Sample records for medical text indexer

  1. ADM-INDEX: an automated system for indexing and retrieval of medical texts.

    PubMed

    Seka, L P; Courtin, C; Le Beux, P

    1997-01-01

    ADM-INDEX is a system for indexing and retrieval of Patients Discharge Summaries (PDSs) by using linguistic methods (morphologic, syntaxic and semantic processing). The ADM-INDEX knowledge base is a restructuring of a diagnostic aid knowledge base (ADM) in order to allow the linguistic analysis of medical texts. The ADM system is a comprehensive medical knowledge base which has been developed since 1972 at the University Hospital of Rennes and which has been the first professional videotex medical diagnostic aid in France. After linguistic analysis, ADM-INDEX build the index table with thesaurus wording, medical words, concepts and phrases, unknown words contained in each PDS. The benefit of using those different elements is to improve information retrieval. Although our system is constructed with the ADM dictionary, it can be easily applied to other medical nomenclature or thesaurus. In this paper, we present on the one hand the ADM-INDEX knowledge base which is constituted by rules, a dictionary and a thesaurus, and on the other hand, the process of indexing and retrieval information. PMID:10179583

  2. Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lawrence W.; Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Aronson, Alan R.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how…

  3. Efficient Index for Handwritten Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Ibrahim

    This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two indexing methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first index, word-level index, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level index is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level index, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level index is more accurate, but more costly than the word level index. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the index size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both indexes and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed indexes achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed indexes improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.

  4. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  5. Automated Identification of Medical Concepts and Assertions in Medical Text

    E-print Network

    Rosales, RĂłmer E.

    - tion of key medical information from unstruc- tured text in Electronic Medical Records. The approach- sociated to polarity and relevance detection. 1 Introduction Electronic Medical Record (EMR) adoption that together with a simple graphical tool, allows medical personnel to rapidly mine their exist- ing records

  6. Unsupervised Mining of Frequent Tags for Clinical Eligibility Text Indexing

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Clinical text, such as clinical trial eligibility criteria, is largely underused in state-of-the-art medical search engines due to difficulties of accurate parsing. This paper proposes a novel methodology to derive a semantic index for clinical eligibility documents based on a controlled vocabulary of frequent tags, which are automatically mined from the text. We applied this method to eligibility criteria on ClinicalTrials.gov and report that frequent tags (1) define an effective and efficient index of clinical trials and (2) are unlikely to grow radically when the repository increases. We proposed to apply the semantic index to filter clinical trial search results and we concluded that frequent tags reduce the result space more efficiently than an uncontrolled set of UMLS concepts. Overall, unsupervised mining of frequent tags from clinical text leads to an effective semantic index for the clinical eligibility documents and promotes their computational reuse. PMID:24036004

  7. How indexicals function in texts: Discourse, text, and one neo-Gricean account of indexical reference

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 How indexicals function in texts: Discourse, text, and one neo- Gricean account of indexical and the interlocutive relationships developed throughout the discourse. The article also assesses the neo perspective at points of transition between units. My more major goal is to assess the extent to which one neo

  8. The Algorithmic Processing of Structured Medical Text*

    PubMed Central

    Blois, M.S.; Sherertz, D.D.; Tuttle, M.S.

    1980-01-01

    Algorithms are described which (1) separated specific medical terms from common English words, (2) assigned medical terms to their appropriate specialty (e.g. dermatology, cardiology), and (3) generated and measured the association of pairs of disease attributes in a corpus of structured medical text concerning diseases. The output of these algorithms is discussed in terms of the contributions they may make to the solution of three problems in medical text processing: the construction of knowledge bases about diseases, the querying of such knowledge bases, and the classification of journal articles relevant to diseases.

  9. NASA indexing benchmarks: evaluating text search engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L. Esler; Michael L. Nelson

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely-available search engines.A product of this research is a tool-kit capable of automatically indexing,

  10. Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M

    1997-01-01

    We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence. PMID:9357739

  11. Text Influenced Molecular Indexing (TIMI): a literature database mining approach that handles text and chemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, Suresh B; Hull, Richard D; Fluder, Eugene M

    2003-01-01

    We present an application of a novel methodology called Text Influenced Molecular Indexing (TIMI) to mine the information in the scientific literature. TIMI is an extension of two existing methodologies: (1) Latent Semantic Structure Indexing (LaSSI), a method for calculating chemical similarity using two-dimensional topological descriptors, and (2) Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), a method for generating correlations between textual terms. The singular value decomposition (SVD) of a feature/object matrix is the fundamental mathematical operation underlying LSI, LaSSI, and TIMI and is used in the identification of associations between textual and chemical descriptors. We present the results of our studies with a database containing 11,571 PubMed/MEDLINE abstracts which show the advantages of merging textual and chemical descriptors over using either text or chemistry alone. Our work demonstrates that searching text-only databases limits retrieved documents to those that explicitly mention compounds by name in the text. Similarly, searching chemistry-only databases can only retrieve those documents that have chemical structures in them. TIMI, however, enables search and retrieval of documents with textual, chemical, and/or text- and chemistry-based queries. Thus, the TIMI system offers a powerful new approach to uncovering the contextual scientific knowledge sought by the medical research community. PMID:12767132

  12. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  13. Analysis of polarity information in medical text.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaodan; Li, Jianhua; Hirst, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    Knowing the polarity of clinical outcomes is important in answering questions posed by clinicians in patient treatment. We treat analysis of this information as a classification problem. Natural language processing and machine learning techniques are applied to detect four possibilities in medical text: no outcome, positive outcome, negative outcome, and neutral outcome. A supervised learning method is used to perform the classification at the sentence level. Five feature sets are constructed: unigrams, bigrams, change phrases, negations, and categories. The performance of different combinations of feature sets is compared. The results show that generalization using the category information in the domain knowledge base Unified Medical Language System is effective in the task. The effect of context information is significant. Combining linguistic features and domain knowledge leads to the highest accuracy. PMID:16779104

  14. Word-based self-indexes for natural language text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Farińa; Nieves R. Brisaboa; Gonzalo Navarro; Francisco Claude

    2012-01-01

    The inverted index supports efficient full-text searches on natural language text collections. It requires some extra space over the compressed text that can be traded for search speed. It is usually fast for single-word searches, yet phrase searches require more expensive intersections. In this article we introduce a different kind of index. It replaces the text using essentially the same

  15. Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Results Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Conclusions Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the tested ranking procedures were able to filter out all improperly constructed noun phrases from the top of the list. Careful choice of noun phrases is crucial to the usefulness of the created terminological resource in applications such as lexicon construction or acquisition of semantic relations from texts. PMID:24976943

  16. Practical NLP-Based Text Indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Vilares; F. M. Barcala; M. A. Alonso; J. Gra; M. Vilares

    We consider a set of natural language processing techniques based on nite-state technology that can be used to analyze huge amounts of texts. These techniques include an advanced tokenizer, a part-of-speech tagger that can manage ambiguous streams of words, a system for conating words by means of derivational mechanisms, and a shallow parser to extract syntactic-dependency pairs. We propose to

  17. Extracting medication information from clinical text.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Ozlem; Solti, Imre; Cadag, Eithon

    2010-01-01

    The Third i2b2 Workshop on Natural Language Processing Challenges for Clinical Records focused on the identification of medications, their dosages, modes (routes) of administration, frequencies, durations, and reasons for administration in discharge summaries. This challenge is referred to as the medication challenge. For the medication challenge, i2b2 released detailed annotation guidelines along with a set of annotated discharge summaries. Twenty teams representing 23 organizations and nine countries participated in the medication challenge. The teams produced rule-based, machine learning, and hybrid systems targeted to the task. Although rule-based systems dominated the top 10, the best performing system was a hybrid. Of all medication-related fields, durations and reasons were the most difficult for all systems to detect. While medications themselves were identified with better than 0.75 F-measure by all of the top 10 systems, the best F-measure for durations and reasons were 0.525 and 0.459, respectively. State-of-the-art natural language processing systems go a long way toward extracting medication names, dosages, modes, and frequencies. However, they are limited in recognizing duration and reason fields and would benefit from future research. PMID:20819854

  18. Fast tagging of medical terms in legal text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Dozier; Ravi Kondadadi; Khalid Al-kofahi; Mark Chaudhary; Xi S. Guo

    2007-01-01

    Medical terms occur across a wide variety of legal, medical, and news corpora. Documents containing these terms are of particular interest to legal professionals operating in such fields as medical malpractice, personal injury, and product liability. This paper describes a novel method of tagging medical terms in legal, medical, and news text that is very fast and also has high

  19. 7. Full-Text Indexes in External Memory Juha Karkkainen

    E-print Network

    Kärkkäinen, Juha

    7. Full-Text Indexes in External Memory Juha K¨arkk¨ainen and S. Srinivasa Rao 7.1 Introduction of a string or the longest common substrings of two strings can be computed in lin- ear time [231]. Gusfield locality. This has led to several recent results on adapting full-text indexes to external memory

  20. Compressed Text Indexes:From Theory to Practice!

    E-print Network

    Ferragina, Paolo; Navarro, Gonzalo; Venturini, Rossano

    2007-01-01

    A compressed full-text self-index represents a text in a compressed form and still answers queries efficiently. This technology represents a breakthrough over the text indexing techniques of the previous decade, whose indexes required several times the size of the text. Although it is relatively new, this technology has matured up to a point where theoretical research is giving way to practical developments. Nonetheless this requires significant programming skills, a deep engineering effort, and a strong algorithmic background to dig into the research results. To date only isolated implementations and focused comparisons of compressed indexes have been reported, and they missed a common API, which prevented their re-use or deployment within other applications. The goal of this paper is to fill this gap. First, we present the existing implementations of compressed indexes from a practitioner's point of view. Second, we introduce the Pizza&Chili site, which offers tuned implementations and a standardized AP...

  1. Inverted files versus signature files for text indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Zobel; Alistair Moffat; Kotagiri Ramamohanarao

    1998-01-01

    Two well-known indexing methods are inverted files and signature files. We have undertaken a detailed comparison of these two approaches in the context of text indexing, paying particular attention to query evaluation speed and space requirements. We have examined their relative performance using both experimentation and a refined approach to modeling of signature files, and demonstrate that inverted files are

  2. Automated de-identification of free-text medical records

    E-print Network

    Neamatullah, Ishna

    Background: Text-based patient medical records are a vital resource in medical research. In order to preserve patient confidentiality, however, the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires ...

  3. Full-Text Magazine Indexes & More on CD-ROMs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troselius, Renee; And Others

    1996-01-01

    CD-ROM periodical indexes are becoming increasingly tailored for specific age ranges and are also providing access to full text. Two charts separate several full-text CD-ROM products by intended audience (middle school versus secondary school students) and compare costs and features. Tips are provided on assessing institutional needs and…

  4. Automated de-identification of free-text medical records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ishna Neamatullah; Margaret M Douglass; Li-wei H Lehman; Andrew Reisner; Mauricio Villarroel; William J Long; Peter Szolovits; George B Moody; Roger G Mark; Gari D Clifford

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Text-based patient medical records are a vital resource in medical research. In order to preserve patient confidentiality, however, the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires that protected health information (PHI) be removed from medical records before they can be disseminated. Manual de-identification of large medical record databases is prohibitively expensive, time-consuming and prone to error, necessitating

  5. Fast Incremental Indexing for Full-Text Information Retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eric W. Brown; James P. Callan; W. Bruce Croft

    1994-01-01

    Full-text information retrieval systems have tradi- tionally been designed for archival environments. They often provide little or no support for adding new documents to an existing document collec- tion, requiring instead that the entire collection be re-indexed. Modern applications, such as infor- mation filtering, operate in dynamic environments that require frequent additions to document collec- tions. We provide this ability

  6. Visualization index for image-enabled medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenjie; Zheng, Weilin; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2011-03-01

    With the widely use of healthcare information technology in hospitals, the patients' medical records are more and more complex. To transform the text- or image-based medical information into easily understandable and acceptable form for human, we designed and developed an innovation indexing method which can be used to assign an anatomical 3D structure object to every patient visually to store indexes of the patients' basic information, historical examined image information and RIS report information. When a doctor wants to review patient historical records, he or she can first load the anatomical structure object and the view the 3D index of this object using a digital human model tool kit. This prototype system helps doctors to easily and visually obtain the complete historical healthcare status of patients, including large amounts of medical data, and quickly locate detailed information, including both reports and images, from medical information systems. In this way, doctors can save time that may be better used to understand information, obtain a more comprehensive understanding of their patients' situations, and provide better healthcare services to patients.

  7. Automated de-identification of free-text medical records

    E-print Network

    Neamatullah, Ishna

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a de-identification study at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology (HST) to automatically de-identify confidential patient information from text medical records used in intensive ...

  8. Text Indexing of Images Based on Graphical Image Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Timothy B.; Sievert, MaryEllen C.; Popescu, Mihail

    1999-01-01

    Describes an alternative method for indexing images in an image database. The method consists of manually indexing a selected reference image, and then using retrieval by graphical content to automatically transfer the manually assigned index terms from the reference image to the images to be indexed. (AEF)

  9. Emotional Reading of Medical Texts Using Conversational Agents (Short Paper)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gersende Georg; Catherine Pelachaud; Marc Cavazza

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a prototype that helps visualizing the relative importance of sentences extracted from medical texts using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA). We propose to map rhetorical structures automatically recognized in the documents onto a set of communicative acts controlling the expression of an ECA. As a consequence, the ECA will dramatize a sentence to reflect its perceived

  10. Privacy preserving index for encrypted electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Chi; Horng, Gwoboa; Lin, Yi-Jheng; Chen, Kuo-Chang

    2013-12-01

    With the development of electronic systems, privacy has become an important security issue in real-life. In medical systems, privacy of patients' electronic medical records (EMRs) must be fully protected. However, to combine the efficiency and privacy, privacy preserving index is introduced to preserve the privacy, where the EMR can be efficiently accessed by this patient or specific doctor. In the literature, Goh first proposed a secure index scheme with keyword search over encrypted data based on a well-known primitive, Bloom filter. In this paper, we propose a new privacy preserving index scheme, called position index (P-index), with keyword search over the encrypted data. The proposed index scheme is semantically secure against the adaptive chosen keyword attack, and it also provides flexible space, lower false positive rate, and search privacy. Moreover, it does not rely on pairing, a complicate computation, and thus can search over encrypted electronic medical records from the cloud server efficiently. PMID:24158427

  11. Medical technology index helps hospitals spend money wisely.

    PubMed

    1998-12-01

    New medical technology index isn't a crystal ball, but it's almost as good. If you're wondering what your health system needs--a strategic alliance, capital improvements, or a new surgical suite--this new index may be just what the doctor ordered. Find out how it can help you evaluate whether your hospital has the competitive edge. PMID:10538487

  12. A system for de-identifying medical message board text

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are millions of public posts to medical message boards by users seeking support and information on a wide range of medical conditions. It has been shown that these posts can be used to gain a greater understanding of patients’ experiences and concerns. As investigators continue to explore large corpora of medical discussion board data for research purposes, protecting the privacy of the members of these online communities becomes an important challenge that needs to be met. Extant entity recognition methods used for more structured text are not sufficient because message posts present additional challenges: the posts contain many typographical errors, larger variety of possible names, terms and abbreviations specific to Internet posts or a particular message board, and mentions of the authors’ personal lives. The main contribution of this paper is a system to de-identify the authors of message board posts automatically, taking into account the aforementioned challenges. We demonstrate our system on two different message board corpora, one on breast cancer and another on arthritis. We show that our approach significantly outperforms other publicly available named entity recognition and de-identification systems, which have been tuned for more structured text like operative reports, pathology reports, discharge summaries, or newswire. PMID:21658289

  13. A system for de-identifying medical message board text.

    PubMed

    Benton, Adrian; Hill, Shawndra; Ungar, Lyle; Chung, Annie; Leonard, Charles; Freeman, Cristin; Holmes, John H

    2011-01-01

    There are millions of public posts to medical message boards by users seeking support and information on a wide range of medical conditions. It has been shown that these posts can be used to gain a greater understanding of patients' experiences and concerns. As investigators continue to explore large corpora of medical discussion board data for research purposes, protecting the privacy of the members of these online communities becomes an important challenge that needs to be met. Extant entity recognition methods used for more structured text are not sufficient because message posts present additional challenges: the posts contain many typographical errors, larger variety of possible names, terms and abbreviations specific to Internet posts or a particular message board, and mentions of the authors' personal lives. The main contribution of this paper is a system to de-identify the authors of message board posts automatically, taking into account the aforementioned challenges. We demonstrate our system on two different message board corpora, one on breast cancer and another on arthritis. We show that our approach significantly outperforms other publicly available named entity recognition and de-identification systems, which have been tuned for more structured text like operative reports, pathology reports, discharge summaries, or newswire. PMID:21658289

  14. Overlapping Statistical Segmentation for Effective Indexing of Japanese Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Yasushi; Matsuda, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Discusses statistical word indexing for Japanese information-retrieval systems and proposes a new method that uses statistics about characters to evaluate a bi-gram's likelihood of being a word boundary. Describes a new segmentation strategy that extracts some overlapping segments and results in higher retrieval effectiveness. (Author/LRW)

  15. A Graph Structured Text Field Index Based on Word Fragments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropp, D.; Walch, G.

    1981-01-01

    Describes an indexing technique based on overlapping word fragments as reference strings that are linked in a directed graph structure which makes possible exact match-, partial match-, and masked-partial match-retrieval and indicates search strategies for each case. Eight figures, two tables, and nine references are provided. (RBF)

  16. Non-indexed medical journals in the Web: new perspectives in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Germenis, A E; Kokkinides, P A; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

    1997-11-01

    Many medical journals, publishing in national languages, meet serious financial problems and difficulties when they attempt to become indexed in the international indices. Obviously, this not only affects the scientific quality of non-indexed medical journals (NIMJs) but also affects the awareness of the scientific community of topics with apparently local but potentially broader scientific significance. This is a reality for over 100 Greek medical journals, none of which has a life longer than 30 years or more than 2000 subscribers. Among them, the 'Archives of Hellenic Medicine' (AHM) is published and sponsored by the Athens Medical Society (the oldest medical society in Greece founded in 1835). This peer-reviewed Journal is being published for 13 years, bimonthly, in Greek. Attempting to overcome the above mentioned problems and to be involved in the process of discovering the most effective way of scientific 'skywriting', 2 years ago, the AHM entered full-text in the Web and it was decided that up to 500% of its volume should be covered by English-language papers. As a result, the AHM are now included in the main Web lists of medical journals and their home page is linked in many academic pages having approximately 500 hits/month. Furthermore, 45 retrievals of AHM's English-language papers or English abstracts of Greek-language articles were reported by e-mail response from abroad. Considered apart from the paper-publishing, the expenses of the digital publishing of the AHM are about half of those of paper-publishing, as they were before the appearance of the Journal in the Web. Up to now, about 40% of the Journal's digital publishing cost is covered by advertisements included in its pages and by a modification of its paper-publishing policy. It is concluded that the international scientific community is not indifferent for information published in NIMJs. Medical national minorities working abroad express special interest for this type of information. The Web makes the NIMJs accessible to these potential readers, who would never have the chance to acquire them in their printed form. PMID:9506395

  17. The quality/safety medical index: implementation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2015-02-01

    Medical analytics relating to quality and safety measures have become particularly timely and of high importance in contemporary medical practice. In medical imaging, the dynamic relationship between medical imaging quality and radiation safety creates challenges in quantifying quality or safety independently. By creating a standardized measurement which simultaneously accounts for quality and safety measures (i.e., quality safety index), one can in theory create a standardized method for combined quality and safety analysis, which in turn can be analyzed in the context of individual patient, exam, and clinical profiles. The derived index measures can be entered into a centralized database, which in turn can be used for comparative performance of individual and institutional service providers. In addition, data analytics can be used to create customizable educational resources for providers and patients, clinical decision support tools, technology performance analysis, and clinical/economic outcomes research. PMID:25416467

  18. Using Bitmap Indexing Technology for Combined Numerical and Text Queries

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurt Stockinger; John Cieslewicz; Kesheng Wu; Doron Rotem; Arie Shoshani

    In this paper, we describe a strategy of us- ing compressed bitmap indices to speed up queries on both numerical data and text documents. By using an ecient compression algorithm, these compressed bit- map indices are compact even for indices with millions of distinct terms. Moreover, bitmap indices can be used very eciently to answer Boolean queries over text docu-

  19. Optimal Embedding for Shape Indexing in Medical Image Databases

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D.; Fulbright, Robert K.; Long, Rodney; Antani, Sameer

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of indexing shapes in medical image databases. Shapes of organs are often indicative of disease, making shape similarity queries important in medical image databases. Mathematically, shapes with landmarks belong to shape spaces which are curved manifolds with a well defined metric. The challenge in shape indexing is to index data in such curved spaces. One natural indexing scheme is to use metric trees, but metric trees are prone to inefficiency. This paper proposes a more efficient alternative. We show that it is possible to optimally embed finite sets of shapes in shape space into a Euclidean space. After embedding, classical coordinate-based trees can be used for efficient shape retrieval. The embedding proposed in the paper is optimal in the sense that it least distorts the partial Procrustes shape distance. The proposed indexing technique is used to retrieve images by vertebral shape from the NHANES II database of cervical and lumbar spine x-ray images maintained at the National Library of Medicine. Vertebral shape strongly correlates with the presence of osteophytes, and shape similarity retrieval is proposed as a tool for retrieval by osteophyte presence and severity. Experimental results included in the paper evaluate (1) the usefulness of shape-similarity as a proxy for osteophytes, (2) the computational and disk access efficiency of the new indexing scheme, (3) the relative performance of indexing with embedding to the performance of indexing without embedding, and (4) the computational cost of indexing using the proposed embedding versus the cost of an alternate embedding. The experimental results clearly show the relevance of shape indexing and the advantage of using the proposed embedding. PMID:20163981

  20. A System for De-identifying Medical Message Board Text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Benton; Shawndra Hill; Lyle Ungar; Annie Chung; Charles Leonard; Cristin Freeman; John H. Holmes

    2010-01-01

    There are millions of public posts to medical message boards by users seeking support and information on a wide range of medical conditions. It has been shown that these posts can be used to gain a greater understanding of patients' experiences and concerns. As investigators continue to explore large corpora of medical discussion board data for research purposes, protecting the

  1. Self-indexing inverted files for fast text retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alistair Moffat; Justin Zobel

    1996-01-01

    Query-processing costs on large text databases are dominated by the need to retrieve and scan the inverted list of each query term. Retrieval time for inverted lists can be greatly reduced by the use of compression, but this adds to the CPU time required. Here we show that the CPU component of query response time for conjunctive Boolean queries and

  2. A system for de-identifying medical message board text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adrian Benton; Shawndra Hill; Lyle Ungar; Annie Chung; Charles Leonard; Cristin Freeman; John H Holmes

    2011-01-01

    There are millions of public posts to medical message boards by users seeking support and information on a wide range of medical\\u000a conditions. It has been shown that these posts can be used to gain a greater understanding of patients’ experiences and concerns.\\u000a As investigators continue to explore large corpora of medical discussion board data for research purposes, protecting the

  3. Automated Extraction of the Barthel Index from Clinical Texts

    PubMed Central

    Giang, Phan; Williams, Allison; Argyros, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a text mining program that computes the Barthel score of functional status by analyzing clinical notes stored in Electronic Health Record systems(EHR) and comparing them to textual evidence provided by clinical experts. The program demonstrates high accuracy and overall reliability based on a relatively small number of expert-abstracted charts. It offers an efficient and affordable method for estimating functional status using clinical notes. An important feature is an architecture that facilitates interaction between users and the program, allowing the program to improve its performance based on user feedback . PMID:24551352

  4. Semantic extraction and processing of medical records for patient-oriented visual index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Dong, Wenjie; Chen, Xiangjiao; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    To have comprehensive and completed understanding healthcare status of a patient, doctors need to search patient medical records from different healthcare information systems, such as PACS, RIS, HIS, USIS, as a reference of diagnosis and treatment decisions for the patient. However, it is time-consuming and tedious to do these procedures. In order to solve this kind of problems, we developed a patient-oriented visual index system (VIS) to use the visual technology to show health status and to retrieve the patients' examination information stored in each system with a 3D human model. In this presentation, we present a new approach about how to extract the semantic and characteristic information from the medical record systems such as RIS/USIS to create the 3D Visual Index. This approach includes following steps: (1) Building a medical characteristic semantic knowledge base; (2) Developing natural language processing (NLP) engine to perform semantic analysis and logical judgment on text-based medical records; (3) Applying the knowledge base and NLP engine on medical records to extract medical characteristics (e.g., the positive focus information), and then mapping extracted information to related organ/parts of 3D human model to create the visual index. We performed the testing procedures on 559 samples of radiological reports which include 853 focuses, and achieved 828 focuses' information. The successful rate of focus extraction is about 97.1%.

  5. Identifying medical terms in patient-authored text: a crowdsourcing-based approach

    E-print Network

    Heer, Jeffrey

    Identifying medical terms in patient-authored text: a crowdsourcing-based approach Diana Lynn Mac, we lack an effective method for automatically identifying medical terms in patient- authored text (PAT). We demonstrate that crowdsourcing PAT medical term identification tasks to non

  6. Knowledge Management, Data Mining, and Text Mining in Medical Informatics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsinchun Chen; Sherrilynne S. Fuller; Carol Friedman; William Hersh

    In this chapter we provide a broad overview of selected knowledge management, data mining, and text mining techniques and\\u000a their use in various emerging biomedical applications. It aims to set the context for subsequent chapters. We first introduce\\u000a five major paradigms for machine learning and data analysis including: probabilistic and statistical models, symbolic learning\\u000a and rule induction, neural networks, evolution-based

  7. Med Teach . Author manuscript A "T-index" for the evaluation of teaching performance of medical

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Med Teach . Author manuscript Page /1 1 A "T-index" for the evaluation of teaching performance * Correspondence should be addressed to: Alexis Descatha MESH Keywords Employee Performance Appraisal ; methods ; Faculty, Medical ; Humans ; Teaching Today, ranking and index

  8. Bispectral index monitoring in helicopter emergency medical services patients.

    PubMed

    Heegaard, William; Fringer, Ryan Charles; Frascone, R J; Pippert, Greg; Miner, James

    2009-01-01

    Background. Many critically ill patients are given sedatives and paralytics to facilitate aeromedical transport. Bispectral index (BIS) monitoring is a computer-derived electroencephalography (EEG) analog currently used to monitor the level of awareness of sedated patients. It gives a score of 1-100, with 1 representing no brain function and 100 representing a completely alert patient. Objective. To evaluate whether critically ill patients are adequately sedated during aeromedical transport. Methods. This was a prospective, observational study of a convenience sample of critically ill patients transported by helicopter. All intubated patients who received sedatives and/or paralytics to facilitate transport were eligible for enrollment by the attending clinician. Prior to liftoff, a BIS sensor was applied to the patient's forehead. Minimum, maximum, and mean BIS index scores were recorded every minute during transport. Results. Forty-seven patients (57% male) were enrolled, with a median age of 60 years (interquartile range [IQR] 18-81, range 14 to 86 years). The median duration of monitoring was 15.0- minutes (IQR 6.0-26.0, range 2 to 33). The median BIS score was 54.6 (IQR 38.6-67.3, range 28 to 89.5). Only two patients (4.3%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5% to 14.8%) had at least one BIS score greater than 85, the accepted threshold for recall. Conclusion. These results suggest that patients are adequately sedated during air medical transport. PMID:19291556

  9. A Comparison of the Charlson Comorbidity Index Derived from Medical Record Data and Administrative Billing Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie M. Kieszak; W. Dana Flanders; Andrzej S. Kosinski; Clanton C. Shipp; Herbert Karp

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare the Charlson comorbidity index derived from medical record data (Chart Index) with the same index derived from billing data (ICD-9 Index) to determine how well each predicted inpatient and 30-day mortality, length of stay, and complications among Medicare beneficiaries hospitalized for carotid endarterectomy. Economic and time constraints have increased the need for

  10. Why discourse structures in medical reports matter for the validity of automatically generated text knowledge bases.

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

    1998-01-01

    The automatic analysis of medical full-texts currently suffers from neglecting text coherence phenomena such as reference relations between discourse units. This has unwarranted effects on the description adequacy of medical knowledge bases automatically generated from texts. The resulting representation bias can be characterized in terms of artificially fragmented, incomplete and invalid knowledge structures. We discuss three types of textual phenomena (pronominal and nominal anaphora, as well as textual ellipsis) and outline basic methodologies how to deal with them. PMID:10384532

  11. A categorization theorem on suffix arrays with applications to space efficient text indexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meng He; J. Ian Munro; S. Srinivasa Rao

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we design succinct index structures for a text string T of n binary symbols to support efficient searching of a pattern P of length m. Motivated by the fact that the standard representation of suffix arrays uses n lg n bits which is more than the theoretical minimum, we present a theorem that characterizes a permutation as

  12. Building a text corpus for representing the variety of medical language

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    1 Building a text corpus for representing the variety of medical language B. Habert , N. Grabar ¢ Building and exploiting the corpus ¢ Conclusion and Perspectives B diversity dimensions ¢ Building and exploiting the corpus ¢ Conclusion and Perspectives B

  13. An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

  14. Incorporating Latent Semantic Indexing into Spectral Graph Transducer for Text Classification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinyu Dai; Baoming Tian; Junsheng Zhou; Jiajun Chen

    2008-01-01

    Spectral Graph Transducer(SGT) is one of the superior graph-based transductive learning methods for classi- fication. As for the Spectral Graph Transducer algo- rithm, a good graph representation for data to be pro- cessed is very important. In this paper, we try to in- corporate Latent Semantic Indexing(LSI) into SGT for text classification. Firstly, we exploit LSI to represent documents as

  15. Tagline: Information Extraction for Semi-Structured Text Elements in Medical Progress Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Dezon Kile

    2012-01-01

    Text analysis has become an important research activity in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Statistical text mining and natural language processing have been shown to be very effective for extracting useful information from medical documents. However, neither of these techniques is effective at extracting the information stored in…

  16. Using Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning and Mapping System (MTERMS) to Process Medication Information in Outpatient Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Mahoney, Lisa M; Karipineni, Neelima; Chang, Frank; Yan, Xuemin; Chang, Fenny; Dimaggio, Dana; Goldman, Debora S.; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical information is often coded using different terminologies, and therefore is not interoperable. Our goal is to develop a general natural language processing (NLP) system, called Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning and Mapping System (MTERMS), which encodes clinical text using different terminologies and simultaneously establishes dynamic mappings between them. MTERMS applies a modular, pipeline approach flowing from a preprocessor, semantic tagger, terminology mapper, context analyzer, and parser to structure inputted clinical notes. Evaluators manually reviewed 30 free-text and 10 structured outpatient clinical notes compared to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an overall F-measure of 90.6 and 94.0 for free-text and structured notes respectively for medication and temporal information. The local medication terminology had 83.0% coverage compared to RxNorm’s 98.0% coverage for free-text notes. 61.6% of mappings between the terminologies are exact match. Capture of duration was significantly improved (91.7% vs. 52.5%) from systems in the third i2b2 challenge. PMID:22195230

  17. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  18. Speeding up chemical searches using the inverted index: the convergence of chemoinformatics and text search methods.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Ramzi; Vernica, Rares; Li, Chen; Baldi, Pierre

    2012-04-23

    In ligand-based screening, retrosynthesis, and other chemoinformatics applications, one often seeks to search large databases of molecules in order to retrieve molecules that are similar to a given query. With the expanding size of molecular databases, the efficiency and scalability of data structures and algorithms for chemical searches are becoming increasingly important. Remarkably, both the chemoinformatics and information retrieval communities have converged on similar solutions whereby molecules or documents are represented by binary vectors, or fingerprints, indexing their substructures such as labeled paths for molecules and n-grams for text, with the same Jaccard-Tanimoto similarity measure. As a result, similarity search methods from one field can be adapted to the other. Here we adapt recent, state-of-the-art, inverted index methods from information retrieval to speed up similarity searches in chemoinformatics. Our results show a several-fold speed-up improvement over previous methods for both threshold searches and top-K searches. We also provide a mathematical analysis that allows one to predict the level of pruning achieved by the inverted index approach and validate the quality of these predictions through simulation experiments. All results can be replicated using data freely downloadable from http://cdb.ics.uci.edu/ . PMID:22462644

  19. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the two pilot RCTs is still ongoing and results are expected in 2015. Conclusions This study was designed to determine preliminary feasibility and acceptability of our approach among African Americans with uncontrolled HTN in primary care and emergency department settings. Results from these studies are of great interest as little work has been done to document the use of text message medication reminders to improve HTN-related outcomes, particularly within underserved urban minorities. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01465217; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01465217 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6V0tto0lZ). PMID:25565680

  20. An Index of United States Federal Regulations and Guidelines which Cover Safety Surveillance of Medical Devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles F. Curran; Judith M. Sills

    1998-01-01

    An index is provided of relevant sections of Title 21 of the Code of Federal Regulations which cover the safety surveillance of medical devices which are required of manufactures in the United States. A relevant guideline prepared by the Food and Drug Administration is also indexed.

