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Sample records for medical text indexer

  1. A comparison of two methods for indexing and retrieval from a full-text medical database.

    PubMed

    Hersh, W R; Hickam, D H

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare how well medical professionals are able to retrieve relevant literature references using two computerized literature searching systems that provide automated (non-human) indexing of content. The first program was SAPHIRE, which features concept-based indexing, free-text input of queries, and ranking of retrieved references for relevance. The second program was SWORD, which provides single-word searching using Boolean operators (AND, OR). Sixteen fourth-year medical students participated in the study. The database for searching was six volumes from the 1989 Yearbook series. The queries were ten questions generated on teaching rounds. All subjects searched half the queries with each program. After the searching, each subject was given a questionnaire about prior experience and preferences about the two programs. Recall (proportion of relevant articles retrieved from the database) and precision (proportion of relevant articles in the retrieved set) were measured for each search done by each participant. Mean recall was 57.6% with SAPHIRE; it was 58.6% with SWORD. Precision was 48.1% with SAPHIRE vs 57.6% with SWORD. Each program was rated easier to use than the other by half of the searchers, and preferences were associated with better searching performance for that program. Both systems achieved recall and precision comparable to existing systems and may represent effective alternatives to MEDLINE and other retrieval systems based on human indexing for searching medical literature. PMID:8412551

  2. Hierarchical Concept Indexing of Full-Text Documents in the Unified Medical Language System Information Sources Map.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Lawrence W.; Nardini, Holly K. Grossetta; Aronson, Alan R.; Rindflesch, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    Describes methods for applying natural-language processing for automatic concept-based indexing of full text and methods for exploiting the structure and hierarchy of full-text documents to a large collection of full-text documents drawn from the Health Services/Technology Assessment Text database at the National Library of Medicine. Examines how…

  3. Efficient Index for Handwritten Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Ibrahim

    This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two indexing methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first index, word-level index, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level index is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level index, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level index is more accurate, but more costly than the word level index. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the index size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both indexes and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed indexes achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed indexes improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.

  4. Medical Texts for Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, John

    1978-01-01

    A list of 25 medical books for public libraries is based on a survey of central Massachusetts health librarians. The books are divided into two groups: basic texts in the major medical fields, and texts in the medical subspecialities fields. A list of additional medical bibliographies is included. (Author/JPF)

  5. [On two antique medical texts].

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria Carlota

    2005-01-01

    The two texts presented here--Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença [literally, "useful regime against pestilence"] and Modus curandi cum balsamo ["curing method using balm"]--represent the extent of Portugal's known medical library until circa 1530, produced in gothic letters by foreign printers: Germany's Valentim Fernandes, perhaps the era's most important printer, who worked in Lisbon between 1495 and 1518, and Germdo Galharde, a Frenchman who practiced his trade in Lisbon and Coimbra between 1519 and 1560. Modus curandi, which came to light in 1974 thanks to bibliophile José de Pina Martins, is anonymous. Johannes Jacobi is believed to be the author of Regimento proueytoso, which was translated into Latin (Regimen contra pestilentiam), French, and English. Both texts are presented here in facsimile and in modern Portuguese, while the first has also been reproduced in archaic Portuguese using modern typographical characters. This philological venture into sixteenth-century medicine is supplemented by a scholarly glossary which serves as a valuable tool in interpreting not only Regimento proueytoso but also other texts from the era. Two articles place these documents in historical perspective. PMID:17500134

  6. Machine aided indexing from natural language text

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD) Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) system was designed to (1) reuse the indexing of the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC); (2) reuse the indexing of the Department of Energy (DOE); and (3) reduce the time required for original indexing. This was done by automatically generating appropriate NASA thesaurus terms from either the other agency's index terms, or, for original indexing, from document titles and abstracts. The NASA STI Program staff devised two different ways to generate thesaurus terms from text. The first group of programs identified noun phrases by a parsing method that allowed for conjunctions and certain prepositions, on the assumption that indexable concepts are found in such phrases. Results were not always satisfactory, and it was noted that indexable concepts often occurred outside of noun phrases. The first method also proved to be too slow for the ultimate goal of interactive (online) MAI. The second group of programs used the knowledge base (KB), word proximity, and frequency of word and phrase occurrence to identify indexable concepts. Both methods are described and illustrated. Online MAI has been achieved, as well as several spinoff benefits, which are also described.

  7. Unsupervised mining of frequent tags for clinical eligibility text indexing.

    PubMed

    Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-12-01

    Clinical text, such as clinical trial eligibility criteria, is largely underused in state-of-the-art medical search engines due to difficulties of accurate parsing. This paper proposes a novel methodology to derive a semantic index for clinical eligibility documents based on a controlled vocabulary of frequent tags, which are automatically mined from the text. We applied this method to eligibility criteria on ClinicalTrials.gov and report that frequent tags (1) define an effective and efficient index of clinical trials and (2) are unlikely to grow radically when the repository increases. We proposed to apply the semantic index to filter clinical trial search results and we concluded that frequent tags reduce the result space more efficiently than an uncontrolled set of UMLS concepts. Overall, unsupervised mining of frequent tags from clinical text leads to an effective semantic index for the clinical eligibility documents and promotes their computational reuse. PMID:24036004

