

2001-01-01

226

Systematic Characterizations of Text Similarity in Full Text Biomedical Publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundComputational methods have been used to find duplicate biomedical publications in MEDLINE. Full text articles are becoming increasingly available, yet the similarities among them have not been systematically studied. Here, we quantitatively investigated the full text similarity of biomedical publications in PubMed Central.Methodology\\/Principal Findings72,011 full text articles from PubMed Central (PMC) were parsed to generate three different datasets: full texts,

Zhaohui Sun; Mounir Errami; Tara Long; Chris Renard; Nishant Choradia; Harold Garner; Walter H. Curioso

2010-01-01

227

Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…

Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A.

2007-01-01

228

Data Compression in Full-Text Retrieval Systems.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes compression methods for components of full-text systems such as text databases on CD-ROM. Topics discussed include storage media; structures for full-text retrieval, including indexes, inverted files, and bitmaps; compression tools; memory requirements during retrieval; and ranking and information retrieval. (Contains 53 references.)…

Bell, Timothy C.; And Others

1993-01-01

229

Text Readability and Intuitive Simplification: A Comparison of Readability Formulas  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Texts are routinely simplified for language learners with authors relying on a variety of approaches and materials to assist them in making the texts more comprehensible. Readability measures are one such tool that authors can use when evaluating text comprehensibility. This study compares the Coh-Metrix Second Language (L2) Reading Index, a…

Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, David B.; McNamara, Danielle S.

2011-01-01

230

A Gradient Difference Based Technique for Video Text Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text detection in video images has received increasing attention, particularly in scene text detection in video images, as it plays a vital role in video indexing and information retrieval. This paper proposes a new and robust gradient difference technique for detecting both graphics and scene text in video images. The technique introduces the concept of zero crossing to determine the

Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Trung Quy Phan; Chew Lim Tan

2009-01-01

231

Text editor on a chip  

SciTech Connect

The authors propose a processor which provides useful facilities for implementing text editing commands. The processor now being developed is a component of the general front-end editing system which parses the program text and processes the text. This processor attached to a conventional microcomputer system bus executes screen editing functions. Conventional text editing is a typical application of the microprocessors. But in this paper emphasis is given to the firmware and hardware processing of texts in order that the processor can be fabricated in a single VLSI chip. To increase the overall regularity and decrease the design cost, the basic instructions are text editing oriented with short basic cycles. 6 references.

Jung Wan Cho; Heung Kyu Lee

1983-01-01

232

HIV Medicine: A Medical Texbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

HIV Medicine is an online medical textbook that provides comprehensive and timely information on HIV treatment. Chapters include background information on Acute HIV-1 Infection, and a detailed guide to HIV Therapy. There is also current information about side effects, Lipodystrophy Syndrome, and resistance testing. The online textbook includes an impressive, in-depth index of HIV drugs. Editors Christian Hoffmann and Bernd Sebastian Kamps have years of experience in the medical field and provide free and anonymous access of their text to the public. Collaborators include Nyasha Bakare, MD who has worked at the Research Institute for Genetic and Human Therapy (RIGHT) since 2001, and has been working on the clinical development of a therapeutic HIV vaccine. This Web site is easy to navigate and its layout nicely mirrors the organization of a paper textbook. It will be useful as a research tool for college and graduate students as well as for the layperson who desires more in-depth information on HIV and treatments. Join the mailing list to be notified of new chapters and updates. [TJS

Hoffmann, Christian; Kamps, Bernd S.

233

Meaning Representation and Text Planning  

Microsoft Academic Search

starts with a'world'state, represented by structures of an application program (e. g., an expert system) that has text generation needs and an impetus to produce a natu-ral language text. The output of generation is a natural language text. The generation process involves the tasks of a) delimiting the content of the eventual text, b) plano ning its structure, c) selecting

Christine Defrise; Sergei Nirenburg

1990-01-01

234

ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.  

SciTech Connect

Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-07-01

235

Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

2010-11-01

236

Science Learning Through Text: The Effect of Text Design and text Comprehension Skills on Conceptual Change  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how a traditional text design, compared to a conceptual change text design, supports readers with varying\\u000a text comprehension skills in learning photosynthesis. The study is theoretically motivated by the research on conceptual change\\u000a and text comprehension. Two hundred eleven-year-old participants were first given a conceptual understanding pre-test concerning\\u000a photosynthesis and two tests on text comprehension skills. In

Mirjamaija Mikkilä-Erdmann

237

Automatic Text Structuring and Summarization.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)

Salton, Gerard; And Others

1997-01-01

238

Translation and Text-Analysis.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of translation is to enable an audience in a Target Language to understand a text/discourse which was ultimately not intended for them. The primary goal of text-analysis is to further the understanding of phenomena inside one language. There are several similarities between translation and text-analysis: both translation and…

Barbe, Katharina

239

Text Mining Infrastructure in R  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the last decade text mining has become a widely used discipline utilizing sta- tistical and machine learning methods. We present the tm package which provides a framework for text mining applications within R. We give a survey on text mining facili- ties in R and explain how typical application tasks can be carried out using our framework. We present

Ingo Feinerer; Kurt Hornik; David Meyer

2008-01-01

240

Informational Text and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01

241

Slippery Texts and Evolving Literacies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…

Mackey, Margaret

2007-01-01

242

Contextual Entropy and Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe a new approach to text categorization, our focus is in the amount of information (the entropy) in the text. The entropy is computed with the empirical distribution of words in the text. We provide the system with a manually segmented collection of documents in different categories. For each category a separate empirical distribution of words

Moises Garcia; Hugo Hidalgo; Edgar Chávez

2006-01-01

243

Text detection for video analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Textual information brings important semantic clues in video content analysis. We describe a method for detection and representation of text in video segments. The method consists of seven steps: channel separation, image enhancement, edge detection, edge filtering, character detection, text box detection, and text line detection. Our results show that this method can be applied to English as well as

Lalitha Agnihotri; Nevenka Dimitrova

1999-01-01

244

Text Categorisation Using Document Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper presents an extension of prior work by Michael D. Lee on psychologically plausible text categorisation. Our approach utilises Lee's model as a pre-processing filter to generate a dense representation for a given text document (a document profile) and passes that on to an arbitrary standard propositional learning algorithm. Similarly to standard feature selection for text classification, the

Maximilien Sauban; Bernhard Pfahringer

2003-01-01

245

A simple clinical colitis activity index  

PubMed Central

Background—The appropriate medical treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis is determined largely by the severity of symptoms. Hospital assessment of the severity of disease activity includes investigation of laboratory indices and sigmoidoscopic assessment of mucosal inflammation. ?Aims—To develop a simplified clinical colitis activity index to aid in the initial evaluation of exacerbations of colitis. ?Methods—The information for development of the simple index was initially evaluated in 63 assessments of disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis where disease activity was evaluated using the Powell-Tuck Index (which includes symptoms, physical signs, and sigmoidoscopic appearance). The new index was then further evaluated in 113 assessments in a different group of patients, by comparison with a complex index utilising clinical and laboratory data, as well as five haematological and biochemical markers of disease severity. ?Results—The newly devised Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index, consisting of scores for five clinical criteria, showed a highly significant correlation with the Powell-Tuck Index (r=0.959, p<0.0001) as well as the complex index (r=0.924, p<0.0001) and all laboratory markers (p=0.0003 to p<0.0001). ?Conclusions—This new Simple Colitis Activity Index shows good correlation with existing more complex scoring systems and therefore could be useful in the initial assessment of patients with ulcerative colitis. ?? Keywords: ulcerative colitis; disease activity

Walmsley, R; Ayres, R; Pounder, R; Allan, R

1998-01-01

246

ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.  

SciTech Connect

Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

2010-06-01

247

The medical sciences in Czechoslovakia  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to Science Citation Index, the Czechoslovak medical sciences contributed about 1.2% of the world medical knowledge pool in the 1960s. This contribution decreased to about 0.6% in the 1980s. The reasons for this decline are many and varied, such as the suppression of certain fields of scientific research by the Communist government and the degradation of the position of

V Schreiber

1993-01-01

248

Description logics in medical informatics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Description logics and related formalisms are being applied in at least v e applica- tions in medical informatics|terminology, intelligent user interfaces, decision sup- port and semantic indexing, language technology, and systems integration. Impor- tant issues include size, complexity, connectivity, and the wide range of granularity required|medical terminologies require on the order of 250,000 concepts, some in- volving a dozen or

Alan Rector

2003-01-01

249

Text Mining: Natural Language techniques and Text Mining applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the general framework of knowledge discovery, Data Mining techniques areusually dedicated to information extraction from structured databases. TextMining techniques, on the other hand, are dedicated to information extractionfrom unstructured textual data and Natural Language Processing (NLP)can then be seen as an interesting tool for the enhancement of informationextraction procedures. In this paper, we present two examples of Text Miningtasks,

Martin Rajman; Romaric Besançon

1997-01-01

250

Effectively processing medical term queries on the UMLS Metathesaurus by layered dynamic programming  

PubMed Central

Background Mapping medical terms to standardized UMLS concepts is a basic step for leveraging biomedical texts in data management and analysis. However, available methods and tools have major limitations in handling queries over the UMLS Metathesaurus that contain inaccurate query terms, which frequently appear in real world applications. Methods To provide a practical solution for this task, we propose a layered dynamic programming mapping (LDPMap) approach, which can efficiently handle these queries. LDPMap uses indexing and two layers of dynamic programming techniques to efficiently map a biomedical term to a UMLS concept. Results Our empirical study shows that LDPMap achieves much faster query speeds than LCS. In comparison to the UMLS Metathesaurus Browser and MetaMap, LDPMap is much more effective in querying the UMLS Metathesaurus for inaccurately spelled medical terms, long medical terms, and medical terms with special characters. Conclusions These results demonstrate that LDPMap is an efficient and effective method for mapping medical terms to the UMLS Metathesaurus.

2014-01-01

251

CENDI Indexing Workshop  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

1994-01-01

252

AGU index terms updated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

AGU has just completed a major revision of its Index Terms. The last major revision of the Index Terms was conducted in 1995. AGU Index Terms are used for classification of both AGU publications and meetings programs. The new Index Terms will be available for use by the AGU community on 17 December (http://www.agu.org/pubs/indexterms).A 15-person working group, representing various disciplinary groups across the AGU, was established by, and reports to, the Publications Committee. The Index Committee members consulted with their constituencies and considered term-by-term usage of the old Index Term list in creating the new list.

Kodama, Kenneth P.

2004-12-01

253

How indexes have changed  

SciTech Connect

The accompanying table compares refinery construction and operating wages monthly for the years 1992 and 1993. The Nelson-Farrar refinery construction cost indexes are inflation indexes, while the operating indexes incorporate a productivity which shows improvement with experience and the increasing size of operations. The refinery construction wage indexes in the table show a steady advance over the 2-year period. Common labor indexes moved up faster than skilled indexes. Refinery operating wages showed a steady increase, while productivities averaged higher near the end of the period. Net results is that labor costs remained steady for the period.

Farrar, G.L.

1994-04-04

254

Clinical validation of a nutritional risk index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research assessed the clinical validity of a nutritional risk index (NRI). Subjects were 377 male veterans, aged 55+, attending general medicine and geriatric outpatient clinics. Data were collected by personal interviews, anthropometric measurements, laboratory assay of nutritional parameters, three-day food records, and medical record reviews. Although the results showed that the NRI correlated significantly with only two nutritional measures

John M. Prendergast; Rodney M. Coe; M. Noel Chavez; James C. Romeis; Douglas K. Miller; Fredric D. Wolinsky

1989-01-01

255

Chemical-text hybrid search engines.  

PubMed

As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy. PMID:20047295

Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

2010-01-01

256

Econo-ESA in semantic text similarity.  

PubMed

Explicit semantic analysis (ESA) utilizes an immense Wikipedia index matrix in its interpreter part. This part of the analysis multiplies a large matrix by a term vector to produce a high-dimensional concept vector. A similarity measurement between two texts is performed between two concept vectors with numerous dimensions. The cost is expensive in both interpretation and similarity measurement steps. This paper proposes an economic scheme of ESA, named econo-ESA. We investigate two aspects of this proposal: dimensional reduction and experiments with various data. We use eight recycling test collections in semantic text similarity. The experimental results show that both the dimensional reduction and test collection characteristics can influence the results. They also show that an appropriate concept reduction of econo-ESA can decrease the cost with minor differences in the results from the original ESA. PMID:24790807

Rahutomo, Faisal; Aritsugi, Masayoshi

2014-01-01

257

Environmental Sustainability Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A collaboration among the World Economic Forum's Global Leaders for Tomorrow Environment Task Force, The Yale Center for Environmental Law and Policy, and the Columbia University Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), the Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) "is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 122 countries." The ESI is based on 22 core "indicators," each of which combines two to six variables for a total of 67 underlying variables. The idea is to create cross-national comparisons of environmental progress as part of an effort to foster a more analytically driven approach to environmental decision-making. The top-ranked nations were Finland, Norway, and Canada, with the US coming in at number eleven and the UK placing sixteenth. Visitors can view the rankings and download the full text of the 225-page report and a Powerpoint Presentation at the site. A spreadsheet of the ESI is promised for the near future.

2000-01-01

258

Medical Assistants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For a concise summary of the medical assistant profession the Medical Assistants entry in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook is must read. The site covers topics ranging from the nature of the profession, working conditions, earnings, and more. The section on training, qualifications and advancement will be of special interest to medical assistant faculty and students. The section on sources of addition information will also be a good launching point for anyone seeking additional online resources.

2006-11-01

259

TextArc: An Alternate Way to View a Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.

2002-01-01

260

Zum Uebersetzen fachlicher Texte (On the Translation of Technical Texts)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews a 1974 East German publication on translation of scientific literature from Russian to German. Considers terminology, different standard levels of translation in East Germany, and other matters related to translation. (Text is in German.) (DH)

Friederich, Wolf

1975-01-01

261

Rough Text Assisting Text Mining: Focus on Document Clustering Validity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this chapter, the applications of rough set theory (RST) in text mining are discussed and a new concept named “Rough Text”\\u000a is presented along with some RST-based measures for the evaluation of decision systems. We will focus on the application of\\u000a such concept in clustering validity, specifically cluster labeling and multi-document summarization. The experimental studies\\u000a show that the proposed

Leticia Arco; Rafael Bello; Yailé Caballero; Rafael Falcón

262

Medical confidence.  

PubMed Central

If medical confidentiality is not observed patients may well be reluctant to disclose information to their doctors or even to seek medical advice. Therefore, argues the author, it is of the utmost importance that doctors strive to protect medical confidentiality, particularly now when it is under threat not only in this country but also overseas. The profession must cease to regard ethical issues to do with confidentiality, and indeed to do with all areas of medical practice, as abstract phenomena requiring no justification. If it does not then it will come under increasing and justified criticism from the community it serves.