  1. Indexing the medical open access literature for textual and content-based visual retrieval.

    PubMed

    Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few years an increasing amount of scientific journals have been created in an open access format. Particularly in the medical field the number of openly accessible journals is enormous making a wide body of knowledge available for analysis and retrieval. Part of the trend towards open access publications can be linked to funding bodies such as the NIH1 (National Institutes of Health) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF2) requiring funded projects to make all articles of funded research available publicly. This article describes an approach to make part of the knowledge of open access journals available for retrieval including the textual information but also the images contained in the articles. For this goal all articles of 24 journals related to medical informatics and medical imaging were crawled from the web pages of BioMed Central. Text and images of the PDF (Portable Document Format) files were indexed separately and a web-based retrieval interface allows for searching via keyword queries or by visual similarity queries. Starting point for a visual similarity query can be an image on the local hard disk that is uploaded or any image found via the textual search. Search for similar documents is also possible. PMID:20841890

  2. Indexing Transition Indicators of Medical Technology: Evaluation by Comparing Process and Co-variation Methodologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eliezer Geisler

    2002-01-01

    The evaluation of current and especially emerging medical technologies has always been a difficult task. This is of interest not only to the healthcare provider but also to the payor organizations and the government. This paper proposes a method by which transition indicators of the outcomes of medical technologies are indexed to produce a viable evaluation tool that allows provider

  3. Tools and Methodologies for the Indexing, Storage and Retrieval of Medical Images1

    E-print Network

    Petrakis, Euripides G.M.

    of medical images. Many diagnostic imaging modalities, such as x-ray computed tomography (CT), magneticTools and Methodologies for the Indexing, Storage and Retrieval of Medical Images1 Euripides G Image DataBase system under development are presented and discussed. This system is based

  4. A Knowledge-based Approach for Retrieving Scenario-specific Medical Text Documents

    E-print Network

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    defining a new health system for the 21st century [IOM01], the delivery of quality healthcare to consumers scenario. A scenario represents a repeating task in healthcare. For example, a specific scenario the traditional text retrieval techniques. #12;A. Introduction The volume of medical information and clinical data

  5. Two h-Index Benchmarks for Evaluating the Publication Performance of Medical Informatics Researchers

    PubMed Central

    Arbuckle, Luk; Jonker, Elizabeth; Anderson, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    Background The h-index is a commonly used metric for evaluating the publication performance of researchers. However, in a multidisciplinary field such as medical informatics, interpreting the h-index is a challenge because researchers tend to have diverse home disciplines, ranging from clinical areas to computer science, basic science, and the social sciences, each with different publication performance profiles. Objective To construct a reference standard for interpreting the h-index of medical informatics researchers based on the performance of their peers. Methods Using a sample of authors with articles published over the 5-year period 2006–2011 in the 2 top journals in medical informatics (as determined by impact factor), we computed their h-index using the Scopus database. Percentiles were computed to create a 6-level benchmark, similar in scheme to one used by the US National Science Foundation, and a 10-level benchmark. Results The 2 benchmarks can be used to place medical informatics researchers in an ordered category based on the performance of their peers. A validation exercise mapped the benchmark levels to the ranks of medical informatics academic faculty in the United States. The 10-level benchmark tracked academic rank better (with no ties) and is therefore more suitable for practical use. Conclusions Our 10-level benchmark provides an objective basis to evaluate and compare the publication performance of medical informatics researchers with that of their peers using the h-index. PMID:23079075

  6. Detecting earlier indicators of homelessness in the free text of medical records.

    PubMed

    Redd, Andrew; Carter, Marjorie; Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew; Gundlapalli, Adi V

    2014-01-01

    Early warning indicators to identify US Veterans at risk of homelessness are currently only inferred from administrative data. References to indicators of risk or instances of homelessness in the free text of medical notes written by Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers may precede formal identification of Veterans as being homeless. This represents a potentially untapped resource for early identification. Using natural language processing (NLP), we investigated the idea that concepts related to homelessness written in the free text of the medical record precede the identification of homelessness by administrative data. We found that homeless Veterans were much higher utilizers of VA resources producing approximately 12 times as many documents as non-homeless Veterans. NLP detected mentions of either direct or indirect evidence of homelessness in a significant portion of Veterans earlier than structured data. PMID:25000039

  7. MedSynDiKATe--design considerations for an ontology-based medical text understanding system.

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

    2000-01-01

    MedSynDiKATe is a natural language processor for automatically acquiring knowledge from medical finding reports. The content of these documents is transferred to formal representation structures which constitute a corresponding text knowledge base. The general system architecture we present integrates requirements from the analysis of single sentences, as well as those of referentially linked sentences forming cohesive texts. The strong demands MedSynDiKATe poses to the availability of expressive knowledge sources are accounted for by two alternative approaches to (semi)automatic ontology engineering. PMID:11079899

  8. Mining free-text medical records for companion animal enteric syndrome surveillance.

    PubMed

    Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Jamal, I; Ribble, C; Stephen, C

    2014-03-01

    Large amounts of animal health care data are present in veterinary electronic medical records (EMR) and they present an opportunity for companion animal disease surveillance. Veterinary patient records are largely in free-text without clinical coding or fixed vocabulary. Text-mining, a computer and information technology application, is needed to identify cases of interest and to add structure to the otherwise unstructured data. In this study EMR's were extracted from veterinary management programs of 12 participating veterinary practices and stored in a data warehouse. Using commercially available text-mining software (WordStat™), we developed a categorization dictionary that could be used to automatically classify and extract enteric syndrome cases from the warehoused electronic medical records. The diagnostic accuracy of the text-miner for retrieving cases of enteric syndrome was measured against human reviewers who independently categorized a random sample of 2500 cases as enteric syndrome positive or negative. Compared to the reviewers, the text-miner retrieved cases with enteric signs with a sensitivity of 87.6% (95%CI, 80.4-92.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95%CI, 98.9-99.6%). Automatic and accurate detection of enteric syndrome cases provides an opportunity for community surveillance of enteric pathogens in companion animals. PMID:24485708

  9. Use of General-purpose Negation Detection to Augment Concept Indexing of Medical Documents

    PubMed Central

    Mutalik, Pradeep G.; Deshpande, Aniruddha; Nadkarni, Prakash M.

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To test the hypothesis that most instances of negated concepts in dictated medical documents can be detected by a strategy that relies on tools developed for the parsing of formal (computer) languages—specifically, a lexical scanner (“lexer”) that uses regular expressions to generate a finite state machine, and a parser that relies on a restricted subset of context-free grammars, known as LALR(1) grammars. Methods: A diverse training set of 40 medical documents from a variety of specialties was manually inspected and used to develop a program (Negfinder) that contained rules to recognize a large set of negated patterns occurring in the text. Negfinder's lexer and parser were developed using tools normally used to generate programming language compilers. The input to Negfinder consisted of medical narrative that was preprocessed to recognize UMLS concepts: the text of a recognized concept had been replaced with a coded representation that included its UMLS concept ID. The program generated an index with one entry per instance of a concept in the document, where the presence or absence of negation of that concept was recorded. This information was used to mark up the text of each document by color-coding it to make it easier to inspect. The parser was then evaluated in two ways: 1) a test set of 60 documents (30 discharge summaries, 30 surgical notes) marked-up by Negfinder was inspected visually to quantify false-positive and false-negative results; and 2) a different test set of 10 documents was independently examined for negatives by a human observer and by Negfinder, and the results were compared. Results: In the first evaluation using marked-up documents, 8,358 instances of UMLS concepts were detected in the 60 documents, of which 544 were negations detected by the program and verified by human observation (true-positive results, or TPs). Thirteen instances were wrongly flagged as negated (false-positive results, or FPs), and the program missed 27 instances of negation (false-negative results, or FNs), yielding a sensitivity of 95.3 percent and a specificity of 97.7 percent. In the second evaluation using independent negation detection, 1,869 concepts were detected in 10 documents, with 135 TPs, 12 FPs, and 6 FNs, yielding a sensitivity of 95.7 percent and a specificity of 91.8 percent. One of the words “no,” “denies/denied,” “not,” or “without” was present in 92.5 percent of all negations. Conclusions: Negation of most concepts in medical narrative can be reliably detected by a simple strategy. The reliability of detection depends on several factors, the most important being the accuracy of concept matching. PMID:11687566

  10. Automatically Detecting Medications and the Reason for their Prescription in Clinical Narrative Text Documents

    PubMed Central

    Meystre, Stéphane M.; Thibault, Julien; Shen, Shuying; Hurdle, John F.; South, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    An important proportion of the information about the medications a patient is taking is mentioned only in narrative text in the electronic health record. Automated information extraction can make this information accessible for decision-support, research, or any other automated processing. In the context of the “i2b2 medication extraction challenge,” we have developed a new NLP application called Textractor to automatically extract medications and details about them (e.g., dosage, frequency, reason for their prescription). This application and its evaluation with part of the reference standard for this “challenge” are presented here, along with an analysis of the development of this reference standard. During this evaluation, Textractor reached a system-level overall F1-measure, the reference metric for this challenge, of about 77% for exact matches. The best performance was measured with medication routes (F1-measure 86.4%), and the worst with prescription reasons (F1-measure 29%). These results are consistent with the agreement observed between human annotators when developing the reference standard, and with other published research. PMID:20841823

  11. Latent Semantic Indexing of medical diagnoses using UMLS semantic structures.

    PubMed

    Chute, C G; Yang, Y; Evans, D A

    1991-01-01

    The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584

  12. A GATE Plugin For Tagging French Medical Texts with UMLS concepts Thierry Delbecque, MSc, Pierre Zweigenbaum, PhD

    E-print Network

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    A GATE Plugin For Tagging French Medical Texts with UMLS concepts Thierry Delbecque, MSc, Pierre with tools that are necessary in modern medical information processing, we present a specialized GATE component (MetaCoDe V0.2) that aims at tagging medical corpora available in some non English languages

  13. Re-embedding vs. clustering as shape indexing strategies for medical image databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoning; Tagare, Hemant D.; Fulbright, Robert K.

    2005-04-01

    Fast retrieval using complete or partial shapes of organs is an important functionality in medical image databases. Shapes of organs can be defined as points in shape spaces, which, in turn, are curved manifolds with a well-defined metric. In this paper, we experimentally compare two indexing techniques for shape spaces: first, we re-embed the shape space in a Euclidean space and use co-ordinate based indexing, and second, we used metric based hierarchical clustering for directly indexing shape space. The relative performances are evaluated with images from the NHANES II database of lumbar and cervical spine x-ray images on a shape similarity query. The experiments show that indexing using re-embedding is superior to cluster-based indexing.

  14. The quest for full text: an in-depth examination of Pubget for medical searchers.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Robin; Hersey, Denise

    2010-10-01

    This article examines Pubget, a free Web-based search engine for life sciences researchers for conducting searches of the medical literature and retrieving full-text PDFs. Its search functionality and add-on features are evaluated to determine potential for library instruction and promotion. With many libraries relying on OpenURL link resolvers to connect searchers with institutional subscriptions, Pubget offers an alternative by combining search, article-level link resolving, and authentication in a single platform. The authors determine advantages and disadvantages for using Pubget based on product testing and make recommendations for institutions interested in "activating" subscriptions in Pubget. PMID:21058175

  15. Text messaging: an innovative method of data collection in medical research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous use of mobile phones in sending and receiving text messages has become a norm for young people. Undeniably, text messaging has become a new and important communication medium not only in the social realm but in education as well. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using text messaging as a means to collect data for a medical research project. A cross sectional study was carried out during a double blind, randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a probiotic in the management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The study aim was to assess the response rate of weekly symptom reports via Short Message Service (SMS). The subjects were undergraduates in a private medical university in Malaysia. They were identified through a previous university wide study as suffering from IBS based on Rome III criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the treatment arm receiving a daily probiotic, or the placebo arm. They were required to score their symptoms using eight-item-questionnaires at baseline, and thereafter weekly, for a total of 8 weeks. All subjects were given the choice to communicate their symptom scores by text messaging via mobile phones or by email. SMS text messages were sent to remind trial subjects to attend face-to-face visits and to complete a paper based 34-item-questionnaires on IBS quality of life assessment at baseline and at end of 8 weeks. Findings The response rate of weekly symptom scores via Short Message Service (SMS) from a total of 38 subjects was 100%. Through the study, 342 reports were submitted: 33.3% of these were received on the due date without reminder, 60.0% one day after the deadline, after a single reminder, 6.1% 2-3 days after the deadline, after 2-3 reminders and 0.6% 5 days after the deadline, after SMS, phone reminder and face-to-face encounter. All SMS symptom reports, whether on time or late, were complete. With the help of SMS reminder, all trial subjects completed the paper based IBS quality of life assessment at baseline and at end of study. Conclusions This study found using text messaging via mobile phone an excellent instrument for collecting weekly symptom reports in response to trial medication, reminding trial subjects to attend face to face visits and completing more complex paper based evaluation. The 100% response rate of weekly symptom reports was facilitated by using simple number codes for SMS submission. Trial Registration Not appropriate. PMID:21172018

  16. Text Mining of the Classical Medical Literature for Medicines That Show Potential in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H.; Xue, Charlie C. L.; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808

  17. Modular representation of the guideline text: an approach for maintaining and updating the content of medical education.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anand; Quaglini, Silvana; Stefanelli, Mario; Ciccarese, Paolo; Caffi, Ezio

    2003-06-01

    One of the principal challenges in the medical practice is the update of their knowledge. One of the prime roles of the Continuing Medical Education is to train the medical practitioners with the latest advances in health care, specialized to their needs. Online courses and classroom teaching with computer-based representations have become an established mode of delivering medical education. This paper deals with the modularized representation of a medical text concerning clinical practice guidelines. The proposed system takes into consideration the semantics of the Unified Medical Language System and is based upon the marking up and display of the knowledge using the XML and XSLT languages. This modularization of the concepts leads to the determination of the context of a portion or the whole document. Thus, after marking up using our system, the text components can be exchanged, modified or reconstructed, which, in turn, would help to maintain the updates in medical knowledge. PMID:14692587

  18. Neurolinguistic approach to natural language processing with applications to medical text analysis.

    PubMed

    Duch, W?odzis?aw; Matykiewicz, Pawe?; Pestian, John

    2008-12-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts not found directly in the text. The approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  19. Latent semantic indexing Dimensionality reduction LSI in information retrieval Web Search and Text Mining

    E-print Network

    Gray, Alexander

    retrieval Recall: Term-document matrix Anthony Julius The Hamlet Othello Macbeth and Caesar Tempest indexing Dimensionality reduction LSI in information retrieval Recall: Term-document matrix Anthony Julius The Hamlet Othello Macbeth and Caesar Tempest Cleopatra anthony 5.25 3.18 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.35 brutus 1.21 6.10 0

  20. Description and advantages of an index-driven medical knowledge base.

    PubMed

    Bishop, C W; Ewing, P D

    1995-01-01

    In the FRAMEMED system design, the inherent attributes of its concepts are expressed in the hierarchical lists of its 26 Elements (e.g., Agents, Clinical Manifestations, Diseases, Tests, etc.). These concepts, contained in regular structures, are then alphabetized by phrase (and synonym), forming a combined index in which the user may quickly find a concept either alphabetically or hierarchically. Stored in the structures of the index are pointers to four types of knowledge records: 1) Descriptive (definition); 2) Relational (incidental attributes); 3) Conditional (rules); and 4) Procedural (how to). In contrast to the index which is stored in regular structures for rapid access (like relational databases), the knowledge records are stored in free text (variable length) and may include pointers to imaging and audio records. A particular feature of the FRAMEMED system is careful attention to modifiers, an aspect usually not emphasized in other systems. In trying to structure the free text describing a patient encounter, for example, the major concepts such as cough, fever, stiff neck, etc., are relatively easy to code (although a common system has not yet been agreed upon). The devil lies in the modifiers such as 'history of', 'severe,' 'constant,' 'absent,' 'left,' 'abnormal,' etc., particularly when there is concatenation of modifiers modifying modifiers. Our Relational records (in our knowledge base) and our Chronological Medical Records (CMR) in our patient record have the same format, namely, a title, several related items, and a date/author. For example, our disease profile (Relational record) for 'Influenza' might include 'cough,' 'fever,' and 'stiff neck.' The CMR of a particular patient encounter might include the same items. The only differences would be the title (disease name for the disease profile, date for the CMR, and the omission of the redundant date in the date/author line of the CMR). Each related item in either of these records is expressed in a four-part string, namely: 1) Relation; 2) Code; 3) Phrase; and 4) Comment. Modifiers (common ASCII symbols) are structured into each of these parts. For example, if the patient did not have 'cough,' the default '+' in the Relation would be edited to a '-', while 'history of' cough would be '>'. Each Relation can be graded (on a 5-level scale) for both importance and frequency. The Code for a test can carry the result suffix, '+ positive/high,' '-negative/low,' '# abnormal (qualitatively)', or '1 unremarkable/normal.' Topological information, such as '/left,' can be appended to a Code. If the cough is getting worse, its code can have the suffix, '<'. The standardized Phrases associated with the Codes come from the hierarchical lists of the index section described earlier. Phrases are not stored, being rematched to the codes as needed for user display. This practice not only saves memory space but allows a CMR encounter recorded in one language to be displayed in another second language subsequently, requiring only the existence of the hierarchical code/phrase in the second language. A free-text Comment is allowed for any related item in a Relational record or CMR, to allow the doctor to add important nuances such as 'worse on arising' or for a numeric result such as a test result or a thermometer reading. Some structuring can be accommodated in the Comment by introducing symbols such as '> relieved by,' followed by a list containing entries such as 'antacids.' Time can be sturctured through symbol lists such as '@-2 mo' representing '2 months previously.' Because Relational records in the knowledge ase and patient encoutner records in the CMR both display findings in hierarchical order; all similar items (e.g., Agents, Clinical Manifestations, Tests, Procedures, etc.) occur together and in an unique order. (abstract truncated) PMID:8591595

  1. Using the NASA Task Load Index to Assess Workload in Electronic Medical Records.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darren; Kushniruk, Andre W; Borycki, Elizabeth M

    2015-01-01

    Electronic medical records (EMRs) has been expected to decrease health professional workload. The NASA Task Load Index has become an important tool for assessing workload in many domains. However, its application in assessing the impact of an EMR on nurse's workload has remained to be explored. In this paper we report the results of a study of workload and we explore the utility of applying the NASA Task Load Index to assess impact of an EMR at the end of its lifecycle on nurses' workload. It was found that mental and temporal demands were the most responsible for the workload. Further work along these lines is recommended. PMID:25676971

  2. Neurolinguistic Approach to Natural Language Processing with Applications to Medical Text Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matykiewicz, Pawe?; Pestian, John

    2008-01-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts that are not found directly in the text. Approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  3. [CISMeF: catalog and index of French-speaking medical sites].

    PubMed

    Darmoni, S J; Leroy, J P; Baudic, F; Douyčre, M; Piot, J; Thirion, B

    1999-01-01

    The Internet has now become a major source of health information. The aim of CISMeF is to catalogue and index the main French-speaking sites and documents concerning health. This project was initiated by Rouen University Hospital. Its URL is http://www.chu-rouen.fr/cismef. CISMeF covers all areas of health care and medical sciences, and is indexed both alphabetically and according to subject. It was set up on a Sun workstation under the Sun UNIX operating system and is entirely based on static HTML. By May 1999, the number of sites and documents indexed was already over 6,500, with a mean of 75 new sites added each week. CISMeF is updated via a five-step process: resource collection, filtering, description, classification, and indexing. The Net Scoring criteria are used to assess the quality of health information on the Internet. These criteria concern eight categories: credibility, content, links, design, interactivity, quantitative aspects, ethics and accessibility. CISMeF uses two standard tools to organize information: the MeSH (medical subject heading) thesaurus from the Medline reference database (National Library of Medicine, USA) and the Dublin core metadata format. The sites and documents included in CISMeF are described using the following elements from the Dublin core project: title, author or creator, subject and keywords, description, publisher, date, resource type, format, identifier, and language. PMID:10377501

  4. The Nature of Indexing: How Humans and Machines Analyze Messages and Texts for Retrieval. Part II: Machine Indexing, and the Allocation of Human versus Machine Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, James D.; Perez-Carballo, Jose

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of human intellectual indexing versus automatic indexing focuses on automatic indexing. Topics include keyword indexing; negative vocabulary control; counting words; comparative counting and weighting; stemming; words versus phrases; clustering; latent semantic indexing; citation indexes; bibliographic coupling; co-citation; relevance…

  5. On modality classification and its use in text-based image retrieval in medical databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Tirilly; Kun Lu; Xiangming Mu; Tian Zhao; Yu Cao

    2011-01-01

    Medical databases have been a popular application field for image retrieval techniques during the last decade. More recently, much attention has been paid to the prediction of medical image modality (X-rays, MRI ...) and theintegration of the predicted modality into image retrieval systems. This paper addresses these two issues. On the one hand, we believe it is possible to design

  6. Preventive Maintenance Prioritization Index of Medical Equipment Using Quality Function Deployment.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Neven Saleh; Sharawi, A; Elwahed, M Abd; Petti, A; Puppato, D; Balestra, G

    2014-07-10

    Preventive maintenance is a core function of clinical engineering and it is essential to guarantee the correct functioning of the equipment. The management and control of maintenance activities are equally important to perform maintenance. As the variety of medical equipment increases, accordingly the size of maintenance activities increases, the need for better management and control become essential. This article aims to develop a new model for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using quality function deployment (QFD) as a new concept in maintenance of medical equipment. We developed a 3 domain framework model consisting of requirement, function, and concept. The requirement domain is the house of quality matrix (HOQ). The second domain is the design matrix. Finally, the concept domain generates a prioritization index for preventive maintenance considering the weights of critical criteria. According to the final scores of those criteria, the prioritization action of medical equipment is carried out. Our model proposes 5 levels of priority for preventive maintenance. The model was tested on 200 pieces of medical equipment belonging to 17 different departments of 2 hospitals in Piedmont province, Italy. The data set includes 70 different types of equipment. The results show a high correlation between risk - based criteria and the prioritization list. PMID:25029522

  7. Index-Free Full-Text Search Function Installed into Optical Disk Drive

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Katsumi Murai; Yasushi Azumatani; Yuji Takagi; Yoshihisa Fukusima; Isao Satoh

    1992-01-01

    An optical disk drive, equipped with additional SCSI commands for full-text search is developed. By hierarchical search architecture of parallel hardware, firmware and software, the system filters information almost at the disk-read speed. The basic search process is executed by a search engine sharing the function with a portion of the error-correcting LSI installed into the optical disk controller. The

  8. Text Indexing, Suffix Sorting & Data CompressionData Compression: Common Problems and Techniques

    E-print Network

    Lonardi, Stefano

    S S _ E L E S S N E S S _ N E S S _ S _ S N E S S _ i SA[i] T[ SA[i] ... n ] 0 1 1 3 0 0 1 0 1 2 1 1 2 LCP[i] text T = Kasai et al. 01 RMQ(i,j-1)=LCP(i,j) e.g.Benderetal.00 #12;Disproving two beliefs on LCP info without LCP info (?) - O(m + log n) time using extra space for LCP info (?) #12;What if using a plain SA

  9. Unsupervised method for extracting machine understandable medical knowledge from a large free text collection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rong; Das, Amar K; Garber, Alan M

    2009-01-01

    Definitions of medical concepts (e.g diseases, drugs) are essential background knowledge for researchers, clinicians and health care consumers. However, the rapid growth of biomedical research requires that such knowledge continually needs updating. To address this problem, we have developed an unsupervised pattern learning approach that extracts disease and drug definitions from automatically structured randomized clinical trial (RCT) abstracts. In addition, each extracted definition is semantically classified without relying on external medical knowledge. When used to identify definitions from 100 manually annotated RCT abstracts, our medical definition knowledge base has precision of 0.97, recall of 0.93, F1 of 0.94 and semantic classification accuracy of 0.96. PMID:20351945

  10. Data Mining of Acupoint Characteristics from the Classical Medical Text: DongUiBoGam of Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Taehyung; Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Lee, Ye-Seul; Lee, Hyejung; Park, Hi-Joon; Kim, Namil; Chae, Younbyoung

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the history of East Asian medicine, different kinds of acupuncture treatment experiences have been accumulated in classical medical texts. Reexamining knowledge from classical medical texts is expected to provide meaningful information that could be utilized in current medical practices. In this study, we used data mining methods to analyze the association between acupoints and patterns of disorder with the classical medical book DongUiBoGam of Korean medicine. Using the term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) method, we quantified the significance of acupoints to its targeting patterns and, conversely, the significance of patterns to acupoints. Through these processes, we extracted characteristics of each acupoint based on its treating patterns. We also drew practical information for selecting acupoints on certain patterns according to their association. Data analysis on DongUiBoGam's acupuncture treatment gave us an insight into the main idea of DongUiBoGam. We strongly believe that our approach can provide a novel understanding of unknown characteristics of acupoint and pattern identification from the classical medical text using data mining methods. PMID:25574179

  11. Looking back to move forward: using history, discourse and text in medical education research: AMEE guide no. 73.

    PubMed

    Kuper, Ayelet; Whitehead, Cynthia; Hodges, Brian David

    2013-01-01

    As medical education research continues to diversify methodologically and theoretically, medical education researchers have been increasingly willing to challenge taken-for-granted assumptions about the form, content and function of medical education. In this AMEE guide we describe historical, discourse and text analysis approaches that can help researchers and educators question the inevitability of things that are currently seen as 'natural'. Why is such questioning important? By articulating our assumptions and interrogating the 'naturalness' of the status quo, one can then begin to ask why things are the way they are. Researchers can, for example, ask whether the models of medical education organization and delivery that currently seem 'natural' to them have been developed in order to provide the most benefit to students or patients--or whether they have, rather, been developed in ways that provide power to faculty members, medical schools or the medical profession as a whole. An understanding of the interplay of practices and power is a valuable tool for opening up the field to new possibilities for better medical education. The recognition that our current models, rather than being 'natural', were created in particular historical contexts for any number of contingent reasons leads inexorably to the possibility of change. For if our current ways of doing things are not, in fact, inevitable, not only can they be questioned, they can be made better; they can changed in ways that are attentive to whom they benefit, are congruent with our current beliefs about best practice and may lead to the production of better doctors. PMID:23259609