  8. Unsupervised Mining of Frequent Tags for Clinical Eligibility Text Indexing

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Riccardo; Weng, Chunhua

    2013-01-01

    Clinical text, such as clinical trial eligibility criteria, is largely underused in state-of-the-art medical search engines due to difficulties of accurate parsing. This paper proposes a novel methodology to derive a semantic index for clinical eligibility documents based on a controlled vocabulary of frequent tags, which are automatically mined from the text. We applied this method to eligibility criteria on ClinicalTrials.gov and report that frequent tags (1) define an effective and efficient index of clinical trials and (2) are unlikely to grow radically when the repository increases. We proposed to apply the semantic index to filter clinical trial search results and we concluded that frequent tags reduce the result space more efficiently than an uncontrolled set of UMLS concepts. Overall, unsupervised mining of frequent tags from clinical text leads to an effective semantic index for the clinical eligibility documents and promotes their computational reuse. PMID:24036004

  9. NASA Indexing Benchmarks: Evaluating Text Search Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esler, Sandra L.; Nelson, Michael L.

    1997-01-01

    The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.

  10. Automated Assessment of Medical Training Evaluation Text

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rui; Pakhomov, Serguei; Gladding, Sophia; Aylward, Michael; Borman-Shoap, Emily; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical post-graduate residency training and medical student training increasingly utilize electronic systems to evaluate trainee performance based on defined training competencies with quantitative and qualitative data, the later of which typically consists of text comments. Medical education is concomitantly becoming a growing area of clinical research. While electronic systems have proliferated in number, little work has been done to help manage and analyze qualitative data from these evaluations. We explored the use of text-mining techniques to assist medical education researchers in sentiment analysis and topic analysis of residency evaluations with a sample of 812 evaluation statements. While comments were predominantly positive, sentiment analysis improved the ability to discriminate statements with 93% accuracy. Similar to other domains, Latent Dirichlet Analysis and Information Gain revealed groups of core subjects and appear to be useful for identifying topics from this data. PMID:23304426

  11. Text structures in medical text processing: empirical evidence and a text understanding prototype.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, U.; Romacker, M.

    1997-01-01

    We consider the role of textual structures in medical texts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medical texts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medical text understanding system designed to account for local text coherence. PMID:9357739

  12. n-Gram-Based Indexing for Korean Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joon Ho; Cho, Hyun Yang; Park, Hyouk Ro

    1999-01-01

    Discusses indexing methods in Korean text retrieval and proposes a new indexing method based on n-grams which can handle compound nouns effectively without dictionaries and complex linguistic knowledge. Experimental results show that n-gram-based indexing is considerably faster than morpheme-based indexing, and also provides better retrieval…

  13. Ancient medical texts, modern reading problems.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Maria Carlota

    2006-12-01

    The word tradition has a very specific meaning in linguistics: the passing down of a text, which may have been completed or corrected by different copyists at different times, when the concept of authorship was not the same as it is today. When reading an ancient text the word tradition must be in the reader's mind. To discuss one of the problems an ancient text poses to its modern readers, this work deals with one of the first printed medical texts in Portuguese, the Regimento proueytoso contra ha pestenença, and draws a parallel between it and two related texts, A moche profitable treatise against the pestilence, and the Recopilaçam das cousas que conuem guardar se no modo de preseruar à Cidade de Lixboa E os sãos, & curar os que esteuerem enfermos de Peste. The problems which arise out of the textual structure of those books show how difficult is to establish a tradition of another type, the medical tradition. The linguistic study of the innumerable medieval plague treatises may throw light on the continuities and on the disruptions of the so-called hippocratic-galenical medical tradition. PMID:17308822

  14. A toolset for medical text processing.

    PubMed

    Baud, R H; Lovis, C; Ruch, P; Rassinoux, A M

    2000-01-01

    The processing of medical texts is a burden in the absence of a toolset designed for simple operations such as recognizing morphological variants, updating and accessing a word dictionary of the domain and segmenting words with multiple morpho-semantems. The apparent simplicity of these basic operations is an illusion because it soon becomes clear that quality implementation is a long-term task. Coherency between subtasks may be lacking unless strict rules are enforced. In fact, good tools are rarely available or have not been tailored for the medical profession. This paper aims at defining a complete toolset for medical word processing. In addition, it provides relevant examples of the inherent difficulties of this task. It reports on typical results that can be expected from an industry-standard implementation. PMID:11187593

  15. Identification of inactive medications in narrative medical text.

    PubMed

    Breydo, Eugene M; Chu, Julia T; Turchin, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Discontinued medications are frequently not removed from EMR medication lists - a patient safety risk. We developed an algorithm to identify inactive medications using in the text of narrative notes in the EMR. The algorithm was evaluated against manual review of 297 randomly selected notes. One in five notes documented inactive medications. Sensitivity and precision of 87.7% and 80.7%, respectively, on per-note basis and 66.3% and 80.0%, respectively, on per-medication basis. When medication names missing from the dictionary were excluded, the algorithm achieved sensitivity of 91.4%. Using real clinical data, the algorithm identified inactive medications documented in the note but still listed as active on the patients medication list in more than one in ten notes. Documentation of inactive medications is common in narrative provider notes and can be computationally extracted. This technology could be employed in real-time patient care as well as for research and quality of care monitoring. PMID:18999079

  16. [Multiple births in ancient medical texts].