Havard, J

1985-01-01

263

The Database Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the characteristics of System Development Corporation's (SDC) online index to its database, "Database Index," and presents the results of various test searches to demonstrate the limitations and benefits of the new online file. (JD)

Antony, Arthur

1979-01-01

264

The Users of Indexes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Problems of indexing and index use lie at the heart of information use. They determine maximum possible use of information use. They determine maximum possible use of information systems and sources, affect communication with users, influence the use of r...

C. Beal

1980-01-01

265

Text mining for technology monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

A considerable part of scientific and technological knowledge is coded in writing. In this context, automated text categorization can be regarded as a promising tool particularly for patent data analysis. In a real-life example, we show that automated text categorization can closely resemble the time-consuming categorisation job of an expert. By comparing different algorithms we reveal systematic differences in their

Thorsten Teichert; Marc-Andre Mittermayer

2002-01-01

266

TES: A Text Extraction System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how TES, a text extraction system, is able to electronically retrieve a set of sentences from a document to form an indicative abstract. Discusses various text abstraction techniques and related work in the area, provides an overview of the TES system, and compares system results against manually produced abstracts. (LAM)

Goh, A.; Hui, S. C.

1996-01-01

267

Full Text Database Retrieval Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares results of searching full text of journal articles available on standard inverted file systems with searching of various parts of a document's surrogate. Relative recall and precision ratios for four search methods (full text, abstract, controlled vocabulary, bibliographic union) are reported. Search topics are appended. (14…

Tenopir, Carol

1985-01-01

268

Text, Topos, and Mental Models.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates how readers use predication for the interpretation of referents in text and to develop a coherent model of the events described in text. Illustrates how two types of predication (scalar copredication and antipredication) induce readers to disambiguate the referents of definite noun phrases in essentially the opposite way, with…

Jarvella, Robert J.; And Others

1995-01-01

269

Text detection in video frames  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the state of the art for detecting text in images and video frames and propose an edge-based algorithm for artificial text detection in video frames. First, an edge map is created using the Canny edge detector. Then, morphological filtering is used, based on geometrical constraints, in order to connect the vertical edges and discard false

M. Anthimopoulos; B. Gatos; I. Pratikakis

270

Text Messaging During Simulated Driving  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. Background: In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Method: Forty participants engaged

Frank A. Drews; Hina Yazdani; Celeste N. Godfrey; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

2009-01-01

271

Text mining for systems biology.  

PubMed

Scientific communication in biomedicine is, by and large, still text based. Text mining technologies for the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text that can be directly used for systems biology modelling have been substantially improved over the past few years. In this review, we underline the importance of named entity recognition and relationship extraction as fundamental approaches that are relevant to systems biology. Furthermore, we emphasize the role of publicly organized scientific benchmarking challenges that reflect the current status of text-mining technology and are important in moving the entire field forward. Given further interdisciplinary development of systems biology-orientated ontologies and training corpora, we expect a steadily increasing impact of text-mining technology on systems biology in the future. PMID:24070668

Fluck, Juliane; Hofmann-Apitius, Martin

2014-02-01

272

A Novel Video Text Detection and Localization Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text detection and localization in videos are often used for video information indexing and retrieval, as text can retrieve\\u000a the semantic information of videos. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to detect and localize texts by means of integrating\\u000a the multiple video frames and multiple video frame motion features. For text detection, first, the motion feature detection\\u000a is

Xiaodong Huang; Huadong Ma; Haidong Yuan

2008-01-01

273

Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

2005-01-01

274

Taking Medication  

MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

... or labels with you when you go to health appointments. Ask a family member to go to an appointment with you adn take notes so your not confused when you get home. Also, ask them to remind you to take your medications or labels when you go for any medical appointment.

275

Medication reviews  

PubMed Central

Recent years have seen a formalization of medication review by pharmacists in all settings of care. This article describes the different types of medication review provided in primary care in the UK National Health Service (NHS), summarizes the evidence of effectiveness and considers how such reviews might develop in the future. Medication review is, at heart, a diagnostic intervention which aims to identify problems for action by the prescriber, the clinican conducting the review, the patient or all three but can also be regarded as an educational intervention to support patient knowledge and adherence. There is good evidence that medication review improves process outcomes of prescribing including reduced polypharmacy, use of more appropriate medicines formulation and more appropriate choice of medicine. When ‘harder’ outcome measures have been included, such as hospitalizations or mortality in elderly patients, available evidence indicates that whilst interventions could improve knowledge and adherence they did not reduce mortality or hospital admissions with one study showing an increase in hospital admissions. Robust health economic studies of medication reviews remain rare. However a review of cost-effectiveness analyses of medication reviews found no studies in which the cost of the intervention was greater than the benefit. The value of medication reviews is now generally accepted despite lack of robust research evidence consistently demonstrating cost or clinical effectiveness compared with traditional care. Medication reviews can be more effectively deployed in the future by targeting, multi-professional involvement and paying greater attention to medicines which could be safely stopped.

Blenkinsopp, Alison; Bond, Christine; Raynor, David K

2012-01-01

276

A class-feature-centroid classifier for text categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated text categorization is an important technique for many web applications, such as document indexing, doc- ument filtering, and cataloging web resources. Many dif- ferent approaches have been proposed for the automated text categorization problem. Among them, centroid-based approaches have the advantages of short training time and testing time due to its computational efficiency. As a result, centroid-based classifiers have

Hu Guan; Jingyu Zhou; Minyi Guo

2009-01-01

277

Distributed parallel generation of indices for very large text databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new algorithm for the parallel generation of suffix arrays for large text databases on high-bandwidth computer networks. Suffix arrays are structures used in full text indexing which support very powerful query languages. Our algorithm is based on a parallel indirect mergesort (it is not a simple mergesort procedure) and is compared with a well known sequential algorithm

J. P. Kitajima; M. D. Resende; B. Ribeiro-Neto; N. Ziviani

1997-01-01

278

The Seven Deadly Sins of Full-Text Searching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes some of the problems encountered in full text searching and suggests ways to overcome them. Areas discussed include differences between online and offline versions of full text; lack of precise and flexible indexing; software inadequacies; record displays; typographical errors; and problems with both global and source searching. (six…

Basch, Reva

1989-01-01

279

Addressing challenges in automatic Language Identification of Romanized Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the diversity of documents on web, language identification is a vi- tal task for web search engines dur- ing crawling and indexing of web doc- uments. Among the current challenges in language-identification, the unsettled problem remains identifying Romanized text language. The challenge in Roman- ized text is the variations in word spellings and sounds in different dialects. We

Kosuru Pavan; Niket Tandon; Vasudeva Varma

2010-01-01

280

The Implementation of Rolling Video Text Localization Based on FSVM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video text contains abundant high-level semantic information, which is important to video analysis, indexing and retrieval. In this paper, fuzzy support vector machine (FSVM) is applied to distinguish background and text in a video sequence. Firstly, the video frame is divided into 8×8 blocks, and we extract the gray, edge and texture feature information as the training samples. Then FSVM

Yatong Zhou; Dan Li; Kewen Xia

2010-01-01

281

Performance Evaluation of Text Detection and Tracking in Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text detection and tracking is an important step in a video content analysis system as it brings important semantic clues which is a vital supplemental source of index information. While there has been a significant amount of research done on video text detection and track- ing, there are very few works on performance evaluation of such systems. Evaluations of this

Vasant Manohar; Padmanabhan Soundararajan; Matthew Boonstra; Harish Raju; Dmitry B. Goldgof; Rangachar Kasturi; John S. Garofolo

2006-01-01

282

An Automatic Video Text Detection, Localization and Extraction Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. This paper presents an algorithm regarding word group as a special symbol to detect, localize and extract video text using support vector machine (SVM) automatically. First, four sobel operators are applied to get the EM(edge map) of the video frame and the EM is segmented

Chengjun Zhu; Yuanxin Ouyang; Lei Gao; Zhenyong Chen; Zhang Xiong

2006-01-01

283

Summarization evaluation for text and speech: issues and approaches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper surveys current text and speech summarization evaluation approaches. It discusses advantages and disadvantages of these, with the goal of identifying summarization techniques most suitable to speech summarization. Precision\\/recall schemes, as well as summary accuracy measures which incorporate weight- ings based on multiple human decisions, are suggested as particu- larly suitable in evaluating speech summaries. Index Terms: evaluation, text

Ani Nenkova

2006-01-01

284

Extraction of Text Objects in Video Documents: Recent Progress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text extraction in video documents, as an important research field of content-based information indexing and retrieval, has been developing rapidly since 1990s. This has led to much progress in text extraction, performance evaluation, and related applications. By reviewing the approaches proposed during the past five years, this paper introduces the progress made in this area and discusses promising directions for

Jing Zhang; Rangachar Kasturi

2008-01-01

285

Social Studies: Texts and Supplements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This review of selected social studies texts, series, and supplements, mainly for the secondary level, includes a special section examining eight titles on warfare and terrorism for grades 4-12. (SJL)

Curriculum Review, 1979

1979-01-01

286

Discourse Analysis and Structuring Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews the kinds of discourse analyses that are currently being undertaken, summarizes research findings, and makes suggestions based on these findings for structuring texts to be used for instructional or informational purposes. (Author/MER)

Pace, Ann Jaffe

1980-01-01

287

New Approach to Text Understanding.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper first briefly describes the architecture of PLUM, BBN's text processing system, and then reports on some experiments evaluating the effectiveness of the design at the component level. Three features are unusual in PLUM's architecture: a domain ...

D. Ayuso H. Fox R. Ingria R. Weischedel S. Boisen

1992-01-01

288

Evaluation of Text Retrieval Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evaluation is one of the main driving forces in studies and developments related to text retrieval. It is a basic tool for the comparison of efficiencies of alternative approaches. In this paper, the state of the art in the field of evaluation of text retrieval systems is surveyed. Two basic—system-oriented and user-oriented— paradigms, which are commonly accepted in this field,

I. E. Kuralenok; I. S. Nekrestyanov

2002-01-01

289

Medical malpractice  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the causal effects of doctor-patient relations and the severity of a medical outcome on medical patient perceptions and malpractice intentions in the event of an adverse medical outcome. Design Randomized between-subjects experimental design. Patients were given scenarios depicting interactions between an obstetric patient and her physician throughout the patient's pregnancy, labor, and delivery. Participants One hundred twenty-eight postpartum obstetric patients were approached for participation, of whom 104 completed the study. Main outcome measures Patients' perceptions of physician competence and intentions to file a malpractice claim. Results Positive physician communication behaviors increased patients' perceptions of physician competence and decreased malpractice claim intentions toward both the physician and the hospital. A more severe outcome increased only patients' intentions to sue the hospital. Conclusion These results provide empiric evidence for a direct, causal effect of the doctor-patient relationship on medical patients' treatment perceptions and malpractice claim intentions in the event of an adverse medical outcome.

Moore, Philip J; Adler, Nancy E; Robertson, Patricia A

2000-01-01

290

Text Mining in Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

291

Text Format, Text Comprehension, and Related Reader Variables  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This investigation explored relationships between format of text (electronic or print-based) and reading comprehension of adolescent readers. Also in question were potential influences on comprehension from related measures including academic placement of participants, gender, prior knowledge of the content, and overall reading ability. Influences…

Nichols, Jodi L.

2009-01-01

292

Medical Questions? Medline has Answers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the electronic version of "Index Medicus," Medline is the world's largest collection of published medical knowledge. Discussion includes accessing Medline (cost-free) with a Web browser, librarians as links between patients and physicians; and examples of Medline searches. (AEF)

Modlin, Melanie

1998-01-01

293

Text Classification using String Kernels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a novel approach for categorizing text\\u000a documents based on the use of a special kernel. The kernel\\u000a is an inner product in the feature space generated by all\\u000a subsequences of length k. A subsequence is any ordered\\u000a sequence of k characters occurring in the text though not\\u000a necessarily contiguously. The subsequences are weighted by\\u000a an exponentially decaying factor

Huma Lodhi; Craig Saunders; John Shawe-Taylor; Nello Cristianini; Christopher J. C. H. Watkins

2002-01-01

294

Machine-aided indexing for NASA STI  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of the major components of the NASA/STI processing system is machine-aided indexing (MAI). MAI is a computer process that generates a set of indexing terms selected from NASA's thesaurus, is used for indexing technical reports, is based on text, and is reviewed by indexers. This paper summarizes the MAI objectives and discusses the NASA Lexical Dictionary, subject switching, and phrase matching or natural languages. The benefits of using MAI are mentioned, and MAI production improvement and the future of MAI are briefly addressed.

Wilson, John

1987-01-01

295

A Digital Full-Text Biotechnology System at Georgetown University.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Georgetown University's prototype digital full-text system designed to provide medical clinicians and researchers with electronically transmitted journal articles that include illustrations. Topics addressed include project design; digital full-text database design and maintenance; storage/retrieval and transmission technologies…

Broering, Naomi C.

1994-01-01

296

Ontologies Improve Text Document Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text document clustering plays an important role in pro- viding intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by or- ganizing large sets of documents into a small number of meaningful clusters. The bag of words representation used for these clustering methods is often unsatisfactory as it ig- nores relationships between important terms that do not co- occur literally. In order to deal

Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab; Gerd Stumme

2003-01-01

297

Predictive Encoding in Text Compression.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)

Raita, Timo; Teuhola, Jukka

1989-01-01

298

Acquiring Disambiguation Rules from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

An effective procedure for automatically acquiring a new set of disambiguation rules for an existing deterministic parser on the basis of tagged text is presented. Performance of the automatically acquired rules is much better than the existing hand-written disambiguation rules. The success of the acquired rules depends on using the linguistic information encoded in the parser; enhancements to various components

Donald Hindle

1989-01-01

299

Clustering Concept Hierarchies from Text  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a novel approach to learning taxonomies or concept hierarchies from text. The approach is based on Formal Concept Analysis, a method mainly used for the analysis of data, i.e. for investigating and processing explicitly given information. Our approach is based on the distributional hypothesis, i.e. that nouns or terms are similar to the extent to which they share

Philipp Cimiano; Andreas Hotho

300

Solar Concepts: A Background Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

Gorham, Jonathan W.

301

Tobermorite group of silicates (Text)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume I4 'Inosilicates' of Volume 27 'Magnetic properties of non-metallic inorganic compounds based on transition elements' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter. It contains the data of the tobermorite group of silicates (Text)

Burzo, E.