  12. Publication trends of shared decision making in 15 high impact medical journals: a full-text review with bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shared Decision Making (SDM) is increasingly advocated as a model for medical decision making. However, there is still low use of SDM in clinical practice. High impact factor journals might represent an efficient way for its dissemination. We aimed to identify and characterize publication trends of SDM in 15 high impact medical journals. Methods We selected the 15 general and internal medicine journals with the highest impact factor publishing original articles, letters and editorials. We retrieved publications from 1996 to 2011 through the full-text search function on each journal website and abstracted bibliometric data. We included publications of any type containing the phrase “shared decision making” or five other variants in their abstract or full text. These were referred to as SDM publications. A polynomial Poisson regression model with logarithmic link function was used to assess the evolution across the period of the number of SDM publications according to publication characteristics. Results We identified 1285 SDM publications out of 229,179 publications in 15 journals from 1996 to 2011. The absolute number of SDM publications by journal ranged from 2 to 273 over 16 years. SDM publications increased both in absolute and relative numbers per year, from 46 (0.32% relative to all publications from the 15 journals) in 1996 to 165 (1.17%) in 2011. This growth was exponential (P?text search retrieved ten times more SDM publications than a similar PubMed search (1285 vs. 119 respectively). Conclusion This review in full-text showed that SDM publications increased exponentially in major medical journals from 1996 to 2011. This growth might reflect an increased dissemination of the SDM concept to the medical community. PMID:25106844

  13. Electronic Documentation Support Tools and Text Duplication in the Electronic Medical Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrenn, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    In order to ease the burden of electronic note entry on physicians, electronic documentation support tools have been developed to assist in note authoring. There is little evidence of the effects of these tools on attributes of clinical documentation, including document quality. Furthermore, the resultant abundance of duplicated text and…

  14. Medical Care Price Indexes for Patients with Employer-Provided Insurance: Nationally Representative Estimates from MarketScan Data

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Abe; Liebman, Eli; Pack, Sarah; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2013-01-01

    Objective Commonly observed shifts in the utilization of medical care services to treat diseases may pose problems for official price indexes at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) that do not account for service shifts. We examine how these shifts may lead to different price estimates than those observed in official price statistics at the BLS. Data Sources We use a convenience sample of enrollees with employer-provided insurance from the MarketScan database for the years 2003 to 2007. Population weights that consider the age, sex, and geographic distribution of enrollees are assigned to construct representative estimates. Study Design We compare two types of price indexes: (1) a Service Price Index (SPI) that is similar to the BLS index, which holds services fixed and measures the prices of the underlying treatments; (2) a Medical Care Expenditure Index (MCE) that measures the cost of treating diseases and allows for utilization shifts. Principal Findings Over the entire period of study the CAGR of the SPI grows 0.7 percentage points faster than the preferred MCE index. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the health component of inflation may be overstated by 0.7 percentage points per year, and real GDP growth may be understated by a similar amount. However, more work may be necessary to precisely replicate the indexes of the BLS to obtain a more accurate measure of these price differences. PMID:23088562

  15. VisMed: A Visual Vocabulary Approach for Medical Image Indexing and Retrieval

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    . Voluminous medical images are generated daily. They are critical assets for medical diagnosis, research in ImageCLEF 2004. 1 Introduction Medical images are an integral part in medical diagnosis, research, and teaching. Medical image analysis research has focused on image registration, measurement, and visualization

  16. She will give birth immediately. Pregnancy and childbirth in medieval Hebrew medical texts produced in the Mediterranean West.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carmen Caballero

    2014-01-01

    This essay approaches the medieval Hebrew literature on women's healthcare, with the aim of analysing notions and ideas regarding fertility, pregnancy and childbirth, as conveyed in the texts that form the corpus. Firstly, the work discusses the approach of written texts to pregnancy and childbirth as key elements in the explanation of women's health and the functioning of the female body. In this regard it also explores the role of this approach in the creation of meanings for both the female body and sexual difference. Secondly, it examines female management of pregnancy and childbirth as recorded in Hebrew medical literature. It pays attention to both the attitudes expressed by the authors, translators and copyists regarding female practice, as well as to instances and remedies derived from "local" traditions--that is, from women's experience--in the management of pregnancy and childbirth, also recorded in the texts. Finally, the paper explores how medical theories alien to, or in opposition to, Judaism were adopted or not and, at times, adapted to Jewish notions with the aim of eliminating tensions from the text, on the one hand, and providing Jewish practitioners with adequate training to retain their Christian clientele, on the other. PMID:25508820

  17. She will give birth immediately. Pregnancy and childbirth in medieval Hebrew medical texts produced in the Mediterranean West.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carmen Caballero

    2014-01-01

    This essay approaches the medieval Hebrew literature on women's healthcare, with the aim of analysing notions and ideas regarding fertility, pregnancy and childbirth, as conveyed in the texts that form the corpus. Firstly, the work discusses the approach of written texts to pregnancy and childbirth as key elements in the explanation of women's health and the functioning of the female body. In this regard it also explores the role of this approach in the creation of meanings for both the female body and sexual difference. Secondly, it examines female management of pregnancy and childbirth as recorded in Hebrew medical literature. It pays attention to both the attitudes expressed by the authors, translators and copyists regarding female practice, as well as to instances and remedies derived from "local" traditions--that is, from women's experience--in the management of pregnancy and childbirth, also recorded in the texts. Finally, the paper explores how medical theories alien to, or in opposition to, Judaism were adopted or not and, at times, adapted to Jewish notions with the aim of eliminating tensions from the text, on the one hand, and providing Jewish practitioners with adequate training to retain their Christian clientele, on the other. PMID:25481968

  18. The Effectiveness of the Smog Index in Determining the Reading Levels of Business and Distributive Education Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Robert A.; Anderson, Roberta

    1982-01-01

    McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)

  19. Validation of a Patient-Level Medication Regimen Complexity Index as a Possible Tool to Identify Patients for Medication Therapy Management Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jan D; Metz, Kelli R; Hosokawa, Patrick W; Libby, Anne M

    2014-01-01

    Background The Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) is a 65-item instrument that can be used to quantify medication regimen complexity at the patient level, capturing all prescribed and over-the-counter medications. Although the MRCI has been used in several studies, the narrow scope of the initial validation limits application at a population or clinical practice level. Purpose To conduct a MRCI validation pertinent to the desired clinical use to identify patients for medication therapy management interventions. Methods An expert panel of clinical pharmacists ranked medication regimen complexity for two samples of cases: a single-disease cohort (diabetes mellitus) and a multiple-disease cohort (diabetes mellitus, hypertension, human immunodeficiency virus infection, geriatric depression). Cases for expert panel review were selected from 400 ambulatory clinic patients, and each case description included data that were available via claims or electronic medical records (EMRs). Construct validity was assessed using patient-level MRCI scores, medication count, and additional patient data. Concordance was evaluated using weighted ? agreement statistic, and correlations were determined using Spearman rank-order correlation coefficient (?) or Kendall ?. Results Moderate to good concordance between patient-level MRCI scores and expert medication regimen complexity ranking was observed (claims data, consensus ranking: single-disease cohort 0.55, multiple disease cohort 0.63). In contrast, only fair to moderate concordance was observed for medication count (single-disease cohort 0.33, multiple-disease cohort 0.48). Adding more-detailed administration directions from EMR data did not improve concordance. MRCI convergent validity was supported by strong correlations with medication count (all cohorts 0.90) and moderate correlations with morbidity measures (e.g., all cohorts; number of comorbidities 0.46, Chronic Disease Score 0.46). Nonsignificant correlation of MRCI scores with age and gender (all cohorts 0.08 and 0.06, respectively) supported MRCI divergent validity. Limitations This study used cross-sectional, retrospective patient data for a small number of patients and clinical pharmacists from only two universities; therefore, results may have limited generalizability. Conclusions The patient-level MRCI is a valid tool for assessing medication regimen complexity that can be applied by using data commonly found in claims and EMR databases and could be useful to identify patients who may benefit from medication therapy management. PMID:24947636

  20. IVELINA VESSELINOVA ALEXANDROVA Webpage with interactive application: http://cyberneum.de/Medical/index.html

    E-print Network

    .J. (2012) Enhancing Medical Communication Training Using Motion Capture, Perspective Taking and VirtualIVELINA VESSELINOVA ALEXANDROVA Webpage with interactive application: http://cyberneum.de/Medical., Tullius G., BĂĽlthoff H. H. and Mohler B. J.: Animations of Medical Training Scenarios in Immersive Virtual

  1. Improving sensitivity of machine learning methods for automated case identification from free-text electronic medical records

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Distinguishing cases from non-cases in free-text electronic medical records is an important initial step in observational epidemiological studies, but manual record validation is time-consuming and cumbersome. We compared different approaches to develop an automatic case identification system with high sensitivity to assist manual annotators. Methods We used four different machine-learning algorithms to build case identification systems for two data sets, one comprising hepatobiliary disease patients, the other acute renal failure patients. To improve the sensitivity of the systems, we varied the imbalance ratio between positive cases and negative cases using under- and over-sampling techniques, and applied cost-sensitive learning with various misclassification costs. Results For the hepatobiliary data set, we obtained a high sensitivity of 0.95 (on a par with manual annotators, as compared to 0.91 for a baseline classifier) with specificity 0.56. For the acute renal failure data set, sensitivity increased from 0.69 to 0.89, with specificity 0.59. Performance differences between the various machine-learning algorithms were not large. Classifiers performed best when trained on data sets with imbalance ratio below 10. Conclusions We were able to achieve high sensitivity with moderate specificity for automatic case identification on two data sets of electronic medical records. Such a high-sensitive case identification system can be used as a pre-filter to significantly reduce the burden of manual record validation. PMID:23452306

  2. The relationship of centralization, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences.

    PubMed

    Nasirpour, Amir Ashkan; Gohari, Mahmoud Reza; Moradi, Saied

    2010-01-01

    One of the main problems in the efficiency and efficacy of an organization is its structural issue. Organizational culture is also considered as an effective factor in the performance of many organizations. The main goal of the present study was to determine the relationship of Centralization and organizational culture and performance indexes in Teaching Hospitals affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. This correlation study was performed in the year 2007. The population studied consisted of 4408 personnel from 13 hospitals among whom 441 subjects were selected and studied via a class sampling method. Data was compiled using a check list concerning the evaluation status of Centralization and another form concerning performance indexes as well as Robbin's organizational culture questionnaire. Data were obtained from the subjects by self answering and analyzed by using descriptive statistical indexes, T- test and Fisher's exact tests. Among the organizational culture indexes of the hospitals studied, control and organizational identity was better as compared to others (mean=3.32 and 3.30). Concerning the extent of Centralization in the hospitals studied, 53.85 % and 46.15 % were reported to have upper and lower organizational Centralization, respectively. Mean ratio of surgical operations to inpatients was 40%, the mean rate of admissions per active bed was 60.83, mean bed occupancy coefficient was 70.79%, average length of stay was 6.96 days, and mean net death rate was 1.41%. No significant correlation was seen between Centralization degree, organizational culture and performance indexes in teaching hospitals Tehran university of medical sciences. (with 95% confidence interval). Due to the fact that first grade Teaching hospitals use board certified members, expert personnel, and advanced equipments and because of the limitation of patients choice and, the extent of Centralization and many organizational culture components have no significant correlation with performance indexes of these hospitals. Further research regarding structure is suggested in the future. PMID:21287467

  3. Using Animated Computer-generated Text and Graphics to Depict the Risks and Benefits of Medical Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Tait, Alan R.; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Brennan-Martinez, Colleen; McGonegal, Maureen; Levine, Robert

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Conventional print materials for presenting risks and benefits of treatment are often difficult to understand. This study was undertaken to evaluate and compare subjects’ understanding and perceptions of risks and benefits presented using animated computerized text and graphics. METHODS Adult subjects were randomized to receive identical risk/benefit information regarding taking statins that was presented on an iPad (Apple Corp, Cupertino, Calif) in 1 of 4 different animated formats: text/numbers, pie chart, bar graph, and pictograph. Subjects completed a questionnaire regarding their preferences and perceptions of the message delivery together with their understanding of the information. Health literacy, numeracy, and need for cognition were measured using validated instruments. RESULTS There were no differences in subject understanding based on the different formats. However, significantly more subjects preferred graphs (82.5%) compared with text (17.5%, P < .001). Specifically, subjects preferred pictographs (32.0%) and bar graphs (31.0%) over pie charts (19.5%) and text (17.5%). Subjects whose preference for message delivery matched their randomly assigned format (preference match) had significantly greater understanding and satisfaction compared with those assigned to something other than their preference. CONCLUSIONS Results showed that computer-animated depictions of risks and benefits offer an effective means to describe medical risk/benefit statistics. That understanding and satisfaction were significantly better when the format matched the individual’s preference for message delivery is important and reinforces the value of “tailoring” information to the individual’s needs and preferences. PMID:22939094

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF A PROGRAMED TEXT IN TEACHING GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS, A SOURCE BOOK ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMED MATERIALS FOR USE IN A CLINICAL DISCIPLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILDS, PRESTON L.; ZACHERT, VIRGINIA

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A STUDY TO DETERMINE WHETHER PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION COULD BE USED TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH GYNECOLOGIC NEOPLASMS TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS. TWO PROGRAMED TEXTS WERE PREPARED--(1) A "CONTENT" TEXT, AN 830-FRAME LINEARLY PROGRAMED TEXT DESIGNED TO REPLACE CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM TEACHING OF…

  5. A Multifaceted Medical Data Information System and One Product: The Index-Handbook of Ototoxic Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Miriam T.; Lunin, Lois F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a biomedical information system that includes a machine-readable data base containing clinical and research data and a publication entitled the Index-Handbook of Ototoxic Agents. (Author)

  6. Direct Document Capture and Full Text Indexing: An Introduction to the National Air and Space Museum System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyne, Walter J.; Otano, Herman

    1984-01-01

    Describes objectives of a museum information system: to capture photographic, lineal, and textual documents in high resolution digital images; to convert digital images of text to standard computer code; and to retrieve appropriate code automatically through keyword searching of full text. System assembly and planned and potential applications are…

  7. [The main sources of medieval Islamic medicine and the medical books translated into Turkish in the 10th century texts. Muslim scientists produced original medical works].

    PubMed

    Se?en, R

    1993-01-01

    Medieval Islamic medicine in the late Omeyad and early Abbasid periods was based on works translated from the Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Nabatean and Syriac languages, combining their own experiences in medical practice with the knowledge obtained from these. The majority of sources translated were Greek works; among them, those of Hippocrates and Galen were used prominently. From the theoretical standpoint, medieval Islamic medicine was based on the principles determined by Hippocrates. On the other hand, translations in different fields of medicine were done by specialists in those fields, who also authored their own works. Among them are such well-known figures as Abu Bakr el-Razi, Ibn Sina and Ibn el-Nafis. Islamic medicine saw a brilliant development during the Ayyubid period: with the establishment of many hospitals, clinical medicine and practical experience gained importance. these hospitals were at the same time centres of medical education and training. It is also in this period that the first medical school of the Muslim world was set up in Damascus by Mühezzebüddin el-Dahvar (d. 1231). Medical literature in Turkish originated in the framework of Islamic culture, as was in other fields of science. Early medical works in Turkish were translated from Arabic and Persian in the beginning of the 13th century. Original works in Turkish started to be produced from the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries. The volume of Turkish medical literature increased considerably throughout the Ottoman period. This experience and the accumulation of references facilitated the acquisition of modern medical knowledge. This paper is an overview of thirteen major works on medicine which were translated into Turkish in the middle of the 15th century. PMID:11624884

  8. Comparing general and medical texts for information retrieval based on natural language processing: An inquiry into lexical disambiguation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Ruch; Robert Baud; Antoine Geissbühler; Anne-Marie Rassinoux

    In this paper we compare two types of corpus, focusing on the lexical ambiguity of each of them. The first corpus consists mainly of general newspaper articles and literature excerpts, while the second belongs to the medical domain. To conduct the study, we have used two different disambiguation tools. First, each tool was validated in its respective application area. We

  9. What's on the News? The Use of Media Texts in Exams of Clinical Biochemistry for Medical and Nutrition Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Julia Martins; Mesquita, Diego Martins; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Health-related popular articles are easily found among media sources. With the increasing popularity of the internet, medical information--full of misconceptions--has become easily available to the lay people. The ability to recognize misconceptions may require good biomedical knowledge. In this sense, we decided to use articles from the internet…

  10. Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    Accessible Search Form Advanced Search Search the NHLBI, use radio buttons below to select whole site or Disease and Conditions Index only NHLBI Entire Site NHLBI Entire Site 1 Health Topics 2 News & Resources 3 ...

  11. IntEx: A Syntactic Role Driven Protein-Protein Interaction Extractor for BioMedical Text

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Syed Toufeeq Ahmed; Deepthi Chidambaram; Hasan Davulcu; Chitta Baral

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully auto- mated extraction system, named IntEx, to identify gene and protein interactions in biomedical text. Our approach is based on first splitting complex sentences into sim- ple clausal structures made up of syntactic roles. Then, tagging biological entities with the help of biomedical and linguistic ontologies. Finally, extracting complete interactions by analyzing the

  12. Voice vs. Text Chats: Their Efficacy for Learning Probing Questions by Non-Native Speaking Medical Professionals in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Through an English for Specific Purposes (ESP): Communication in Nursing online course, the present study examines the efficacy of synchronous voice-based and text-based chats as instructional and communicative modes in learning to use open questions for probing in therapeutic dialogues by non-native speaking (NNS) participants, students of a…

  13. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492

  14. Medical image categorization with MedIC and MedGIFT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip Florea; Henning Müller; Alexandrina Rogozan; Antoine Geissbuhler; Stčfan Darmoni

    Images play an important role in medical diagnostics and treatment planning. Whereas medical text retrieval, analysis, and reuse have been practiced for many years, much less is known on the storage and reuse of images in a context other than a single patient, although several medical teaching files with images exist. The aim of automatic image indexing\\/retrieval is to provide

  15. The MEDIGATE graphical user interface for entry of physical findings: design principles and implementation. Medical Examination Direct Iconic and Graphic Augmented Text Entry System.

    PubMed

    Yoder, J W; Schultz, D F; Williams, B T

    1998-10-01

    The solution to many of the problems of the computer-based recording of the medical record has been elusive, largely due to difficulties in the capture of those data elements that comprise the records of the Present Illness and of the Physical Findings. Reliable input of data has proven to be more complex than originally envisioned by early work in the field. This has led to more research and development into better data collection protocols and easy to use human-computer interfaces as support tools. The Medical Examination Direct Iconic and Graphic Augmented Text Entry System (MEDIGATE System) is a computer enhanced interactive graphic and textual record of the findings from physical examinations designed to provide ease of user input and to support organization and processing of the data characterizing these findings. The primary design objective of the MEDIGATE System is to develop and evaluate different interface designs for recording observations from the physical examination in an attempt to overcome some of the deficiencies in this major component of the individual record of health and illness. PMID:9809273

  16. The use of a frailty index to predict adverse health outcomes (falls, fractures, hospitalization, medication use, comorbid conditions) in people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Schoufour, Josje D; Echteld, Michael A; Bastiaanse, Luc P; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-03-01

    Frailty in older people can be seen as the increased likelihood of future negative health outcomes. Lifelong disabilities in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) may not only influence their frailty status but also the consequences. Here, we report the relation between frailty and adverse health outcomes in older people with ID (50 years and over). In a prospective population based study, frailty was measured at baseline with a frailty index in 982 older adults with ID (?50 yr). Information on negative health outcomes (falls, fractures, hospitalization, increased medication use, and comorbid conditions) was collected at baseline and after a three-year follow-up period. Odds ratios or regression coefficients for negative health outcomes were estimated with the frailty index, adjusted for gender, age, level of ID, Down syndrome and baseline adverse health condition. The frailty index was related to an increased risk of higher medication use and several comorbid conditions, but not to falls, fractures and hospitalization. Frailty at baseline was related to negative health outcomes three years later in older people with ID, but to a lesser extent than found in the general population. PMID:25576875

  17. Cardioankle vascular index evaluations revealed that cotreatment of ARB Antihypertension medication with traditional Chinese medicine improved arterial functionality.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Yan, Hua; Yao, Min J; Ma, Jie; Jia, Jun M; Ruan, Fen X; Yao, Zeng C; Huang, Hua M; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ting; Lv, Hua; Endler, Alexander M

    2013-05-01

    Qian Yang He Ji (QYHJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of Digitalis purpurea, Uncaria gambir, Fructus tribuli terrestris, and Ligustrum lucidum. Here, we explored whether combining an antihypertensive angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy with QYHJ can improve the arterial functionality of hypertensive patients. One hundred and eight hypertensive patients were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group (n = 53) was treated with ARB and the other group (n = 55) was treated with ARB combined with QYHJ. Each of the 2 groups included 3 subgroups (pure hypertension, hypertension with diabetes, and hypertension with coronary heart disease) and was further divided into patients with and without complications. The cardioankle vascular index and intima-media thickness and pulse pressure were the outcome evaluation parameter. Combined QYHJ and ARB treatment reduced the values of cardioankle vascular index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure to significantly lower levels than ARB treatment alone did in hypertension patients after 6 months of treatment. ARB improves hypertension, but a combined QYHJ treatment can additionally ameliorate the arterial functionality not only in solely hypertensive patients but also in hypertensive patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease complications. QYHJ coapplication might be a choice to further improve the arterial functionality during an ARB hypertension treatment. PMID:23188130

  18. "First-wave" bias when conducting active safety monitoring of newly marketed medications with outcome-indexed self-controlled designs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shirley V; Schneeweiss, Sebastian; Maclure, Malcolm; Gagne, Joshua J

    2014-09-15

    Large health care databases are used extensively for pharmacoepidemiologic studies. Unique methodological issues arise when applying self-controlled designs (i.e., using within-person comparisons) for active surveillance of newly marketed drugs. We use 3 examples to illustrate bias related to population-level exposure time trends when using outcome-indexed self-controlled (i.e., case-crossover) designs for active surveillance and evaluate the ability of the case-time-control design to adjust for bias from population-level exposure time trends. We mimicked active surveillance by conducting sequential analyses after market entry for 3 medications and outcomes (valdecoxib for myocardial infarction (MI), aripiprazole for MI, and telithromycin for acute liver failure) using Medicaid Analytic eXtracts (from all 50 US states, 2000-2006). The case-crossover exposure odds ratio (EOR) in the months immediately following valdecoxib market entry implausibly suggested a 12-fold higher risk of MI during exposed time relative to unexposed time; among age-, sex-, and time-matched controls, the corresponding EOR of 4.5 indicated strong population-level exposure time trends. Over subsequent monitoring periods, case-crossover EORs rapidly dropped to 1.4. Adjustment for bias from population-level exposure time trends with the case-time-control analysis resulted in more consistent associations between valdecoxib and MI across sequential monitoring periods. Similar results were observed in each example. Strong population-level exposure time trends can bias case-crossover studies conducted among "first-wave" users of newly marketed medications. Suggested strategies can help assess and adjust for population-level exposure time trends. PMID:25086050

  19. Text Structure

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-01-01

    This web page defines and describes text structure, or how the information within a written text is organized. It explains the benefits of teaching students to identify and analyze text structures within text and describes an instructional sequence in which students read examples of different text structures and then write paragraphs that follow a specific text structure. The site includes definitions and examples of five common text structures, and graphic organizers that can be used with each type of text. Links to additional resources and research citations are included.

  20. Plasma suPAR levels are associated with mortality, admission time, and Charlson Comorbidity Index in the acutely admitted medical patient: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is the soluble form of the membrane-bound receptor (uPAR) expressed predominantly on various immune cells. Elevated plasma suPAR concentration is associated with increased mortality in various patient groups, and it is speculated that suPAR is a low-grade inflammation marker reflecting on disease severity. The aim of this prospective observational study was to determine if the plasma concentration of suPAR is associated with admission time, re-admission, disease severity/Charlson Comorbidity Index Score, and mortality. Methods We included 543 patients with various diseases from a Danish Acute Medical Unit during a two month period. A triage unit ensured that only medical patients were admitted to the Acute Medical Unit. SuPAR was measured on plasma samples drawn upon admission. Patients were followed-up for three months after inclusion by their unique civil registry number and using Danish registries to determine admission times, readmissions, International Classification of Diseases, 10th Edition (ICD-10) diagnoses, and mortality. Statistical analysis was used to determine suPAR's association with these endpoints. Results Increased suPAR was significantly associated with 90-day mortality (4.87 ng/ml in survivors versus 7.29 ng/ml in non-survivors, P < 0.0001), higher Charlson Score (P < 0.0001), and longer admission time (P < 0.0001), but not with readmissions. The association with mortality remained when adjusting for age, sex, C-reactive protein (CRP), and Charlson Score. Furthermore, among the various Charlson Score disease groups, suPAR was significantly higher in those with diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and liver disease compared to those without comorbidities. Conclusions SuPAR is a marker of disease severity, admission time, and risk of mortality in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with a variety of diseases. The independent value of suPAR suggests it could be of value in prognostic algorithms. PMID:22824423

  1. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  2. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  3. Population Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Two excellent bibliographic resources for population studies are the "Population Index" from the Office of Population Research at Princeton University, and "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" from the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Population Index" is a quarterly publication that has been available since 1935. It "covers all fields of interest to demographers, including fertility, mortality, population size and growth, migration, nuptiality and the family, research methodology, projections and predictions, historical demography, and demographic and economic interrelations. Input is derived from original publications including monographs, journal articles, other serial publications, working papers, doctoral dissertations, machine-readable data files, and relevant acquisitions lists and bibliographies." About 3,500 citations are produced annually. Full text for the Index is available at the "Population Index" Web site for 1986-present (Vol. 52-present). Indexes can be searched by author, subject matter, geographical region, or publication year. There is now an experimental free text search capability for the 1994-present issues. "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide" is a no frills "practical tool for population professionals who need a single source for the quick location of organizations that publish and distribute or post population or family planning documents." It contains hundreds of citations, providing organization addresses, phone and FAX numbers, and Internet addresses when available. The Guide is updated every six months and is maintained by Ruth Sandor, Director of the Library of the Center for Demography and Ecology. Office of Population Research, Princeton University: http://opr.princeton.edu/ "Population Organizations: Finder's Guide": gopher://cde2.ssc.wisc.edu:70/00/addazlis gopher to: cde2.ssc.wisc.edu select: Population Organizations: Finder's Guide Center for Demography and Ecology, University of Wisconsin-Madison: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/cde/

  4. Word sense disambiguation by selecting the best semantic type based on Journal Descriptor Indexing: Preliminary experiment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Susanne M. Humphrey; Willie J. Rogers; Halil Kilicoglu; Dina Demner-fushman; Thomas C. Rindflesch

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was performed at the National Library of Medicine® (NLM®) in word sense disambiguation (WSD) using the Journal Descriptor Indexing (JDI) methodology. The motivation is the need to solve the ambiguity prob- lem confronting NLM's MetaMap system, which maps free text to terms corresponding to concepts in NLM's Unified Medical Language System® (UMLS®) Metathe- saurus®. If the text maps

  5. Text enhancement in digital video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huiping; Kia, Omid E.; Doermann, David S.

    1999-01-01

    One difficulty with using text from digital video for indexing and retrieval is that video images are often in low resolution and poor quality, and as a result, the text can not be recognized adequately by most commercial OCR software. Text image enhancement is necessary to achieve reasonable OCR accuracy. Our enhancement consists of two main procedures, resolution enhancement based on Shannon interpolation and text separation from complex image background. Experiments show our enhancement approach improves OCR accuracy considerably.

  6. Derivation and validation of a mortality-risk index from a cohort of frail elderly patients hospitalised in medical wards via emergencies: the SAFES study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Dramé; J. L. Novella; P. O. Lang; D. Somme; N. Jovenin; I. Laničce; P. Couturier; D. Heitz; J. B. Gauvain; T. Voisin; B. De Wazičres; R. Gonthier; J. Ankri; C. Jeandel; O. Saint-Jean; F. Blanchard; D. Jolly

    2008-01-01

    To identify predictive factors for 2-year mortality in frail elderly patients after acute hospitalisation, and from these\\u000a to derive and validate a Mortality Risk Index (MRI). A prospective cohort of elderly patients was set up in nine teaching\\u000a hospitals. This cohort was randomly split up into a derivation cohort (DC) of 870 subjects and a validation cohort (VC) of\\u000a 436

  7. MENELAS: an access system for medical records using natural language

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pierre Zweigenbaum

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of Menelas is to provide better access to the information contained in natural language patient discharge summaries, through the design and implementation of a pilot system able to access medical reports through natural languages. A first, experimental version of the Menelas indexing prototype for French has been assembled. Its function is to encode free text PDSs into

  8. Inverted files for text search engines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Justin Zobel; Alistair Moffat

    2006-01-01

    The technology underlying text search engines has advanced dramatically in the past decade. The development of a family of new index representations has led to a wide range of innovations in index storage, index construction, and query evaluation. While some of these developments have been consolidated in textbooks, many specific techniques are not widely known or the textbook descriptions are

  9. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented. PMID:23924750

  10. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  11. Text Extraction from HandwrittenText Extraction from Handwritten Medical Form ImagesMedical Form Images

    E-print Network

    Govindaraju, Venu

    Document Image Analysis Challenges BinarizationBinarization of carbon copy formsof carbon copy forms form templates are stored in a database. · Preprocessing Binarization · Form dropout (line removal etc and Retrieval #12;BinarizationBinarization ChallengesChallenges ·· Yellow color mediaYellow color media ·· Noisy

  12. Probabilistic latent semantic indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Hofmann

    1999-01-01

    Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domain-specific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In

  13. Comparison and combination of several MeSH indexing approaches

    PubMed Central

    Yepes, Antonio Jose Jimeno; Mork, James G.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Aronson, Alan R.