    PubMed

    Dasen, V

    1998-01-01

    Ancient medical writers and biologists elaborated different theories to explain the phenomenon of multiple births. The earliest extant texts are in the Hippocratic collection and in the physiological treatises of Aristotle. They express opposed ideas: for the Hippocratics multiple births are the result of an ideal conception, for Aristotle they are regarded as anomalies associated with notions of monstrosity and excess. These views shed light on ancient collective imagery. Three themes in particular are found in non-medical literature and iconography: twin birth as a model of ideal fecundity, the ambiguous status of twins of different sexes, and the relation of multiple births to monstrosity and animality, as evidenced by the motif of twins born from one egg. PMID:10024766

  17. Analysis of Polarity Information in Medical Text

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yun; Zhu, Xiaodan; Li, Jianhua; Hirst, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    Knowing the polarity of clinical outcomes is important in answering questions posed by clinicians in patient treatment. We treat analysis of this information as a classification problem. Natural language processing and machine learning techniques are applied to detect four possibilities in medical text: no outcome, positive outcome, negative outcome, and neutral outcome. A supervised learning method is used to perform the classification at the sentence level. Five feature sets are constructed: unigrams, bigrams, change phrases, negations, and categories. The performance of different combinations of feature sets is compared. The results show that generalization using the category information in the domain knowledge base Unified Medical Language System is effective in the task. The effect of context information is significant. Combining linguistic features and domain knowledge leads to the highest accuracy. PMID:16779104

  18. Terminology extraction from medical texts in Polish

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hospital documents contain free text describing the most important facts relating to patients and their illnesses. These documents are written in specific language containing medical terminology related to hospital treatment. Their automatic processing can help in verifying the consistency of hospital documentation and obtaining statistical data. To perform this task we need information on the phrases we are looking for. At the moment, clinical Polish resources are sparse. The existing terminologies, such as Polish Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), do not provide sufficient coverage for clinical tasks. It would be helpful therefore if it were possible to automatically prepare, on the basis of a data sample, an initial set of terms which, after manual verification, could be used for the purpose of information extraction. Results Using a combination of linguistic and statistical methods for processing over 1200 children hospital discharge records, we obtained a list of single and multiword terms used in hospital discharge documents written in Polish. The phrases are ordered according to their presumed importance in domain texts measured by the frequency of use of a phrase and the variety of its contexts. The evaluation showed that the automatically identified phrases cover about 84% of terms in domain texts. At the top of the ranked list, only 4% out of 400 terms were incorrect while out of the final 200, 20% of expressions were either not domain related or syntactically incorrect. We also observed that 70% of the obtained terms are not included in the Polish MeSH. Conclusions Automatic terminology extraction can give results which are of a quality high enough to be taken as a starting point for building domain related terminological dictionaries or ontologies. This approach can be useful for preparing terminological resources for very specific subdomains for which no relevant terminologies already exist. The evaluation performed showed that none of the

  19. An automatic indexing method for medical documents.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes MetaIndex, an automatic indexing program that creates symbolic representations of documents for the purpose of document retrieval. MetaIndex uses a simple transition network parser to recognize a language that is derived from the set of main concepts in the Unified Medical Language System Metathesaurus (Meta-1). MetaIndex uses a hierarchy of medical concepts, also derived from Meta-1, to represent the content of documents. The goal of this approach is to improve document retrieval performance by better representation of documents. An evaluation method is described, and the performance of MetaIndex on the task of indexing the Slice of Life medical image collection is reported. PMID:1807564

  20. Efficient Single-Pass Index Construction for Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, Steffen; Zobel, Justin

    2003-01-01

    Discusses index construction for text collections, reviews principal approaches to inverted indexes, analyzes their theoretical cost, and presents experimental results of the use of a single-pass inversion method on Web document collections. Shows that the single-pass approach is faster and does not require the complete vocabulary of the indexed…

  1. Extracting medication information from clinical text.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Ozlem; Solti, Imre; Cadag, Eithon

    2010-01-01

    The Third i2b2 Workshop on Natural Language Processing Challenges for Clinical Records focused on the identification of medications, their dosages, modes (routes) of administration, frequencies, durations, and reasons for administration in discharge summaries. This challenge is referred to as the medication challenge. For the medication challenge, i2b2 released detailed annotation guidelines along with a set of annotated discharge summaries. Twenty teams representing 23 organizations and nine countries participated in the medication challenge. The teams produced rule-based, machine learning, and hybrid systems targeted to the task. Although rule-based systems dominated the top 10, the best performing system was a hybrid. Of all medication-related fields, durations and reasons were the most difficult for all systems to detect. While medications themselves were identified with better than 0.75 F-measure by all of the top 10 systems, the best F-measure for durations and reasons were 0.525 and 0.459, respectively. State-of-the-art natural language processing systems go a long way toward extracting medication names, dosages, modes, and frequencies. However, they are limited in recognizing duration and reason fields and would benefit from future research. PMID:20819854

  2. Natural Language Access to Medical Text *

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Donald E.; Hobbs, Jerry R.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes research on the development of a methodology for representing the information in texts and of procedures for relating the linguistic structure of a request to the corresponding representations. The work is being done in the context of a prototype system that will allow physicians and other health professionals to access information in a computerized textbook of hepatitis through natural language dialogues. The interpretation of natural language queries is derived from DIAMOND/DIAGRAM, a linguistically motivated, domain-independent natural language interface developed at SRI. A text access component is being developed that uses representations of the propositional content of text passages and of the hierarchical structure of the text as a whole to retrieve relevant information.