302

Text Generator for Computer Tutors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) refer to computer applications that assist learners through coaching, teaching, testing, guiding exploration, and providing analysis. Though different modalities have been used to present output based on the specific domain and goals of the system, textual output remains to be predominant. Current researches in the field of ITS explore the use of text generators as the

Ethel Ong

303

Teaching Drama: Text and Performance.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Because playwrights are limited to textual elements that an audience can hear and see--dialogue and movement--much of a drama's tension and interest lie in the subtext, the characters' emotions and motives implied but not directly expressed by the text itself. The teacher must help students construct what in a novel the author may have made more…

Brown, Joanne

304

Planning Text for Advisory Dialogues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Explanation is an interactive process requiring a dialogue between advice-giver and advice-seeker. In this paper, we argue that in order to participate in a dialogue with its users, a generation system must be capable of reasoning about its own utterances and therefore must maintain a rich representation of the responses it produces. We present a text planner that constructs a

Johanna D. Moore; Cécile L. Paris

1989-01-01

305

Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

Hewitt Julia

2000-01-01

306

A Visually Oriented Text Editor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

HERMAN employs Evans & Sutherland Picture System 2 to provide screenoriented editing capability for DEC PDP-11 series computer. Text altered by visual indication of characters changed. Group of HERMAN commands provides for higher level operations. HERMAN provides special features for editing FORTRAN source programs.

Gomez, J. E.

1985-01-01

307

Text-independent speaker identification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe current approaches to text-independent speaker identification based on probabilistic modeling techniques. The probabilistic approaches have largely supplanted methods based on comparisons of long-term feature averages. The probabilistic approaches have an important and basic dichotomy into nonparametric and parametric probability models. Nonparametric models have the advantage of being potentially more accurate models (though possibly more fragile) while parametric models

H. Gish; M. Schmidt

1994-01-01

308

Extractive summarisation of legal texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe research carried out as part of a text summarisation project for the legal domain for which we use a new XML corpus of judgments of the UK House of Lords. These judgments represent a particularly important part of public discourse due to the role that precedents play in English law. We present experimental results using a range of

Ben Hachey; Claire Grover

2006-01-01

309

Discovering Trends in Text Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a system we developed for identifyingtrends in text documents collected over a period oftime. Trends can be used, for example, to discoverthat a company is shifting interests from one domainto another. Our system uses several data mining techniquesin novel ways and demonstrates a method inwhich to visualize the trends. We also give experiencesfrom applying this system to the

Brian Lent; Rakesh Agrawal; Ramakrishnan Srikant

1997-01-01

310

Boosting based text and non-text region classification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layout analysis is a crucial process for document image understanding and information retrieval. Document layout analysis depends on page segmentation and block classification. This paper describes an algorithm for extracting blocks from document images and a boosting based method to classify those blocks as machine printed text or not. The feature vector which is fed into the boosting classifier consists of a four direction run-length histogram, and connected components features in both background and foreground. Using a combination of features through a boosting classifier, we obtain an accuracy of 99.5% on our test collection.

Xie, Binqing; Agam, Gady

2011-01-01

311

Are Medical Prices Declining? Evidence From Heart Attack Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address long-standing problems in measuring medical inflation by estimating two types of price indices. The first, a Service Price Index, prices specific medical services, as does the current CPI. The second, a Cost of Living Index, measures a quality-adjusted cost of treating a health problem. We apply these indices to heart attack treatment between 1983 and 1994. More frequent

David M. Cutler; Mark McClellan; Joseph P. Newhouse; Dahlia Remler

1998-01-01

312

Medical Scientists  

MedlinePLUS

... little supervision, forming their own hypotheses and developing experiments, accordingly. They often lead teams of technicians, and ... prospective medical scientists the opportunity to develop their experiments and, sometimes, to supervise undergraduates. Ph.D. programs ...

313

Medical Imaging.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

Barker, M. C. J.

1996-01-01

314

Medication Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... behavior, such as to reduce self-injury or aggression. Once a symptom is no longer a problem, ... of repetitive behaviors; decrease anxiety, irritability, tantrums, and aggressive behavior; and improve eye contact. Tricyclics These medications ...

315

Psychophysiological Patterns During Cell Phone Text Messaging: A Preliminary Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the psychohysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college\\u000a students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper\\u000a trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis\\/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature\\u000a from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of

I-Mei Lin; Erik Peper

2009-01-01

316

Medication Math  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Medication calculation needs to be completed accurately for proper patient treatment. In this section you will need to review and improve your medication math. Understanding math: Math and Culture Refresher: Take the amount of fluid in the bottle and times that by the dose ordered. Then divide this number by the amount of drug in the bottle. This will give you the volume of the drug that you need to administer. Diagram of formulas Math Formulas Math ...

Joey

2008-10-16

317

Multilingual Authoring Using Feedback Texts  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are obvious reasons for trying to automate the production of multilingual documentation, especially for routine subject-matter in restricted domains (e.g. technical instructions). Two approaches have been adopted: Machine Translation (MT) of a source text, and Multilingual Natural Language Generation (M-NLG) from a knowledge base. For MT, information extraction is a major difficulty, since the meaning must be derived by

Richard Power; Donia Scott

1998-01-01

318

Price Theory: An Intermediate Text  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

David D. Friedman, Professor of Law at Santa Clara University, has made his textbook, "Price Theory: An Intermediate Text" available on the web. The book focuses on trying to teach students the "economic way of thinking" and the "analytical core of economics -- price theory." Topics covered include consumer choice, market structure and economic efficiency. Price Theory also contains chapters on less conventional topics such as the political marketplace, the economics of law and law breaking; and the economics of love and marriage.

Friedman, David D.

1990-01-01

319

A one-year audit of topics and domains in the Journal of the American Medical Association and the New England Journal of Medicine 1 1 The full text of this article is available via AJPM Online at http:\\/\\/www.elsevier.com\\/locate\\/ajpmonline  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relative emphasis that major medical journals give to topic areas has a potential effect on priorities in patient care, policy decisions, and public awareness. We measured the distribution of topics in two journals, by disease categories and domains, over a calendar year.Methods: All original investigations, reviews, editorials, and special articles published in 1998 by the Journal of the

Steven H Woolf; Robert E Johnson

2000-01-01

320

Text from corners: a novel approach to detect text and caption in videos.  

PubMed

Detecting text and caption from videos is important and in great demand for video retrieval, annotation, indexing, and content analysis. In this paper, we present a corner based approach to detect text and caption from videos. This approach is inspired by the observation that there exist dense and orderly presences of corner points in characters, especially in text and caption. We use several discriminative features to describe the text regions formed by the corner points. The usage of these features is in a flexible manner, thus, can be adapted to different applications. Language independence is an important advantage of the proposed method. Moreover, based upon the text features, we further develop a novel algorithm to detect moving captions in videos. In the algorithm, the motion features, extracted by optical flow, are combined with text features to detect the moving caption patterns. The decision tree is adopted to learn the classification criteria. Experiments conducted on a large volume of real video shots demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed approaches and the real-world system. Our text and caption detection system was recently highlighted in a worldwide multimedia retrieval competition, Star Challenge, by achieving the superior performance with the top ranking. PMID:20729170

Zhao, Xu; Lin, Kai-Hsiang; Fu, Yun; Hu, Yuxiao; Liu, Yuncai; Huang, Thomas S

2011-03-01

321

[Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]? bound.  

PubMed

In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]? error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]?-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]?-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ? error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]?-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]? error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]? metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]? error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates. PMID:24144660

Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

2013-12-01

322

TEXT tokamak edge turbulence modeling  

SciTech Connect

Experimental results on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) (Nucl. Technol./Fusion {bold 1}, 479 (1982)) and the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron (Fusion Technol. {bold 10}, 179 (1986)) indicate that electrostatic fluctuations can explain the edge transport of particles and perhaps energy. Certain mechanisms for drive (radiation and ionization, as well as density and temperature gradients) and stabilization (velocity shear) are suggested by these results. The experimental fluctuation levels and turbulence characteristics can be reproduced by considering the nonlinear evolution of fluid-type equations, incorporating thermal and ionization drives.

Leboeuf, J.; Lee, D.K.; Carreras, B.A.; Dominguez, N.; Harris, J.H.; Hedrick, C.L.; Hidalgo, C.; Holmes, J.A.; Ruiter, J. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (USA)); Diamond, P.H.; Ware, A.S. (University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (USA)); Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rowan, W.L.; Bravenec, R.V. (Fusion Research Center, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (USA))

1991-08-01

323

Primary Students and Informational Texts  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Anyone who has spent time looking into science books with young children has no doubt experienced the endless questions that the information and visuals in the books can stimulate. Can snakes climb trees? How do frogs hide from predators? Why do volcanoes erupt? Books prompt questions, which can lead to further reading about and investigations of science topics. Whether from a textbook or a nonfiction trade book, informational text can be the fuel that sparks curiosity about and interest in science, thus contributing to the development of science attitudes.

Yopp, Hallie K.; Yopp, Ruth H.

2006-11-01

324

Feasible methods to estimate disease based price indexes.  

PubMed

There is a consensus that statistical agencies should report medical data by disease rather than by service. This study computes price indexes that are necessary to deflate nominal disease expenditures and to decompose their growth into price, treated prevalence and output per patient growth. Unlike previous studies, it uses methods that can be implemented by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). For the calendar years 2005-2010, I find that these feasible disease based indexes are approximately 1% lower on an annual basis than indexes computed by current methods at BLS. This gives evidence that traditional medical price indexes have not accounted for the more efficient use of medical inputs in treating most diseases. PMID:23501755

Bradley, Ralph

2013-05-01

325

Developing a Controlled Vocabulary for the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center Outpatient Clinical Information System  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the development of a Controlled Vocabulary for medication and problem/diagnostic lists in an ambulatory patient care information system within the institution's overall IAIMS framework. This Controlled Vocabulary is used in a spell-checking filter for uploading existing free text data and for on-line entry of new data by physicians. The Controlled Vocabulary consists of a reference file, keyed by code, and an inverted word index file to access it. It is currently loaded with an in-house produced set of medication codes and SNOMED Level 1 Disease codes supplemented by additional user entries.

Clark, Anthony S.; Shea, Steven

1990-01-01

326

Compressed web indexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Web search engines use indexes to eciently retrieve pages containing specified query terms, as well as pages linking to specified pages. The problem of compressed indexes that permit such fast retrieval has a long history. We consider the problem: assuming that the terms in (or links to) a page are generated from a probability distribution, how well com- pactly can

Flavio Chierichetti; Ravi Kumar; Prabhakar Raghavan

2009-01-01

327

Indexing in Spatial Databases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial information processing has been a focus of research in the past decade. In spatial databases, data are associated with spatial coordinates and extents, and are retrieved based on spatial proximity. A formidable number of spatial indexes have been proposed to facilitate spatial data retrieval. In this paper, we examine various spatial indexes proposed in the literature and present a

Beng Chin Ooi; Ron Sacks-Davis Jiawei

328

Color Constant Color Indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objects can be recognized on the basis of their color alone by color indexing, a technique developed by Swain-Ballard (1991) which involves matching color-space histograms. Color indexing fails, however, when the incident illumination varies either spatially or spectrally. Although this limitation might be overcome by preprocessing with a color constancy algorithm, we instead propose histogramming color ratios. Since the ratios

Brian V. Funt; Graham D. Finlayson

1995-01-01

329

TIGR Tomato Gene Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Institute for Genomic Resources (TIGR) placed online the Tomato Gene Index (version 1.2) in 1999. The index is searchable by nucleotide or protein sequence, identifier (TC, ET, EST, GB), tissue, or gene product name. Note that this resource is available free of charge "only to researchers at non-profit institutions using it for non-commercial purposes."

330

Negative index lens aberrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examine the Seidel aberrations of thin spherical lenses composed of media with refractive index not restricted to be positive. We find that consideration of this expanded parameter space allows for the reduction or elimination of more aberrations than is possible with only positive index media. In particular, we find that spherical lenses possessing real aplanatic focal points are possible

David Schurig

2005-01-01

331

Consumer Price Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

According to the Consumer Price Index for March 2000, the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) rose 0.8 percent in March. This is a 3.7 percent increase since March 1999. After seasonal adjustments, the CPI-U rose 0.7 percent, after a 0.5 percent increase in February 2000.

332

HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)  

EPA Science Inventory

Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

333

HUMAN USE INDEX  

EPA Science Inventory

Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

334

Universal Index System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

1993-01-01

335

Gradient index retroreflector  

DOEpatents

A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

Layne, Clyde B. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01

336

Gradient index retroreflector  

DOEpatents

A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens and a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

Layne, C.B.

1986-03-06

337

Southeast Asian images and Texts project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Southeast Asian Images and Text, a joint production of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, the General Library System, and the Division of Information Technology at the University of Wisconsin, is the beginning of an attempt to provide an "interactive multimedia database" including hyptertext bibliographic references and descriptive text for each multimedia item. The project is in its first phase: a searchable collection of images from the Philippines. Future plans include expansion of this collection to over 6,000 images and digital sound and video archives. The power of the site is its search capability, which offers keyword, atlas, and multiple field search. There are also 6 predefined searches that allow users to take a "virtual tour" through the collection, and a searchable inverted index of cataloging terms used in the development of the site. The site is accompanied by an essay on the development of photography in the Philippines, which demonstrates the integration of the project into multidisciplinary studies on the Philippines.

Mccoy, Alfred W.

1996-01-01

338

Color aftereffect contingent on text.  

PubMed

During adaptation, two different letter strings (each five or six letters) were presented to subjects alternately, one in green and the other in magenta. The extent to which these letter strings subsequently elicited a color aftereffect was assessed. In different experiments, the chromatic letter strings consisted of words and nonwords. The results indicated that letter strings that form English words can contingently elicit a color aftereffect. This was the case even when the words were anagrams. There was no evidence that nonword letter strings could contingently elicit such an aftereffect, even when the nonwords conformed to English orthography. The results are relevant to understanding other contingent color aftereffects (McCollough effects), illusory color noted by computer operators who work at monochrome (green or amber) displays, and the processing of text. PMID:2762097

Allan, L G; Siegel, S; Collins, J C; MacQueen, G M

1989-08-01

339

Corpus of Electronic Texts (CELT)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Developed at University College Cork, the Corpus of Electronic Texts project is intended "to bring the wealth of Irish literary and historical culture (in Irish, Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and English) to the Internet in a rigorously scholarly project." Additionally, the project is designed to be utilized by a wide group of interested parties, including students, academics, and the general public. Visitors may peruse the documents by language of original publication, or by viewing a complete list of all the works currently available (many in HTML or pdf format) from the project's website. Some of the rather compelling works available here include the complete works of Oscar Wilde, the political writings of Michael Collins, and various historical documents regarding the struggle for Irish independence. [KMG

340

Dimensions of patient attitudes regarding doctors and medical care services  

Microsoft Academic Search

The factor analytic development and validation of numerous index scores to measure patient attitudes regarding characteristics of doctors and medical care services is described. Index scores meeting factor analytic criteria and found to be reliable were used to study the nature and number of attitudinal dimensions underlying patient satisfaction. The use of index scores which have met logical and empirical

Ware John E. Jr; Mary K. Snyder

1975-01-01

341

African Index Medicus--a cooperative undertaking.  