    2013-01-01

    MeSH indexing of MEDLINE is becoming a more difficult task for the group of highly qualified indexing staff at the US National Library of Medicine, due to the large yearly growth of MEDLINE and the increasing size of MeSH. Since 2002, this task has been assisted by the Medical Text Indexer or MTI program. We extend previous machine learning analysis by adding a more diverse set of MeSH headings targeting examples where MTI has been shown to perform poorly. Machine learning algorithms exceed MTI’s performance on MeSH headings that are used very frequently and headings for which the indexing frequency is very low. We find that when we combine the MTI suggestions and the prediction of the learning algorithms, the performance improves compared to any single method for most of the evaluated MeSH headings. PMID:24551371

  14. Newman, David, Nagendra Koilada, Jey Han Lau and Timothy Baldwin (2012) Bayesian Text Segmentation for Index Term Identification and Keyphrase Extraction, In Proceedings of the 24th International Conference on Computational

    E-print Network

    Baldwin, Timothy

    Newman, David, Nagendra Koilada, Jey Han Lau and Timothy Baldwin (2012) Bayesian Text Segmentation Identification and Keyphrase Extraction David Newman, Nagendra Koilada, Jey Han Lau and Timothy Baldwin Dept, The University of Melbourne, Australia NICTA Victoria Research Laboratory, Australia newman@uci.edu, nkoilada

  15. The contents of this article and referenced websites, such as text, graphics, images, and other material contained on the site are for informational purposes only. The content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis,

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    , family history and risk factors. Find out what health screenings, exams and immunizations you need or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Reliance on any information provided by these websites is solely at your own risk. APS is not responsible

  16. Assessment of completion of early medical abortion using a text questionnaire on mobile phones compared to a self-administered paper questionnaire among women attending four clinics, Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Constant, Deborah; de Tolly, Katherine; Harries, Jane; Myer, Landon

    2015-02-01

    In-clinic follow-up to assess completion of medical abortion is no longer a requirement according to World Health Organization guidance, provided adequate counselling is given. However, timely recognition of ongoing pregnancy, complications or incomplete abortion, which require treatment, is important. As part of a larger trial, this study aimed to establish whether women having a medical abortion could self-assess whether their abortion was complete using an automated, interactive questionnaire on their mobile phones. All 469 participants received standard abortion care and all returnees filled in a self-assessment on paper at clinic follow-up 2-3 weeks later. The 234 women allocated to receive the phone messages were also asked to do a mobile phone assessment at home ten days post-misoprostol. Completion of the mobile assessment was tracked by computer and all completed assessments, paper and mobile, were compared to providers' assessments at clinic follow-up. Of the 226 women able to access the mobile phone assessment, 176 (78%) completed it; 161 of them (93%) reported it was easy to do so. Neither mobile nor paper self-assessments predicted all cases needing additional treatment at follow-up. Prediction of complete procedures was good; 71% of mobile assessments and 91% of paper assessments were accurate. We conclude that an interactive questionnaire assessing completion of medical abortion on mobile phones is feasible in the South African setting; however, it should be done later than day 10 and combined with an appropriate pregnancy test to accurately detect incomplete procedures. PMID:25702072

  17. Immigration Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Striving to become the "immigration resource directory on the net," the Immigration Index is a newly launched Website dedicated to news and information about immigration worldwide. Along with breaking headlines from a variety of news sources about immigration-related issues such as asylum, migration, trafficking and women, and much more, the site contains a fully annotated collection of links to immigration materials all around the World Wide Web. Only a month old, some of the categories in the Index's hierarchy still need some filling in. In time, however, the Immigration Index promises to become an invaluable resource for interested parties.

  18. Computer-Based Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.

  19. A Review of Medical Education and Medical Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, R. Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…

  20. Automatic Construction of Navigable Concept Networks Characterizing Text Databases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claudio Carpineto; Giovanni Romano

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we present a comprehensive approach to conceptual structuring and intelligent navigation of text databases. Given any collection of texts, we first automatically extract a set of index terms describing each text. Next, we use a particular lattice conceptual clustering method to build a network of clustered texts whose nodes are described using the index terms. We argue

  1. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  2. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects.

  3. Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

  4. Rib index.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Theodoros B

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the double rib contour sign (DRCS) and the rib index (RI). The analyzed topics are 1. the history of presentations - publication of DRCS-RI, 2. the study source origin: school screening for idiopathic scoliosis (IS), 3. what the DRCS and the RI are- Description, 4. the quantification of the DRCS - RI, 5. a reliability study for RI 6. how much the rib index is affected by the distance between the radiation source and the irradiated individual, 7. the implications on IS aetiology, 8. the applications of Rib index for a. documentation of the deformity, b. assessment of physiotherapy, c. assessment of brace treatment and d. pre- and post-operative assessment; assessment of the rib-cage deformity correction on the transverse plane, 9. the use of RI and implications for screening policies 10. the reference of the RI method in spinal textbooks and finally 11. the citations in Google Scholar. PMID:25635184

  5. Knowing Your Child's Medical History

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Checkups: What to Expect Knowing Your Child's Medical History KidsHealth > Parents > First Aid & Safety > Home Sweet Home > Knowing Your Child's Medical History Print A A A Text Size What's in ...

  6. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  7. Sprache und Sozio-Oekonomischer Index (Speech and Socioeconomic Index)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluhme, Hermann

    1976-01-01

    A comparison of the socioeconomic index of 77 speakers of Dutch, recorded in 40 places, revealed certain correlations between index and individual linguistic behavior, particularly in regard to the speed of articulation, quantity quotient (low vowels/short vowels), pitch modulation, number of relative clauses and passive construction. (Text is in…

  8. Medical Assistants

    MedlinePLUS

    ... clinical work. Administrative medical assistants often fill out insurance forms or code patients’ medical information. They often ... may update a patient’s medical file, fill out insurance forms, and answer telephone calls in a practitioner’s ...

  9. New Air Quality Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards.

    On July 23, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced the release of a new Air Quality Index, which is used by state and local agencies for reporting on daily air quality to the public, especially in major cities. The new Index has been revised to enhance public understanding of air quality and associated health effects, and it reflects updated health information on several pollutants. In addition to the full text of the new AQI Rule (105 p.), several related documents are offered at the site. These include the AQI fact sheet, Air Quality Guide, Ozone Health Effects Booklet, and Guideline for Reporting of Daily Air Quality.

  10. Writing Home/Decolonizing Text(s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The article draws on postcolonial and feminist theories, combined with critical reflection and autobiography, and argues for generating decolonizing texts as one way to write and reclaim home in a postcolonial world. Colonizers leave home to seek power and control elsewhere, and the colonized suffer loss of home as they know it. This dislocation…

  11. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  12. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  13. ResearchIndex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sponsored by the NEC Research Institute, ResearchIndex was created to improve the dissemination, functionality, usability, and efficiency of online scientific literature by demonstrating and providing "algorithms, techniques, and software that can be used in other digital libraries." The current demonstration database indexes over 150,000 computer science articles containing over 2 million citations. Searchable by keyword only, database returns feature several options. Users can review a list of citations to a given paper with links to the full text articles (Postscript or .pdf format), view related articles, and sign up to have new citations for selected articles emailed to them. In the future, users should also be able to review a dynamically created and continuously updated bibliography. Additional resources at the site include a collection of papers about citation indexing, digital libraries, Web analysis, and neural networks. Users may also submit papers to the database and subscribe to be notified when additional databases become available at the site.

  14. Medical Matrix

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Medical Matrix is a Web resource that offers a database of Internet clinical medicine resources. Medical Matrix categorizes resources by disease, specialty, and other interest areas. It is designed as a "home page" for a physician's or healthworker's computer. Medical Matrix is a project of the Internet Working Group of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  15. Education Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Education Index Web site provides a guide to "the most useful education-related sites on the Web." The links can be browsed by subject such as astronomy, chemistry, geology, and physics (among many others), or by lifestage, from prenatal and infant all the way to college and continuing education. Although the sites described do not have a date of review or rating system, users should still find the resource worthwhile.

  16. GPU-Accelerated Text Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL] [ORNL; Mueller, Frank [North Carolina State University] [North Carolina State University; Zhang, Yongpeng [ORNL] [ORNL; Potok, Thomas E [ORNL] [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Accelerating hardware devices represent a novel promise for improving the performance for many problem domains but it is not clear for which domains what accelerators are suitable. While there is no room in general-purpose processor design to significantly increase the processor frequency, developers are instead resorting to multi-core chips duplicating conventional computing capabilities on a single die. Yet, accelerators offer more radical designs with a much higher level of parallelism and novel programming environments. This present work assesses the viability of text mining on CUDA. Text mining is one of the key concepts that has become prominent as an effective means to index the Internet, but its applications range beyond this scope and extend to providing document similarity metrics, the subject of this work. We have developed and optimized text search algorithms for GPUs to exploit their potential for massive data processing. We discuss the algorithmic challenges of parallelization for text search problems on GPUs and demonstrate the potential of these devices in experiments by reporting significant speedups. Our study may be one of the first to assess more complex text search problems for suitability for GPU devices, and it may also be one of the first to exploit and report on atomic instruction usage that have recently become available in NVIDIA devices.

  17. Communications—A Supplement to Medical Library Service *

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Thomas C.

    1969-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin Medical Center and University Extension established a Medical Communications Center in the Medical Library of the University in September of 1967. The objectives of the Medical Communications Center were: [List: see text] PMID:4186344

  18. Text-Translation Alignment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Kay; Martin Röscheisen

    1993-01-01

    We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a

  19. Effectively processing medical term queries on the UMLS Metathesaurus by layered dynamic programming

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mapping medical terms to standardized UMLS concepts is a basic step for leveraging biomedical texts in data management and analysis. However, available methods and tools have major limitations in handling queries over the UMLS Metathesaurus that contain inaccurate query terms, which frequently appear in real world applications. Methods To provide a practical solution for this task, we propose a layered dynamic programming mapping (LDPMap) approach, which can efficiently handle these queries. LDPMap uses indexing and two layers of dynamic programming techniques to efficiently map a biomedical term to a UMLS concept. Results Our empirical study shows that LDPMap achieves much faster query speeds than LCS. In comparison to the UMLS Metathesaurus Browser and MetaMap, LDPMap is much more effective in querying the UMLS Metathesaurus for inaccurately spelled medical terms, long medical terms, and medical terms with special characters. Conclusions These results demonstrate that LDPMap is an efficient and effective method for mapping medical terms to the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:25079259

  20. Oxford Text Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The well-established Oxford Text Archive can now be accessed via its new web site, a redesign intended to improve navigation, functionality, and to utilize the SGML metadata available for all texts. Users can also now conduct full text searches. Founded in 1976 and based in the Humanities Computing Unit of Oxford University Computing Services, the Oxford Text Archive houses selected academic submissions for the purpose of preserving "high-quality electronic texts for research and teaching." Scholars and other interested users have access to more than 2500 resources in over 25 different languages. The OTA encourages new submissions of quality, scholarly electronic resources.

  1. HIV Medicine: A Medical Texbook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hoffmann, Christian

    HIV Medicine is an online medical textbook that provides comprehensive and timely information on HIV treatment. Chapters include background information on Acute HIV-1 Infection, and a detailed guide to HIV Therapy. There is also current information about side effects, Lipodystrophy Syndrome, and resistance testing. The online textbook includes an impressive, in-depth index of HIV drugs. Editors Christian Hoffmann and Bernd Sebastian Kamps have years of experience in the medical field and provide free and anonymous access of their text to the public. Collaborators include Nyasha Bakare, MD who has worked at the Research Institute for Genetic and Human Therapy (RIGHT) since 2001, and has been working on the clinical development of a therapeutic HIV vaccine. This Web site is easy to navigate and its layout nicely mirrors the organization of a paper textbook. It will be useful as a research tool for college and graduate students as well as for the layperson who desires more in-depth information on HIV and treatments. Join the mailing list to be notified of new chapters and updates. [TJS

  2. Medical Management

    MedlinePLUS

    ... form Search Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease (CMT) Medical Management Although there’s no cure for CMT, there are ... individualized physical therapy program. For more on medical management of CMT, see Surgery Sometimes, Bracing Often, Caution ...

  3. Oral Medication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... doctor before starting anything new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money by finding the right type and dosage of medicine for your needs. In this section Treatment and ...

  4. Medication Errors

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Reviewers - Medical Device Use-Safety: Incorporating Human Factors Engineering into Risk Management (PDF - 1.1MB) Draft Guidance ... Drug Administration Staff - Applying Human Factors and Usability Engineering to Optimize Medical Device Design Spotlight Guidance for ...

  5. Medical Transcriptionists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... an understanding of medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, grammar, and word-processing software. Pay The median annual ... an understanding of medical terminology, anatomy and physiology, grammar, and word-processing software. Education Employers prefer to ...

  6. Text formatting by demonstration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brad A. Myers

    1991-01-01

    In text formatters such as troff, Scribe, and TEX, users write macro procedures to specify the desired visual appearance. In What-You-See-Is-What-You-Get text formatters, such as MacWrite and Microsoft Word, the formatting is specified by directly manipulating the text. However, some important functionality is lost in these systems since they are not programmable, For example, if the user wants to change

  7. Natural Language Processing Versus Content-Based Image Analysis for Medical Document Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Deserno, Thomas M.; Darmoni, Stéfan J.; Güld, Mark Oliver; Aronson, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant recent advances in health information systems has been the shift from paper to electronic documents. While research on automatic text and image processing has taken separate paths, there is a growing need for joint efforts, particularly for electronic health records and biomedical literature databases. This work aims at comparing text-based versus image-based access to multimodal medical documents using state-of-the-art methods of processing text and image components. A collection of 180 medical documents containing an image accompanied by a short text describing it was divided into training and test sets. Content-based image analysis and natural language processing techniques are applied individually and combined for multimodal document analysis. The evaluation consists of an indexing task and a retrieval task based on the “gold standard” codes manually assigned to corpus documents. The performance of text-based and image-based access, as well as combined document features, is compared. Image analysis proves more adequate for both the indexing and retrieval of the images. In the indexing task, multimodal analysis outperforms both independent image and text analysis. This experiment shows that text describing images can be usefully analyzed in the framework of a hybrid text/image retrieval system. PMID:19633735

  8. Are "medically underserved areas" medically underserved?

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, J C; Wilson, R W

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of medically underserved areas (MUAs) and adequately served areas (ASAs) is presented. Nonmetropolitan areas represented in the Health Interview Survey (HIS) are classified as MUAs or ASAs by the official criterion of their scores on the Index of Medical Underservice (IMU), and HIS data from the two types of areas are examined for differences. Standard metropolitan statistical areas are also compared with the nonmetropolitan MUAs and ASAs. Results show no difference between MUA and ASA residents in number of physician visits per year or proportion with at least one visit in the past year, although MUA residents reported poorer health status, used some preventive services less, and used nonsurgical hospitalization more than did ASA residents. In gereral, most MUA-ASA differences tend to be similar in size to differences between ASAs and SMSAs. An alternative to the IMU, using HIS data to identify underserved areas, is discussed. PMID:885726

  9. Unsupervised Text Segmentation Using Color and Wavelet Features

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julinda Gllavata; Ralph Ewerth; Teuta Stefi; Bernd Freisleben

    2004-01-01

    Since the number of digital multimedia libraries is growing rapidly, the need to efficiently index, browse and retrieve this information is also in- creased. In this context, text appearing in images represents an important entity for indexing and retrieval purposes. Often, text is superimposed over complex image background and its recognition by a commercial optical character recog- nition (OCR) engine

  10. Intelligent medical information filtering.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Y

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes an intelligent information filtering system to assist users to be notified of updates to new and relevant medical information. Among the major problems users face is the large volume of medical information that is generated each day, and the need to filter and retrieve relevant information. The Internet has dramatically increased the amount of electronically accessible medical information and reduced the cost and time needed to publish. The opportunity of the Internet for the medical profession and consumers is to have more information to make decisions and this could potentially lead to better medical decisions and outcomes. However, without the assistance from professional medical librarians, retrieving new and relevant information from databases and the Internet remains a challenge. Many physicians do not have access to the services of a medical librarian. Most physicians indicate on surveys that they do not prefer to retrieve the literature themselves, or visit libraries because of the lack of recent materials, poor organisation and indexing of materials, lack of appropriate and available material, and lack of time. The information filtering system described in this paper records the online web browsing behaviour of each user and creates a user profile of the index terms found on the web pages visited by the user. A relevance-ranking algorithm then matches the user profiles to the index terms of new health care web pages that are added each day. The system creates customised summaries of new information for each user. A user can then connect to the web site to read the new information. Relevance feedback buttons on each page ask the user to rate the usefulness of the page to their immediate information needs. Errors in relevance ranking are reduced in this system by having both the user profile and medical information represented in the same representation language using a controlled vocabulary. This system also updates the user profiles, automatically relieving this burden from the user, but also allowing the user to explicitly state preferences. An initial evaluation of this system was done with health consumers using a web site on consumer health. It was found that users often modified their criteria for what they considered relevant not only between browsing sessions but also during a session. A user's criteria for what is relevant is constantly changing as they interact with the information. New revised metrics of recall and precision are needed to account for the partially relevant judgements and the dynamically changing criteria of users. Future research, development, and evaluation of interactive information retrieval systems will need to take into account the users' dynamically changing criteria of relevance. PMID:9794334

  11. Alternative ways for knowledge collection, indexing and robust language retrieval.

    PubMed

    Baud, R H; Lovis, C; Rassinoux, A M; Scherrer, J R

    1998-11-01

    Definitions are provided of the key entities in knowledge representation for Natural Language Processing (NLP). Starting from the words, which are the natural components of any sentence, both the role of expressions and the decomposition of words into their parts are emphasized. This leads to the notion of concepts, which are either primitive or composite depending on the model where they are created. The problem of finding the most adequate degree of granularity for a concept is studied. From this reflection on basic Natural Language Processing components, four categories of linguistic knowledge are recognized, that are considered to be the building blocks of a Medical Linguistic Knowledge Base (MLKB). Following on the tracks of a recent experience in building a natural language-based patient encoding browser, a robust method for conceptual indexing and query of medical texts is presented with particular attention to the scheme of knowledge representation. PMID:9865029

  12. Free text phrase encoding and information extraction from medical notes

    E-print Network

    Shu, Jennifer (Jennifer J.)

    2005-01-01

    The Laboratory for Computational Physiology is collecting a large database of patient signals and clinical data from critically ill patients in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). The data will be used as a research ...

  13. Mining Linguistically Interpreted Texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassiana Fagundes da Silva; Renata Vieira; Paulo Quaresma

    This paper proposes and evaluates the use of linguistic information in the pre-processing phase of text mining tasks. We present several experiments comparing our proposal for selection of terms based on linguistic knowledge with usual techniques applied in the field. The results show that part of speech information is useful for the pre-processing phase of text categorization and clustering, as

  14. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  15. Texting on the Move

    MedlinePLUS

    ... walked right into the path of a pickup truck. That's rare, of course. But texting is more likely to contribute to car crashes. We know this because police and other authorities sometimes use a driver's phone records to check for phone and text ...

  16. Texting "boosts" felt security.

    PubMed

    Otway, Lorna J; Carnelley, Katherine B; Rowe, Angela C

    2014-01-01

    Attachment security can be induced in laboratory settings (e.g., Rowe & Carnelley, 2003) and the beneficial effects of repeated security priming can last for a number of days (e.g., Carnelley & Rowe, 2007). The priming process, however, can be costly in terms of time. We explored the effectiveness of security priming via text message. Participants completed a visualisation task (a secure attachment experience or neutral experience) in the laboratory. On three consecutive days following the laboratory task, participants received (secure or neutral) text message visualisation tasks. Participants in the secure condition reported significantly higher felt security than those in the neutral condition, immediately after the laboratory prime, after the last text message prime and one day after the last text prime. These findings suggest that security priming via text messages is an innovative methodological advancement that effectively induces felt security, representing a potential direction forward for security priming research. PMID:24245604

  17. x indy — A Flexible Indexing System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger Kehr

    Whilst MakeIndex is an index processor which is suitable for the production of in- dexes in conjunction with many text formatters, its support for non-English languages is weak and a new version called International MakeIndex has been presented, for pro- cessing international documents. The improvements concentrate on the internation- alization of the sorting process for keywords in an index. Though

  18. An Ecology of Text: Using Text Retrieval to Study Alife on the Net

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L. Best

    1997-01-01

    I introduce a new alife model, an ecology based on a corpus of text, and apply it to the analysis of posts to USENET News. In this corporal ecology posts are organisms, the newsgroups of NetNews define an environment, and human posters situated in their wider context make up a scarce resource. I apply latent semantic indexing (LSI), a text

  19. An Ecology of Text: Using Text Retrieval to Study Alife on the Net

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael L Best

    1998-01-01

    I introduce a new alife model, an ecology based on a corpus of text, and apply it to the analysis of posts to USENET News. In this corporal ecology posts are organisms, the newsgroups of NetNews define an environment, and human posters situated in their wider context make up a scarce resource. I apply latent semantic indexing (LSI), a text

  20. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  1. Emotion Detection from Text

    E-print Network

    Shivhare, Shiv Naresh

    2012-01-01

    Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.

  2. Machine Translation from Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  3. Teaching Expository Text Structures

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Anita C. Hernandez

    2006-02-01

    Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks. In this article, the authors present an activity using a modified form of the sentence completion or "fill-in-the-blanks" worksheet that reinforces students' fluency with expository text structure and context.

  4. Full Text Journal Subscriptions: An Evolutionary Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of companies offering Web accessible subscriptions to full text electronic versions of scientific, technical, and medical journals (Academic Press, Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier, Highwire Press, Information Quest, Institute of Physics, Johns Hopkins University Press, OCLC, OVID, Springer, and SWETS). Also lists guidelines for…

  5. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  6. Utah Culture Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mrs. Wheeler

    2011-03-02

    Research one of Utah's many cultural festivals and send a text message explaining what you've learned! Step One: Research Select one of the following ethnic festivals in Utah to research. Navigate the webiste to find out what the festival is about and what one can do if they go to the festival. Look at available photos and videos to help learn about the festival. Asian Festival Festival of Colors Greek Festival India Fest Living Traditional Festival Scottish Festival St. Patrick s Day Parade Swiss Days Step Two: Text Message Pretend ...

  7. Medical Assistants

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For a concise summary of the medical assistant profession the Medical Assistants entry in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook is must read. The site covers topics ranging from the nature of the profession, working conditions, earnings, and more. The section on training, qualifications and advancement will be of special interest to medical assistant faculty and students. The section on sources of addition information will also be a good launching point for anyone seeking additional online resources.

  8. Visualizing Informational Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jessica Fries-Gaither

    Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.

  9. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  10. Summarizing Expository Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westby, Carol; Culatta, Barbara; Lawrence, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article reviews the literature on students' developing skills in summarizing expository texts and describes strategies for evaluating students' expository summaries. Evaluation outcomes are presented for a professional development project aimed at helping teachers develop new techniques for teaching summarization. Methods: Strategies…

  11. STEM Careers Cursive Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-11-09

    This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.

  12. [Type text] Northwestern University

    E-print Network

    Shull, Kenneth R.

    ) 782-7860 (24-hour response) Illinois Radiological Assistance Team (217) 785-0600 Hazardous Waste Dump[Type text] Northwestern University Office for Research Safety Hazardous Waste Management Program http://www.research.northwestern.edu/ors/ Hazardous Waste Disposal Guide Revised: May 2014 #12

  13. Metacomprehension of text material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruth H. Maki; Sharon L. Berry

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments investigated Ss' ability to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text. In Exp I, 30 undergraduates who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Ss who scored below median test performance did

  14. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in replicating a neuroscience expert's mental model of object-object associations entirely by means of text mining. These preliminary results provide the confidence that this type of text mining based research approach provides an extremely powerful tool to better understand the literature and drive novel discovery for the neuroscience community.

  15. Overlay Text Retrieval From Video Scene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, K.; Irfan, S.; Sravani, K.

    2013-03-01

    The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.

  16. A simple clinical colitis activity index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R S Walmsley; R C S Ayres; R E Pounder; R N Allan

    1998-01-01

    Background—The appropriate medical treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis is determined largely by the severity of symptoms. Hospital assessment of the severity of disease activity includes investigation of laboratory indices and sigmoidoscopic assessment of mucosal inflammation.Aims—To develop a simplified clinical colitis activity index to aid in the initial evaluation of exacerbations of colitis.Methods—The information for development of the simple index

  17. Text Detection, Localization and Segmentation in Compressed Videos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueming Qian; Guizhong Liu

    2006-01-01

    Video text information plays an important role in semantic-based video analysis, indexing and retrieval. Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. Text-based video analysis, browsing and retrieval are usually carried out in the following for steps: video text detection, localization, segmentation and recognition. Videos are commonly stored in compressed formats where MPEG coding techniques are adopted.

  18. [Changes in medical indicators during heliogeophysical disturbances].

    PubMed

    Sergeenko, N P; Kuleshova, V P

    1995-01-01

    Influence of heliogeophysical factors on medical indexes is studied. Relationship between changes of these indexes and solar flares, magnetic and ionospheric storms is analyzed. Possibility of forecasting the biotropic effects by using the starting of heliogeophysical events as predictions is showed. Comparisons between calculations and experimental data are provided. Reasonable agreement was obtained. PMID:7495908

  19. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  20. Clandestine E-Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Edited and maintained by Gianluca Mori of the University of Turin-Vercelli, this site currently hosts the full texts (in French) of seventeen French clandestine manuscripts from the early enlightenment. As Mori notes, the treatises share an anti-Christian attitude, but beyond that their philosophical inspiration varies, "leading sometimes either to a deist (Examen de la religion) or to an atheist position (Meslier's Memoire, Freret's Lettre de Thrasybule a Leucippe)." The treatises are offered in HTML format, some with related links. Links are also provided to several texts on other servers and to related resources. Users may register for email notification of updates to the site, which is also available in French and Italian.

  1. Elemental Data Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the NIST Physics Laboratory Physical Reference Data Page, this new addition "provides access to the holdings of NIST Physics Laboratory online data organized by element." The index (accessible in frames, no-frames, or text-only versions) simplifies the process of retrieving online data for each element in the periodic table. By clicking on the element, users may simply choose from a selection of information in the categories of atomic spectra data, x-ray and gamma ray data, radiation dosimetry data, nuclear physics data, and condensed matter physics data. The site is an excellent data reference for users to bookmark.

  2. Index des mots-cls Keywords index

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Index des mots-clés Keywords index A Abies, 823 Abies alba, 265 acacia, 93 Acacia cyanophylla Lindl., 335 Acacia mearnsii De Wild., 833 acclimation, 19 AFLP, 627 AFLP, SSR, EST markers, 637 Agrobacterium

  3. The moral difference or equivalence between continuous sedation until death and physician-assisted death: word games or war games?: a qualitative content analysis of opinion pieces in the indexed medical and nursing literature.

    PubMed

    Rys, Sam; Deschepper, Reginald; Mortier, Freddy; Deliens, Luc; Atkinson, Douglas; Bilsen, Johan

    2012-06-01

    Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical-ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of "slow euthanasia." A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD and PAD. Arguments pro and contra a moral difference refer basically to the same ambiguous themes, namely intention, proportionality, withholding artificial nutrition and hydration, and removing consciousness. This demonstrates that the debate is first and foremost a semantic rather than a factual dispute, focusing on the normative framework of CSD. Given the prevalent ambiguity, the debate on CSD appears to be a classical symbolic struggle for moral authority. PMID:23180260

  4. Are Medical Prices Declining? Evidence From Heart Attack Treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Cutler; Mark McClellan; Joseph P. Newhouse; Dahlia Remler

    1998-01-01

    We address long-standing problems in measuring medical inflation by estimating two types of price indices. The first, a Service Price Index, prices specific medical services, as does the current CPI. The second, a Cost of Living Index, measures a quality-adjusted cost of treating a health problem. We apply these indices to heart attack treatment between 1983 and 1994. More frequent

  5. Ergito: Virtual Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.

  6. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  7. Internet Sacred Text Archive

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The world's philosophical and religious traditions have found a fine home at the Internet Sacred Text Archive, which, as the homepage notes, is "a quiet place in cyberspace devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship." Working together with a number of colleagues and volunteers, JB Hare has compiled this vast archive of sacred and philosophical texts from a number of public-domain sources and placed them on the site. What makes the site so intriguing is that Hare has placed detailed information about the sources and standards that have been deployed for each separate project, which will be of great interest to scholars. While the entire site can be searched, there is much to be learned by looking through the topics listed on the main page, which range from Atlantis to Zoroastrianism. Each separate topic contains a number of accurately transcribed (and some times, translated) primary and secondary documents, such as first-hand collections of oral traditions. For persons looking for their own copy of the material contained on the site, a CD-ROM is available for purchase as well.