  3. Abstracting and indexing in the medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Welt, I D

    1962-07-01

    Abstracts and indexes constitute the most popular means of assuring adequate retrieval of the many thousands of papers published every year in the ever expanding field of medicine. Different types of abstracts and indexes are available for different purposes and to meet varying user requirements. The problem of "keeping up" with developments in one's own field of endeavour can usually be solved by qualified abstractors. Most indexes serve the purpose of assuring the retrieval of pertinent documents. However, in order to retrieve specific pieces of information which are absolutely indispensible to the medical practitioner or scientist, a new approach is needed. This technique, which is termed the "combined index-abstract" method, has been employed successfully for the handling of a large body of specific items of information in a restricted area of experimental and clinical pharmacology. PMID:21735878

  4. Text Indexing of Images Based on Graphical Image Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Timothy B.; Sievert, MaryEllen C.; Popescu, Mihail

    1999-01-01

    Describes an alternative method for indexing images in an image database. The method consists of manually indexing a selected reference image, and then using retrieval by graphical content to automatically transfer the manually assigned index terms from the reference image to the images to be indexed. (AEF)

  5. Visualization index for image-enabled medical records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenjie; Zheng, Weilin; Sun, Jianyong; Zhang, Jianguo

    2011-03-01

    With the widely use of healthcare information technology in hospitals, the patients' medical records are more and more complex. To transform the text- or image-based medical information into easily understandable and acceptable form for human, we designed and developed an innovation indexing method which can be used to assign an anatomical 3D structure object to every patient visually to store indexes of the patients' basic information, historical examined image information and RIS report information. When a doctor wants to review patient historical records, he or she can first load the anatomical structure object and the view the 3D index of this object using a digital human model tool kit. This prototype system helps doctors to easily and visually obtain the complete historical healthcare status of patients, including large amounts of medical data, and quickly locate detailed information, including both reports and images, from medical information systems. In this way, doctors can save time that may be better used to understand information, obtain a more comprehensive understanding of their patients' situations, and provide better healthcare services to patients.

  6. How to produce instructional text for a medical audience.

    PubMed

    McLeod, P J

    1991-01-01

    Instructional text continues to play a major role in medical education. Production of this type of learning resource requires an understanding of the objectives of the learner and the characteristics of text which facilitate student learning. Success in producing effective readable text requires attention to the content as well as to the way it is presented. This review outlines the factors which have a major impact on those two elements. PMID:1749344

  7. Overlapping Statistical Segmentation for Effective Indexing of Japanese Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogawa, Yasushi; Matsuda, Toru

    1999-01-01

    Discusses statistical word indexing for Japanese information-retrieval systems and proposes a new method that uses statistics about characters to evaluate a bi-gram's likelihood of being a word boundary. Describes a new segmentation strategy that extracts some overlapping segments and results in higher retrieval effectiveness. (Author/LRW)

  8. MEDRank: using graph-based concept ranking to index biomedical texts

    PubMed Central

    Herskovic, Jorge R.; Cohen, Trevor; Subramanian, Devika; Iyengar, M. Sriram; Smith, Jack W.; Bernstam, Elmer V.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND As the volume of biomedical text increases exponentially, automatic indexing becomes increasingly important. However, existing approaches do not distinguish central (or core) concepts from concepts that were mentioned in passing. We focus on the problem of indexing MEDLINE records, a process that is currently performed by highly-trained humans at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). NLM indexers are assisted by a system called the Medical Text Indexer (MTI) that suggests candidate indexing terms. OBJECTIVE To improve the ability of MTI to select the core terms in MEDLINE abstracts. These core concepts are deemed to be most important and are designated as “major headings” by MEDLINE indexers. We introduce and evaluate a graph-based indexing methodology called MEDRank that generates concept graphs from biomedical text and then ranks the concepts within these graphs to identify the most important ones. METHODS We insert a MEDRank step into the MTI and compare MTI’s output with and without MEDRank to the MEDLINE indexers’ selected terms for a sample of 11,803 PubMed Central articles. We also tested whether human raters prefer terms generated by the MEDLINE indexers, MTI without MEDRank, and MTI with MEDRank for a sample of 36 PubMed Central articles. RESULTS MEDRank improved recall of major headings designated by 30% over MTI without MEDRank (0.489 vs 0.376). Overall recall was only slightly (6.5%) higher (0.490 vs 0.460) as was F2 (3%, 0.408 vs 0.396). However, overall precision was 3.9% lower (0.268 vs 0.279). Human raters preferred terms generated by MTI with MEDRank over terms generated by MTI without MEDRank (by an average of 1.00 more term per article), and preferred terms generated by MTI with MEDRank and the MEDLINE indexers at the same rate. CONCLUSIONS The addition of MEDRank to MTI significantly improved the retrieval of core concepts in MEDLINE abstracts and more closely matched human expectations compared to MTI without MEDRank. In

  9. Text mining for the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System: medical text classification using informative feature selection