PubMed

Although MEDLINE covers many of the significant medical periodical articles published in developed countries, there is still a considerable amount of medical and health documentation from countries outside the major industrialized areas which is not included. This paper outlines various initiatives to address this, and goes on to describe the setting up, on a cooperative basis, of the African Index Medicus, the problems encountered and progress made. 'Even if we should presume that most of the world's valid, important biomedical information originates in the West--and there is evidence (...) to suggest that this is wilful self delusion--what about at least a minority contribution from the rest? The 2% participation in international scientific discourse allowed by Western indexing services is simply too little to account for the scientific output of 80% of the world.' PMID:10179235

Bertrand, I; Hunter, L

1998-03-01

342

Medical Biofilms  

PubMed Central

For more than two decades, Biotechnology and Bioengineering has documented research focused on natural and engineered microbial biofilms within aquatic and subterranean ecosystems, wastewater and waste-gas treatment systems, marine vessels and structures, and industrial bioprocesses. Compared to suspended culture systems, intentionally engineered biofilms are heterogeneous reaction systems that can increase reactor productivity, system stability, and provide inherent cell: product separation. Unwanted biofilms can create enormous increases in fluid frictional resistances, unacceptable reductions in heat transfer efficiency, product contamination, enhanced material deterioration, and accelerated corrosion. Missing from B&B has been an equivalent research dialogue regarding the basic molecular microbiology, immunology, and biotechnological aspects of medical biofilms. Presented here are the current problems related to medical biofilms; current concepts of biofilm formation, persistence, and interactions with the host immune system; and emerging technologies for controlling medical biofilms.

2009-01-01

343

Text documents as social networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

2012-02-01

344

Medical marijuana.  

PubMed

The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. [Name removed] was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned [name removed]'s conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits. PMID:11366533

1999-04-30

345

Medical genetics  

SciTech Connect

This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.

Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.

1995-10-01

346

New Medical Devices: Invention, Development and Use,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A reference text for health professionals and the medical device industry presents 11 expert overview papers on innovations in the development of medical devices in the rapidly changing health care environment. The papers are grouped among three principal...

K. B. Ekelman

1988-01-01

347

Automatic Text Detection and Tracking in Digital Video.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Text which either appears in a scene or is graphically added to video can provide an important supplemental source of index information as well as clues for decoding the video's structure and for classification. In this paper we present algorithms for det...

D. Doermann H. Li O. Kia

1998-01-01

348

Efficient video text recognition using multiple frame integration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text superimposed on the video frames provides supple- mental but important information for video indexing and retrieval. Many efforts have been made for videotext de- tection and recognition (Video OCR). The main difficul- ties of video OCR are the low resolution and the back- ground complexity. In this paper, we present efficient schemes to deal with the second difficulty by

Xian-sheng Hua; Pei Yin; Hong-Jiang Zhang

2002-01-01

349

New Wavelet and Color Features for Text Detection in Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automatic text detection in video is an important task for efficient and accurate indexing and retrieval of multimedia data such as events identification, events boundary identification etc. This paper presents a new method comprising of wavelet decomposition and color features namely R, G and B. The wavelet decomposition is applied on three color bands separately to obtain three high frequency

Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Trung Quy Phan; Chew Lim Tan

2010-01-01

350

Potential vorticity index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using standard data analysis techniques, researchers explore the links between disturbance growth and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradients; appearance and disappearance of cutoff lows and blocking highs and their relation to a zonal index (properly defined in terms of PV); and teleconnections between different flow patterns and their relation to the zonal index. It was found that the PV index and the eddy index correlate better than a zonal index (defined by zonal wind) and the eddy index. In the frequency domain there are three frequencies (.03, .07 and .17 cpd (cycle per day) corresponding to periods of 33, 14 and 6 days) at which PV index and the eddy index exhibit local maxima. The high correlation found at periods of 33 days is mainly due to eddy activity at high latitudes while the local correlation maxima found at the shorter periods are mainly due mid-latitude eddy activity. The correlation between the PV index and the geopotential height anomaly at 500 mb, at each grid point in the Northern Hemisphere, shows the existence of most of the teleconnection patterns summarized by Wallace and Gutzler (1981): the North Atlantic Oscillation, the North Pacific Oscillation, and the Pacific/North American patterns. Results show that the Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) analysis can be a very useful and powerful tool when used to understand the dynamics of several large scale atmospheric systems. Although the data are limited to only one winter, and it is difficult to assess the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients presented here, the results are encouraging from physical viewpoint.

Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

1990-01-01

351

Medical marijuana.  

PubMed Central

Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects.

Marmor, J B

1998-01-01

352

Medical exceptionalism.  

PubMed

How should we assess the historical development of health care? Many historians are deeply reluctant to endorse ideas involving progress in human affairs, including the evolution of modern medicine. We tend to think either that our present situation is little better than in the past, or that most kinds of value judgments about history are subjective and inappropriate. A laudatory approach to medical history commonly adopted by "amateur" medical historians in the tradition of Sir William Osler has often been eschewed by "professionals" as faulty, feel-good history. But Osler was right in his belief that, on balance, the progress of medicine has been spectacular, that modern health care offers one of the finest examples of the possibility of "man's redemption of man." Written objectively, medical history is about progress and achievement, and can properly seen as inspiring. If we mordantly or relativistically dismiss the unprecedentedly high quality of modern health care, we lose the ability to understand why citizens value it so highly, and this distorts our understanding of current issues. We also lose our sense of the wonders of human and medical achievement. PMID:23179032

Bliss, Michael

2012-01-01

353

Medical tourism.  

PubMed

Medical tourism is becoming popular as an alternative to the high cost of health care in the United States and as an inexpensive resource for cosmetic surgery. The occupational health nurse is an excellent resource to assist in the pre-decision due diligence and post-decision travel health counseling. PMID:20102121

Tompkins, Olga S

2010-01-01

354

Medical marijuana.  

PubMed

Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects. PMID:9656007

Marmor, J B

1998-06-01

355

The Index of Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this media-rich lesson plan, students explore the refraction of light at the boundary between materials: they learn about the refractive indices of various materials and measure the index of refraction of plastic or gelatin.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2011-10-25

356

CAD Centre - Index Searcher  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A searchable index of the CAD Centre, a postgraduate teaching and research unit in design manufacture and engineering management, with research focused on design methods and computer support of the design process for engineering applications.

2007-10-11

357

A Theory of Indexing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several automatic procedures are examined for the assignment of significance of values to the terms, or keywords, identifying the documents of a collection. Good and bad index terms are characterized by objective measures, leading to the conclusion that t...

G. Salton

1974-01-01

358

MISR Image List Index  

  MISR Image List Index The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR)  was ... are designed to improve our understanding of the Earth's environment and climate.   Viewing the sunlit Earth simultaneously at ...

2012-12-26

359

Index of ELDO Publications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A bibliography is presented of documents produced during the ELDO program, 1963 to 1972. The objective of this program was to produce a European launch facility. The bibliography, covering nearly 2000 citations complete with indexes, was prepared by the E...

1977-01-01

360

A New Comparison Between Conventional Indexing (MEDLARS) and Automatic Text Processing (SMART)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A new testing process is described. The design of the test procedure is covered in detail, and the several language processing features incorporated into the SMART system are individually evaluated. (20 references) (Author)

Salton, G.

1972-01-01

361

Calculating a Biodiversity Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.

362

On the Randi? index  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Randi? index R(G) of a graph G=(V,E) is the sum of (d(u)d(v))?1\\/2 over all edges uv?E of G. Bollobás and Erd?s (Ars Combin. 50 (1998) 225) proved that the Randi? index of a graph of order n without isolated vertices is at least n?1. They asked for the minimum value of R(G) for graphs G with given minimum degree

Charles Delorme; Odile Favaron; Dieter Rautenbach

2002-01-01

363

The nurse stress index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the development of the Nurse Stress Index (NSI): a self-report method of identifying sources of stress for groups of senior nurses (from sister\\/charge nurse level upwa30-item Index was shown to have acceptable levels of internal reliability (alpha =0.90) and split-half reliability (coefficient = 0.89). Content validity was ensured by involving nurses throughout the development, however, a number

Philip E. Harris

1989-01-01

364

Index of Refraction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Refraction is an important behavior of light that can be used to explain the operation of lenses, prisms, and optical fiber, as well as natural phenomena such as rainbows and mirages. The index of refraction, or refractive index, is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a material. The index of refraction is an important property of optical materials and one that can be easily measured in the laboratory.This lesson begins with a video that introduces the concept of refraction. Students learn firsthand how when a wave of light travels from one medium to another, the change in the wave's speed leads to a change in its wavelength and the bending of the wave. Next, students investigate index of refraction through an interactive media asset, research, and a class discussion. Following a video about the index of refraction and Snell's law, students work in groups to conduct their own laboratory experiment to measure the index of refraction of gelatin (or plastic).Note: This is the first of two optics lesson plans. You may want to follow this lesson with the Fiber Optics Lesson Plan.

2012-05-24

365

Significance of body mass index in primary and secondary pediatric hypertension  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this study were to 1)determine the relationship between body mass index and primary and secondary hypertension; and, 2) to assess body mass index at the age of onset of primary and secondary hypertension in children and adolescents.Patient demographics, age, race, gender, body mass index, family history, presentation of disease, etiology of hypertension, date of diagnosis, medication therapy

Renee F. Robinson; Donald D. Batisky; Milap C. Nahata; John D. Mahan

2001-01-01

366

Indexes as Tools for Measuring Usage of Print and Electronic Resources.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes two indexes, the Electronic and Print Usage Indexes, created at the Cushing/Whitney Medical Library at Yale University, that can be used easily by librarians to clearly demonstrate usage trends in their libraries. The indexes show that in 1998-1999, patron usage of electronic resources more than doubled, whereas print use declined. (AEF)

Bauer, Kathleen

2001-01-01

367

Health Interview Survey, Medical Coding Manual and The Short Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Data collected in the health interview survey provide a statistical picture of illness and disability in the civilian, noninstitutional, population of the nation, as well as information on related subjects such as time lost from work or school because of ...

1969-01-01

368

Retrieval and indexing methodology for multimedia content descriptions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Description Methodologies for multimedia content are gaining in interest. MPEG-7, which has been authorized by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is specifically targeted for such content. We developed an effective index structure for multimedia content descriptions such as MPEG-7. We developed a useful indexing method, called the position locator index that searches for the location of the description part in the description. Still image and full text search engines and most suitable feature indexes can be used without modification. Since these indexes are optimized for each requirement, they provide high retrieval performance. We developed an experimental retrieval system that combined these feature indexes and the position locator index. We evaluated the performance of the retrieval by using a linear-tracing search and the position index for the content descriptions. The result was satisfactory and retrieval speed was 200 times faster than linear tracing the descriptions, and the index size could be kept at a minimum.

Kunieda, Takayuki; Wakita, Yuki

2000-10-01

369

"Free Full Text Articles": Where to Search for Them?  

PubMed Central

References form the backbone of any medical literature. Presently, because of high inflation, it is very difficult for any library/organization/college to purchase all journals. The condition is even worse for an individual person, such as private practitioners. The solution lies in the free availability of full-text articles. Here, the authors share their experiences about the accessibility of free full-text articles.

Singh, Ashish; Singh, Manish; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Deepti; Singh, Pratibha; Sharma, Abhishek

2011-01-01

370

Medical Dictionary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For nurses and other health care professionals who seek to distinguish the habitus from the humerus, this online medical dictionary provided by MedicineNet will be a place to bookmark for repeat visits. The dictionary contains well-written explanations for over 16,000 medical terms, and users can go ahead and browse around, or enter keywords or phrases into the search engine that resides on the page. The site also features a âÂÂWord of the DayâÂÂ, and visitors can also look through recent news items that address different health issues and also look over the latest entries to the dictionary. The site is rounded out by a list of the âÂÂTop 10 MedtermsâÂÂ, which is also a good way to start exploring the materials here.

2007-03-31

371

Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.

372

Medical Telemetry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Telemetry is the process whereby physiological or other data is acquired by instruments, translated into radio signals and j sent to a receiving station where the signals are decoded and recorded. Extensively used in I space operations, it is finding new Earth applications, among them transmission of medical data between emergency vehicles and hospitals. For example, transmission of an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital enables a physician to read the telemetered EKG and advise ambulance attendants on emergency procedures. Central Medical Emergency Dispatch (CMED) operates as a regional emergency medical communications center for Cleveland, Ohio and Cuyahoga County. The CMED system includes radio and telephone communications from hospital-to-hospital and from ambulance-to-hospital, but for improved emergency life support CMED sought to add a county-wide telemetry capability. The problem was that there were only eight radio frequencies available for telemetry and there were more than 30 potential users in Cleveland alone. NASA's Lewis Research Center volunteered its expert assistance. The Center's engineers studied the systems of other telemetry using cities, surveyed area hospitals to assure compatibility of telemetry equipment, and advised what types of equipment would be needed in emergency vehicles and at the various hospitals. The Lewis plan suggested that CMED be designated the central coordinating agency for the Cuyahoga County system, monitoring all telemetry frequencies and, when requested, assigning one not in use or one to be used at a sufficient distance that it would create no interference problem.

1978-01-01

373

On updating problems in latent semantic indexing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from latent semantic indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new

Hongyuan Zha; Horst D. Simon

1999-01-01

374

Discriminability measures for predicting readability of text on textured backgrounds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several discriminability measures were examined for their ability to predict reading search times for three levels of text contrast and a range of backgrounds (plain, a periodic texture, and four spatial-frequency-filtered textures created from the periodic texture). Search times indicate that these background variations only affect readability when the text contrast is low, and that spatial frequency content of the background affects readability. These results were not well predicted by the single variables of text contrast (Spearman rank correlation = -0.64) and background RMS contrast (0.08), but a global masking index and a spatial-frequency-selective masking index led to better predictions (-0.84 and -0.81, respectively). c2000 Optical Society of America.