  8. Metacomprehension of text material.

    PubMed

    Maki, R H; Berry, S L

    1984-10-01

    Subjects' abilities to predict future multiple-choice test performance after reading sections of text were investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, subjects who scored above median test performance showed some accuracy in their predictions of that test performance. They gave higher mean ratings to material related to correct than to incorrect test answers. Subjects who scored below median test performance did not show this prediction accuracy. The retention interval between reading and the test was manipulated in Experiment 2. Subjects who were tested after at least a 24-hr delay showed results identical to those of Experiment 1. However, when subjects were tested immediately after reading, subjects above and below median test performance gave accurate predictions for the first immediate test. In contrast, both types of subjects gave inaccurate predictions for the second immediate test. Structural variables, such as length, serial position, and hierarchical level of the sections of text were related to subjects' predictions. These variables, in general, were not related to test performance, although the predictions were related to test performance in the conditions described above. PMID:6239006

  9. Index Funds Online

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Matthew Roberts recently released Index Funds Online in response to the lack of index investment fund information on the Internet. Site features include the market performance newsletter Indexing Quarterly, background and definitional information on major US Indexes such as the S&P 500, and a library of new and interesting financial Websites, articles, and book reviews. Links to current index performance figures are also provided as well as a simple site search system and index fund discussion board.

  10. Scalable Inverted Indexing on NoSQL Table Storage Xiaoming Gao

    E-print Network

    Descriptors H.3.1 [Content analysis and Indexing]: Indexing methods ­ full- text indexing in NoSQL databasesScalable Inverted Indexing on NoSQL Table Storage Xiaoming Gao School of Informatics and Computing presents our efforts on IndexedHBase, a scalable, fault- tolerant, and indexed NoSQL table storage system

  11. What is the role of NLP in text retrieval?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Sparck Jones

    1999-01-01

    This paper addresses the value of linguistically-motivated indexing (LMI) for document and text retrieval. After reviewing the basic concepts involved and the assumptions on which LMI is based, namely that complex index descriptions and terms are necessary, I consider past and recent research on LMI, and specifically on automated LMI via NLP. Experiments in the first phase of research, to

  12. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Search the Medical Device Safety Section Medical ...

  13. Blake Digital Text Project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Maintained by Nelson Hilton, Professor of English at the University of Georgia-Athens, this site will quickly become a favorite of Blake scholars. In addition to the full text of David V. Erdman's The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, the site features a hypertext version of Songs of Innocence and of Experience which allows users to explore the various versions of Blake's masterpiece and "proceed from any given poem to any other which followed it in any edition, looping through the various juxtapositions Blake created in the intratextual, echoing world of Songs." In addition, the site also includes a powerful Blake Concordance. Concordance results link to a three-line context in the bottom frame of the page.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Online Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    S�½kora, Stanislav

    This well-organized and very thorough website was developed by the physicist Stanislav Sykora with the aim of providing free online texts, theses, and course materials on the subjects of magnetic resonance (MR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) and other related topics. The amount of material on the site is impressive. At the top of the page are links to an "MR Blog", as well as to "MR Links" and the "Site Plan & SEARCH". The NMR/MRI Extras section on the right side of the page is particularly useful for visitors interested in all things about MR. Its links to "Events" provides an up-to-date list of symposia, conferences, and meetings, along with links to the events' sites. The "Societies" link offers at least 50 groups about MR, some of which are country-based, and others that are region- or application-based.

  15. Automatically classifying case texts and predicting outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin D. Ashley; Stefanie Brüninghaus

    2009-01-01

    Work on a computer program called SMILE + IBP (SMart Index Learner Plus Issue-Based Prediction) bridges case-based reasoning\\u000a and extracting information from texts. The program addresses a technologically challenging task that is also very relevant\\u000a from a legal viewpoint: to extract information from textual descriptions of the facts of decided cases and apply that information\\u000a to predict the outcomes of new cases.

  16. Recent Developments in Natural Language Text Retrieval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomek Strzalkowski; Jose Perez Carballo

    1993-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper reports on some,recent developments,in our natural language text retrieval system. The system uses advanced,natural language processing techniques to enhance,the,effectiveness of,term-based document retrieval. The backbone,of our system is a traditional statistical engine which,builds inverted index files from pre-processed documents, and then searches and ranks the documents,in response,to user queries. Natural language processing is used to (1) preprocess the

  17. Botox (Medical)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... included in your message Your e-mail address: Your name: Your friend's e-mail address: Your friend's name: ... Close without sharing. Give Us Feedback Botox (Medical) Your name First Name MI Laast Name Your e-mail ...

  18. Medication Treatments

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Information How is the FMR1 mutation related to Fragile X-associated disorders? What causes it? How many people ... approved any drugs specifically for the treatment of Fragile X or its symptoms. But in many cases, medications ...

  19. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePLUS

    ... must use their expertise to determine the best method for solving a specific research question. Data-analysis skills. Medical scientists use statistical techniques, so that they can properly quantify and ...

  20. Medication Treatment

    MedlinePLUS

    ... behavior, such as to reduce self-injury or aggression. Once a symptom is no longer a problem, ... of repetitive behaviors; decrease anxiety, irritability, tantrums, and aggressive behavior; and improve eye contact. Tricyclics These medications ...

  1. Cardiac Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lowering medications may interact with grapefruit, grapefruit juice, pomegranate and pomegranate juice. Please talk to your health care provider ... attacks, or "little strokes") and other forms of cardiovascular disease. Usually prescribed preventively when plaque buildup is ...

  2. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  3. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  4. Medical education.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, P

    1992-01-01

    In theory, the Medical Council of India (MCI) determines the standards and qualifications of medical schools. It also sanctions curricula and ensures standards. Yet no standards exist on the mode of selection in medical schools, duration of study, course content, student stipends or period of internship. It takes 4.5 years to finish medical school. Students undergo preclinical, paraclinical, and clinical training. Most courses are in English which tends to favor the urban elite. Students cannot always communicate with patients in local languages. Textbooks often provide medical examples unrelated to India. Pedagogy consists mainly of lectures and rote learning predominates. Curricula tend not to provide courses in community health. Students pick up on the elitist attitudes of the faculty. For example, faculty do not put much emphasis on community health, individual health, equity in health care delivery, and teamwork. Further the education system is not patient oriented, but hospital or disease oriented. Faculty should train students in creating sanitation programs, knowing local nutritious foods, and in making community diagnoses. Yet they tend to be practitioners 1st then educators. Further faculty are not paid well and are not always invited to take part in improving curriculum, so morale is often low. Moreover experience in health planning and management issues is not required for administrators. In addition, medical schools are not well equipped with learning aids, libraries, or teaching staff. Tax revenues finance medical education. 75% of graduating physicians set up a private practice. Further many physicians go to urban areas. 34-57% emigrate to other countries. The problems of medical education will not be solved until the political and economic system becomes more responsive to the health needs of the people. PMID:12343653

  5. Medication Math

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Joey

    2008-10-16

    Medication calculation needs to be completed accurately for proper patient treatment. In this section you will need to review and improve your medication math. Understanding math: Math and Culture Refresher: Take the amount of fluid in the bottle and times that by the dose ordered. Then divide this number by the amount of drug in the bottle. This will give you the volume of the drug that you need to administer. Diagram of formulas Math Formulas Math ...

  6. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  7. Drug Burden Index in older adults: theoretical and practical issues

    PubMed Central

    Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2014-01-01

    Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing. PMID:25246778

  8. Reading Text While Driving

    PubMed Central

    Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone) followed by an area with low demands. A message was made available shortly before the vehicle entered the demand zone. We manipulated the type of driving demands (baseline, narrow lane, pace clock, combined), message format (no message, paragraph, parsed), and the distance from the demand zone when the message was available (near, far). Results In all conditions, drivers started reading messages (drivers’ first glance to the display) before entering or before leaving the demand zone but tended to wait longer when faced with increased driving demands. While reading messages, drivers looked more or less off road, depending on types of driving demands. Conclusions For task initiation, drivers avoid transitions from low to high demands; however, they are not discouraged when driving demands are already elevated. Drivers adjust time-sharing behavior according to driving demands while performing secondary tasks. Nonetheless, such adjustment may be less effective when total demands are high. Application This study helps us to understand a driver’s role as an active controller in the context of distracted driving and provides insights for developing distraction interventions. PMID:25850162

  9. Duplicate publication rate decline in Korean medical journals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Bae, Chong-Woo; Hahm, Chang Kok; Cho, Hye Min

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine trends in duplicate publication in Korean medical articles indexed in the KoreaMed database from 2004 to 2009, before and after a campaign against scientific misconduct launched by the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors in 2006. The study covered period from 2007 to 2012; and 5% of the articles indexed in KoreaMed were retrieved by random sampling. Three authors reviewed full texts of the retrieved articles. The pattern of duplicate publication, such as copy, salami slicing (fragmentation), and aggregation (imalas), was also determined. Before the launching ethics campaign, the national duplication rate in medical journals was relatively high: 5.9% in 2004, 6.0% in 2005, and 7.2% in 2006. However, duplication rate steadily declined to 4.5% in 2007, 2.8% in 2008, and 1.2 % in 2009. Of all duplicated articles, 53.4% were classified as copies, 27.8% as salami slicing, and 18.8% as aggregation (imalas). The decline in duplicate publication rate took place as a result of nationwide campaigns and monitoring by KoreaMed and KoreaMed Synapse, starting from 2006. PMID:24550641

  10. Text Readability and Intuitive Simplification: A Comparison of Readability Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, David B.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    Texts are routinely simplified for language learners with authors relying on a variety of approaches and materials to assist them in making the texts more comprehensible. Readability measures are one such tool that authors can use when evaluating text comprehensibility. This study compares the Coh-Metrix Second Language (L2) Reading Index, a…

  11. Automatic text detection and tracking in digital video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huiping Li; David S. Doermann; Omid E. Kia

    2000-01-01

    Text which appears in a scene or is graphically added to video can provide an important supplementalsource of index information as well as clues for decoding the video's structure and for classification. In thispaper we present algorithms for detecting and tracking text in digital video. Our system implements a scalespacefeature extractor that feeds an artificial neural processor to detect text

  12. Automatic text location in images and video frames

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anil K. Jain; Bin Yu

    1998-01-01

    Textual data is very important in a number of applications such as image database indexing and document understanding. The goal of automatic text location without character recognition capabilities is to extract image regions that contain only text. These regions can then be either fed to an optical character recognition module or highlighted for a user. Text location is a very

  13. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  14. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  15. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

  16. Tools for Printing Indexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon Louis Bentley; Brian W. Kernighan

    1988-01-01

    SUMMARY This paper describes a set of programs for processing and printing the index for a book or a manual. The input consists of lines containing index terms and page numbers. The programs collect multiple occurrences of the same terms, compress runs of page numbers, create permutations (e.g., 'index, book' from 'book index'), and sort them into proper alphabetic order.

  17. EigenJournal: A personal collaborative medical journal

    E-print Network

    Langseth, Helge

    1 EigenJournal: A personal collaborative medical journal Terje Brasethvik and Anders Kofod with the patients, partnership and em- powerment. Index Terms-- Medical services, personal health record, soft- ware, expertise and skills to explore and explain medical problems (diagnostics) and to alter the course

  18. Medical Transcriptionists: Making Medical Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shniper, Lynn

    2001-01-01

    Medical transcriptionists are experts in the language of medicine. Describes what they do and what their working conditions, earnings, employment prospects, and training requirements are. Includes sources of additional information. (Author)

  19. Information fusion for automatic text classification

    SciTech Connect

    Dasigi, V. [Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, Sacred Heart University, Fairfield, CT (United States); Mann, R.C.; Protopopescu, V.A. [Computer and Mathematics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Analysis and classification of free text documents encompass decision-making processes that rely on several clues derived from text and other contextual information. When using multiple clues, it is generally not known a priori how these should be integrated into a decision. An algorithmic sensor based on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (a recent successful method for text retrieval rather than classification) is the primary sensor used in our work, but its utility is limited by the {ital reference}{ital library} of documents. Thus, there is an important need to complement or at least supplement this sensor. We have developed a system that uses a neural network to integrate the LSI-based sensor with other clues derived from the text. This approach allows for systematic fusion of several information sources in order to determine a combined best decision about the category to which a document belongs.

  20. Information Activities in Medical Library : Tokyo Women's Medical College Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki

    The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.

  1. Medical Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    For more than two decades, Biotechnology and Bioengineering has documented research focused on natural and engineered microbial biofilms within aquatic and subterranean ecosystems, wastewater and waste-gas treatment systems, marine vessels and structures, and industrial bioprocesses. Compared to suspended culture systems, intentionally engineered biofilms are heterogeneous reaction systems that can increase reactor productivity, system stability, and provide inherent cell: product separation. Unwanted biofilms can create enormous increases in fluid frictional resistances, unacceptable reductions in heat transfer efficiency, product contamination, enhanced material deterioration, and accelerated corrosion. Missing from B&B has been an equivalent research dialogue regarding the basic molecular microbiology, immunology, and biotechnological aspects of medical biofilms. Presented here are the current problems related to medical biofilms; current concepts of biofilm formation, persistence, and interactions with the host immune system; and emerging technologies for controlling medical biofilms. PMID:18366134

  2. Medical conditions with neuropsychiatric manifestations.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Margaret L; Larson, Eric B

    2014-09-01

    Medical disease sometimes affects patients through neuropsychiatric manifestations. When neuropsychiatric symptoms are predominant, identifying medical disease early in the illness course is imperative because many of these conditions are reversible with appropriate treatment. A high index of suspicion is required on the part of clinicians, particularly when patients also present with physical signs or unexplained symptoms that might suggest a broader, systemic process. The processes that most commonly cause neuropsychiatric symptoms include infectious, autoimmune, endocrinologic, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. This article focuses on the most common of these conditions, and conditions for which early diagnosis and treatment are particularly important. PMID:25134879

  3. Medical genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.

  4. Medical Instrumentation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    Students learn about the sorts of devices designed by biomedical engineers and the many other engineering specialties that are required in their design of medical diagnostics, therapeutic aids, surgical devices and procedures, and replacement parts. They discuss the special considerations that must be made when dealing with the human body, such as being minimally invasive, biocompatible, keeping sterile, lightweight, corrosion resistant, long lasting and electrically safe. They also explore how "form fits function." Students gain an appreciation for the amazing devices that improve our quality of life. This lesson serves as a starting point for students to begin to ponder how the medical devices in their everyday lives work.

  5. The toxic spill index (emergency response index)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dean F. Martin; M. Christine Flynn; Charles D. Norris; Barbara B. Martin

    1990-01-01

    An index has been devised to indicate the magnitude of a toxic spill. The index is a product calculation that varies from 0–96. It incorporates an estimate of the magnitude of the spill, the spill type (unknown, leak, spill), the medium affected, and the magnitude of the hazard represented. The method of calculation appears to be straightforward, based upon a

  6. Quality of reporting of two-group parallel randomized controlled clinical trials of multi-herb formulae: A survey of reports indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunqing Zhong; Wei Zhou; Hongli Jiang; Tao Fan; Xiang Diao; Hongmei Yang; Jie Min; Gang Wang; Juanjuan Fu; Bing Mao

    IntroductionAn increasing number of trials of multi-herb formula interventions are being published in relatively high-ranked medical journals indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE). The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of reporting of two-group parallel randomized controlled clinical trials (indexed in SCIE) of multi-herb formulae.

  7. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  8. Classifying free-text triage chief complaints into syndromic categories with natural language processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wendy Webber Chapman; Lee M. Christensen; Michael M. Wagner; Peter J. Haug; Oleg Ivanov; John N. Dowling; Robert T. Olszewski

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Develop and evaluate a natural language processing application for classifying chief complaints into syndromic categories for syndromic surveillance. Introduction: Much of the input data for artificial intelligence applications in the medical field are free-text patient medical records, including dictated medical reports and triage chief complaints. To be useful for automated systems, the free-text must be translated into encoded form.

  9. Medication errors: an overview for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L

    2014-08-01

    Medication error is an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality, yet it can be a confusing and underappreciated concept. This article provides a review for practicing physicians that focuses on medication error (1) terminology and definitions, (2) incidence, (3) risk factors, (4) avoidance strategies, and (5) disclosure and legal consequences. A medication error is any error that occurs at any point in the medication use process. It has been estimated by the Institute of Medicine that medication errors cause 1 of 131 outpatient and 1 of 854 inpatient deaths. Medication factors (eg, similar sounding names, low therapeutic index), patient factors (eg, poor renal or hepatic function, impaired cognition, polypharmacy), and health care professional factors (eg, use of abbreviations in prescriptions and other communications, cognitive biases) can precipitate medication errors. Consequences faced by physicians after medication errors can include loss of patient trust, civil actions, criminal charges, and medical board discipline. Methods to prevent medication errors from occurring (eg, use of information technology, better drug labeling, and medication reconciliation) have been used with varying success. When an error is discovered, patients expect disclosure that is timely, given in person, and accompanied with an apology and communication of efforts to prevent future errors. Learning more about medication errors may enhance health care professionals' ability to provide safe care to their patients. PMID:24981217

  10. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schieck, Hans Paetz Gen.

    The recent progress in medical imaging techniques such as magnetic-resonance imaging (nmr or mri), computer tomography (CT with X-rays), and positron-emission tomography (PET scanning using short-lived radioactive nuclei) has been impressive. Two areas where diagnostic tools lacked behind have been tomography of the blood vessels of the brain and of the bronchi.

  11. PressureText: Pressure Input for Mobile Phone Text Entry

    E-print Network

    PressureText: Pressure Input for Mobile Phone Text Entry Abstract Pressure sensitive buttons presses are currently necessary to record an action. We present PressureText, a text-entry technique for a pressure augmented mobile phone. In a study comparing PressureText to MultiTap, we found that despite

  12. Texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2007-01-01

    Lithuania Law on the Nuclear Power Plant (2007) People’s Republic of China Official Reply of the State Council to Questions on the Liabilities of Compensation for Damages Resulting from Nuclear Accidents (2007) Turkey Unofficial Translation of the Turkish Law No. 5710 Concerning the Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants and the Sale of Energy Generated from Those Plants (2007)

  13. LPB CP eTextBook

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Rubin Landau

    A pdf file that can be read using the free Abode Acrobat Reader or, for more functionality, with Acrobat Pro ($). The eBook's figures, equations, sections, chapters, index, table of contents, code listings, glossary, animations and executable codes (both Applets and Python programs) are linked, much like in a Web document. There are also links to video-based lectures covering most topics in the text, as well as to the slides used in the lectures. Section 1.2 of the text discusses how to use the various electronic features. Some movies are encapsulated into the text and some equations are linked to their xml forms (which can be imported into Maple or Mathematica for manipulation).

  14. Feasible methods to estimate disease based price indexes.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Ralph

    2013-05-01

    There is a consensus that statistical agencies should report medical data by disease rather than by service. This study computes price indexes that are necessary to deflate nominal disease expenditures and to decompose their growth into price, treated prevalence and output per patient growth. Unlike previous studies, it uses methods that can be implemented by the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS). For the calendar years 2005-2010, I find that these feasible disease based indexes are approximately 1% lower on an annual basis than indexes computed by current methods at BLS. This gives evidence that traditional medical price indexes have not accounted for the more efficient use of medical inputs in treating most diseases. PMID:23501755

  15. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  16. Dow Jones Internet Indexes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Dow Jones Indexes has created the Dow Jones Internet Index (DJII) to bring "an ordered perspective" to "the seeming chaos of Internet stocks." The new index includes companies that generate a minimum of 50 percent of their revenues from the Internet. Complete documentation of DJII components, data, historical values, and news are provided on-site.

  17. A New Body Shape Index Predicts Mortality Hazard Independently of Body Mass Index

    E-print Network

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    , United States of America, 2 Middletown Medical, Middletown, New York, United States of America Abstract Background: Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeding threshold values and Tropical Medicine, United States of America Received January 19, 2012; Accepted May 25, 2012; Published

  18. Medical Dictionary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For nurses and other health care professionals who seek to distinguish the habitus from the humerus, this online medical dictionary provided by MedicineNet will be a place to bookmark for repeat visits. The dictionary contains well-written explanations for over 16,000 medical terms, and users can go ahead and browse around, or enter keywords or phrases into the search engine that resides on the page. The site also features a â??Word of the Dayâ?ť, and visitors can also look through recent news items that address different health issues and also look over the latest entries to the dictionary. The site is rounded out by a list of the â??Top 10 Medtermsâ?ť, which is also a good way to start exploring the materials here.

  19. A class-feature-centroid classifier for text categorization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hu Guan; Jingyu Zhou; Minyi Guo

    2009-01-01

    Automated text categorization is an important technique for many web applications, such as document indexing, doc- ument filtering, and cataloging web resources. Many dif- ferent approaches have been proposed for the automated text categorization problem. Among them, centroid-based approaches have the advantages of short training time and testing time due to its computational efficiency. As a result, centroid-based classifiers have

  20. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  1. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  2. Significance of body mass index in primary and secondary pediatric hypertension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renee F. Robinson; Donald D. Batisky; Milap C. Nahata; John D. Mahan

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to 1)determine the relationship between body mass index and primary and secondary hypertension; and, 2) to assess body mass index at the age of onset of primary and secondary hypertension in children and adolescents.Patient demographics, age, race, gender, body mass index, family history, presentation of disease, etiology of hypertension, date of diagnosis, medication therapy

  3. Medical humanities in the undergraduate medical curriculum.

    PubMed

    Supe, Avinash

    2012-01-01

    The medical humanities have been introduced in medical curricula over the past 30 years in the western world. Having medical humanities in a medical school curriculum can nurture positive attitudes in the regular work of a clinician and contribute equally to personality development. Though substantial evidence in favour of a medical humanities curriculum may be lacking, the feedback is positive. It is recommended that medical humanities be introduced into the curriculum of every medical school with the purpose of improving the quality of healthcare, and the attitudes of medical graduates. PMID:23099601

  4. The Challenge of Challenging Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

  5. Text Complexity and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…

  6. Texts in Homes and Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahl, Kate

    This paper considers how children's text making is shaped by the environment in which the texts are made. By considering texts made in classrooms and texts made in homes, the paper explores how classrooms and homes interact with children's (6-7 year old boys) reflective processes as they create artifacts--drawings, models, and writings. The paper…

  7. [Medical writers in medical research.

    PubMed

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Danielsen, Anne Kjćrgaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-08-19

    Larger research units often comprise persons of several professions in order to secure a high level of efficiency and quality in the different tasks. In Denmark, employees with special competencies within the field of writing and publication are rarely used in research units. The purpose of this study was to present the advantages and challenges associated with the involvement of medical writers in academic environments. PMID:23952980

  8. Econo-ESA in semantic text similarity.

    PubMed

    Rahutomo, Faisal; Aritsugi, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    Explicit semantic analysis (ESA) utilizes an immense Wikipedia index matrix in its interpreter part. This part of the analysis multiplies a large matrix by a term vector to produce a high-dimensional concept vector. A similarity measurement between two texts is performed between two concept vectors with numerous dimensions. The cost is expensive in both interpretation and similarity measurement steps. This paper proposes an economic scheme of ESA, named econo-ESA. We investigate two aspects of this proposal: dimensional reduction and experiments with various data. We use eight recycling test collections in semantic text similarity. The experimental results show that both the dimensional reduction and test collection characteristics can influence the results. They also show that an appropriate concept reduction of econo-ESA can decrease the cost with minor differences in the results from the original ESA. PMID:24790807

  9. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  10. The role of the medical school-based consumer health information service.

    PubMed Central

    La Rocco, A

    1994-01-01

    Historically, medical information has been provided to patients at the physician's discretion. Although this method never has been wholly satisfactory, the trend toward bureaucratic organization of medical care, characterized by impersonal patient encounters and prompted by increased emphasis on cost controls, has restricted patient information even further. Yet, at the same time, the upsurge in consumer power has created patient demand for more health information. Consumers feel they have a right to expect help in obtaining information so they can make informed decisions with respect to their medical care. This paper focuses on the medical school-based consumer health service in this context. In particular, it calls attention to the medical school library as the foundation for expanded health information resources, pointing to the tools of information retrieval, as well as the substantive information contained in the medical, nursing, and allied health literature. In this setting, the consumer health librarian is called upon to act as a mediator in providing quality-filtered information to the patron, while at the same time remaining within the confines of professional expertise as a librarian. Important sources of health information are highlighted, particularly online databases, drug indexes, therapeutic texts, and physician specialist directories. PMID:8136760

  11. Medical Mystery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Nebraska State Museum

    2001-01-01

    This activity (on pages 15-23) combines interactive role-playing and graphing to introduce learners to the health affects of pollen. In the first part, learners role-play a detective on a medical case and the main character in the case. Learners formulate a hypothesis about a patient's illness. In the second part, learners graph evidence based on pollen counts and create a "final report" about what caused the patient's health problem. This activity smoothly combines health education, environmental science, and math.

  12. Medical clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M. (inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An X-ray transparent and biological inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is described. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.

  13. Recent Medical Device Recalls

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Print this page Share this page E-mail this page Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Recalls List of ...

  14. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...

  15. Multimedia medical data archive and retrieval server on the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komo, Darmadi; Levine, Betty A.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Mun, Seong K.; Tang, Y. K.; Chiang, Ted T.

    1997-05-01

    The Multimedia Medical Data Archive and Retrieval Server has been installed at the imaging science and information systems (ISIS) center in Georgetown University Medical Center to provide medical data archive and retrieval support for medical researchers. The medical data includes text, images, sound, and video. All medical data is keyword indexed using a database management system and placed temporarily in a staging area and then transferred to a StorageTek one terabyte tape library system with a robotic arm for permanent archive. There are two methods of interaction with the system. The first method is to use a web browser with HTML functions to perform insert, query, update, and retrieve operations. These generate dynamic SQL calls to the database and produce StorageTek API calls to the tape library. The HTML functions consist of a database, StorageTek interface, HTTP server, common gateway interface, and Java programs. The second method is to issue a DICOM store command, which is translated by the system's DICOM server to SQL calls and then produce StorageTek API calls to the tape library. The system performs as both an Internet and a DICOM server using standard protocols such as HTTP, HTML, Java, and DICOM. Users with proper authentication can log on to the server from anywhere on the Internet using a standard web browser resulting in a user-friendly, open environment, and platform independent solution for archiving multimedia medical data. It represents a complex integration of different components including a robotic tape storage system, database, user-interface, WWW protocols, and TCP/IP networking. The user will only deal with the WWW and DICOM server components of the system, the database and robotic tape library system are transparent and the user will not know that the medical data is stored on magnetic tapes. The server provides the researchers a cost-effective tool for archiving and retrieving medical data across a TCP/IP network environment. It will serve as a medium to exchange information between researchers at Georgetown University and those from other institutions.

  16. Using Malaria Medication for Leg Cramps Is Risky

    MedlinePLUS

    ... A to Z Index Follow FDA En Espańol Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products ... been altered or updated since it was archived. Enter Search terms For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section ...

  17. Predicting 1Year Change in Body Mass Index Among College Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy Adams; Angela Rini

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Despite beliefs about weight gain in college, few researchers have evaluated this phenomenon. Participants: Participants were 18- to 31-year-old students at a midwestern university. The dependent variable was body mass index (BMI) change. Methods: The authors extracted predictor variables from a Health Risk Appraisal. These included clinical, medical history, medical usage, medications, pain or chronic conditions, perceptual measures, and

  18. development index (HDI)

    E-print Network

    (% aged 15 and above) Combined gross enrolment ratio for primary, secondary and tertiary education (%) GDP per capita (PPP US$) Life expectancy index Education index GDP index GDP per capita (PPP US$) rank,514 n 0.889 0.791 0.925 -12 40 Chile 0.867 78.3 95.7 82.9 12,027 0.889 0.914 0.799 15 41 Bahrain 0

  19. Targeting Oral and Cultural Proficiency for Medical Personnel: An Examination of Current Medical Spanish Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…

  20. Prioritized text spotting using SLAM

    E-print Network

    Landa, Yafim

    2013-01-01

    We show how to exploit temporal and spatial coherence of image observations to achieve efficient and effective text detection and decoding for a sensor suite moving through an environment rich in text at a variety of scales ...

  1. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    MedlinePLUS

    ... created the FCC Distracted Driving Information Clearinghouse . State Laws Currently there is no national ban on texting ... driving, but a number of states have passed laws banning texting or wireless phones or requiring hands- ...

  2. Text structure-aware classification

    E-print Network

    Dzunic, Zoran, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    Bag-of-words representations are used in many NLP applications, such as text classification and sentiment analysis. These representations ignore relations across different sentences in a text and disregard the underlying ...

  3. Correcting the concentration index.

    PubMed

    Erreygers, Guido

    2009-03-01

    In recent years attention has been drawn to several shortcomings of the Concentration Index, a frequently used indicator of the socioeconomic inequality of health. Some modifications have been suggested, but these are only partial remedies. This paper proposes a corrected version of the Concentration Index which is superior to the original Concentration Index and its variants, in the sense that it is a rank-dependent indicator which satisfies four key requirements (transfer, level independence, cardinal invariance, and mirror). The paper also shows how the corrected Concentration Index can be decomposed and generalized. PMID:18367273

  4. Human Development Index Data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    United Nations

    This data set traces the varying patterns of national progress in recent decades, documenting impressive long-term Human Development Index (HDI) gains even in most low-income countries. The data set also includes three innovative new measurements: the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), the Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). The data set is available in both CSV and SDMX file formats and contains more than 100 indicators that measure quality of life for all UN member states.