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Michael D; Woo, Emily Jane; Markatou, Marianthi; Ball, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Objective The US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) collects spontaneous reports of adverse events following vaccination. Medical officers review the reports and often apply standardized case definitions, such as those developed by the Brighton Collaboration. Our objective was to demonstrate a multi-level text mining approach for automated text classification of VAERS reports that could potentially reduce human workload. Design We selected 6034 VAERS reports for H1N1 vaccine that were classified by medical officers as potentially positive (Npos=237) or negative for anaphylaxis. We created a categorized corpus of text files that included the class label and the symptom text field of each report. A validation set of 1100 labeled text files was also used. Text mining techniques were applied to extract three feature sets for important keywords, low- and high-level patterns. A rule-based classifier processed the high-level feature representation, while several machine learning classifiers were trained for the remaining two feature representations. Measurements Classifiers' performance was evaluated by macro-averaging recall, precision, and F-measure, and Friedman's test; misclassification error rate analysis was also performed. Results Rule-based classifier, boosted trees, and weighted support vector machines performed well in terms of macro-recall, however at the expense of a higher mean misclassification error rate. The rule-based classifier performed very well in terms of average sensitivity and specificity (79.05% and 94.80%, respectively). Conclusion Our validated results showed the possibility of developing effective medical text classifiers for VAERS reports by combining text mining with informative feature selection; this strategy has the potential to reduce reviewer workload considerably. PMID:21709163

  10. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  11. A system for de-identifying medical message board text

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are millions of public posts to medical message boards by users seeking support and information on a wide range of medical conditions. It has been shown that these posts can be used to gain a greater understanding of patients’ experiences and concerns. As investigators continue to explore large corpora of medical discussion board data for research purposes, protecting the privacy of the members of these online communities becomes an important challenge that needs to be met. Extant entity recognition methods used for more structured text are not sufficient because message posts present additional challenges: the posts contain many typographical errors, larger variety of possible names, terms and abbreviations specific to Internet posts or a particular message board, and mentions of the authors’ personal lives. The main contribution of this paper is a system to de-identify the authors of message board posts automatically, taking into account the aforementioned challenges. We demonstrate our system on two different message board corpora, one on breast cancer and another on arthritis. We show that our approach significantly outperforms other publicly available named entity recognition and de-identification systems, which have been tuned for more structured text like operative reports, pathology reports, discharge summaries, or newswire. PMID:21658289

  12. [Multiple births in the medical texts of antiquity].

    PubMed

    Dasen, V

    1998-01-01

    Ancient medical writers and biologists elaborated different theories to explain the phenomenon of multiple births. The earliest extant texts are in the Hippocratic collection and in the physiological treatises of Aristotle. They express opposed ideas: for the Hippocratics multiple births are the result of an ideal conception, for Aristotle they are regarded as anomalies associated with notions of monstrosity and excess. These views shed light on ancient collective imagery. Three themes in particular are found in non-medical literature and iconography: twin birth as a model of ideal fecundity, the ambiguous status of twins of different sexes, and the relation of multiple births to monstrosity and animality, as evidenced by the motif of twins born from one egg. PMID:11608857

  13. Knowledge-Based Indexing of the Medical Literature: The Indexing Aid Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Suzanne; Miller, Nancy E.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the National Library of Medicine's (NLM) Indexing Aid Project for conducting research in knowledge representation and indexing for information retrieval, whose goal is to develop interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of the periodical medical literature. Appendices include background information on NLM…

  14. Expectation-Driven Text Extraction from Medical Ultrasound Images.

    PubMed

    Reul, Christian; Köberle, Philipp; Üçeyler, Nurcan; Puppe, Frank

    2016-01-01

    In this study an expectation-driven approach is proposed to extract data stored as pixel structures in medical ultrasound images. Prior knowledge about certain properties like the position of the text and its background and foreground grayscale values is utilized. Several open source Java libraries are used to pre-process the image and extract the textual information. The results are presented in an Excel table together with the outcome of several consistency checks. After manually correcting potential errors, the outcome is automatically stored in the main database. The proposed system yielded excellent results, reaching an accuracy of 99.94% and reducing the necessary human effort to a minimum. PMID:27577478

  15. Automated de-identification of free-text medical records

    PubMed Central

    Neamatullah, Ishna; Douglass, Margaret M; Lehman, Li-wei H; Reisner, Andrew; Villarroel, Mauricio; Long, William J; Szolovits, Peter; Moody, George B; Mark, Roger G; Clifford, Gari D

    2008-01-01

    Background Text-based patient medical records are a vital resource in medical research. In order to preserve patient confidentiality, however, the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires that protected health information (PHI) be removed from medical records before they can be disseminated. Manual de-identification of large medical record databases is prohibitively expensive, time-consuming and prone to error, necessitating automatic methods for large-scale, automated de-identification. Methods We describe an automated Perl-based de-identification software package that is generally usable on most free-text medical records, e.g., nursing notes, discharge summaries, X-ray reports, etc. The software uses lexical look-up tables, regular expressions, and simple heuristics to locate both HIPAA PHI, and an extended PHI set that includes doctors' names and years of dates. To develop the de-identification approach, we assembled a gold standard corpus of re-identified nursing notes with real PHI replaced by realistic surrogate information. This corpus consists of 2,434 nursing notes containing 334,000 words and a total of 1,779 instances of PHI taken from 163 randomly selected patient records. This gold standard corpus was used to refine the algorithm and measure its sensitivity. To test the algorithm on data not used in its development, we constructed a second test corpus of 1,836 nursing notes containing 296,400 words. The algorithm's false negative rate was evaluated using this test corpus. Results Performance evaluation of the de-identification software on the development corpus yielded an overall recall of 0.967, precision value of 0.749, and fallout value of approximately 0.002. On the test corpus, a total of 90 instances of false negatives were found, or 27 per 100,000 word count, with an estimated recall of 0.943. Only one full date and one age over 89 were missed. No patient names were missed in either corpus. Conclusion We have