Scharff, L. F.; Hill, A. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

2000-01-01

375

BIRAM: a content-based image retrieval framework for medical images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the medical field, digital images are becoming more and more important for diagnostics and therapy of the patients. At the same time, the development of new technologies has increased the amount of image data produced in a hospital. This creates a demand for access methods that offer more than text-based queries for retrieval of the information. In this paper is proposed a framework for the retrieval of medical images that allows the use of different algorithms for the search of medical images by similarity. The framework also enables the search for textual information from an associated medical report and DICOM header information. The proposed system can be used for support of clinical decision making and is intended to be integrated with an open source picture, archiving and communication systems (PACS). The BIRAM has the following advantages: (i) Can receive several types of algorithms for image similarity search; (ii) Allows the codification of the report according to a medical dictionary, improving the indexing of the information and retrieval; (iii) The algorithms can be selectively applied to images with the appropriated characteristics, for instance, only in magnetic resonance images. The framework was implemented in Java language using a MS Access 97 database. The proposed framework can still be improved, by the use of regions of interest (ROI), indexing with slim-trees and integration with a PACS Server.

Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

2006-03-01

376

Quarantine document system indexing procedure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

1972-01-01

377

The Quilt Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the goal of creating a single, comprehensive index to American quilts, the Quilt Index builds on the work of 4 state quilt documentation and digitization projects: the Michigan Quilt Project, Kentucky Quilt Project, Illinois Quilt Research Project, and Quilts of Tennessee (more information about these projects is at the site). Currently almost 900 quilt images and pieces of information are searchable in the Quilt Index. The project has established standards for data elements to be collected, and forms to facilitate the addition of quilt documentation from other states. Quilts dating from 1800 to 1999 can be searched by pattern name, quilter's name, location made, date, and collection or documentation project. Searches by pattern name (baby blocks, ocean waves, wedding ring) are possible, but the interface is quite picky about singular and plural. Several ways to browse are also available, such as by collection, period, and style/technique, or choose "view the entire index" to display 887 quilts and records. The Quilt Index is hosted by MATRIX, the humanities technology center at Michigan State University that also hosts H-Net, Humanities and Social Sciences OnLine.

378

Internet Corruption Perception Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Internet Corruption Perception Index is provided by Transparency International and Goettingen University, Germany. The goal of the site to "rank countries by the extent of corruption in public administration." The ranking can then be used to help assess country risks. The Internet Corruption Perception Index is published annually and is based on "surveys undertaken by Gallup International, the World Competitiveness Yearbook, assessments by Political & Economic Risk Consultancy in Hong Kong, DRI/McGraw Hill Global Risk Service, Political Risk Services in Syracuse, USA, and data gathered from internet sources directly." The index for 1997 covers 52 countries, including both developed and developing countries. Recently added to the site is the report on the bribery propensity of leading exporting nations; this section investigates the "propensity to pay bribes for the acquisition of contracts in international trade." At the site, visitors can provide their own input on a country's bribery propensity.

1997-01-01

379

Negative index lens aberrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the Seidel aberrations of thin spherical lenses composed of media with refractive index not restricted to be positive. We find that consideration of this expanded parameter space allows for the reduction or elimination of more aberrations than is possible with only positive index media. In particular, we find that spherical lenses possessing real aplanatic focal points are possible only with a negative index. We perform ray tracing, using a custom code that relies only on Maxwell’s equations and conservation of energy, that confirms the results of the aberration calculations. This research was supported by DARPA (Contract No. MDA972-01-2- 0016) and a Multiple University Research Initiative (MURI), sponsored by ONR (Contract No. N00014-01-1-0803).

Schurig, David

2005-03-01

380

Begin with a text: teaching the poetics of medicine.  

PubMed

This paper suggests that the purpose of humanities teaching within medical education should be primarily to teach and promote the informed, attentive, critical, and precise reading of the multiple texts that constitute medicine as a discursive field-in short, a poetics of medicine. This claim is illustrated by reconsidering Margaret Edson's play Wit, not as it is often used in medical education, as a cautionary tale about unprofessional behavior or as a way to inculcate "humanistic skills," but as an analysis of the relationships between texts and feelings-or cognition and emotion, or science and art. This reading is illustrated by comparing the poetics of Wit with those of two other texts representing ovarian cancer: a scientific paper in Oncology and a clinical case conference in JAMA. PMID:23996055

Belling, Catherine

2013-12-01

381

Free-text information retrieval system for a rapid enrollment of patients into clinical trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This paper presents a novel free-text information retrieval system designed especifically for medical case finding applications.Methods: The proposed system begins by extracting medical information from free-text narrative reports and storing it in a predefined relational clinical data mart. The extraction is performed using a sophisticated medical thesaurus with a fast regular expression based method for pattern match. Following the

M. Averbuch; O. Maimon; L. Rokach; E. Ezer

2005-01-01

382

GeoIndex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The GeoIndex Search Engine, which is continually updated, contains some new features making a regular reviewing of the site worthwhile. GeoIndex is "a powerful Search Engine developed, owned and maintained by Datasurge Company to specifically fill a need for the Geo-Environmental professional" by covering geotechnical, environmental, hydrogeology, geology, mining, and petroleum topics. The highlights of the site include the clear and descriptive search results, and the well-designed and browsable "nested" categories including companies, associations, education, and government Web sites. [JAB

383

Student Derived KP Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the Kp index, a quantification of fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field due to the relative strength of a magnetic storm. Learners will take a reading from a magnetometer site and make a Kp index estimate to predict whether or not an aurora display will occur near that site. This resource is designed to support student analysis of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) Magnetometer line-plot data. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access. This is activity 18 in Exploring Magnetism: Earthâs Magnetic Personality.

384

Medical Office Assistants' Handbook. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This handbook is intended both as a text for use in medical office assistant (MOA) training programs in colleges and as a handbook for people working in medical offices. Addressed in the individual sections of the manual are the following topics: responsibilities of the medical office assistant, office organization, appointments and the waiting…

British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

385

Medical clip  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An X-ray transparent and biological inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is described. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.

Baucom, R. M. (inventor)

1983-01-01

386

Medical Mystery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity (on pages 15-23) combines interactive role-playing and graphing to introduce learners to the health affects of pollen. In the first part, learners role-play a detective on a medical case and the main character in the case. Learners formulate a hypothesis about a patient's illness. In the second part, learners graph evidence based on pollen counts and create a "final report" about what caused the patient's health problem. This activity smoothly combines health education, environmental science, and math.

Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development

2001-01-01

387

Medical Mysteries  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Rice University presents Medical Mysteries (or MedMyst for short) "an Internet-based adventure...in which you are on a mission to discover the causes of diseases." Designed for middle and high school students, MedMyst offers an engaging, multimedia approach to learning about infectious diseases and the immune system, as well as pharmacology, chemistry, public health policy, and more. MedMyst also includes three downloadable mini-labs that expand on concepts covered in the multimedia adventure. The Web site also includes loads of useful links.

388

A New Method for Arbitrarily-Oriented Text Detection in Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text detection in video frames plays a vital role in enhancing the performance of information extraction systems because the text in video frames helps in indexing and retrieving video efficiently and accurately. This paper presents a new method for arbitrarily-oriented text detection in video, based on dominant text pixel selection, text representatives and region growing. The method uses gradient pixel

Nabin Sharma; Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Umapada Pal; Michael Blumenstein; Chew Lim Tan

2012-01-01

389

A comprehensive method for multilingual video text detection, localization, and extraction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. This paper performs a detailed analysis of multilingual text characteristics, including English

Michael R. Lyu; Jiqiang Song; Min Cai

2005-01-01

390

Enriching text with images and colored light  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

2008-01-01

391

A Semantic and Syntactic Text Simplification Tool for Health Content  

PubMed Central

Text simplification is a challenging NLP task and it is particularly important in the health domain as most health information requires higher reading skills than an average consumer has. This low readability of health content is largely due to the presence of unfamiliar medical terms/concepts and certain syntactic characteristics, such as excessively complex sentences. In this paper, we discuss a simplification tool that was developed to simplify health information. The tool addresses semantic difficulty by substituting difficult terms with easier synonyms or through the use of hierarchically and/or semantically related terms. The tool also simplifies long sentences by splitting them into shorter grammatical sentences. We used the tool to simplify electronic medical records and journal articles and results show that the tool simplifies both document types though by different degrees. A cloze test on the electronic medical records showed a statistically significant improvement in the cloze score from 35.8% to 43.6%.

Kandula, Sasikiran; Curtis, Dorothy; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

2010-01-01

392

On the relationship between histogram indexing and block-mass indexing.  

PubMed

Histogram indexing, also known as jumbled pattern indexing and permutation indexing is one of the important current open problems in pattern matching. It was introduced about 6 years ago and has seen active research since. Yet, to date there is no algorithm that can preprocess a text T in time o(|T|(2)/polylog|T|) and achieve histogram indexing, even over a binary alphabet, in time independent of the text length. The pattern matching version of this problem has a simple linear-time solution. Block-mass pattern matching problem is a recently introduced problem, motivated by issues in mass-spectrometry. It is also an example of a pattern matching problem that has an efficient, almost linear-time solution but whose indexing version is daunting. However, for fixed finite alphabets, there has been progress made. In this paper, a strong connection between the histogram indexing problem and the block-mass pattern indexing problem is shown. The reduction we show between the two problems is amazingly simple. Its value lies in recognizing the connection between these two apparently disparate problems, rather than the complexity of the reduction. In addition, we show that for both these problems, even over unbounded alphabets, there are algorithms that preprocess a text T in time o(|T|(2)/polylog|T|) and enable answering indexing queries in time polynomial in the query length. The contributions of this paper are twofold: (i) we introduce the idea of allowing a trade-off between the preprocessing time and query time of various indexing problems that have been stumbling blocks in the literature. (ii) We take the first step in introducing a class of indexing problems that, we believe, cannot be pre-processed in time o(|T|(2)/polylog|T|) and enable linear-time query processing. PMID:24751866

Amir, Amihood; Butman, Ayelet; Porat, Ely

2014-01-01

393

The Misery Index.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

Bracey, Gerald W.

2000-01-01

394

Biographical Index of Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.

Brüggenthies, Wilhelm; Dick, Wolfgang R.

395

ERIC Digests Index Page  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can search the entire ERIC Digests database from the index page. ERIC, part of the National Library of Education (NLE), is a nationwide education information system sponsored by the US Department of Education's Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI).

396

Air Quality Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Air Quality Index (AQI) site contains tutorials about the difference between clean and dirty air, what the AQI is and the colors and numbers used to describe it, the effect of air pollution on health, and what people can do about pollution. There are also online games, which test understanding of the tutorials and a section containing teacher materials.

397

Glycemic Index Values Database  

Cancer.gov

NCI has developed a listing of Glycemic Index (GI) values for individual foods. Food codes from the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) are used as a reference. This file provides GI values for those foods consumed by adults and queried on the DHQ or other FFQs used at NCI.

398

GeoIndex  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

GeoIndex, povided by the Datasurge Company, is a search engine specially geared towards geo-environmental professionals. Specific database topics include geotechnical, environmental, hydrogeology, geology, mining, and petroleum. The website is searched via phrases entered by the user. Searches can be narrowed by entering multiple phrases and limiting the search to one of the four key areas: Companies, Associations, Education, and Government.

1998-01-01

399

Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

Morton, N.

1984-01-01

400

A Sociodemographic Risk Index  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an index of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…

Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia

2006-01-01

401

Gradient index metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metamaterials---artificially structured materials with tailored electromagnetic response---can be designed to have properties difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional materials fabrication methods. Here we present a structured metamaterial, based on conducting split ring resonators (SRRs), which has an effective index of refraction with a constant spatial gradient. We experimentally confirm the gradient by measuring the deflection of a microwave beam

D. R. Smith; J. J. Mock; A. F. Starr; D. Schurig

2005-01-01

402

Internet Intelligence Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by competitive intelligence firm Fuld & Company, the Internet Intelligence Index is a compilation of sites useful in gathering competitor and marketplace information on the Internet. All links are annotated and organized by subjects ranging from legal resources to patents and industry-specific information. Additional information on the field of competitive intelligence in general is available on site.

1998-01-01

403

Index: FOI Reports.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This cumulative index provides a listing, by topic, of the following Freedom of Information Center reports: reports 1 through 340, summary papers S1 through S38, and opinion papers 001 through 0017. Subject titles include, among many others, "Academic Freedom,""Book Censorship,""Consumer Protection,""Gag Orders,""Press Councils,""TV News," and…

Atkins, Jeanni

404

The COPD Helplessness Index  

PubMed Central

Background: Psychologic factors affect how patients with COPD respond to attempts to improve their self-management skills. Learned helplessness may be one such factor, but there is no validated measure of helplessness in COPD. Methods: We administered a new COPD Helplessness Index (CHI) to 1,202 patients with COPD. Concurrent validity was assessed through association of the CHI with established psychosocial measures and COPD severity. The association of helplessness with incident COPD exacerbations was then examined by following subjects over a median 2.1 years, defining COPD exacerbations as COPD-related hospitalizations or ED visits. Results: The CHI demonstrated internal consistency (Cronbach ? = 0.75); factor analysis was consistent with the CHI representing a single construct. Greater CHI-measured helplessness correlated with greater COPD severity assessed by the BODE (Body-mass, Obstruction, Dyspnea, Exercise) Index (r = 0.34; P < .001). Higher CHI scores were associated with worse generic (Short Form-12, Physical Component Summary Score) and respiratory-specific (Airways Questionnaire 20) health-related quality of life, greater depressive symptoms, and higher anxiety (all P < .001). Controlling for sociodemographics and smoking status, helplessness was prospectively associated with incident COPD exacerbations (hazard ratio = 1.31; P < .001). After also controlling for the BODE Index, helplessness remained predictive of COPD exacerbations among subjects with BODE Index ? median (hazard ratio = 1.35; P = .01), but not among subjects with higher BODE Index values (hazard ratio = 0.93; P = .34). Conclusions: The CHI is an internally consistent and valid measure, concurrently associated with health status and predictively associated with COPD exacerbations. The CHI may prove a useful tool in analyzing differential clinical responses mediated by patient-centered attributes.

Katz, Patricia P.; Yelin, Edward H.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knight, Sara J.; Blanc, Paul D.; Eisner, Mark D.

2010-01-01

405

An index of factorial simplicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

An index of factorial simplicity, employing the quartimax transformational criteria of Carroll, Wrigley and Neuhaus, and Saunders, is developed. This index is both for each row separately and for a factor pattern matrix as a whole. The index varies between zero and one. The problem of calibrating the index is discussed.

Henry F. Kaiser

1974-01-01

406

Fiber optic refractive index monitor  

DOEpatents

A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM) [Albuquerque, NM

2002-01-01

407

Robust Discriminant Analysis of Latent Semantic Feature for Text Categorization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a Discriminative Semantic Feature (DSF) method for vector space model based text categorization. The DSF\\u000a method, which involves two stages, first reduces the dimension of the document vector space by Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI),\\u000a and then applies a Robust linear Discriminant analysis Model (RDM), which improves the classical LDA by a energy-adaptive\\u000a regularization criteria, to extract the

Jiani Hu; Weihong Deng; Jun Guo

2006-01-01

408

Medical marijuana.  