  5. Meaning Representation and Text Planning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine Defrise; Sergei Nirenburg

    1990-01-01

    starts with a'world'state, represented by structures of an application program (e. g., an expert system) that has text generation needs and an impetus to produce a natu-ral language text. The output of generation is a natural language text. The generation process involves the tasks of a) delimiting the content of the eventual text, b) plano ning its structure, c) selecting

  6. Text detection for video analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lalitha Agnihotri; Nevenka Dimitrova

    1999-01-01

    Textual information brings important semantic clues in video content analysis. We describe a method for detection and representation of text in video segments. The method consists of seven steps: channel separation, image enhancement, edge detection, edge filtering, character detection, text box detection, and text line detection. Our results show that this method can be applied to English as well as

  7. Informational Text and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

  8. Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

  9. Translation and Text-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbe, Katharina

    The primary goal of translation is to enable an audience in a Target Language to understand a text/discourse which was ultimately not intended for them. The primary goal of text-analysis is to further the understanding of phenomena inside one language. There are several similarities between translation and text-analysis: both translation and…

  10. Choosing Software for Text Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be manufactured for OCLC by IBM are mentioned. (EJS)

  11. Consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Tange, H J

    1999-12-01

    This article presents an overview of a research project concerning the consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record (EMR). It describes an analysis of user needs, the design and implementation of a prototype EMR system, and the evaluation of the ease of consultation of medical narratives when using this system. In a questionnaire survey, 85 hospital physicians judged the quality of their paper-based medical record with respect to data entry, information retrieval and some other aspects. Participants were more positive about the paper medical record than the literature suggests. They wished to maintain the flexibility of data entry but indicated the need to improve the retrieval of information. A prototype EMR system was developed to facilitate the consultation of medical narratives. These parts were divided into labeled segments that could be arranged source-oriented and problem-oriented. This system was used to evaluate the ease of information retrieval of 24 internists and 12 residents at a teaching hospital when using free-text medical narratives divided at different levels of detail. They solved, without time pressure, some predefined problems concerning three voluminous, inpatient case records. The participants were randomly allocated to a sequence that was balanced by patient case and learning effect. The division of medical narratives affected speed, but not completeness of information retrieval. Progress notes divided into problem-related segments could be consulted 22% faster than when undivided. Medical history and physical examination divided into segments at organ-system level could be consulted 13% faster than when divided into separate questions and observations. These differences were statistically significant. The fastest divisions were also appreciated as the best combination of easy searching and best insight in the patient case. The results of our evaluation study suggest a trade-off between searching and reading: too much detailed segments will delay the consultation of medical narratives. Validation of the results in daily practice is recommended. PMID:10805015

  12. Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

    2010-11-01

    Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

  13. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  14. Buddhism in the Everyday Medical Practice of the Ladakhi Amchi

    E-print Network

    -religious nature. However, medical ethics and elements of medical epistemology are based on Buddhism, and allBuddhism in the Everyday Medical Practice of the Ladakhi Amchi Laurent Pordié1 Abstract Almost the entire content of the medical texts, as well as the therapeutic practices carried out daily

  15. Medical telesensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrell, Trinidad L.; Crilly, P. B.; Smith, S. F.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Britton, Charles L., Jr.; Morrison, Gilbert W.; Ericson, M. N.; Hedden, D.; Bouldin, Donald W.; Passian, A.; Downey, Todd R.; Wig, A. G.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    1998-05-01

    Medical telesensors are self-contained integrated circuits for measuring and transmitting vital signs over a distance of approximately 1-2 meters. The circuits are unhoused and contain a sensor, signal processing and modulation electronics, a spread-spectrum transmitter, an antenna and a thin-film battery. We report on a body-temperature telesensor, which is sufficiently small to be placed on a tympanic membrane in a child's ear. We also report on a pulse-oximeter telesensor and a micropack receiver/long- range transmitter unit, which receives form a telesensor array and analyzes and re-transmits the vital signs over a longer range. Signal analytics are presented for the pulse oximeter, which is currently in the form of a finger ring. A multichip module is presented as the basic signal-analysis component. The module contains a microprocessor, a field=programmable gate array, memory elements and other components necessary for determining trauma and reporting signals.

  16. Complex dynamics of text analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yongqiang; Ma, Qinghua; Zhu, Lin

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the analysis of nonlinear text quality in Chinese language. Texts produced by university students in China were represented as scale-free networks (word adjacency model), from which typical network features such as the in/outdegree, clustering coefficient and network dynamics were obtained. The method integrates the classical concepts of network feature representation and text quality series variation. The analytical and numerical scheme leads to a parameter space representation that constitutes a valid alternative to represent the network features. The results reveal that complex network features of different text qualities can be clearly revealed and applied to potential applications in other instances of text analysis.

  17. Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.

  18. Potential Bias in Medication Adherence Studies of Prevalent Users

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Matthew L; Bryson, Chris L; Wang, Virginia; Perkins, Mark; Liu, Chuan-Fen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We examined how the choice of historic medication use criteria for identifying prevalent users may bias estimated adherence changes associated with a medication copayment increase. Methods From pharmacy claims data in a retrospective cohort study, we identified 6,383 prevalent users of oral diabetes medications from four VA Medical Centers. Patients were included in this prevalent cohort if they had one fill both 3 months prior and 4–12 months prior to the index date, defined as the month in which medication copayments increased. To determine whether these historic medication use criteria introduced bias in the estimated response to a $5 medication copayment increase, we compared adherence trends from cohorts defined from different medication use criteria and from different index dates of copayment change. In an attempt to validate the prior observation of an upward trend in adherence prior to the date of the policy change, we replicated time series analyses varying the index dates prior to and following the date of the policy change, hypothesizing that the trend line associated with the policy change would differ from the trend lines that were not. Results Medication adherence trends differed when different medication use criteria were applied. Contrary to our expectations, similar adherence trends were observed when the same medication use criteria were applied at index dates when no copayment changes occurred. Conclusion To avoid introducing bias due to study design in outcomes assessments of medication policy changes, historic medication use inclusion criteria must be chosen carefully when constructing cohorts of prevalent users. Furthermore, while pharmacy data have enormous potential for population research and monitoring, there may be inherent logical flaws that limit cohort identification solely through administrative pharmacy records. PMID:23402554

  19. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Kristopher E.B., E-mail: kdennis@bccancer.bc.c [Radiation Oncology Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Duncan, Graeme [Radiation Oncology Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  20. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  1. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in the text. Problems with the many, often incompatible mobile platforms were discovered and are listed in the text. Mobile information access is a quickly growing domain and the constraints of mobile access also need to be taken into account for image retrieval. The demonstrated access to the medical literature is most relevant as the medical literature and their images are clearly the largest knowledge source in the medical field.

  2. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  3. The Heat Index \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lans P. Rothfusz

    Now that summer has spread its oppressive ridge over most of the Southern Region, NWS phones are ringing off their hooks with questions about the Heat Index. Many questions regard the actual equation used in calculating the Heat Index. Some callers are satisfied with the response that it is extremely complicated. Some are satisfied with the nomogram (see Attachment 1).

  4. Slot Index Spatial Join

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nikos Mamoulis; Dimitris Papadias

    2003-01-01

    Efficient processing of spatial joins is very important due to their high cost and frequent application in spatial databases and other areas involving multidimensional data. This paper proposes slot index spatial join (SISJ), an algorithm that joins a nonindexed data set with one indexed by an R-tree. We explore two optimization techniques that reduce the space requirements and the computational

  5. Color Constant Color Indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian V. Funt; Graham D. Finlayson

    1995-01-01

    Objects can be recognized on the basis of their color alone by color indexing, a technique developed by Swain-Ballard (1991) which involves matching color-space histograms. Color indexing fails, however, when the incident illumination varies either spatially or spectrally. Although this limitation might be overcome by preprocessing with a color constancy algorithm, we instead propose histogramming color ratios. Since the ratios

  6. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  7. Consumer Price Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    According to the Consumer Price Index for March 2000, the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (CPI-U) rose 0.8 percent in March. This is a 3.7 percent increase since March 1999. After seasonal adjustments, the CPI-U rose 0.7 percent, after a 0.5 percent increase in February 2000.

  8. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  9. Universal Index System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah

    1993-01-01

    The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.

  10. A unified monsoon index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianping Li; Qingcun Zeng

    2002-01-01

    There are several monsoon regions in the world. Some monsoon indices have been proposed to describe their variability, but a unified monsoon index suitable for all known monsoon regions has not yet been found. Here we present a unified dynamical index of monsoon, the dynamical normalized seasonality (DNS), and carry out an analysis of observation data over the past 40

  11. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  12. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

  13. [Symbol: see text]2 Optimized predictive image coding with [Symbol: see text]? bound.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Sceuchin; Dumitrescu, Sorina; Wu, Xiaolin

    2013-12-01

    In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]? error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]?-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]?-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ? error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]?-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]? error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]? metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]? error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates. PMID:24144660

  14. Further Suicidal Behavior Among Medically Serious Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beautrais, Annette L.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of rates of further suicidal behavior among individuals making medically serious suicide attempts may help to predict suicide and suicide attempt from baseline characteristics of the individual and the index suicide attempt. Data are drawn from a 5-year study of 302 individuals making medically serious suicide attempts with information…

  15. Maximizing text-mining performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sholom M. Weiss; Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; David E. Johnson; Frank J. Oles; Thilo Goetz; Thomas Hampp

    1999-01-01

    With the advent of centralized data warehouses, where\\u000a data might be stored as electronic documents or as text\\u000a fields in databases, text mining has increased in\\u000a importance and economic value. One important goal in text\\u000a mining is automatic classification of electronic\\u000a documents. Computer programs scan text in a document and\\u000a apply a model that assigns the document to one or

  16. Automatic Indexing of Handwritten Medical Forms for Search Engines

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Circulatory/Cardiac System Abdomen Digestive System Back/Thoracic/Lumbar Endocrine System Chest Excretory be tagged with multiple concepts, but none had more then five tags. 11 Body Systems 6 Body Range Locations System Head Immune System Neck/Cervical Integumentary System Pelvic/Sacrum/Coccyx Musculoskeletal System

  17. Scene text deblurring using text-specific multiscale dictionaries.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaochun; Ren, Wenqi; Zuo, Wangmeng; Guo, Xiaojie; Foroosh, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Texts in natural scenes carry critical semantic clues for understanding images. When capturing natural scene images, especially by handheld cameras, a common artifact, i.e., blur, frequently happens. To improve the visual quality of such images, deblurring techniques are desired, which also play an important role in character recognition and image understanding. In this paper, we study the problem of recovering the clear scene text by exploiting the text field characteristics. A series of text-specific multiscale dictionaries (TMD) and a natural scene dictionary is learned for separately modeling the priors on the text and nontext fields. The TMD-based text field reconstruction helps to deal with the different scales of strings in a blurry image effectively. Furthermore, an adaptive version of nonuniform deblurring method is proposed to efficiently solve the real-world spatially varying problem. Dictionary learning allows more flexible modeling with respect to the text field property, and the combination with the nonuniform method is more appropriate in real situations where blur kernel sizes are depth dependent. Experimental results show that the proposed method achieves the deblurring results with better visual quality than the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:25705915

  18. The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs

    E-print Network

    Zhu, Xuding

    The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs. We prove that if a graph G is k-degenerate, then its game coloring index is at most #1;+ 3k 1

  19. Practical vision based degraded text recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published techniques. The system successfully produced impressive OCR accuracies (90% -to- 93%) using customized systems generated by our development framework in two industrial OCR applications: water bottle label text recognition and concrete slab plate text recognition. The system was also trained for the Arabic language alphabet, and demonstrated extremely high recognition accuracy (99%) for Arabic license name plate text recognition with processing times of 10 seconds. The accuracy and run times of the system were compared to conventional and many states of art methods, the proposed system shows excellent results.

  20. Medical muddle.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    Nanette Gartrell, MD, is a psychiatrist and researcher whose investigations have documented the mental health and psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people over the past four decades. Nanette is the principal investigator of an ongoing longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination. Now in its 27th year, this project has been cited internationally in the debates over equality in marriage, foster care, and adoption. Previously on the faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, Nanette is currently a Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. In 2013, Nanette received the Association of Women Psychiatrists Presidential Commendation Award for "selfless and enduring vision, leadership, wisdom, and mentorship in the fields of women's mental health, ethics, and gender research." At the age of 63, Nanette experienced a 3 ˝ month period of intractable, incapacitating dizziness for which there was never a clear diagnosis. PMID:24400630

  1. TextArc: An Alternate Way to View a Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.

  2. Text Messaging During Simulated Driving

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank A. Drews; Hina Yazdani; Celeste N. Godfrey; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. Background: In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Method: Forty participants engaged

  3. Correct your text with Google

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie Jacquemont; Francois Jacquenet; Marc Sebban

    2007-01-01

    With the increasing amount of text files that are produced nowadays, spell checkers have become essential tools for everyday tasks of millions of end users. Among the years, several tools have been designed that show decent performances. Of course, grammatical checkers may improve corrections of texts, nevertheless, this requires large resources. We think that basic spell checking may be improved

  4. Automated Text Summarization in SUMMARIST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eduard Hovy; Chin-Yew Lin

    1999-01-01

    SUMMARIST is an attempt to create a robust automated text summarization system, based on the 'equation': summarization = topic identification + interpretation + generation. Each of these stages contains several independent modules, many of them trained on large corpora of text. We describe the system's architecture and provide details of some of its modules.

  5. Ontology-based Text Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Hotho; Steffen Staab; Alexander Maedche

    Text clustering typically involves cluster- ing in a high dimensional space, which appears difficult with regard to virtually all practical settings. In addition, given a particular clustering result it is typically very hard to come up with a good ex- planation of why the text clusters have been constructed the way they are. In this paper, we propose a new

  6. Text recycling: acceptable or misconduct?

    PubMed

    Harriman, Stephanie; Patel, Jigisha

    2014-01-01

    Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. PMID:25127654

  7. Toward Integrated Scene Text Reading.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Jerod J; Butler, Zachary; Knoll, Dugan; Feild, Jacqueline

    2013-06-26

    The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state of the art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:23817560

  8. Toward integrated scene text reading.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Jerod J; Butler, Zachary; Knoll, Dugan; Feild, Jacqueline

    2014-02-01

    The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state-of-the-art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:24356356

  9. Scottish Canadian Medical Programme

    E-print Network

    Brierley, Andrew

    educationally and socially. Competition is particularly fierce for the undergraduate Medical Schools at St. St Andrews The Medical School at St Andrews now resides in the UK's newest medical building, which UK medical school for student satisfaction; 94% of St Andrews' medical students gave the School top

  10. Medical Image Categorization using a Texture Based Symbolic Description

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Filip Florea; Eugen Barbu; Alexandrina Rogozan; Abdelaziz Bensrhair; Vasile Buzuloiu

    2006-01-01

    In the field of medical image indexation, automatic catego- rization provides the means for extracting, otherwise unavail- able, information from images. Our work is focused on con- tent-based automatic medical image categorization methods, in the on-line context of the CISMeF health-catalogue. In this study we propose and evaluate a reduced symbolic image rep- resentation. The categorization of medical images according

  11. Using LSI and its variants in Text Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batra, Shalini; Bawa, Seema

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), a well known technique in Information Retrieval has been partially successful in text retrieval and no major breakthrough has been achieved in text classification as yet. A significant step forward in this regard was made by Hofmann[3], who presented the probabilistic LSI (PLSI) model, as an alternative to LSI. If we wish to consider exchangeable representations for documents and words, PLSI is not successful which further led to the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model [4]. A new local Latent Semantic Indexing method has been proposed by some authors called "Local Relevancy Ladder-Weighted LSI" (LRLW-LSI) to improve text classification [5]. In this paper we study LSI and its variants in detail , analyze the role played by them in text classification and conclude with future directions in this area.

  12. Oxford University Press 2005 1 Data and Text Mining

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    . For example, if "mitochondrion" appeared in the submitted text, the start and end character indexes" are the higher members of the hie- rarchy starting with "mitochondrion". Such matches are called "is-a" matches, including those from different forms of the word such as plurals ("mitochondria" would match "mitochondrion

  13. Words for Pictures: analysing a corpus of art texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Salway; Chris Frehen

    The use of collateral text for indexing images is a promising approach for closing the 'semantic gap' between image databases and their users, as demonstrated by systems which process HTML tags and newspaper photograph captions to extract metadata for images. This approach can be extended in specialist domains like fine art in which the 'semantics' of paintings are articulated in

  14. New Wavelet and Color Features for Text Detection in Video

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Palaiahnakote Shivakumara; Trung Quy Phan; Chew Lim Tan

    2010-01-01

    Automatic text detection in video is an important task for efficient and accurate indexing and retrieval of multimedia data such as events identification, events boundary identification etc. This paper presents a new method comprising of wavelet decomposition and color features namely R, G and B. The wavelet decomposition is applied on three color bands separately to obtain three high frequency

  15. Automatic indexing of scanned documents: a layout-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esser, Daniel; Schuster, Daniel; Muthmann, Klemens; Berger, Michael; Schill, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Archiving official written documents such as invoices, reminders and account statements in business and private area gets more and more important. Creating appropriate index entries for document archives like sender's name, creation date or document number is a tedious manual work. We present a novel approach to handle automatic indexing of documents based on generic positional extraction of index terms. For this purpose we apply the knowledge of document templates stored in a common full text search index to find index positions that were successfully extracted in the past.

  16. Asthma Medications and Pregnancy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MD Medical Director, Health Initiatives View full profile Asthma and Pregnancy: Asthma Medications We would like to avoid all medicine ... make sure you are using it correctly. Other Asthma Related Medication Treatment Annual influenza vaccine (flu shot) ...

  17. Federal Medication Terminologies

    Cancer.gov

    The Federal Medication (FedMed) interagency collaboration is organizing an agreed set of standard, comprehensive, freely and easily accessible Federal Medication Terminologies (FMT) to improve the exchange and public availability of medication information.

  18. Nutrition Therapy Services (Medical)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... service covered? Search Medicare.gov for covered items Nutrition therapy services (medical) How often is it covered? Medicare Part B (Medical Insurance) covers medical nutrition therapy services and certain related services. A registered ...

  19. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  20. Semantics of Temporal Indexicals 

    E-print Network

    Oberlander, Jon Reid

    1987-01-01

    The thesis investigates the formal semantics of temporal indexical expressions in English. Examples of such expressions include now, tomorrow and last year. In the past, research has concentrated on instances of such ...

  1. CAD Centre - Index Searcher

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    A searchable index of the CAD Centre, a postgraduate teaching and research unit in design manufacture and engineering management, with research focused on design methods and computer support of the design process for engineering applications.

  2. The Index of Refraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2011-10-25

    In this media-rich lesson plan, students explore the refraction of light at the boundary between materials: they learn about the refractive indices of various materials and measure the index of refraction of plastic or gelatin.

  3. Toward text understanding: classification of text documents by word map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visa, Ari J. E.; Toivanen, Jarmo; Back, Barbro; Vanharanta, Hannu

    2000-04-01

    In many fields, for example in business, engineering, and law there is interest in the search and the classification of text documents in large databases. To information retrieval purposes there exist methods. They are mainly based on keywords. In cases where keywords are lacking the information retrieval is problematic. One approach is to use the whole text document as a search key. Neural networks offer an adaptive tool for this purpose. This paper suggests a new adaptive approach to the problem of clustering and search in large text document databases. The approach is a multilevel one based on word, sentence, and paragraph level maps. Here only the word map level is reported. The reported approach is based on smart encoding, on Self-Organizing Maps, and on document histograms. The results are very promising.

  4. An Experimental Text-Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Joan

    1976-01-01

    An experimental text-commentary of selected passages from Sophocles'"Antigone" is described. The commentary is intended for students seeking more than a conventional translation who do not know enough Greek to use a standard commentary. (RM)

  5. Medical narratives in electronic medical records

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Huibert J Tange; Arie Hasman; Pieter F de Vries Robbé; Harry C Schouten

    1997-01-01

    In this article, we describe the state of the art and directions of current development and research with respect to the inclusion of medical narratives in electronic medical-record systems. We used information about 20 electronic medical-record systems as presented in the literature. We divided these systems into `classical' systems that matured before 1990 and are now used in a broad

  6. Teaching Medical Ethics to Medical Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewy, Erich H.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution and goals of teaching medical ethics, the nature of medical ethics, and integrating such teaching into the curriculum are examined. Because moral considerations are as much a part of medical decisions as technical considerations, teaching is best done in the context of real cases. (Author/MLW)

  7. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  8. Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

  9. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  10. Text Mining in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

    Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

  11. Laboratory Procedures for Medical Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Pauline

    The purpose of the manual is to provide the medical assisting student a text which presents the common laboratory procedures in use today in physician's offices. The procedures for performing a complete urinalysis are outlined, along with those for carrying out various hematological tests. Information is also presented to help the student learn to…

  12. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  13. Index of Refraction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Refraction is an important behavior of light that can be used to explain the operation of lenses, prisms, and optical fiber, as well as natural phenomena such as rainbows and mirages. The index of refraction, or refractive index, is defined as the ratio of the speed of light in a vacuum to the speed of light in a material. The index of refraction is an important property of optical materials and one that can be easily measured in the laboratory.This lesson begins with a video that introduces the concept of refraction. Students learn firsthand how when a wave of light travels from one medium to another, the change in the wave's speed leads to a change in its wavelength and the bending of the wave. Next, students investigate index of refraction through an interactive media asset, research, and a class discussion. Following a video about the index of refraction and Snell's law, students work in groups to conduct their own laboratory experiment to measure the index of refraction of gelatin (or plastic).Note: This is the first of two optics lesson plans. You may want to follow this lesson with the Fiber Optics Lesson Plan.

  14. Text-to-Text Similarity of Sentences Vasile Rus1

    E-print Network

    Rus, Vasile

    can increase total heat production in the body markedly. SP: alot of excercise can make your body S. McNamara2 1 Department of Computer Science 2 Department of Psychology Institute for Intelligent two texts is a central task in many applications, including summarization, intelligent tutoring

  15. Text Format, Text Comprehension, and Related Reader Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Jodi L.

    2009-01-01

    This investigation explored relationships between format of text (electronic or print-based) and reading comprehension of adolescent readers. Also in question were potential influences on comprehension from related measures including academic placement of participants, gender, prior knowledge of the content, and overall reading ability. Influences…

  16. Text Structures, Readings, and Retellings: An Exploration of Two Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Prisca; Arya, Poonam; Wilson, Pat; Jin, Lijun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between children's use of reading strategies and language cues while reading and their comprehension after reading two texts: "Cherries and Cherry Pits" (Williams, 1986) and "There's Something in My Attic" (Mayer, 1988). The data were drawn from a larger study of the reading strategies of…

  17. Refractive-index profiling of graded-index planar waveguides from effective indexes measured with different external refractive indexes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kin Seng Chiang; Chi Lai Wong; Sin Yip Cheng; Hau Ping Chan

    2000-01-01

    We extend the well-known inverse Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) method for refractive-index profiling of graded-index planar waveguides. We demonstrate, with numerical examples and experimental results, that the refractive-index profile of a graded-index planar waveguide can be calculated from effective indexes measured with different external refractive indexes. With this technique, single-mode and two-mode waveguides can be profiled easily to a good accuracy.

  18. Computer Structuring of Free-Text Patient Data

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Carol; Sager, Naomi; Chi, Emile C.; Marsh, Elaine; Christenson, Catherine; Lyman, Margaret S.

    1983-01-01

    This paper will describe ongoing work on developing a computer representation of the information in patient narrative for mapping into a database. Previous papers reported on the design of the database and pilot applications of the system. This paper describes the steps in the text-processing, with particular emphasis on the modules that introduce semantic (i.e. medical) information into the analysis.

  19. What If My Child Doesn't Take His or Her Asthma Medication?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Child Doesn't Take His or Her Asthma Medication? KidsHealth > Parents > Asthma Center > Medications & Monitoring > What if My Child Doesn't Take His or Her Asthma Medication? Print A A A Text Size What's ...

  20. 78 FR 55244 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Medical Facilities Development and University...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-10

    ...Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for Medical Facilities Development...education to the military medical community and enable...of the installation, medical center, or the USU...complete text of the Record of Decision...

  1. “Free Full Text Articles”: Where to Search for Them?

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ashish; Singh, Manish; Singh, Ajai Kumar; Singh, Deepti; Singh, Pratibha; Sharma, Abhishek

    2011-01-01

    References form the backbone of any medical literature. Presently, because of high inflation, it is very difficult for any library/organization/college to purchase all journals. The condition is even worse for an individual person, such as private practitioners. The solution lies in the free availability of full-text articles. Here, the authors share their experiences about the accessibility of free full-text articles. PMID:22223965

  2. Networked medical monitoring in the battlefield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae-Ki Cho; Chia-Wei Chang; Min-Hsieh Tsai; Mario Gerla

    2008-01-01

    With critical data gathered during the battlefields, commanders are able to generate more plans and make better decisions more swiftly. Providing up-to-minute medical information such as physical and psychological fitness of each soldier can significantly help these decisions. The most of current medical information gathering system is in a format of speech or text. To collect this data with mobile

  3. Alex Catalog of Electronic Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This catalog, maintained by Eric Lease Morgan, a systems librarian at North Carolina State University, specializes in American literature, English literature, and philosophy. Alex is particularly helpful because the search interface allows researchers to both look for documents and search the content of those documents. Users first search standard fields such as author, title, or publication date; then they can search the content of documents they select from their returns list. Though returns in content searches would be more convenient were they hyperlinked to the complete record for the text, such a search nonetheless has obvious utility for someone writing on, for example, flower imagery in Shakespearian sonnets or Emerson's vision of democracy. Another nice feature of the catalog is the ability to convert documents to .pdf files on-the-fly (with the font and spacing customizable). Alternately, users can download the whole collection of American or English literature or philosophy texts and the tools to search the texts.

  4. Southeast Asian images and Texts project

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    McCoy, Alfred W.

    1996-01-01

    Southeast Asian Images and Text, a joint production of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, the General Library System, and the Division of Information Technology at the University of Wisconsin, is the beginning of an attempt to provide an "interactive multimedia database" including hyptertext bibliographic references and descriptive text for each multimedia item. The project is in its first phase: a searchable collection of images from the Philippines. Future plans include expansion of this collection to over 6,000 images and digital sound and video archives. The power of the site is its search capability, which offers keyword, atlas, and multiple field search. There are also 6 predefined searches that allow users to take a "virtual tour" through the collection, and a searchable inverted index of cataloging terms used in the development of the site. The site is accompanied by an essay on the development of photography in the Philippines, which demonstrates the integration of the project into multidisciplinary studies on the Philippines.

  5. Medical imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Kreel, L.

    1991-01-01

    There is now a wide choice of medical imaging to show both focal and diffuse pathologies in various organs. Conventional radiology with plain films, fluoroscopy and contrast medium have many advantages, being readily available with low-cost apparatus and a familiarity that almost leads to contempt. The use of plain films in chest disease and in trauma does not need emphasizing, yet there are still too many occasions when the answer obtainable from a plain radiograph has not been available. The film may have been mislaid, or the examination was not requested, or the radiograph had been misinterpreted. The converse is also quite common. Examinations are performed that add nothing to patient management, such as skull films when CT will in any case be requested or views of the internal auditory meatus and heal pad thickness in acromegaly, to quote some examples. Other issues are more complicated. Should the patient who clinically has gall-bladder disease have more than a plain film that shows gall-stones? If the answer is yes, then why request a plain film if sonography will in any case be required to 'exclude' other pathologies especially of the liver or pancreas? But then should cholecystography, CT or scintigraphy be added for confirmation? Quite clearly there will be individual circumstances to indicate further imaging after sonography but in the vast majority of patients little or no extra information will be added. Statistics on accuracy and specificity will, in the case of gall-bladder pathology, vary widely if adenomyomatosis is considered by some to be a cause of symptoms or if sonographic examinations 'after fatty meals' are performed. The arguments for or against routine contrast urography rather than sonography are similar but the possibility of contrast reactions and the need to limit ionizing radiation must be borne in mind. These diagnostic strategies are also being influenced by their cost and availability; purely pragmatic considerations are not infrequently the overriding factor. Non-invasive methods will be preferred, particularly sonography as it is far more acceptable by not being claustrophobic and totally free of any known untoward effects. There is another quite different but unrelated aspect. The imaging methods, apart from limited exceptions, cannot characterize tissues as benign or malignant, granulomatous or neoplastic; cytology or histology usually provides the answer. Sonography is most commonly used to locate the needle tip correctly for percutaneous sampling of tissues. Frequently sonography with fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy is the least expensive, safest and most direct route to a definitive diagnosis. Abscesses can be similarly diagnosed but with needles or catheters through which the pus can be drained. The versatility and mobility of sonography has spawned other uses, particularly for the very ill and immobile, for the intensive therapy units and for the operating theatre, as well in endosonography. The appointment of more skilled sonographers to the National Health Service could make a substantial contribution to cost-effective management of hospital services. Just when contrast agents and angiography have become safe and are performed rapidly, they are being supplanted by scanning methods. They are now mainly used for interventional procedures or of pre-operative 'road maps' and may be required even less in the future as MRI angiography and Doppler techniques progress. MRI will almost certainly extent its role beyond the central nervous system (CNS) should the equipment become more freely available, especially to orthopaedics. Until then plain films, sonography or CT will have to suffice. Even in the CNS there are conditions where CT is more diagnostic, as in showing calculations in cerebral cysticercosis. Then, too, in most cases CT produces results comparable to MRI apart from areas close to bone, structures at the base of the brain, in the posterior fossa and in the spinal cord. Scintigraphy for pulmonary infarcts and bone metastases and in renal disease in children plays

  6. Finding text in color images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiangying; Lopresti, Daniel P.; Tasdizen, Tolga

    1998-04-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of locating and extracting text from WWW images. A previous algorithm based on color clustering and connected components analysis works well as long as the color of each character is relatively uniform and the typography is fairly simple. It breaks down quickly, however, when these assumptions are violated. In this paper, we describe more robust techniques for dealing with this challenging problem. We present an improved color clustering algorithm that measures similarity based on both RGB and spatial proximity. Layout analysis is also incorporated to handle more complex typography. THese changes significantly enhance the performance of our text detection procedure.