  16. Less Than Full-Text Indexing Using a Non-Boolean Searching Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleveland, Donald B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Relative effectiveness of indexing using full-text or less than full-text was tested using non-Boolean, chaining type of file structure and searching method. Indexing was done using titles, abstracts, full-text, references, and various combinations; Goffman's indirect method of information retrieval was used to structure and search file.…

  17. Patient clustering with uncoded text in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Henao, Ricardo; Murray, Jared; Ginsburg, Geoffrey; Carin, Lawrence; Lucas, Joseph E

    2013-01-01

    We propose a mixture model for text data designed to capture underlying structure in the history of present illness section of electronic medical records data. Additionally, we propose a method to induce bias that leads to more homogeneous sets of diagnoses for patients in each cluster. We apply our model to a collection of electronic records from an emergency department and compare our results to three other relevant models in order to assess performance. Results using standard metrics demonstrate that patient clusters from our model are more homogeneous when compared to others, and qualitative analyses suggest that our approach leads to interpretable patient sub-populations when applied to real data. Finally, we demonstrate an example of our patient clustering model to identify adverse drug events. PMID:24551361

  18. Patient Clustering with Uncoded Text in Electronic Medical Records

    PubMed Central

    Henao, Ricardo; Murray, Jared; Ginsburg, Geoffrey; Carin, Lawrence; Lucas, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a mixture model for text data designed to capture underlying structure in the history of present illness section of electronic medical records data. Additionally, we propose a method to induce bias that leads to more homogeneous sets of diagnoses for patients in each cluster. We apply our model to a collection of electronic records from an emergency department and compare our results to three other relevant models in order to assess performance. Results using standard metrics demonstrate that patient clusters from our model are more homogeneous when compared to others, and qualitative analyses suggest that our approach leads to interpretable patient sub-populations when applied to real data. Finally, we demonstrate an example of our patient clustering model to identify adverse drug events. PMID:24551361

  19. The quality/safety medical index: implementation and analysis.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2015-02-01

    Medical analytics relating to quality and safety measures have become particularly timely and of high importance in contemporary medical practice. In medical imaging, the dynamic relationship between medical imaging quality and radiation safety creates challenges in quantifying quality or safety independently. By creating a standardized measurement which simultaneously accounts for quality and safety measures (i.e., quality safety index), one can in theory create a standardized method for combined quality and safety analysis, which in turn can be analyzed in the context of individual patient, exam, and clinical profiles. The derived index measures can be entered into a centralized database, which in turn can be used for comparative performance of individual and institutional service providers. In addition, data analytics can be used to create customizable educational resources for providers and patients, clinical decision support tools, technology performance analysis, and clinical/economic outcomes research. PMID:25416467

  20. Non-indexed medical journals in the Web: new perspectives in the medical literature.

    PubMed

    Germenis, A E; Kokkinides, P A; Stavropoulos-Giokas, C

    1997-11-01

    Many medical journals, publishing in national languages, meet serious financial problems and difficulties when they attempt to become indexed in the international indices. Obviously, this not only affects the scientific quality of non-indexed medical journals (NIMJs) but also affects the awareness of the scientific community of topics with apparently local but potentially broader scientific significance. This is a reality for over 100 Greek medical journals, none of which has a life longer than 30 years or more than 2000 subscribers. Among them, the 'Archives of Hellenic Medicine' (AHM) is published and sponsored by the Athens Medical Society (the oldest medical society in Greece founded in 1835). This peer-reviewed Journal is being published for 13 years, bimonthly, in Greek. Attempting to overcome the above mentioned problems and to be involved in the process of discovering the most effective way of scientific 'skywriting', 2 years ago, the AHM entered full-text in the Web and it was decided that up to 500% of its volume should be covered by English-language papers. As a result, the AHM are now included in the main Web lists of medical journals and their home page is linked in many academic pages having approximately 500 hits/month. Furthermore, 45 retrievals of AHM's English-language papers or English abstracts of Greek-language articles were reported by e-mail response from abroad. Considered apart from the paper-publishing, the expenses of the digital publishing of the AHM are about half of those of paper-publishing, as they were before the appearance of the Journal in the Web. Up to now, about 40% of the Journal's digital publishing cost is covered by advertisements included in its pages and by a modification of its paper-publishing policy. It is concluded that the international scientific community is not indifferent for information published in NIMJs. Medical national minorities working abroad express special interest for this type of information. The Web

  1. Texting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilley, Carol L.

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing ranks of cell phone ownership is an increase in text messaging, or texting. During 2008, more than 2.5 trillion text messages were sent worldwide--that's an average of more than 400 messages for every person on the planet. Although many of the messages teenagers text each day are perhaps nothing more than "how r u?" or "c u…

  2. Frequency and content analysis of chronic fatigue syndrome in medical text books.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Paavola, Erin; Porter, Nicole; Morello, Morgan L

    2010-01-01

    Text books are a cornerstone in the training of medical staff and students, and they are an important source of references and reviews for these professionals. The objective of this study was to determine both the quantity and quality of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) information included in medical texts. After reviewing 119 medical text books from various medical specialties, we found that 48 (40.3%) of the medical text books included information on CFS. However, among the 129 527 total pages within these medical text books, the CFS content was presented on only 116.3 (0.090%) pages. Other illnesses that are less prevalent, such as multiple sclerosis and Lyme disease, were more frequently represented in medical text books. These findings suggest that the topic ofCFS is underreported in published medical text books. PMID:21128580