PubMed

Grassroots AIDS activist groups denounce the Clinton Administration's stance on banning medicinal use of marijuana due to the lack of clinical evidence supporting its benefits. The 1997 meeting of the San Francisco Medical Society and the New England Journal of Medicine both agreed, following a review of 75 scientific studies of the medicinal benefits of marijuana, that the benefits of smoked marijuana include relief from pain and the reduction of nausea caused by anti-cancer drugs. The Federal government is attempting to punish physicians for prescribing marijuana to their patients, a situation being opposed by the Bay Area Physicians for Human Rights who have initiated a suit against the government. A hearing to stop this prosecution was scheduled for March 21. PMID:11364533

Baker, R; Bowers, M

1997-03-01

409

Video text localization using wavelet and shearlet transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Text in video is useful and important in indexing and retrieving the video documents efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new method of text detection using a combined dictionary consisting of wavelets and a recently introduced transform called shearlets. Wavelets provide optimally sparse expansion for point-like structures and shearlets provide optimally sparse expansions for curve-like structures. By combining these two features we have computed a high frequency sub-band to brighten the text part. Then K-means clustering is used for obtaining text pixels from the Standard Deviation (SD) of combined coefficient of wavelets and shearlets as well as the union of wavelets and shearlets features. Text parts are obtained by grouping neighboring regions based on geometric properties of the classified output frame of unsupervised K-means classification. The proposed method tested on a standard as well as newly collected database shows to be superior to some of the existing methods.

Banerjee, Purnendu; Chaudhuri, B. B.

2013-12-01

410

Automatic text detection and tracking in digital video.  

PubMed

Text that appears in a scene or is graphically added to video can provide an important supplemental source of index information as well as clues for decoding the video's structure and for classification. In this work, we present algorithms for detecting and tracking text in digital video. Our system implements a scale-space feature extractor that feeds an artificial neural processor to detect text blocks. Our text tracking scheme consists of two modules: a sum of squared difference (SSD)-based module to find the initial position and a contour-based module to refine the position. Experiments conducted with a variety of video sources show that our scheme can detect and track text robustly. PMID:18255381

Li, H; Doermann, D; Kia, O

2000-01-01

411

Study of Job Satisfaction at Eisenhower Army Medical Center.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study was conducted to determine the level of job satisfaction among administrative employees at Eisenhower Army Medical Center. The Job Descriptive Index (a widely used survey instrument) was used to evaluate the satisfaction of EAMC employees. The ...

S. C. Schmid

1987-01-01

412

Medical Subject Headings: Tree Structures, 1975 (Final Edition).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

All medical subject headings currently in use by the National Library of Medicine's indexers, catalogers, and searchers are arranged in a hierarchical manner showing relationships between broader and narrower terms. Included are minor and geographic descr...

1975-01-01

413

Business ethics, medical ethics and economic medicalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the ethical implications of economic medicalization: where non-medical problems are transformed into medical problems in order to achieve the objective of shareholder wealth maximization. After considering differences between business ethics and medical ethics, economic medicalization arising from corporate marketing strategies is detailed. Both direct-to-consumer and more traditional physician centred marketing methods are considered. In addition, the economic

Geoffrey Poitras

2009-01-01

414

Abstracting and indexing guide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

1974-01-01

415

New Economy Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The New Economy Index is a series of indicators that are "gathered from existing public and private data, to illustrate fundamental structural changes in the US economy, to show what those changes mean in the lives of working Americans, and to measure the nation's progress in several key foundation areas for future economic growth." The data in this excellent resource are divided into three sections. What's New About the New Economy includes thirteen indications that show the uniqueness and structure of the new technology-based and innovation-based economy. The second section considers the ways in which the New Economy will affect the lives of American workers. Finally, the third section, Foundations for Future Growth, projects the future growth of technology in the US. The site also includes information about the data sources, endnotes, and several side articles. Although the New Economy Index was created in 1998, the information is still valid and useful.

416

Medieval Feminist Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The librarians and scholars who maintain the Medieval Feminist Index (MFI) compile citations for journal articles, book reviews, and essays relating to women, sexuality, and gender during the Middle Ages (450 CE to 1500 CE). Currently, MFI contains over 2500 citations from over 350 journals and essay collections, covering publications in English, French, German, and Spanish from 1994 through 1997. The entire MFI is searchable by title, author, subject, source, and date. In addition to these standard search fields, the descriptive indexing provides searchable fields for geographic region, century, and article type to facilitate detailed cross-field searches. Searching the MFI is quite simple, but users should note the following peculiarities: vague or allusive titles are appended with a summary sentence to enhance description; subject headings are controlled by a customized thesaurus, which can be viewed but not browsed; and some full citation records supply abstracts, but abstracts are not searchable by keyword.

417

Film Literature Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This very ambitious project from Indiana University was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and it continues to be updated on a regular basis. The Film Literature Index (FLI) annually indexes 150 film and television periodicals from 30 countries in their entirety, along with 200 other periodicals selectively for articles on film and television. The FLI database can be searched by subject headings, names, production titles, or by corporate names. Visitors can browse around, or perform advanced searches as their needs require. More information about the project can be found in the "About FLI" section, which can be accessed at the top of the homepage. Here visitors can learn about the history of the FLI, and also read about various papers and presentations that document the creation of the FLI Online site.

418

Potential vorticity index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on the European Center For Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) First Global Atmospheric Research Program Global Experiment (FGGE) IIIb data set in the 1978 to 1979 winter, a potential vorticity (PV) index was defined as a measure of the zonally averaged, mid-latitude PV gradient on the 300 K isentropic surface in the Northern Hemisphere. The evolution of that index and its relation to teleconnection patterns of 500 mb geopotential height anomaly are studied. The results of the temporal and spatial variation of blocking and cyclogenesis in the 1978 to 1979 winter and its relation to global and local PV gradients were obtained. Complex empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analyses were performed, using the same FGGE data set for the 1978 to 1979 winter, for a representative high latitude band and mid latitude band geopotential height anomalies at 500 mb, phi sub h, phi sub m, and PV gradient at 300 K, delta(Q), at each longitude for the three month period. The focus of current research is the following: (1) to perform Fourier analyses for the first three EOF's of phi sub h, phi sub m, and delta(Q) at given latitude bands, and to find the dominant wavenumbers and frequencies which are responsible for these EOF's; (2) to compare the results from EOF and Fourier analyses which will be used to explore the relations of blocking and cyclogensis with local and global PV gradients; and (3) to study the time dependence of the local PV gradients and relate it to the PV index vacillation cycles observed in the PV index cycle.

Barcilon, Albert; Weng, Hengyi

1991-01-01

419

The Ankle Brachial Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The ankle brachial index (ABI) is defined as the ratio of systolic blood pressures in the ankles to that in the arms. The\\u000a arteries typically interrogated for calculating the ABI include the brachial arteries in the arms and the posterior tibial\\u000a and\\/or dorsalis pedis arteries in the legs. Owing to physiologic considerations, the ratio of the pressures in the ankles

Matthew A. Allison; Mary M. McDermott

420

Index of Learning Styles  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) is an on-line instrument used to assess preferences in four dimensions (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global) of a learning style model formulated by Richard M. Felder and Linda K. Silverman. The ILS results provide an indication of an individual's learning preferences while also providing an even better indication of the preference profile of a group of students (a class).

Felder, Richard M.; Silverman, Linda K.; University, North C.

421

Little Words Can Make a Big Difference for Text Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most information retrieval systems use stopword lists and\\u000a stemming algorithms. However, we have found that\\u000a recognizing singular and plural nouns, verb forms,\\u000a negation, and prepositions can produce dramatically\\u000a different text classification results. We present results\\u000a from text classification experiments that compare\\u000a relevancy signatures, which use local linguistic context,\\u000a with corresponding indexing terms that do not. In two\\u000a different domains, relevancy

Ellen Riloff

1995-01-01

422

Copayments for medication in 2014. Final rule.  

PubMed

This document adopts as a final rule, without change, an interim final rule amending the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) medical regulations to freeze the copayments required for certain medications provided by VA until December 31, 2014. Under that rule, the copayment amounts for all veterans were maintained at the same rates as they were in 2013, which were $8 for veterans in priority groups 2-6 and $9 for veterans in priority groups 7 and 8. On January 1, 2015, the copayment amounts may increase based on the prescription drug component of the Medical Consumer Price Index (CPI-P). PMID:24864365

2014-05-27

423

A new video text extraction approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video text provides precise and meaningful information about video content. Video text extraction is a crucial step to retrieve video text characters. Most of papers perform video text extraction in a whole text row. Compared with whole text row extraction, single character extraction can achieve higher accuracy because the background of single character is relatively simple. However, character segmentation is

Xiaodong Huang; Huadong Ma; He Zhang

2009-01-01

424

PEDINFO: An Index of the Pediatric Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site gathers pointers to Internet resources for pediatricians and others interested in pediatrics. As the editor of the site points out, the only criterion for inclusion in this index is, "Would this resource be of use to a pediatrician?" Sections include: conditions and diseases, subspecialties and areas of study, institutions, education, publications, software, Internet exploration, parenting, and information on the PEDINFO mailing list on pediatric medical informatics. A search engine for the entire site is available. A notable resource is the "Help" page, which is a guide to finding pediatric information on the Internet, not just on this particular site.

1997-01-01

425

Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

2013-01-01

426

A Fast Stroke-Based Method for Text Detection in Video  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texts in video provide a rich clue for video indexing and retrieval, yet the detection and recognition of video text remains a challenge. This paper proposes an effective and real-time stroke-based method for text detection in video, which is robust to the change of stroke intensity and width. Particularly, we propose to characterize the text confidence using an edge orientation

Bo Bai; Fei Yin; Cheng-Lin Liu

2012-01-01

427

A robust statistic method for classifying color polarity of video text  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video text extraction and recognition are prerequisite tasks for video indexing and retrieval. Color polarity classification of video text is very important to these tasks. Most existing text extraction methods assume that the text color is always light (or dark). Obviously, this assumption restricts the application of these methods to some specific domains. Only a few methods can detect the

Jiqiang Song; Min Cai; Michael R. Lyu

2003-01-01

428

Two-Year Improvement in Multidimensional Body Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise Capacity Index After Nonresectional Lung Volume Reduction Surgery in Awake Patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. This study analyzed the comprehensive 2-year outcome of nonresectional lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) in awake patients, including calculation of the multidimensional BODE index (body mass index, degree of airflow obstruction assessed by spirometry, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea grade, and 6-minute walking distance), which has proved a useful predictor of survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Eugenio Pompeo; Tommaso C. Mineo

429

Indexed Ideational Shifts in the "Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office of the United States Army."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores to what extent the germ theory, when it was still a relatively new idea, is evident in the bibliographic records in the "Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office of the United States Army" (Index Cat), the largest medical bibliographical tool ever published. Data suggest that scientists are quick to apply the new…

Lussky, Joan

2003-01-01

430

The role of the medical school-based consumer health information service.  

PubMed Central

Historically, medical information has been provided to patients at the physician's discretion. Although this method never has been wholly satisfactory, the trend toward bureaucratic organization of medical care, characterized by impersonal patient encounters and prompted by increased emphasis on cost controls, has restricted patient information even further. Yet, at the same time, the upsurge in consumer power has created patient demand for more health information. Consumers feel they have a right to expect help in obtaining information so they can make informed decisions with respect to their medical care. This paper focuses on the medical school-based consumer health service in this context. In particular, it calls attention to the medical school library as the foundation for expanded health information resources, pointing to the tools of information retrieval, as well as the substantive information contained in the medical, nursing, and allied health literature. In this setting, the consumer health librarian is called upon to act as a mediator in providing quality-filtered information to the patron, while at the same time remaining within the confines of professional expertise as a librarian. Important sources of health information are highlighted, particularly online databases, drug indexes, therapeutic texts, and physician specialist directories.

La Rocco, A

1994-01-01

431

Energy and Latency-Efficient Processing of Full-Text Searches on a Wireless Broadcast Stream  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless mobile computing environments, broadcasting is an effective and scalable technique to disseminate information to a massive number of clients, wherein the energy usage and latency are considered major concerns. This paper presents an indexing scheme for the energy- and latency-efficient processing of full-text searches over the wireless broadcast data stream. Although a lot of access methods and index

Yon Dohn Chung; Sanghyun Yoo; Myoung-Ho Kim

2010-01-01

432

Consistent Partition and Labelling of Text Blocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

:  This paper presents a text block extraction algorithm that takes as its input a set of text lines of a given document, and\\u000a partitions the text lines into a set of text blocks, where each text block is associated with a set of homogeneous formatting\\u000a attributes, e.g. text-alignment, indentation. The text block extraction algorithm described in this paper is probability

Jisheng Liang; Ihsin T. Phillips; Robert M. Haralick

2000-01-01

433

Price Indexes for Acute Phase Treatment of Depression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although broad trends in medical spending in the U.S. over the last decade have received widespread attention from policymakers, very little attention has focused on the components of those changes. For many other industries, economists typically divide nominal expenditures by an official government price index to decompose these expenditures into price and quantity components. In this paper we construct a

Ernst R. Berndt; Richard Frank

1998-01-01

434

Psychosocial Indexes and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in a Community Sample  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Psychosocial characteristics might contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of cardiovascular disease as it is increasingly recognised that biomedical risk factors do not fully explain its dynamics. This study aimed to describe psychometric indexes in a Portuguese community sample relating them to known cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods: Anthropometric, blood pressure, serum measurements and information on demographic, social, medical

Rui Coelho; Elisabete Ramos; Joana Prata; Henrique Barros

2000-01-01

435

NASA's online machine aided indexing system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

1993-01-01

436

E-Texts in the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A May 2007 Congressional advisory committee found that average full-time undergraduates spent between $700 and $1,000 on textbooks in 2003-2004 and that from 1987-2004, textbook prices at four-year public colleges rose 109 percent compared to a rise in the Consumer Price Index of 65 percent. Higher education is transitioning from atoms…

Hannon, Charles

2008-01-01

437

Mobile medical image retrieval  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in the text. Problems with the many, often incompatible mobile platforms were discovered and are listed in the text. Mobile information access is a quickly growing domain and the constraints of mobile access also need to be taken into account for image retrieval. The demonstrated access to the medical literature is most relevant as the medical literature and their images are clearly the largest knowledge source in the medical field.

Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

2011-03-01

438

An improved method of video text detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an improved video text detection method. At first, Harris corners detection is fulfilled to the original region. After confirming the former three text frames, this algorithm gets a suitable candidate text region according to the characteristics of these text frames and only processes candidate text region in later corner detection in order to improve detection efficiency. Then,

Hua-Ying Liu; Wei Yuan

2011-01-01

439

Evaluating text reuse discovery on the web  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text reuse detection aims to identify duplicates, reformulations or partial rewrites of a given text. Some previous research has focused on determining text reuse instances accurately on local corpora. However, the practical usage of finding text reuse on the web has remained largely untested. In this work, we 1) introduce a novel text reuse searching interface for the web, based

Stanford Chiu; Ibrahim Uysal; W. Bruce Croft

2010-01-01

440

Mapping the literature of diagnostic medical sonography.  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic medical sonography has been evolving as a recognized allied health occupation since the early 1970s, but no bibliometric studies of the literature of the field have been published. This study, part of the Medical Library Association Nursing and Allied Health Resources Section's Project for Mapping the Literature of Allied Health, attempted to identify the core journals in diagnostic medical sonography and determine how well these journals are indexed by MEDLINE, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Citation analysis was done using the three journals listed for the field by the Brandon/Hill list. Characteristics of two of these three journals affected the results to the extent that more data should be gathered to reach conclusions about the literature of diagnostic medical sonography as a whole. Results of the analysis do suggest that the literature of echocardiography, which is a special area of diagnostic medical sonography, is indexed much more completely by MEDLINE and EMBASE/Excerpta Medica than by CINAHL. Suggestions are made for librarians making collection development decisions in this area of allied health.

Walcott, B M

1999-01-01

441

Environmental Sustainability Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is an initiative of the Global Leaders for Tomorrow Environment Task Force, World Economic Forum. The ESI is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 142 countries. It permits cross-national comparisons of environmental progress in a systematic and quantitative fashion, with the hopes of promoting a more analytically driven approach to environmental decision making. The documents, which include an ESI press release, a ranking of countries, maps, and full ESI reports from 2000 to 2002, seek to provide in-depth details on the analytical framework, quantitative methodology, and data sources that underlie the ESI.

442

Are Good Texts Always Better? Interactions of Text Coherence, Background Knowledge, and Levels of Understanding in Learning from Text.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments investigated the role of text coherence in junior high school students' comprehension of science texts. Found that text coherence improved readers' comprehension, but also that giving readers with sufficient background knowledge an incoherent text that forced them to infer unstated relations engaged them in compensatory processing,…

McNamara, Danielle S.; And Others

1996-01-01

443

Exploring Dimensionality Reduction for Text Mining.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Text mining is the extraction of important information from a collection of textual data sources. For instance, text mining can be used to discover related concepts or to categorize previously unseen documents. In this age of information overload, text mi...

D. G. Underhill

2007-01-01

444

Science and Technology Text Mining: Analytical Chemistry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Text mining is the extraction of useful information from large volumes of literature. This report addresses text mining in the context of the science and technology literature. It describes the major text mining components, and shows its myriad applicatio...

R. N. Kostoff R. A. DeMarco

2001-01-01

445

Text Features Made Easy Using News Magazines  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will use news magazines such as Time for Kids, Science News for Kids, or other news magazines to identify text features and explain how the text features contribute to their understanding of the informational text.

2012-10-05

446

Health Planning Reports: Title Index.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Health Planning Reports Index is a listing of citations to the National Health Planning Information Center's (NHPIC) collection of health planning literature and Government reports and studies. The Index is intended for use by health planning agencies...

1980-01-01

447

Text Detectives Investigate Meat Eating Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, students will identify the text features of non-fiction books and use several informational texts on meat-eating plants to answer text dependent questions. Students will become "text detectives" and learn how to use the text to find the evidence to prove that their answers to questions are right. The students will learn to use evidence from informational texts to write explanatory paragraphs.

2013-01-13

448

Gradient index in borate glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A number of aluminum-borate glasses has been developed for producing gradient index glasses by exchanging. Both positive and negative axial gradient were fabricated in the glasses by exchange of Li+ for Na+ and Na+ for Li+, respectively. Index change to 0.03 and gradient index Abble number larger than +100 were achieved. The diffusion coefficients of Na+ and Li+ in borate glasses were calculated by fitting the profiles of refractive index to complimentary error function.

Sun, Yunan; Kindred, Douglas S.; Moore, Duncan T.

1994-08-01

449

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Structure Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Index, a special publication from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, provides the structures of a large number of PAHs. In addition to the structure, the Index lists other names for the compound, CAS number, molecular weight, length-to-breadth ratio, width, length, and thickness. Users can search the PAH Index via compound name and molecular weight, browse alphabetically, or scan cover to cover. An introduction to the Index is available in [.pdf] format.

Sander, Lane C.; Wise, Stephen A. (Stephen Albert), 1949-.

1997-01-01

450

Open Budget Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Around the world different governments provide different levels of information about their national budgets, and for some parties, this is a real area of concern. For those interested in this timely subject, the Center of Budget and Policy Priorities has created the Open Budget Index. Released in October 2006, this index rates countries on how open their budget books are to their citizens. As the site notes, this information can help a variety of groups "identify meaningful budget reforms needed in specific countries to combat corruption and strengthen basic services to improve people's lives." A great way to start on the site is by looking through country profiles from Uganda, Mexico, and India that will let concerned parties know specifically how budget transparency improves people's lives. After that, visitors can scroll down through a complete list of country summaries and questionnaires from Albania to Zambia. Visitors should also be aware that many of the materials on the site are available in a number of languages, including Arabic, French, Russian, and Spanish.

451

Index Sets and Vectorization  

SciTech Connect

Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

Keasler, J A

2012-03-27

452

Méthodologie de construction de l'Index de Coût Relatif du Catalogue Des Actes Médicaux: présentation et étude critique  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of this paper is to present the methods and the policy context in which the ICR (Index de CoCit Relatif - Relative Cost Indexes) were constructed. We describe the approch taken to develop this index, specificity time of the surgical or medical procedures, time of the nursing procedures, number and professional qualification of physicians and nurses, necessary technology.

Jean-Pierre Daurès; Michel Lehmann; Jean-Philippe Sac-Epée; Christian Gouzes; Michel Cazaban

1993-01-01

453

Research on application of Lucene in medical image retrieval system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The medical imaging technology widely used in the medical domain, the massive medical images produced in the clinic has an important reference value to the medical scientific research, but for its large quantity and difficult to manage, the efficiency and accuracy in the retrieval are still insufficient. Lucene is architecture with a full-text search engine, providing the complete query and

Wencheng Cui; Mengjia Xu; Huayu Sun; Hong Shao

2011-01-01

454

Refractive Index of Sodium Iodide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The refractive index of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the index-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr., 57, 494-534 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive index of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum

Gerald Earle Jellison Jr; Lynn A Boatner; Joanne Oxendine Ramey; James A Kolopus; Lucas A Ramey; David J Singh

2012-01-01

455

A universal image quality index  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a new universal objective image quality index, which is easy to calculate and applicable to various image processing applications. Instead of using traditional error summation methods, the proposed index is designed by modeling any image distortion as a combination of three factors: loss of correlation, luminance distortion, and contrast distortion. Although the new index is mathematically defined and

Zhou Wang; Alan C. Bovik

2002-01-01

456

A Modified Human Development Index  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses a modified index for measuring human development. The suggested index is based on the components of the Human Development Index (HDI) developed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) since 1990. It discusses two categories of technical issues related to the HDI for 1995: those related to the components and those relevant to the structure of the

Farhad Noorbakhsh

1998-01-01

457

Medical narratives in electronic medical records  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article, we describe the state of the art and directions of current development and research with respect to the inclusion of medical narratives in electronic medical-record systems. We used information about 20 electronic medical-record systems as presented in the literature. We divided these systems into `classical' systems that matured before 1990 and are now used in a broad

Huibert J Tange; Arie Hasman; Pieter F de Vries Robbé; Harry C Schouten

1997-01-01

458

Medical Entomology Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Medical Entomology Project (MEP), a cooperative venture between the Smithsonian Institution and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, conducts biosystematic research on arthropods of medical importance to the Army. MEP fulfills this ...

O. S. Flint

1977-01-01

459

Mental Health Medications  

MedlinePLUS

... information about any medication. Medications Organized by Trade Name Trade Name Generic Name FDA Approved Age Combination ... dimesylate 6 and older Medications Organized by Generic Name Generic Name Trade Name FDA Approved Age Combination ...

460

Federal Medication Terminologies  

Cancer.gov

The Federal Medication (FedMed) interagency collaboration is organizing an agreed set of standard, comprehensive, freely and easily accessible Federal Medication Terminologies (FMT) to improve the exchange and public availability of medication information.

461

Medical Entomology Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Medical Entomology Project (MEP), a cooperative venture between the Smithsonian Institution and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, conducts biosystematic research on arthropods of medical importance to the Army. MEP fulfills this ...

O. S. Flint

1981-01-01

462

Contextual Text Mining with Probabilistic Topic Models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Project Scope: The explosive growth of information demands powerful text-mining tools to help us digest information and discover hidden knowledge in text. Text analysis is often associated with various kinds of context, such as time, location, and sources. Given any text data with context information, we often would like to extract selected subtopics or themes and analyze their variations over

Qiaozhu Mei; ChengXiang Zhai

463

A Brief Survey of Text Mining  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enormous amount of information stored in unstructured texts cannot sim- ply be used for further processing by computers, which typically handle text as simple sequences of character strings. Therefore, specific (pre-)processing meth- ods and algorithms are required in order to extract useful patterns. Text mining refers generally to the process of extracting interesting information and knowledge from unstructured text.

Andreas Hotho; Andreas Nürnberger; Gerhard Paass

2005-01-01

464

Text mining in a digital library  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text mining is a burgeoning new field that attempts to glean meaningful information from natural language text. It may be loosely characterized as the process of analyzing text to extract information that is useful for particular purposes. It most commonly targets text whose function is the communication of factual information or opinions, and the motivation for trying to extract information

Ian H. Witten; Katherine J. Don; Michael Dewsnip; Valentin Tablan

2004-01-01

465

A new video text detection method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nowadays, digital libraries contain more and more videos in them, and how to organize and retrieve those videos effectively has become very urgent. Text in videos is a very meaningful clue for video semantic understanding, and it can be used for video organization and retrieval. However, existing text recognizing methods can not deal with multilingual texts or texts embedded in

Jie Yuan; Baogang Wei; Weiming Lu; Lidong Wang

2011-01-01

466

Efficient video text detection using edge features  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore new edge features such as straightness for the elimination of non significant edges from the segmented text portion of a video frame to detect accurate boundary of the text lines in video images. To segment the complete text portions, the method introduces candidate text block selection from a given image. Heuristic rules are formed based

Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Weihua Huang; Chew Lim Tan

2008-01-01

467

Sparse Representation Classification for Image Text Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Text detection in images is important for the retrieval of text information from digital graph, video databases and web sites. In this paper, a text detection method based on sparse representation classification with discrimination dictionaries is presented, which can detect text with different sizes, fonts and colors. The propose method detects edge information using Sobel operator and a sliding window

Ming Zhao; Shutao Li

2009-01-01

468

A Video Text Detection And Recognition System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a new system for text information extraction from news videos. First of all, a method that integrates text detecting and text tracking is developed to locate text areas in the key-frames (images), together with a scheme to evaluate the performance of this approach. To get better recognition results, we then enhance the quality of the

Jie Xi; Xian-sheng Hua; Xiang-rong Chen; Liu Wenyin; Hong-Jiang Zhang

2001-01-01

469

The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

1989-01-01

470

Medical imaging.  

PubMed Central

There is now a wide choice of medical imaging to show both focal and diffuse pathologies in various organs. Conventional radiology with plain films, fluoroscopy and contrast medium have many advantages, being readily available with low-cost apparatus and a familiarity that almost leads to contempt. The use of plain films in chest disease and in trauma does not need emphasizing, yet there are still too many occasions when the answer obtainable from a plain radiograph has not been available. The film may have been mislaid, or the examination was not requested, or the radiograph had been misinterpreted. The converse is also quite common. Examinations are performed that add nothing to patient management, such as skull films when CT will in any case be requested or views of the internal auditory meatus and heal pad thickness in acromegaly, to quote some examples. Other issues are more complicated. Should the patient who clinically has gall-bladder disease have more than a plain film that shows gall-stones? If the answer is yes, then why request a plain film if sonography will in any case be required to 'exclude' other pathologies especially of the liver or pancreas? But then should cholecystography, CT or scintigraphy be added for confirmation? Quite clearly there will be individual circumstances to indicate further imaging after sonography but in the vast majority of patients little or no extra information will be added. Statistics on accuracy and specificity will, in the case of gall-bladder pathology, vary widely if adenomyomatosis is considered by some to be a cause of symptoms or if sonographic examinations 'after fatty meals' are performed. The arguments for or against routine contrast urography rather than sonography are similar but the possibility of contrast reactions and the need to limit ionizing radiation must be borne in mind. These diagnostic strategies are also being influenced by their cost and availability; purely pragmatic considerations are not infrequently the overriding factor. Non-invasive methods will be preferred, particularly sonography as it is far more acceptable by not being claustrophobic and totally free of any known untoward effects. There is another quite different but unrelated aspect. The imaging methods, apart from limited exceptions, cannot characterize tissues as benign or malignant, granulomatous or neoplastic; cytology or histology usually provides the answer. Sonography is most commonly used to locate the needle tip correctly for percutaneous sampling of tissues. Frequently sonography with fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy is the least expensive, safest and most direct route to a definitive diagnosis. Abscesses can be similarly diagnosed but with needles or catheters through which the pus can be drained. The versatility and mobility of sonography has spawned other uses, particularly for the very ill and immobile, for the intensive therapy units and for the operating theatre, as well in endosonography. The appointment of more skilled sonographers to the National Health Service could make a substantial contribution to cost-effective management of hospital services. Just when contrast agents and angiography have become safe and are performed rapidly, they are being supplanted by scanning methods. They are now mainly used for interventional procedures or of pre-operative 'road maps' and may be required even less in the future as MRI angiography and Doppler techniques progress. MRI will almost certainly extent its role beyond the central nervous system (CNS) should the equipment become more freely available, especially to orthopaedics. Until then plain films, sonography or CT will have to suffice. Even in the CNS there are conditions where CT is more diagnostic, as in showing calculations in cerebral cysticercosis. Then, too, in most cases CT produces results comparable to MRI apart from areas close to bone, structures at the base of the brain, in the posterior fossa and in the spinal cord. Scintigraphy for pulmonary infarcts and bone metastases and in renal disease in children plays

Kreel, L.

1991-01-01

471

Medical imaging.  