  7. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989

  8. US Patent Full Text Database

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The US Patent and Trademark Office has recently added a new full-text database of all US patents issued from January 1, 1976 to the most recent weekly issue date to its Web Patent Databases page (described in the January 10, 1997 Scout Report). Users may conduct fielded and boolean searches or search by patent number. The full-text returns include the Summary, Claims, Description, and References. Drawings and images are not available online. Search tips and help are provided at the site.

  9. Morpho-semantic parsing of medical expressions.

    PubMed Central

    Baud, R. H.; Lovis, C.; Rassinoux, A. M.; Scherrer, J. R.

    1998-01-01

    The task of editing, indexing, storing, and retrieving medical expressions within medical records remains the main objective for the years to come. Therefore, the need for a parser with semantic capabilities able to robustly extract an essential part of the knowledge embedded in the medical record is paramount. The minimal requirements before considering clinical trials are that such a system has to be in position to handle any source of medical information and to conveniently grasp the main key concepts with low silence, good recognition of modalities and acceptable noise. This paper shows that the potential of morpho-semantic parsing is high to meet these conditions. This technique is an important complement to the traditional lexical approach and to expression-oriented systems like controlled vocabularies. PMID:9929321

  10. Discriminability measures for predicting readability of text on textured backgrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, L. F.; Hill, A. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Several discriminability measures were examined for their ability to predict reading search times for three levels of text contrast and a range of backgrounds (plain, a periodic texture, and four spatial-frequency-filtered textures created from the periodic texture). Search times indicate that these background variations only affect readability when the text contrast is low, and that spatial frequency content of the background affects readability. These results were not well predicted by the single variables of text contrast (Spearman rank correlation = -0.64) and background RMS contrast (0.08), but a global masking index and a spatial-frequency-selective masking index led to better predictions (-0.84 and -0.81, respectively). c2000 Optical Society of America.

  11. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1070 Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter....

  12. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1070 Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter....

  13. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1070 Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter....

  14. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1070 Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter....

  15. 21 CFR 874.1070 - Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...1070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 874.1070 Short increment sensitivity index (SISI) adapter....

  16. Transformation and Text: Journal Pedagogy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Carol

    One intention that an instructor had for her new course called "Writing and Healing: Women's Journal Writing" was to make apparent the power of self-written text to transform the writer. She asked her students--women studying women writing their lives and women writing their own lives--to write three pages a day and to focus on change. The…

  17. Automatic Detection of Text Genre

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brett Kessler; Geoffrey Nunberg; Hinrich Schuetze

    1997-01-01

    As the text databases available to users become larger and more heterogeneous, genre becomes increasingly important for computational linguistics as a complement to topical and structural principles of classification. We propose a theory of genres as bundles of , which correlate with various surface cues, and argue that genre detection based on surface cues is as successful as detection based

  18. Critical Edition of Sanskrit Texts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Csernel; François Patte

    2008-01-01

    A critical edition takes into account all the different known versions of the same text in order to show the differ- ences between any two distinct versions. The construction of a critical edition is a long and, sometimes, tedious work. Some software that help the philologist in such a task have been available for a long time for the European

  19. Controversial Texts and Public Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David L.

    Because public schools are designed to serve the widest range of interests and are committed to the ideal of democracy, teachers cannot afford to avoid teaching works or presenting ideas that offend some members of communities. Students need to learn the value of controversy and of the challenges posed by a text. Richard Wright's "Native Son" and…

  20. A Visually Oriented Text Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    HERMAN employs Evans & Sutherland Picture System 2 to provide screenoriented editing capability for DEC PDP-11 series computer. Text altered by visual indication of characters changed. Group of HERMAN commands provides for higher level operations. HERMAN provides special features for editing FORTRAN source programs.

  1. Solar Concepts: A Background Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

  2. A Hypertext Observational Astronomy Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, G. E.; Ianna, P. A.

    1994-12-01

    The Internet, World Wide Web, and Mosaic inspire new and innovative approaches to organizing textual materials for educational purposes and for providing access to these materials. We have taken a textbook under construction and converted it into electronic form for use with other class materials in an upper level undergraduate observational astronomy course at the University of Virginia. There are many advantages to this approach for a text. These include relative ease and speed of preparation compared with formal publication, much superior results compared with photocopying, and low cost to the student. Color photographs may easily be integrated with text. The text is easy to revise and keep current, and it would be a straightforward matter to include user contributions and interaction. Of special value is the structure that can be built in the documents with hypertext anchors. We established links between the class syllabus and the main text, to the illustrated operating manuals for the instrumentation used in the course, to more detailed or difficult material, and to other World Wide Web servers.

  3. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  4. Reading Instruction and Text Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donne, Vicki

    2011-01-01

    An observational study investigated the influence of text difficulty (independent, instructional, or frustration level) on the reading experiences of students in grades 1-3 in two schools for the deaf. Participants included 12 students who are deaf or hard of hearing and 5 educators. The most significant findings were twofold. First, students…

  5. Text, competence and logic: An exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Nigel Gilbert; Christian Heath

    1986-01-01

    Professional medical practice, like other organizational conduct, relies upon records which document transactions between members and their clientele. Medical practitioners employ a set of conventions providing for the systematic recording and interpretation of medical record cards that forms a social organization underlying the records cards' ordinary usage. In this paper we examine these conventions and develop a computer program which

  6. The Quilt Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    With the goal of creating a single, comprehensive index to American quilts, the Quilt Index builds on the work of 4 state quilt documentation and digitization projects: the Michigan Quilt Project, Kentucky Quilt Project, Illinois Quilt Research Project, and Quilts of Tennessee (more information about these projects is at the site). Currently almost 900 quilt images and pieces of information are searchable in the Quilt Index. The project has established standards for data elements to be collected, and forms to facilitate the addition of quilt documentation from other states. Quilts dating from 1800 to 1999 can be searched by pattern name, quilter's name, location made, date, and collection or documentation project. Searches by pattern name (baby blocks, ocean waves, wedding ring) are possible, but the interface is quite picky about singular and plural. Several ways to browse are also available, such as by collection, period, and style/technique, or choose "view the entire index" to display 887 quilts and records. The Quilt Index is hosted by MATRIX, the humanities technology center at Michigan State University that also hosts H-Net, Humanities and Social Sciences OnLine.

  7. The THCME Medical Biochemistry Page

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Provided by Dr. Michael W. King of the Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, this stellar resource offers a wealth of biochemistry information, from the basic chemistry of biomolecules to Glycosaminoglycans and mucopolysaccharides. Designed with the undergraduate in mind, each section contains full-text descriptions of a particular subject with accompanying illustrations, tables, figures, and references. Users looking for further information on any topic can use the MedHunt search engine from the front page here to search multiple online medical sources. For any student of biochemistry, this resource will be a valuable asset.

  8. Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

  9. Aberrations of Gradient-Index Lenses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, A. L.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. In this thesis, the primary aberrations of lenses with a radial focussing gradient-of-index are analysed. Such a lens has a refractive index profile which decreases continuously and radially outward from the optical axis, so that the surfaces of constant refractive index are circular cylinders which are coaxial with the optical axis. Current applications of these lenses include photocopiers, medical endoscopes, telecommunications systems and compact disc systems. Closed formulae for the primary wavefront aberrations for a gradient-index lens with curved or plane entry and exit faces are obtained from the differential equations of such a lens to assess the primary transverse ray aberrations that it introduces. Identical expressions are then obtained by using the difference in optical path length produced between two rays by the lens. This duplication of the derivations of the primary wavefront aberrations acts as a confirmation of the validity of the expressions. One advantage of these equations is that the contributions due to the primary spherical aberration, coma, astigmatism, field curvature and distortion can be assessed individually. A Fortran 77 program has been written to calculate each of these individual contributions, the total primary wavefront aberrations and the primary transverse ray aberrations. Further confirmation of the validity of the expressions is obtained by using this program to show that the coma and distortion were both zero for fully symmetric systems working at unit magnification. The program is then used to assess the primary wavefront aberrations for a gradient-index lens which is currently of interest to the telecommunications industry. These results are compared with values obtained using a finite ray-tracing program for the total wavefront aberrations. This shows that the primary wavefront aberrations are the completely dominant contribution to the total wavefront aberrations of this gradient-index lens.

  10. Using latent semantic indexing for information filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. Foltz

    1990-01-01

    Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is an information retrieval method that organizes information into a semantic structure that takes advantage of some of the implicit higher-order associations of words with text objects. The resulting structure reflects the major associative patterns in the data while ignoring some of the smaller variations that may be due to idiosyncrasies in the word usage of

  11. Children's Hospital Medical Center

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    UNIVERSITY COMMONS Children's Hospital Medical Center Children's Hospital Medical Research Center Complex Radiation Safety HealthProfessions Building WherryHall Veterans Affairs Medical Center VAMC VAMC ShrinersHospital forChildren Shriners Garage Cincinnati Dept of Health LoganHall Medical Sciences Building

  12. Medical Ethics, Boundaries and

    E-print Network

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    Discussions Jessica Berg, JD, MPH 2:00-3:00 pm Perspective of the State Medical Board William schmidt, JD 3Medical Ethics, Boundaries and Professionalism I N T E N S I V E C O U R S E I N February 2-3, 2012 Medical education Program sponsored by: #12;IntenSIve CourSe In Medical Ethics, Boundaries

  13. Medicine and Medical Center

    E-print Network

    Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) #12;400 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Graduate Catalogue 2014­15 Faculty of Medicine and Medical Center (FM/AUBMC) Officers Vice President for Medical Affairs and the Raja N. Khuri Dean of the Faculty of Medicine Ziyad Ghazzal

  14. The Medical Passport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ineson, Sue; Seeling, Stephen S.

    2005-01-01

    A Working Group on Medical Passports was established in 2002 by the International Association of Medical Regulatory Authorities. The goal of this group was to develop a fast-track registration process for highly qualified medical practitioners wishing to move from one jurisdiction to another. A "medical passport" would be available only to…

  15. Neural net learning issues in classification of free text documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dasigi, V.R. [Sacred Heart Univ., Santurce (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Technology; Mann, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-03-01

    In intelligent analysis of large amounts of text, not any single clue indicates reliably that a pattern of interest has been found. When using multiple clues, it is not known how these should be integrated into a decision. In the context of this investigation, we have been using neural nets as parameterized mappings that allow for fusion of higher level clues extracted from free text. By using higher level clues and features, we avoid very large networks. By using the dominant singular values computed by Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) and applying neural network algorithms for integrating these values and the outputs from other ``sensors,`` we have obtained preliminary encouraging results with text classification.

  16. Negative acoustic index metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fok, L.; Zhang, X.

    2011-06-01

    Acoustic metamaterials utilizing periodic deep subwavelength resonators can attain negative acoustic properties unavailable in nature. We have developed a negative acoustic index metamaterial for water that combines Helmholtz and rod-spring resonators to control effective bulk modulus and mass density, respectively. Effective properties extracted from full-wave simulations of our metamaterial show that negative real components of bulk modulus and density occur simultaneously, resulting in a negative real component of the acoustic index. Experimental measurements on a sample of this metamaterial confirm that the real components of the acoustic index and bulk modulus attain negative values, but the density does not become negative. The primary causes of this are identified and potential solutions are presented.

  17. Internet Corruption Perception Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Internet Corruption Perception Index is provided by Transparency International and Goettingen University, Germany. The goal of the site to "rank countries by the extent of corruption in public administration." The ranking can then be used to help assess country risks. The Internet Corruption Perception Index is published annually and is based on "surveys undertaken by Gallup International, the World Competitiveness Yearbook, assessments by Political & Economic Risk Consultancy in Hong Kong, DRI/McGraw Hill Global Risk Service, Political Risk Services in Syracuse, USA, and data gathered from internet sources directly." The index for 1997 covers 52 countries, including both developed and developing countries. Recently added to the site is the report on the bribery propensity of leading exporting nations; this section investigates the "propensity to pay bribes for the acquisition of contracts in international trade." At the site, visitors can provide their own input on a country's bribery propensity.

  18. STS-3 medical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L. (editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (editor); Mason, J. A. (editor)

    1982-01-01

    The medical operations report for STS-3, which includes a review of the health of the crew before, during, and immediately after the third Shuttle orbital flight is presented. Areas reviewed include: health evaluation, medical debriefing of crewmembers, health stabilization program, medical training, medical 'kit' carried in flight, tests and countermeasures for space motion sickness, cardiovascular profile, biochemistry and endocrinology results, hematology and immunology analyses, medical microbiology, food and nutrition, potable water, shuttle toxicology, radiological health, and cabin acoustic noise. Environmental effects of shuttle launch and landing medical information management, and management, planning, and implementation of the medical program are also dicussed.

  19. Randomised Trial of Text Messaging on Adherence to Cardiovascular Preventive Treatment (INTERACT Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Wald, David S.; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Raiman, Lewis; Brendell, Rebecca; Wald, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background About one third of patients prescribed blood pressure or lipid-lowering drugs for the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke do not take their medication as prescribed. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate text messaging as a means of improving adherence to cardiovascular disease preventive treatment. Methods 303 patients taking blood pressure and/or lipid-lowering medications were randomly assigned to being sent text messages (Text group, 151) or not being sent them (No text group, 152). Texts were sent daily for 2 weeks, alternate days for 2 weeks and weekly thereafter for 22 weeks (6 months overall), using an automated computer programme. Patients were asked to respond on whether they had taken their medication, whether the text reminded them to do so if they had forgotten, and if they had not taken their medication to determine if there was a reason for not doing so. At 6 months, use of medication was assessed. Results Two patients were lost to follow-up, providing data on 301 for analysis. In the No text group 38/151 (25%) took less than 80% of the prescribed regimen (ie. stopped medication completely or took it on fewer than 22 of the last 28 days of follow-up) compared to 14/150 patients (9%) in the Text group – an improvement in adherence affecting 16 per 100 patients (95% CI 7 to 24), p<0.001. The texts reminded 98/151 patients (65%) to take medication on at least one occasion and lead to 20/151 (13%) who stopped taking medication because of concern over efficacy or side-effects, resuming treatment. Conclusions In patients taking blood pressure or lipid-lowering treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, text messaging improved medication adherence compared with no text messaging. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN74757601 PMID:25479285

  20. Price Theory: An Intermediate Text

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Friedman, David D.

    David D. Friedman, Professor of Law at Santa Clara University, has made his textbook, "Price Theory: An Intermediate Text" available on the web. The book focuses on trying to teach students the "economic way of thinking" and the "analytical core of economics -- price theory." Topics covered include consumer choice, market structure and economic efficiency. Price Theory also contains chapters on less conventional topics such as the political marketplace, the economics of law and law breaking; and the economics of love and marriage.

  1. Placing a text in context

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debra L. Long; Alice Spooner

    2010-01-01

    Can readers accurately retrieve information about the context in which text comprehension occurs? If so, does their memory\\u000a for context vary with their level of comprehension? Participants studied ambiguous passages in a high-knowledge or low-knowledge\\u000a condition. They were then asked to remember the spatial location of individual sentences, the color of a border surrounding\\u000a the passage, or the color of

  2. September 2008 TIMBER & FORESTRY INDEX

    E-print Network

    are the S&P Emerging Markets Infrastructure Index, the S&P Global Alternative Energy Index, the S&P Global&P Global Alternative Energy Index. Designed to measure investable opportunities in the complete alternative energy space, the S&P Global Alternative Energy Index is the combination of the S&P Global Clean Energy

  3. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  4. GeoIndex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GeoIndex Search Engine, which is continually updated, contains some new features making a regular reviewing of the site worthwhile. GeoIndex is "a powerful Search Engine developed, owned and maintained by Datasurge Company to specifically fill a need for the Geo-Environmental professional" by covering geotechnical, environmental, hydrogeology, geology, mining, and petroleum topics. The highlights of the site include the clear and descriptive search results, and the well-designed and browsable "nested" categories including companies, associations, education, and government Web sites. [JAB

  5. Schmidt Sting Pain Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    0000-00-00

    This Wikipedia page has the cleanest version of the Schmidt Sting Pain Index I've seen online. Justin O. Schmidt created this index after years of work with Hymenoptera, and relates his vast experience with their venom to a scale that can be understood by all. The page has only a few references, but one of those will take you to Christ Starr's four stage sting pain scale. At the top of the scale are bullet ants, and pepsis wasps, at the bottom are sweat bees and fire ants.

  6. TIGR Drosophila Gene Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1999-01-01

    TIGR, The Institute for Genomic Research, has announced the release of the Drosophila Gene Index (DGI). The Drosophila Gene Index, which may be searched by Nucleotide or Protein Sequence, Identifier (TC, ET, EST, GB) Tissue, cDNA Library Name or cDNA Library Identifier(cat#), or Gene Product Name, contains some 50,500 total sequences (ET, EST, TC, and singletons). Data may be requested free of charge by "researchers at non-profit institutions using it for non-commercial purposes;" instructions are provided on-site.

  7. Index of endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, Satya

    1957-01-01

    The author discusses the difficulties involved in defining the term “endemicity”, and suggests a new approach to the problem—namely, the establishment of indices of endemicity, based on such data as are usually collected by national health administrations (mortality and morbidity rates, spleen-rates, case incidence in seaports, etc.). Examples are given of the calculation of the endemicity index for a number of diseases from different types of data obtained from various countries. An important advantage of the endemicity index is that it provides an easy means of studying the geographical pattern of endemic foci of disease. PMID:13479767

  8. Student Derived KP Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is an activity about the Kp index, a quantification of fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field due to the relative strength of a magnetic storm. Learners will take a reading from a magnetometer site and make a Kp index estimate to predict whether or not an aurora display will occur near that site. This resource is designed to support student analysis of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) Magnetometer line-plot data. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access. This is activity 18 in Exploring Magnetism: Earth’s Magnetic Personality.

  9. PEDINFO: An Index of the Pediatric Internet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1997-01-01

    This web site gathers pointers to Internet resources for pediatricians and others interested in pediatrics. As the editor of the site points out, the only criterion for inclusion in this index is, "Would this resource be of use to a pediatrician?" Sections include: conditions and diseases, subspecialties and areas of study, institutions, education, publications, software, Internet exploration, parenting, and information on the PEDINFO mailing list on pediatric medical informatics. A search engine for the entire site is available. A notable resource is the "Help" page, which is a guide to finding pediatric information on the Internet, not just on this particular site.

  10. Begin with a text: teaching the poetics of medicine.

    PubMed

    Belling, Catherine

    2013-12-01

    This paper suggests that the purpose of humanities teaching within medical education should be primarily to teach and promote the informed, attentive, critical, and precise reading of the multiple texts that constitute medicine as a discursive field-in short, a poetics of medicine. This claim is illustrated by reconsidering Margaret Edson's play Wit, not as it is often used in medical education, as a cautionary tale about unprofessional behavior or as a way to inculcate "humanistic skills," but as an analysis of the relationships between texts and feelings-or cognition and emotion, or science and art. This reading is illustrated by comparing the poetics of Wit with those of two other texts representing ovarian cancer: a scientific paper in Oncology and a clinical case conference in JAMA. PMID:23996055

  11. Intrasubject Medication Adherence Patterns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cynthia L. Russell; Vicki S. Conn; Catherine Ashbaugh; Richard Madsen; Karen Hayes; Gilbert Ross

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective descriptive study was to explore the patterns of intrasubject (between medication) adherence of two similarly timed, twice-daily medications using the Medication Event Management System® electronic monitoring cap. Medication adherence was measured for 6 months using electronic monitoring in 25 adult renal-transplant recipients. Data were available from 7,119 electronic medication events. Results indicated that two twice-daily

  12. eJMG: Journal of Medical Genetics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The British Medical Association has announced the online availability of Journal of Medical Genetics (JMG). Published monthly, JMG covers a range of topics from basic research to clinical reports, "diagnostic methods and psychosocial aspects of clinical genetics. Areas of special interest include: Molecular genetics and its clinical application; Development of medical genetics services; Dysmorphology: the delineation and genetic basis of new syndromes; Ethical and social aspects of medical genetics." Online, full-text content begins with the January 1999 issue; online abstracts begin March 1975. Note that the free trial period for Journal of Medical Genetics Online ends March 1, 2000. This publication is made available by the British Medical Association in conjunction with Stanford University's HighWire Press.

  13. Medical practice and related insurance.

    PubMed

    Chormunge, Vijay; Pawar, Vasantrao; Patil, Ajay

    2012-03-01

    The liability of a doctor as regards medical negligence is now a well accepted eventuality. However still many doctors and hospitals are unaware of their liability on account of negligence on the part of their junior doctors and hospital staff. Indemnity insurance specifically protects you against your liability to pay compensation including legal costs, fees or expenses. If court orders to pay compensation for negligence of patient and you have a valid insurance cover, the insurance company is supposed to pay the money. In the present text we are highlighting the medical practice related insurance such as personal indemnity insurance, error and omission policy for hospital and nursing homes and insurance policy related to damage to hospital building, damage to electrical and electronics appliances and also insurance for doctor's kit, signboard, burglary, fidelity guarantee and loss of money in transit. All this medical practice related insurance is explained with its present charges, terms and conditions and its importance in today's practice. PMID:23029950

  14. ABOUTTHEMEDICALCOLLEGE A Premier Medical School

    E-print Network

    ..........................................37 Research Education....................................... 39 Medical Scientist Training ProgramABOUTTHEMEDICALCOLLEGE A Premier Medical School MEDICAL SCHOOL ACADEMIC BULLETIN 2012­2013 #12;2 THE MEDICAL COLLEGE OF WISCONSIN MEDICAL SCHOOL ACADEMIC BULLETIN 2012-2013 Vision, Mission, and Accreditation

  15. ABOUTTHEMEDICALCOLLEGE A Premier Medical School

    E-print Network

    ..........................................37 Research Education....................................... 39 Medical Scientist Training ProgramABOUTTHEMEDICALCOLLEGE A Premier Medical School MEDICAL SCHOOL ACADEMIC BULLETIN 2011­2012 #12;2 THE MEDICAL COLLEGE OF WISCONSIN MEDICAL SCHOOL ACADEMIC BULLETIN 2011­2012 Vision, Mission, and Accreditation

  16. Identifying Issue Frames in Text

    PubMed Central

    Sagi, Eyal; Diermeier, Daniel; Kaufmann, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909

  17. Primary Students and Informational Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hallie Kay Yopp

    2006-11-01

    Anyone who has spent time looking into science books with young children has no doubt experienced the endless questions that the information and visuals in the books can stimulate. Can snakes climb trees? How do frogs hide from predators? Why do volcanoes erupt? Books prompt questions, which can lead to further reading about and investigations of science topics. Whether from a textbook or a nonfiction trade book, informational text can be the fuel that sparks curiosity about and interest in science, thus contributing to the development of science attitudes.

  18. CELT: Corpus of Electronic Texts

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.

  19. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  20. GeoIndex

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    GeoIndex, povided by the Datasurge Company, is a search engine specially geared towards geo-environmental professionals. Specific database topics include geotechnical, environmental, hydrogeology, geology, mining, and petroleum. The website is searched via phrases entered by the user. Searches can be narrowed by entering multiple phrases and limiting the search to one of the four key areas: Companies, Associations, Education, and Government.

  1. Air Quality Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WGBH Educational Foundation

    2011-03-21

    In this interactive activity adapted from Air Quality Index: A Guide to Air Quality and Your Health by the U.S. EPA, learn about common pollutants in the air we breathe, their health effects, and how their levels are reported.

  2. Glycemic Index Values Database

    Cancer.gov

    NCI has developed a listing of Glycemic Index (GI) values for individual foods. Food codes from the USDA Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (CSFII) are used as a reference. This file provides GI values for those foods consumed by adults and queried on the DHQ or other FFQs used at NCI.

  3. Air Quality Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Air Quality Index (AQI) site contains tutorials about the difference between clean and dirty air, what the AQI is and the colors and numbers used to describe it, the effect of air pollution on health, and what people can do about pollution. There are also online games, which test understanding of the tutorials and a section containing teacher materials.

  4. Adriano Palma Around Indexicals

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    understanding and a clear definition. Ahad Ha'am, "Past and Future"1 Gottlob Frege tried to reconcile his notion natural languages, unlike logical artificial systems, need indexicals? Frege had one answer; other answers. 2 "Logical Investigations" (1918­1926), now in Frege (1984). 3 See, e.g., Castañeda (1989

  5. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzŕlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  6. Internet Intelligence Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1998-01-01

    Compiled by competitive intelligence firm Fuld & Company, the Internet Intelligence Index is a compilation of sites useful in gathering competitor and marketplace information on the Internet. All links are annotated and organized by subjects ranging from legal resources to patents and industry-specific information. Additional information on the field of competitive intelligence in general is available on site.

  7. Braintrack University Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Billing itself "the world's most complete Education-index," this handy site lists URLs for over 5,300 higher education institutions all over the world (152 countries). Users can drill down to universities beginning with either continent or country, or search by keyword. A listing of new additions and a form to add URLs are also included. {MD

  8. Gradient index metamaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. Smith; J. J. Mock; A. F. Starr; D. Schurig

    2005-01-01

    Metamaterials---artificially structured materials with tailored electromagnetic response---can be designed to have properties difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional materials fabrication methods. Here we present a structured metamaterial, based on conducting split ring resonators (SRRs), which has an effective index of refraction with a constant spatial gradient. We experimentally confirm the gradient by measuring the deflection of a microwave beam

  9. Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

  10. Random gradient index metamaterials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruopeng Liu; Chunlin Ji; J. J. Mock; Tiejun Cui; David R. Smith

    2008-01-01

    We report a broadband reflectionless gradient random medium design and experimental implementation by using metamaterial technology. This gradient random medium matches the impedance of the air and gradually change its refraction index randomly, creating a puzzle for wave propagation in front of a metal conductor. Thus, such type of coating is expected to diffuse the reflection waves from a conductor

  11. Development of Language Analysis Procedures With Application to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol Elizabeth

    Specifically, the problem which this research addresses is the development of procedures which define the relational attributes to words in English text. These relational attributes are considered an essential part of any good index and therefore an antecedent to the production of good indexes by automated means. The organization of this…

  12. A daptive Spatial Indexing for Robust Distributed Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew V. Mahoney

    A spatial index suitable for implementation of a multidimensionally keyed database (such as text retrieval system) in an unreliable, decentralized, distributed environment is shown to have complexity comparable to the Internet's Domain Name Service and better than USENET or Web search engines. The index is a graph mapped into Euclidean space with high smoothness, a property allowing efficient backtrack-free directed

  13. Medical Laboratory Technician (Chemistry and Urinalysis). (AFSC 92470).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Joselyn H.

    This four-volume student text is designed for use by Air Force personnel enrolled in a self-study extension course for medical laboratory technicians. Covered in the individual volumes are medical laboratory administration and clinical chemistry (career opportunities, general laboratory safety and materials, general medical laboratory…

  14. Medical knowledge in Hebrew: manuscripts and early printed books.

    PubMed

    Caballero-Navas, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a short survey of the Hebrew textual production on medical literature during the Middle Ages in the West. It explores diverse trends in the writing and diffusion of medical texts from the creation of the Hebrew medical corpus, as well as the fortuna that the transmission of this genre had after the introduction of printing. PMID:17152188

  15. Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-long

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

  16. Locating and parsing bibliographic references in HTML medical articles.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jie; Le, Daniel; Thoma, George R

    2010-06-01

    The set of references that typically appear toward the end of journal articles is sometimes, though not always, a field in bibliographic (citation) databases. But even if references do not constitute such a field, they can be useful as a preprocessing step in the automated extraction of other bibliographic data from articles, as well as in computer-assisted indexing of articles. Automation in data extraction and indexing to minimize human labor is key to the affordable creation and maintenance of large bibliographic databases. Extracting the components of references, such as author names, article title, journal name, publication date and other entities, is therefore a valuable and sometimes necessary task. This paper describes a two-step process using statistical machine learning algorithms, to first locate the references in HTML medical articles and then to parse them. Reference locating identifies the reference section in an article and then decomposes it into individual references. We formulate this step as a two-class classification problem based on text and geometric features. An evaluation conducted on 500 articles drawn from 100 medical journals achieves near-perfect precision and recall rates for locating references. Reference parsing identifies the components of each reference. For this second step, we implement and compare two algorithms. One relies on sequence statistics and trains a Conditional Random Field. The other focuses on local feature statistics and trains a Support Vector Machine to classify each individual word, followed by a search algorithm that systematically corrects low confidence labels if the label sequence violates a set of predefined rules. The overall performance of these two reference-parsing algorithms is about the same: above 99% accuracy at the word level, and over 97% accuracy at the chunk level. PMID:20640222

  17. MEDIC: Medical embedded device for individualized care

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Winston H. Wu; Alex A. T. Bui; Maxim A. Batalin; Lawrence K. Au; Jonathan D. Binney; William J. Kaiser

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective: Presented work highlights the development and initial validation of a medical embedded device for individualized care (MEDIC), which is based on a novel software architecture, enabling sensor management and disease prediction capabil- ities, and commercially available microelectronic components, sensors and conven- tional personal digital assistant (PDA) (or a cell phone). Methods and materials: In this paper, we present

  18. Medical spa marketing.

    PubMed

    Sadick, Neil S; Dinkes, Adam; Oskin, Larry

    2008-07-01

    Medical spas are different. We are not just selling medical and dermatology services; we are offering clients viable new solutions to their skin care, body care, and hair care challenges. Traditional medical marketing becomes blurred today, as the expansion and acceptance of medical spas helps you to effectively compete with traditional skin care clinics, salons, and spas, while offering more therapeutic treatments from professionally licensed doctors, nurses, aestheticians, massage therapists, spa professionals, and medical practitioners. We recommend that you make the choice to successfully and competitively become a market-driven medical spa with an annual strategic plan, rather than an operationally driven business. PMID:18555955

  19. STS-1 medical report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L. (editor); Johnson, P. C., Jr. (editor); Mason, J. A. (editor)

    1981-01-01

    The report includes a review of the health of the crew before, during and immediately after the first Shuttle orbital flight (April 12-14, 1981). Areas reviewed include: health evaluation, medical debriefing of crewmembers, health stabilization program, medical training, medical kit carried inflight; tests and countermeasures for space motion sickness, cardiovascular profile, biochemistry and endocrinology results; hematology and immunology analyses; medical microbiology; food and nutrition; potable water; shuttle toxicology; radiological health; cabin acoustical noise. Also included is information on: environmental effects of Shuttle launch and landing, medical information management; and management, planning and implementation of the medical program.