  3. Image Engine: an object-oriented multimedia database for storing, retrieving and sharing medical images and text.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes Image Engine, an object-oriented, microcomputer-based, multimedia database designed to facilitate the storage and retrieval of digitized biomedical still images, video, and text using inexpensive desktop computers. The current prototype runs on Apple Macintosh computers and allows network database access via peer to peer file sharing protocols. Image Engine supports both free text and controlled vocabulary indexing of multimedia objects. The latter is implemented using the TView thesaurus model developed by the author. The current prototype of Image Engine uses the National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) vocabulary (with UMLS Meta-1 extensions) as its indexing thesaurus. PMID:8130596

  4. Semantic extraction and processing of medical records for patient-oriented visual index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilin; Dong, Wenjie; Chen, Xiangjiao; Zhang, Jianguo

    2012-02-01

    To have comprehensive and completed understanding healthcare status of a patient, doctors need to search patient medical records from different healthcare information systems, such as PACS, RIS, HIS, USIS, as a reference of diagnosis and treatment decisions for the patient. However, it is time-consuming and tedious to do these procedures. In order to solve this kind of problems, we developed a patient-oriented visual index system (VIS) to use the visual technology to show health status and to retrieve the patients' examination information stored in each system with a 3D human model. In this presentation, we present a new approach about how to extract the semantic and characteristic information from the medical record systems such as RIS/USIS to create the 3D Visual Index. This approach includes following steps: (1) Building a medical characteristic semantic knowledge base; (2) Developing natural language processing (NLP) engine to perform semantic analysis and logical judgment on text-based medical records; (3) Applying the knowledge base and NLP engine on medical records to extract medical characteristics (e.g., the positive focus information), and then mapping extracted information to related organ/parts of 3D human model to create the visual index. We performed the testing procedures on 559 samples of radiological reports which include 853 focuses, and achieved 828 focuses' information. The successful rate of focus extraction is about 97.1%.

  5. A computerized representation of a medical school curriculum: integration of relational and text management software in database design.

    PubMed Central

    Mattern, W. D.; Wagner, J. A.; Brown, J. S.; Fisher-Neenan, L.

    1991-01-01

    We describe the development of a computer-based representation of the medical school curriculum at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Over the past seven years the Medical School's Office of Academic Affairs has employed both relational database and text management software to design an integrated curriculum database system. Depending on the function selected--exploring the curriculum, searching through course outlines, retrieving elective descriptions, identifying teaching faculty, or searching for specific topics--either text management or relational database management routines are activated in a manner transparent to the user. Initial evaluation of the system has been positive but highlights the need for a more robust biomedical language for use as a controlled vocabulary to index content. Efforts are now underway, with support from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to engage other interested schools in the U.S. and Canada in collaborating on further development of a system. PMID:1807615

  6. Knowledge-based machine indexing from natural language text: Knowledge base design, development, and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genuardi, Michael T.

    1993-01-01

    One strategy for machine-aided indexing (MAI) is to provide a concept-level analysis of the textual elements of documents or document abstracts. In such systems, natural-language phrases are analyzed in order to identify and classify concepts related to a particular subject domain. The overall performance of these MAI systems is largely dependent on the quality and comprehensiveness of their knowledge bases. These knowledge bases function to (1) define the relations between a controlled indexing vocabulary and natural language expressions; (2) provide a simple mechanism for disambiguation and the determination of relevancy; and (3) allow the extension of concept-hierarchical structure to all elements of the knowledge file. After a brief description of the NASA Machine-Aided Indexing system, concerns related to the development and maintenance of MAI knowledge bases are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to statistically-based text analysis tools designed to aid the knowledge base developer. One such tool, the Knowledge Base Building (KBB) program, presents the domain expert with a well-filtered list of synonyms and conceptually-related phrases for each thesaurus concept. Another tool, the Knowledge Base Maintenance (KBM) program, functions to identify areas of the knowledge base affected by changes in the conceptual domain (for example, the addition of a new thesaurus term). An alternate use of the KBM as an aid in thesaurus construction is also discussed.

  7. Using Bitmap Indexing Technology for Combined Numerical and TextQueries

    SciTech Connect

    Stockinger, Kurt; Cieslewicz, John; Wu, Kesheng; Rotem, Doron; Shoshani, Arie

    2006-10-16

    In this paper, we describe a strategy of using compressedbitmap indices to speed up queries on both numerical data and textdocuments. By using an efficient compression algorithm, these compressedbitmap indices are compact even for indices with millions of distinctterms. Moreover, bitmap indices can be used very efficiently to answerBoolean queries over text documents involving multiple query terms.Existing inverted indices for text searches are usually inefficient forcorpora with a very large number of terms as well as for queriesinvolving a large number of hits. We demonstrate that our compressedbitmap index technology overcomes both of those short-comings. In aperformance comparison against a commonly used database system, ourindices answer queries 30 times faster on average. To provide full SQLsupport, we integrated our indexing software, called FastBit, withMonetDB. The integrated system MonetDB/FastBit provides not onlyefficient searches on a single table as FastBit does, but also answersjoin queries efficiently. Furthermore, MonetDB/FastBit also provides avery efficient retrieval mechanism of result records.