PubMed

There is now a wide choice of medical imaging to show both focal and diffuse pathologies in various organs. Conventional radiology with plain films, fluoroscopy and contrast medium have many advantages, being readily available with low-cost apparatus and a familiarity that almost leads to contempt. The use of plain films in chest disease and in trauma does not need emphasizing, yet there are still too many occasions when the answer obtainable from a plain radiograph has not been available. The film may have been mislaid, or the examination was not requested, or the radiograph had been misinterpreted. The converse is also quite common. Examinations are performed that add nothing to patient management, such as skull films when CT will in any case be requested or views of the internal auditory meatus and heal pad thickness in acromegaly, to quote some examples. Other issues are more complicated. Should the patient who clinically has gall-bladder disease have more than a plain film that shows gall-stones? If the answer is yes, then why request a plain film if sonography will in any case be required to 'exclude' other pathologies especially of the liver or pancreas? But then should cholecystography, CT or scintigraphy be added for confirmation? Quite clearly there will be individual circumstances to indicate further imaging after sonography but in the vast majority of patients little or no extra information will be added. Statistics on accuracy and specificity will, in the case of gall-bladder pathology, vary widely if adenomyomatosis is considered by some to be a cause of symptoms or if sonographic examinations 'after fatty meals' are performed. The arguments for or against routine contrast urography rather than sonography are similar but the possibility of contrast reactions and the need to limit ionizing radiation must be borne in mind. These diagnostic strategies are also being influenced by their cost and availability; purely pragmatic considerations are not infrequently the overriding factor. Non-invasive methods will be preferred, particularly sonography as it is far more acceptable by not being claustrophobic and totally free of any known untoward effects. There is another quite different but unrelated aspect. The imaging methods, apart from limited exceptions, cannot characterize tissues as benign or malignant, granulomatous or neoplastic; cytology or histology usually provides the answer. Sonography is most commonly used to locate the needle tip correctly for percutaneous sampling of tissues. Frequently sonography with fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy is the least expensive, safest and most direct route to a definitive diagnosis. Abscesses can be similarly diagnosed but with needles or catheters through which the pus can be drained. The versatility and mobility of sonography has spawned other uses, particularly for the very ill and immobile, for the intensive therapy units and for the operating theatre, as well in endosonography. The appointment of more skilled sonographers to the National Health Service could make a substantial contribution to cost-effective management of hospital services. Just when contrast agents and angiography have become safe and are performed rapidly, they are being supplanted by scanning methods. They are now mainly used for interventional procedures or of pre-operative 'road maps' and may be required even less in the future as MRI angiography and Doppler techniques progress. MRI will almost certainly extent its role beyond the central nervous system (CNS) should the equipment become more freely available, especially to orthopaedics. Until then plain films, sonography or CT will have to suffice. Even in the CNS there are conditions where CT is more diagnostic, as in showing calculations in cerebral cysticercosis. Then, too, in most cases CT produces results comparable to MRI apart from areas close to bone, structures at the base of the brain, in the posterior fossa and in the spinal cord. Scintigraphy for pulmonary infarcts and bone metastases and in renal disease in children plays

Kreel, L

1991-04-01

472

Global Enhanced Vegetation Index  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

2002-01-01

473

Solar index generation and delivery  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

Lantz, L.J.

1980-01-01

474

Supporting Students' Movement up the Staircase of Text Complexity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Standard 10 of the Common Core State Standards attends to students' capacity with complex text. This standard distinguishes the Common Core State Standards from previous standards documents. This article describes a process--the Text Complexity Multi-Index (TCMI)--that supports teachers in studying texts to support their students in…

Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

2013-01-01

475

An experimental study on syntactic and semantic annotations in text retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

Syntactic and semantic ambiguity affect the text retrieval task as each type of ambiguity influences precision and\\/or recall. In this work we provide an experimental study on the effect of several ambiguity types in IR, by resolving each ambiguity type separately and adding respective annotations in the indexed text. We focus on five small text retrieval collections.

George Tsatsaronis

2011-01-01

476

Accurate video text detection through classification of low and high contrast images  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detection of both scene text and graphic text in video images is gaining popularity in the area of information retrieval for efficient indexing and understanding the video. In this paper, we explore a new idea of classifying low contrast and high contrast video images in order to detect accurate boundary of the text lines in video images. In this work,

Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Weihua Huang; Trung Quy Phan; Chew Lim Tan

2010-01-01

477

Video text detection and localization based on localized generalization error model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Texts in videos provide plenteous information for video analysis such as video indexing, understanding and retrieval. We propose a neural network based method detecting text in the video frames in this work. The proposed method consists of three major steps: feature extraction, text region detection and candidate region refinement. Firstly, we extract texture features from four edge maps yielded from

Xian-Heng Ma; WING W. Y. NG; P. P. K. Chan; D. S. Yeung

2010-01-01

478

Full-Text State Statutes and Legislation on the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This meta-index gathers links to Web, gopher, telnet, and ftp sites that contain the full text of state statutes, state constitutions, and other legislative resources. Of course, results of your searches depend on what each state has made available, and each state offers a different searching mechanism. Some entries have been annotated, particularly where instructions are necessary (as in the case of telnet sessions, or when a certain plug-in is required for viewing). There is also a supplementary page with links to resources related to state legislation, such as executive orders and administrative rules.

1998-01-01

479

Document Similarity Using a Phrase Indexing Graph Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Document clustering techniques mostly rely on single term analysis of text, such as the vector space model. To better capture the structure of documents, the underlying data model should be able to represent the phrases in the document as well as single terms. We present a novel data model, the Document Index Graph, which indexes Web documents based on phrases

Khaled M. Hammouda; Mohamed S. Kamel

2004-01-01

480

On past-time indexing of moving objects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tracking of mobile objects trajectories is one of many modern applications supported by Spatiotemporal databases. Within the con- text of this application, queries about the present, future or past positions of the objects need to be answered. Several indexing methods have been proposed to efficiently handle such spatiotemporal queries. In the current paper, we propose a method for indexing the

Katerina Raptopoulou; Michael Vassilakopoulos; Yannis Manolopoulos

2006-01-01

481

An intensive medical education elective for senior medical students.  

PubMed

Peer teaching by medical students is increasingly consid- ered an effective and efficient instructional modality with value for both teachers and learners. In 2012, twelve senior medical students participated in an inaugural, four-week Medical Education Elective at The Alpert Medical School of Brown University. The first week emphasized education theory and skills. During the remaining three weeks, participants served as a core group of instructors in a Clinical Skills Clerkship (CSC), a three-week required course transitioning rising third-year students to clinical clerkships. Senior near-peer instructors (NPIs) gained substantive experience in developing curriculum, facilitating small group sessions, teaching clinical skills, mentoring, providing feedback, and grading an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Based on direct observation by faculty and written anonymous evaluations by learners (n=98), NPIs demonstrated a high degree of teaching competence. This innovative, by-invitation-only, annual elective is the most substantive medical education experience for medical students described in the literature. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-07.asp, free with no login]. PMID:24983021

Gainor, Jamie; Patel, Nilay K; George, Paul F; MacNamara, Marina M C; Dollase, Richard; Taylor, Julie Scott

2014-01-01

482

Function of text structure in jurors' comprehension and decision making.  

PubMed

The Story Model of Juror Decision Making proposes that jurors develop a story of the case, match the story to verdict templates, and then select the best match between the story and the verdict. The present research investigated the effect different text structures in opening statements and closing arguments had on jurors' recognition for trial information and decision-making. It was hypothesized: (1) narrative opening statements would enhance story construction and (2) comparison-expository closing arguments would enhance story classification. 80 introductory psychology students read a medical malpractice mock lawsuit, rendered a verdict, were tested for recognition of trial facts, and gave an estimate of the surgeon's negligence. The defense's opening statements and closing arguments were written either in narrative or comparison-expository text format. Although weak support for the first hypothesis was found, evidence supporting the effect of comparison-expository text in closing arguments on juror decisions was stronger. PMID:18232425

McCullough, Gary W

2007-12-01

483

Concept graphics: a language for medical knowledge.  

PubMed Central

This paper makes a case for Concept Graphics, a novel form of medical knowledge representation. Concept Graphics are assemblies of icons each of which has a precise meaning. Individual icons are metaphors of the object or process they represent. Concept Graphics are analogs of pathological situations, their symptoms, signs and other relevant components necessary for a diagnosis. We propose three principal areas of application for Concept Graphics: medical education, medical records management and research based on medical records. Our earlier work in medical education showed a clear advantage in using Concept Graphics in parallel with text of equivalent information content, over text alone. A Concept Graphics based intelligent tutoring systems (ITS) is being developed. In the area of medical records management we are developing a system for the rapid identification of relevant records based on rapid visual screening. The Concept Graphics based system can reveal properties common to specific groups of records. As such the graphics are a research tool.

Preiss, B.; Kaltenbach, M.; Zanazaka, J.; Echave, V.

1992-01-01

484

Synthesis of Speech from Unrestricted Text.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

It is often desirable to be able to convert arbitrary English text to natural and intelligible sounding speech. This transformation is facilitated by first obtaining the common underlying abstract linguistic representation which relates to both text and s...

J. Allen

1975-01-01

485

Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

1989-01-01

486

An improved method of video text detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an improved video text detection method. At first, Harris corners detection is fulfilled to the original region. After confirming the former three text frames, this algorithm gets a suitable candidate text region according to the characteristics of these text frames and only processes candidate text region in later corner detection in order to improve detection efficiency. Then, the obtained corners are calculated by row and a local threshold is gotten based on height and density of continuous corners rows to eliminate non-text corners rows. Finally, the center location feature is employed to make sure text region further and confirm the text frames. The experiment indicates that this method has relative high detection accuracy.

Liu, Hua-Ying; Yuan, Wei

2011-10-01

487

An Effective Video Text Tracking Algorithm Based on SIFT Feature and Geometric Constraint  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Video text provides important clues for semantic-based video analysis, indexing and retrieval. And text tracking is performed\\u000a to locate specific text information across video frames and enhance text segmentation and recognition over time. This paper\\u000a presents a multilingual video text tracking algorithm based on the extraction and tracking of Scale Invariant Feature Transform\\u000a (SIFT) features description through video frames. SIFT

Yinan Na; Di Wen

2010-01-01

488

A Laplacian Method for Video Text Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose an efficient text detection method based on the Laplacian operator. The maximum gradient difference value is computed for each pixel in the Laplacian-filtered image. K-means is then used to classify all the pixels into two clusters: text and non-text. For each candidate text region, the corresponding region in the Sobel edge map of the input

Trung Quy Phan; Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Chew Lim Tan

2009-01-01

489

Mining Web Text for Brand Associations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Weblogs and other web text are an incredibly rich knowledge base, and the marketing industry is beginning to recognize the value of web texts as a source of information about their customers. However, the nature of web texts make them un- suitable for analysis using standard market research methods. In this paper, we describe the use of exploratory data analysis

Robert Malouf; Bradley Davidson; Ashli Sherman; Wayne NJ

490

CTMS: A Comparative Text Mining System  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many applications, there is often a need for comparing multi- ple text collections to find commonalities and differences in topi- cal themes, a task we refer to as comparative text mining. In this paper, we present a general comparative mining system (CTMS). The CTMS system takes any two collections of text and gener- ates a list of cross-collection themes

Peng Zang; ChengXiang Zhai

491

Speaking Kapampangan. PALI Language Texts: Philippines.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This text is an elementary-intermediate level text designed to teach conversational Kapampangan, the language spoken in the Pampanga-Tarlac area of the central plain of Luzon in the Philippines. The purpose of the text is to acquaint the learner with the vocabulary and basic structures necessary for participation in everyday conversations. The…

Mirikitani, Leatrice T.

492

Text Matters in Learning to Read.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study examined the opportunities provided by several types of text for beginning readers to learn about three aspects of written English: (1) consistent, common letter-sound patterns; (2) the most frequent words; and (3) the contexts of sentences and texts. Results indicate that texts based on high-frequency words give beginning readers ample…

Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

493

Text Messaging for Student Communication and Voting  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Text messaging has gained widespread popularity in higher education as a communication tool and as a means of engaging students in the learning process. In this study we report on the use of text messaging in a large, year-one introductory chemistry module where students were encouraged to send questions and queries to a dedicated text number both…

McClean, Stephen; Hagan, Paul; Morgan, Jason

2010-01-01

494

RECOGNITION OF TEXT IN 3-D SCENES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video is an increasingly important source of information to the intelligence analyst. Recognizing text that appears in real-world scenery is potentially useful for characterizing the contents of video imagery. Previous research in text recognition for both printed documents and other sources of imagery has generally assumed that the text lies in a plane that is oriented roughly perpendicular to the

Gregory K. Myers; Robert C. Bolles; James A. Herson

2001-01-01

495

MULTEXT: Multilingual Text Tools and Corpora  

Microsoft Academic Search

MULTEXT (Multilingual Text Tools and Corpora) is the largest project funded in the Commission of European Communities Linguistic Research and Engineering Program. The project will contribute to the development of generally usable software tools to manipulate and analyse text corpora and to create multilingual text corpora with structural and linguistic markup. It will attempt to establish conventions for the encoding

Nancy Ide; Jean Véronis

1994-01-01

496

A Survey of Multilingual Text Retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report reviews the present state of the art in selection of texts in one languagebased on queries in another, a problem we refer to as "multilingual" text retrieval.Present applications of multilingual text retrieval systems are limited by the cost andcomplexity of developing and using the multilingual thesauri on which they are basedand by the level of user training that

Bonnie J. Dorr; Douglas W. Oard

1996-01-01

497

Writing Texts with Radical Change Characteristics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has revealed how students draw upon other texts when writing their own texts. This article explores how the writing of Alyssa, a 10-year-old Grade 5 student, was influenced by her engagement with literature with Radical Change characteristics, as well as by her knowledge of and experience with other texts. Dresang's Radical Change…

Pantaleo, Sylvia

2007-01-01

498

Literary and Informational Texts in Language Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Informational texts are useful for teaching fundamental linguistic structures, because their stylistic variables can be ignored, and because they provide information about aspects of the world which the student will encounter in literary texts. Literary texts speak directly to the reader, and have high motivational value. (IFS/WGA)

Littlewood, William T.

1976-01-01

499

Metacognitive Process in Online Text Construction  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Many studies have reported the results of how students constructed texts, yet the cognitive process of how texts were constructed by sentences and how the constructive process was formulated and reformulated have rarely been addressed. This study aims to develop a computer-aided text construction system which supports 83 English as a Foreign…

Yeh, Hui-Chin; Yang, Yu-Fen

2011-01-01

500

Text Dependent Questions and the CCSS  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective text dependent question first and foremost embraces the key principle of close reading embedded in the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) Anchor Reading Standards by asking students to provide evidence from complex text and draw inferences based on what the text explicitly says (Standards 1 and 10). A close look at the intervening…

Aspen Institute, 2012

2012-01-01