  20. Medical and biomedical research productivity from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (2008-2012)

    PubMed Central

    Latif, Rabia

    2015-01-01

    Background: Biomedical publications from a country mirror the standard of Medical Education and practice in that country. It is important that the performance of the health profession is occasionally documented. Aims: This study aimed to analyze the quantity and quality of biomedical publications from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) in international journals indexed in PubMed between 2008 and 2012. Materials and Methods: PubMed was searched for publications associated with KSA from 2008 to 2012. The search was limited to medical and biomedical subjects. Results were saved in a text file and later checked carefully to exclude false positive errors. The quality of the publication was assessed using Journal Citation Report 2012. Results: Biomedical research production in KSA in those 5 years showed a clear linear progression. Riyadh was the main hub of medical and biomedical research activity. Most of the publications (40.9%) originated from King Saud University (KSU). About half of the articles were published in journals with an Impact Factor (IF) of < 1, one-fourth in journals with no IF, and the remaining one-fourth in journals with a high IF (?1). Conclusion: This study revealed that research activity in KSA is increasing. However, there is an increasing trend of publishing in local journals with a low IF. More effort is required to promote medical research in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25657608

  1. Abuse potential of various opioid medications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Brookoff

    1993-01-01

    The abuse potentials of various narcotic medications were assessed by surveying 130 hospital patients who admitted to having\\u000a abused prescription narcotics within the preceding six months. 85% of the subjects surveyed reported having tried controlled-release\\u000a narcotic preparations for abuse purposes and 60% reported that they were of little or no use. To obtain another index of abuse\\u000a potential, the author

  2. Quantitative analysis of inhomogeneous luminance effect on visibility of text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Taka-Aki; Okajima, Katsunori

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, we measured the visibility of several types of Japanese text on a liquid crystal display (LCD) with a spatially inhomogeneous luminance and extended the visibility index function (VIF) to explain the current experimental results with a higher degree of accuracy. We quantitatively analyzed the effect of an inhomogeneous luminance, which was produced by the graphical representation of a background without reflected light and by reflected light on a homogeneous background. These results showed that the visibility of text was influenced by the inhomogeneity of the background luminance in a domain that depended on text size. Then we applied a weighted average background luminance with a two dimensional Gaussian function, whose distribution width was related to the text size, to VIF. Finally, we proposed a modified VIF and showed that the new method was able to precisely estimate the actual visibility of text with an inhomogeneous luminance.

  3. Video text localization using wavelet and shearlet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Purnendu; Chaudhuri, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    Text in video is useful and important in indexing and retrieving the video documents efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new method of text detection using a combined dictionary consisting of wavelets and a recently introduced transform called shearlets. Wavelets provide optimally sparse expansion for point-like structures and shearlets provide optimally sparse expansions for curve-like structures. By combining these two features we have computed a high frequency sub-band to brighten the text part. Then K-means clustering is used for obtaining text pixels from the Standard Deviation (SD) of combined coefficient of wavelets and shearlets as well as the union of wavelets and shearlets features. Text parts are obtained by grouping neighboring regions based on geometric properties of the classified output frame of unsupervised K-means classification. The proposed method tested on a standard as well as newly collected database shows to be superior to some of the existing methods.

  4. An ecology of text: using text retrieval to study alife on the net.

    PubMed

    Best, M L

    1997-01-01

    I introduce a new alife model, an ecology based on a corpus of text, and apply it to the analysis of posts to USENET News. In this corporal ecology posts are organisms, the newsgroups of NetNews define an environment, and human posters situated in their wider context make up a scarce resource. I apply latent semantic indexing (LSI), a text retrieval method based on principal component analysis, to distill from the corpus those replicating units of text. LSI arrives at suitable replicators because it discovers word co-occurrences that segregate and recombine with appreciable frequency. I argue that natural selection is necessarily in operation because sufficient conditions for its occurrence are met: replication, mutagenicity, and trait/fitness covariance. I describe a set of experiments performed on a static corpus of over 10,000 posts. In these experiments I study average population fitness, a fundamental element of population ecology. My study of fitness arrives at the unhappy discovery that a flame-war, centered around an overly prolific poster, is the king of the jungle. PMID:9654782

  5. Experimenting Lucene Index on HBase in an HPC Environment

    E-print Network

    and Retrieval]: Search Process ­ full-text indexing, search in NoSQL databases. General Terms Performance], a distributed NoSQL database system modeled after Google's BigTable [7]. Built with a distributed architecture

  6. Mass and Volume Optimization of Space Flight Medical Kits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B.; Foy, Millennia Hope; Myers, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Resource allocation is a critical aspect of space mission planning. All resources, including medical resources, are subject to a number of mission constraints such a maximum mass and volume. However, unlike many resources, there is often limited understanding in how to optimize medical resources for a mission. The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulates outcomes and describes the impact of medical events in terms of lost crew time, medical resource usage, and the potential for medically required evacuation. Previously published work describes an approach that uses the IMM to generate optimized medical kits that maximize benefit to the crew subject to mass and volume constraints. We improve upon the results obtained previously and extend our approach to minimize mass and volume while meeting some benefit threshold. METHODS We frame the medical kit optimization problem as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing dynamic programming. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the medical kit mass and volume for a specified likelihood of evacuation or Crew Health Index (CHI) threshold. The algorithm was expanded to generate medical kits that maximize likelihood of evacuation or CHI subject to mass and volume constraints. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS In maximizing benefit to crew health subject to certain constraints, our algorithm generates medical kits that more closely resemble the unlimited-resource scenario than previous approaches which leverage medical risk information generated by the IMM. Our work here demonstrates that this algorithm provides an efficient and effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions and provides an effective means of addressing tradeoffs in medical resource allocations and crew mission success parameters.

  7. New Economy Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The New Economy Index is a series of indicators that are "gathered from existing public and private data, to illustrate fundamental structural changes in the US economy, to show what those changes mean in the lives of working Americans, and to measure the nation's progress in several key foundation areas for future economic growth." The data in this excellent resource are divided into three sections. What's New About the New Economy includes thirteen indications that show the uniqueness and structure of the new technology-based and innovation-based economy. The second section considers the ways in which the New Economy will affect the lives of American workers. Finally, the third section, Foundations for Future Growth, projects the future growth of technology in the US. The site also includes information about the data sources, endnotes, and several side articles. Although the New Economy Index was created in 1998, the information is still valid and useful.

  8. Film Literature Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This very ambitious project from Indiana University was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and it continues to be updated on a regular basis. The Film Literature Index (FLI) annually indexes 150 film and television periodicals from 30 countries in their entirety, along with 200 other periodicals selectively for articles on film and television. The FLI database can be searched by subject headings, names, production titles, or by corporate names. Visitors can browse around, or perform advanced searches as their needs require. More information about the project can be found in the "About FLI" section, which can be accessed at the top of the homepage. Here visitors can learn about the history of the FLI, and also read about various papers and presentations that document the creation of the FLI Online site.

  9. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  10. Index of Learning Styles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Richard M. Felder

    The Index of Learning Styles (ILS) is an on-line instrument used to assess preferences in four dimensions (active/reflective, sensing/intuitive, visual/verbal, and sequential/global) of a learning style model formulated by Richard M. Felder and Linda K. Silverman. The ILS results provide an indication of an individual's learning preferences while also providing an even better indication of the preference profile of a group of students (a class).

  11. General Medical Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is presented. The purpose of the General Medical Surveillance Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the program are discussed.

  12. Medical Issues in Adoption

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a doctor to help you interpret the child's medical record . You may want to consult a doctor who ... true if you are adopting internationally. A Russian medical record, for instance, may contain terms that are unfamiliar ...

  13. Reading Your Medical Record

    MedlinePLUS

    ... some people might prefer to review their own medical records, thinking that it may be quicker or easier ... going to a computerized or other typed system), medical records tend to be particularly "user unfriendly" because their ...

  14. Medical robots in Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshihiro Kusuda

    2003-01-01

    The Japanese robotic industry has been very silent in medical applications. However, changes in this can now be observed. Above all Hitachi, an electric\\/machinery giant, is trying to rebuild its robotic business by entering the medical robot market.

  15. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePLUS

    A medical device is any product used to diagnose, cure, or treat a condition, or to prevent disease. They range ... may need one in a hospital. To use medical devices safely Know how your device works. Keep instructions ...

  16. ADHD Parents Medication Guide

    MedlinePLUS

    ... versions of the ADHD medications safe and effective? Generic drugs have the same active ingredients as the brand ... portion of the medications. To be FDA-approved, generic drugs must show that they work similarly as the ...

  17. Medications (for IBS)

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... depression, but rather likely to effects on the brain and the gut. Antidepressant medications can reduce the intensity of pain signals going from gut to brain. Read more about antidepressant medications. Newer IBS-Targeted ...

  18. Atrial Fibrillation Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... stroke. Additional drugs may be prescribed to control heart rate and rhythm in the AFib patient. These medications ... or stomach ache that won't go away Heart Rate Controlling Medications Beta blockers . These are drugs used ...

  19. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  20. Graduate studies Medical Biophysics

    E-print Network

    Woodgett, Jim

    Dr. Gang Zheng p. 42 Dr. Bradley MacIntosh p. 25 #12;Physics and Engineering of Medical Imaging this period and look back with pride on the influence of Harold Johns. The Medical Imaging and Physics stream

  1. Incontinence Treatment: Medication

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Personal Stories Who We Are Contact Us Donate Incontinence Treatment: Medication Jump to Topic Lifestyle changes Dietary changes Medication Bowel management/retraining program Biofeedback therapy Surgical treatments Newer procedures ...

  2. Health Professions Medical Assisting

    E-print Network

    Vonessen, Nikolaus

    Health Professions Medical Assisting Practical Nurse Registered Nurse Pharmacy Technology College of Technology marketing purposes only) #12;Associate of Arts Students interested in the Medical Radiologic Technology Respiratory Care Surgical Technology www.cte.umt.edu Department of Health Professions

  3. Using Medications Safely

    MedlinePLUS

    ... health systems play an important role in preventing medication errors. To make sure you use medicines safely and effectively, ASHP recommends that you: Keep a list of all medications that you take (prescribed drugs, nonprescription medicines, herbal ...

  4. Animal Testing Medical Research

    E-print Network

    Bech, Claus

    Animal Testing In Medical Research Past, present and future. Marte Thomassen Ellen Trolid Tonje Arondsen Marit Gystřl #12;ZO-8091 Forsřksdyrlćre Animal experiments in medical research NTNU ­ Norges.............................................................................................................................. 2 2. ETHICS IN ANIMAL TESTING

  5. American Medical Association

    MedlinePLUS

    ... language to describe healthcare services. AMA Code of Medical Ethics Since 1847, the AMA has provided guidance on ... programs to advance your career in medicine. Continuing Medical Education ... AMA Journal of Ethics Explore ethical issues and challenges that arise in ...

  6. Modeling Semantic Aspects for Cross-Media Image Indexing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florent Monay; Daniel Gatica-perez

    2007-01-01

    To go beyond the query-by-example paradigm in image retrieval, there is a need for semantic indexing of large image collections for intuitive text-based image search. Different models have been proposed to learn the dependencies between the visual content of an image set and the associated text captions, then allowing for the automatic creation of semantic indexes for unannotated images. The

  7. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  8. D-Index: Distance Searching Index for Metric Data Sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vlastislav Dohnal; Claudio Gennaro; Pasquale Savino; Pavel Zezula

    2003-01-01

    In order to speedup retrieval in large collections of data, index structures partition the data into subsets so that query requests can be evaluated without examining the entire collection. As the complexity of modern data types grows, metric spaces have become a popular paradigm for similarity retrieval. We propose a new index structure, called D-Index, that combines a novel clustering

  9. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, July-December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owner(s) of facility); Full text reference (volume and pagination); Issuance number Issues raised by appellants; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); Name of facility, Docket number; Subject matter of issues and/or rulings; Type of hearing (operating license, operating license amendment, etc); Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.). These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats: Case Name Index, Headers and Digests, Legal Citations Index, Subject Index, and Facility Index.

  10. Supporting Students' Movement up the Staircase of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2013-01-01

    Standard 10 of the Common Core State Standards attends to students' capacity with complex text. This standard distinguishes the Common Core State Standards from previous standards documents. This article describes a process--the Text Complexity Multi-Index (TCMI)--that supports teachers in studying texts to support their students in…

  11. Children's Hospital Medical Center

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    UNIVERSITY COMMONS Children's Hospital Medical Center Children's Hospital Medical Research Center WherryHall Veterans Affairs Medical Center VAMC VAMC VAMC VAMC VAMC Holmes CHMC CHMC Children's Hospital Vontz Center Hamilton Co. Coroner Kettering Lab Complex Radiation Safety HealthProfessions Building

  12. Children's Hospital Medical Center

    E-print Network

    Papautsky, Ian

    UNIVERSITY COMMONS Children's Hospital Medical Center Children's Hospital Medical Research Center Affairs Medical Center VAMC VAMC VAMC VAMC VAMC Holmes CHMC CHMC Children's Hospital Garage CHMC Kingsgate Co. Coroner Kettering Lab Complex Radiation Safety HealthProfessions Building WherryHall Veterans

  13. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  14. Considering a Medical Career

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Association of American Medical Colleges

    2009-03-16

    This website contains resources for those interested in pursuing a medical career. There is information on applying to medical school and making financial arrangements to pay for schooling, possible careers options within the medical field, and a listing of accredited degree programs.

  15. Rediscovering the Medical School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    Offers suggestions to help medical schools, so often subsumed in Academic Medical Centers, rediscover their unique reasons for existence and distinguish their core missions from core businesses. Calls for mission-based management and mission-based budgeting and discusses the role of medical education. (SLD)

  16. HELPING YOU MEDICAL DECISIONS

    E-print Network

    Dennett, Daniel

    HELPING YOU MEDICAL DECISIONS MAKE THE When you're facing a critical medical decision, getting, the right treatment and the right care. How? By providing access to the best medical minds in the world all your records. Your images. Your test samples. You don't have to travel or deal with the healthcare

  17. The Integrated Medical Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Douglas J.; Kerstman, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the goals and approach for the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The IMM is a software decision support tool that forecasts medical events during spaceflight and optimizes medical systems during simulations. It includes information on the software capabilities, program stakeholders, use history, and the software logic.

  18. History of Medical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughlin, John S.

    1983-01-01

    Traces the development of basic radiation physics that underlies much of today's medical physics and looks separately at the historical development of two major subfields of medical physics: radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Indicates that radiation physics has made important contributions to solving biomedical problems in medical

  19. [Forward medical air evacuation].

    PubMed

    Czerniak, Erik; Le Dorze, Patrick Causse; Hersan, Olivier; Pohl, Jean-Baptiste; Angot, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    The medical chain which assures the treatment of casualties from the theatre of operations back to France comprises several links connected by medical air transport. Whether it is tactical or strategic, it forms an integral part of the treatment pathway and offers casualties the best possible conditions for medical treatment with a high degree of safety, speed and traceability. PMID:25464630

  20. Psychology in medical education

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ivan Norman Mensh

    1953-01-01

    A survey of 79 medical schools in the U.S. was undertaken. Psychologists are on the staff of 73% of the medical schools. These (psychologists) are relatively young chronologically and professionally. Specific data about psychologists in medical education are given showing (1) Highest degree earned, (2) Diplomate status, (3) APA membership, (4) Divisional association, (5) Full or part-time status on faculty.

  1. Extracting BI-RADS Features from Portuguese Clinical Texts

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Houssam; Cunha, Filipe; Moreira, Inęs C.; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Sousa, Eliana; Page, David; Burnside, Elizabeth; Dutra, Inęs

    2013-01-01

    In this work we build the first BI-RADS parser for Portuguese free texts, modeled after existing approaches to extract BI-RADS features from English medical records. Our concept finder uses a semantic grammar based on the BIRADS lexicon and on iterative transferred expert knowledge. We compare the performance of our algorithm to manual annotation by a specialist in mammography. Our results show that our parser’s performance is comparable to the manual method. PMID:23797461

  2. Implications of Utilization Shifts on Medical-care Price Measurement.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Abe; Liebman, Eli; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2015-05-01

    The medical-care sector often experiences changes in medical protocols and technologies that cause shifts in treatments. However, the commonly used medical-care price indexes reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics hold the mix of medical services fixed. In contrast, episode expenditure indexes, advocated by many health economists, track the full cost of disease treatment, even as treatments shift across service categories (e.g., inpatient to outpatient hospital). In our data, we find that these two conceptually different measures of price growth show similar aggregate rates of inflation over the 2003-2007 period. Although aggregate trends are similar, we observe differences when looking at specific disease categories. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24590759

  3. I2Cnet medical image annotation service.

    PubMed

    Chronaki, C E; Zabulis, X; Orphanoudakis, S C

    1997-01-01

    I2Cnet (Image Indexing by Content network) aims to provide services related to the content-based management of images in healthcare over the World-Wide Web. Each I2Cnet server maintains an autonomous repository of medical images and related information. The annotation service of I2Cnet allows specialists to interact with the contents of the repository, adding comments or illustrations to medical images of interest. I2Cnet annotations may be communicated to other users via e-mail or posted to I2Cnet for inclusion in its local repositories. This paper discusses the annotation service of I2Cnet and argues that such services pave the way towards the evolution of active digital medical image libraries. PMID:9509404

  4. Analysis of Medication Error Reports

    SciTech Connect

    Whitney, Paul D.; Young, Jonathan; Santell, John; Hicks, Rodney; Posse, Christian; Fecht, Barbara A.

    2004-11-15

    In medicine, as in many areas of research, technological innovation and the shift from paper based information to electronic records has created a climate of ever increasing availability of raw data. There has been, however, a corresponding lag in our abilities to analyze this overwhelming mass of data, and classic forms of statistical analysis may not allow researchers to interact with data in the most productive way. This is true in the emerging area of patient safety improvement. Traditionally, a majority of the analysis of error and incident reports has been carried out based on an approach of data comparison, and starts with a specific question which needs to be answered. Newer data analysis tools have been developed which allow the researcher to not only ask specific questions but also to “mine” data: approach an area of interest without preconceived questions, and explore the information dynamically, allowing questions to be formulated based on patterns brought up by the data itself. Since 1991, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) has been collecting data on medication errors through voluntary reporting programs. USP’s MEDMARXsm reporting program is the largest national medication error database and currently contains well over 600,000 records. Traditionally, USP has conducted an annual quantitative analysis of data derived from “pick-lists” (i.e., items selected from a list of items) without an in-depth analysis of free-text fields. In this paper, the application of text analysis and data analysis tools used by Battelle to analyze the medication error reports already analyzed in the traditional way by USP is described. New insights and findings were revealed including the value of language normalization and the distribution of error incidents by day of the week. The motivation for this effort is to gain additional insight into the nature of medication errors to support improvements in medication safety.

  5. Full text provided by www.sciencedirect.com Neuroethics: a modern context for

    E-print Network

    and clinical research. Like medical ethics, which deals with issues in the healthcare setting, one of the core event has shaped biomedical ethics more than the medical research and practice carried out by the ThirdFull text provided by www.sciencedirect.com Neuroethics: a modern context for ethics

  6. Text analytics for life science using the Unstructured Information Management Architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert L. Mack; Sougata Mukherjea; Aya Soffer; Naohiko Uramoto; Eric W. Brown; Anni Coden; James W. Cooper; Akihiro Inokuchi; Bhavani Iyer; Yosi Mass; Hirofumi Matsuzawa; L. Venkata Subramaniam

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical text plays a fundamental role in knowledge discovery in life science, in both basic research (in the field of bioinformatics) and in industry sectors devoted to improving medical practice, drug development, and health care (such as medical informatics, clinical genomics, and other sectors). Several groups in the IBM Research Division are collaborating on the development of a prototype system

  7. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Structure Index

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sander, Lane C.

    1997-01-01

    The Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Index, a special publication from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, provides the structures of a large number of PAHs. In addition to the structure, the Index lists other names for the compound, CAS number, molecular weight, length-to-breadth ratio, width, length, and thickness. Users can search the PAH Index via compound name and molecular weight, browse alphabetically, or scan cover to cover. An introduction to the Index is available in [.pdf] format.

  8. Workplace etiquette for the medical practice employee.

    PubMed

    Hills, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Medical practice workplace etiquette is slowly being modified and fine-tuned. New workplace etiquette rules have become necessary because of advances in communications technology, shifting norms, and expectations of what constitutes good manners. Today's medical practice employees must concern themselves with traditional workplace manners but also the manners that come into play when they make or receive cell phone calls, text messages, and e-mails, and when they use social networking media outside of work. This article offers 25 rules for good manners in the medical practice that relate to the ways employees interact with people today, whether face-to-face or when using electronic communications technologies. It offers practical guidelines for making introductions both inside and outside the medical practice. This article also provides a self-quiz to help medical practice employees assess their workplace etiquette intelligence and 12 tips for good workplace table manners. PMID:20839511

  9. Measuring medical productivity to gauge the value of Medicare.

    PubMed

    Parente, Stephen T

    2013-04-01

    Having a measure of productivity that relates funds and effort spent on medical treatment to health outcomes could help policymakers better understand whether they are getting value for the money spent on public health insurance programs. This article describes such a metric, the medical productivity index (MPI), and illustrates how it was used to analyze a sampling of Medicare claims from 2007 through 2009. PMID:23926832

  10. Medication errors in children.

    PubMed

    Kozer, Eran

    2009-01-01

    Medication errors commonly involve children, with dosing errors being the most common. Medication errors are more frequent among the most sick patients who have urgent and complex medical conditions. Physicians who are less experienced, tired, depressed, and burnt out make more errors. The systems approach views every medical error as a system failure. The focus is on how to change the system in order to prevent errors. Adopting the systems approach will enhance patients' safety. Strategies that have been found to be effective in reducing medication errors include the use of computerized physician order entry systems, pre-printed order forms, color-coded systems, and involving pharmacists in clinical care. PMID:19127955

  11. Mixing with Medics

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Historians are increasingly required to produce research that makes an impact. This is particularly the case for medical historians, partly because of our funders' expectations, but also because there is a sense that medical history can inform today's thorny debates about health. Unfortunately, many historians struggle to make an impact. I suggest that participating in medical conferences (broadly defined), not only provides opportunities to make an impact on the medical community, but also offers chances to observe and participate in medical history as it happens.

  12. Therapeutic Antioxidant Medical Gas

    PubMed Central

    Nakao, Atsunori; Sugimoto, Ryujiro; Billiar, Timothy R; McCurry, Kenneth R

    2009-01-01

    Medical gases are pharmaceutical gaseous molecules which offer solutions to medical needs and include traditional gases, such as oxygen and nitrous oxide, as well as gases with recently discovered roles as biological messenger molecules, such as carbon monoxide, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulphide. Medical gas therapy is a relatively unexplored field of medicine; however, a recent increasing in the number of publications on medical gas therapies clearly indicate that there are significant opportunities for use of gases as therapeutic tools for a variety of disease conditions. In this article, we review the recent advances in research on medical gases with antioxidant properties and discuss their clinical applications and therapeutic properties. PMID:19177183

  13. INDEX TO VOLUME 118 This index provides coverage for both the Initial Reports and Scientific Results

    E-print Network

    entries are modified by subject subentries. The indexes cover text figures and tables but not core effects of, 233b porosity and, 261b-262b, 263b, 266b-267b pressure of, 211b-212b, 213b role of seawater in Alteration, hydrothermal Atlantis Bank amphibolite-facies, 488b contribution to marine magnetic anomalies

  14. Enriching text with images and colored light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

  15. The medicalization of life

    PubMed Central

    Illich, Ivan

    1975-01-01

    Two contributions from Dr Ivan Illich follow. The first, in which he sets out his primary thesis of the medicalization of life, is a section from Dr Illich's book `Medical Nemesis'. (It is reprinted with the permission of the author and his publishers, Messrs Calder and Boyars.) The second is a transcript of the paper which Dr Illich read at the conference organized by the London Medical Group on iatrogenic disease. Both are ultimately addressed to the recipients of medical care, the general public, although the second paper is specifically addressed to young doctors and medical students. For Dr Illich the world is suffering from too much medical interference, and a medical edifice has been built which is one of the threats to the real life of human beings - a threat which so far has been disguised as care. PMID:809583

  16. Online Medical Terminology Course

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    For those entering the medical field, developing a working knowledge of medical terminology can be a daunting task. Des Moines University provides this short introductory course, which allows the user to develop a basic understanding of the origin and composition of medical terms. The course is divided into thirteen sections based on the different systems of the body (circulatory, nervous, digestive, respiratory, urinary, reproductive and musculoskeletal) and also defines words pertaining to cancer and medication. The site supplies not only the definitions of three hundred terms, but the skills to evaluate and understand new terms as well. This is an excellent resource for medical administrative staff, assistants, transcriptionists and anyone else entering the medical field with little or no previous experience in medical terminology.

  17. [Exploring medical futility].

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming-Yi; Chiang, Lien-Ying

    2014-02-01

    Although able to extend the life of some critical patients, advanced medical technology is limited in terms of scope and extent of effectiveness. Some patients die despite the best efforts of medical teams. Medical futility describes treatments that are both extremely unlikely to benefit a patient and costly to provide. Clearly defining futile treatments and considering this concept in patient care strategies is important to provide quality patient care. Taiwan is currently formulating a policy on medical futility. While accepting that the term "futile" is used in many different ways and that this term is difficult to define in clinical practice, this article discusses the various ethical views on medical futility and its definition, the debate among these different views, and related research. We hope this article may help medical care staff better understand the importance of medical futility. PMID:24519349

  18. Development and evaluation of a screening tool to identify people with diabetes at increased risk of medication problems relating to hypoglycaemia and medication non-adherence.

    PubMed

    Claydon-Platt, Kate; Manias, Elizabeth; Dunning, Trisha

    2014-07-19

    Abstract Aims: To develop and evaluate a screening tool to identify people with diabetes at increased risk of medication problems relating to hypoglycaemia and medication non-adherence. Methods: A retrospective audit of attendances at a diabetes outpatient clinic at a public, teaching hospital over a 16-month period was conducted. Logistic regression was undertaken to examine risk factors associated with medication problems relating to hypoglycaemia and medication non-adherence and the most predictive set of factors comprise the Diabetes Medication Risk Screening Tool. Evaluating the tool involved assessing sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, cut-off scores, inter-rater reliability, and content validity. Results: The Diabetes Medication Risk Screening Tool comprises seven predictive factors: age, living alone, English language, mental and behavioural problems, comorbidity index score, number of medications prescribed, and number of high-risk medications prescribed. The tool has 76.5% sensitivity, 59.5% specificity, and has a 65.1% positive predictive value, and a 71.8% negative predictive value. A score of 27 or more out of 62 was associated with high-risk of a medication problem. The inter-rater reliability of the tool was high (? = 0.79, 95% CI 0.75 - 0.84) and the content validity index was 99.4%. Conclusion: The Diabetes Medication Risk Screening Tool has good psychometric properties and can proactively identify people with diabetes at greatest risk of medication problems relating to hypoglycaemia and medication non-adherence. PMID:25040755

  19. Patterns and trends of medical student research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study describes the change in the research output, trends and content of published research involving medical students over the last century. Methods Pubmed® and Scopus® were searched for keywords ‘Medical Student’ in the affiliation field. The search results were combined in Endnote® and duplicate entries removed and the multiple variables described below were assessed. Results The combined searches after excluding duplicates yielded 416 results and 66 articles were excluded. There was an exponential increase in medical student research from 1980–2010. Medical student was the first author in 170 (48.6%) studies and 55 studies were authored by a single medical student. The 3 most common areas of research in descending order were Psychiatry (n?=?26, 7.4%), General Medicine (n?=?24, 6.9%) and Medical Education (n?=?21, 6%). The commonest type of articles, in descending order were review articles (n?=?48, 13.7%), Cross sectional studies (n?=?47, 13.4%) and Case reports (n?=?43, 12.3. The majority of these articles (n?=?207, 59.1%) have never been cited subsequently. The trend of increasing number of articles was seen equally among all article types, fields and countries. Conclusions There is an exponential increase in articles by medical students but the majority of articles have not been cited. The numbers of medical student authors per publication have remained static while the total numbers of authors have increased. The proportions in the type of articles, fields of study and country of origin have largely remained static. Publishers and authors should strive to enhance the quality and quantity of data available in indexing services. PMID:24373230

  20. Index Nominum Genericorum (ING)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Index Nominum Genericorum is a collaborative project of the International Association for Plant Taxonomy (IAPT) and the Smithsonian Institution. ING was formed to bring all generic names of plants together in a single list, revealing homonymy between groups. This searchable database includes bibliographic citations, as well as information about the "typification and nomenclatural status" of generic names. For researchers or students of taxonomic botany, this site provides a useful, though highly specific, service. Note that the on-line version of ING will be modified to reflect new listings and taxonomic changes.