  8. PASTE: patient-centered SMS text tagging in a medication management system

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kevin B; Denny, Joshua C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the performance of a system that extracts medication information and administration-related actions from patient short message service (SMS) messages. Design Mobile technologies provide a platform for electronic patient-centered medication management. MyMediHealth (MMH) is a medication management system that includes a medication scheduler, a medication administration record, and a reminder engine that sends text messages to cell phones. The object of this work was to extend MMH to allow two-way interaction using mobile phone-based SMS technology. Unprompted text-message communication with patients using natural language could engage patients in their healthcare, but presents unique natural language processing challenges. The authors developed a new functional component of MMH, the Patient-centered Automated SMS Tagging Engine (PASTE). The PASTE web service uses natural language processing methods, custom lexicons, and existing knowledge sources to extract and tag medication information from patient text messages. Measurements A pilot evaluation of PASTE was completed using 130 medication messages anonymously submitted by 16 volunteers via a website. System output was compared with manually tagged messages. Results Verified medication names, medication terms, and action terms reached high F-measures of 91.3%, 94.7%, and 90.4%, respectively. The overall medication name F-measure was 79.8%, and the medication action term F-measure was 90%. Conclusion Other studies have demonstrated systems that successfully extract medication information from clinical documents using semantic tagging, regular expression-based approaches, or a combination of both approaches. This evaluation demonstrates the feasibility of extracting medication information from patient-generated medication messages. PMID:21984605

  9. Towards a multilingual morpheme thesaurus for medical free-text retrieval.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Romacker, M; Franz, P; Zaiss, A; Klar, R; Hahn, U

    1999-01-01

    We introduce a methodology for the segmentation of complex compounds into medically plausible morphemes. A tool for thesaurus compilation and management is presented, and design principles for a multilingual morpheme thesaurus are outlined. Our goal is to enhance the quality of medical free-text retrieval by replacing lexically based through morpheme-based search procedures. PMID:10725027

  10. An automatic system to detect and extract texts in medical images for de-identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yingxuan; Singh, P. D.; Siddiqui, Khan; Gillam, Michael

    2010-03-01

    Recently, there is an increasing need to share medical images for research purpose. In order to respect and preserve patient privacy, most of the medical images are de-identified with protected health information (PHI) before research sharing. Since manual de-identification is time-consuming and tedious, so an automatic de-identification system is necessary and helpful for the doctors to remove text from medical images. A lot of papers have been written about algorithms of text detection and extraction, however, little has been applied to de-identification of medical images. Since the de-identification system is designed for end-users, it should be effective, accurate and fast. This paper proposes an automatic system to detect and extract text from medical images for de-identification purposes, while keeping the anatomic structures intact. First, considering the text have a remarkable contrast with the background, a region variance based algorithm is used to detect the text regions. In post processing, geometric constraints are applied to the detected text regions to eliminate over-segmentation, e.g., lines and anatomic structures. After that, a region based level set method is used to extract text from the detected text regions. A GUI for the prototype application of the text detection and extraction system is implemented, which shows that our method can detect most of the text in the images. Experimental results validate that our method can detect and extract text in medical images with a 99% recall rate. Future research of this system includes algorithm improvement, performance evaluation, and computation optimization.

  11. Tagline: Information Extraction for Semi-Structured Text Elements in Medical Progress Notes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Dezon Kile

    2012-01-01

    Text analysis has become an important research activity in the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). Statistical text mining and natural language processing have been shown to be very effective for extracting useful information from medical documents. However, neither of these techniques is effective at extracting the information stored in…

  12. Using Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning and Mapping System (MTERMS) to Process Medication Information in Outpatient Clinical Notes

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Mahoney, Lisa M; Karipineni, Neelima; Chang, Frank; Yan, Xuemin; Chang, Fenny; Dimaggio, Dana; Goldman, Debora S.; Rocha, Roberto A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical information is often coded using different terminologies, and therefore is not interoperable. Our goal is to develop a general natural language processing (NLP) system, called Medical Text Extraction, Reasoning and Mapping System (MTERMS), which encodes clinical text using different terminologies and simultaneously establishes dynamic mappings between them. MTERMS applies a modular, pipeline approach flowing from a preprocessor, semantic tagger, terminology mapper, context analyzer, and parser to structure inputted clinical notes. Evaluators manually reviewed 30 free-text and 10 structured outpatient clinical notes compared to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an overall F-measure of 90.6 and 94.0 for free-text and structured notes respectively for medication and temporal information. The local medication terminology had 83.0% coverage compared to RxNorm’s 98.0% coverage for free-text notes. 61.6% of mappings between the terminologies are exact match. Capture of duration was significantly improved (91.7% vs. 52.5%) from systems in the third i2b2 challenge. PMID:22195230

  13. Text Messaging to Improve Hypertension Medication Adherence in African Americans: BPMED Intervention Development and Study Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Artinian, Nancy T; Schwiebert, Loren; Yarandi, Hossein; Levy, Phillip D

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension (HTN) is a major public health concern in the United States, with almost 78 million Americans age 20 years and over suffering from the condition. Moreover, HTN is a key risk factor for health disease and stroke. African Americans disproportionately shoulder the burdens of HTN, with greater prevalence, disease severity, earlier onset, and more HTN-related complications than age-matched whites. Medication adherence for the treatment of HTN is poor, with estimates indicating that only about half of hypertensive patients are adherent to prescribed medication regimens. Although no single intervention for improving medication adherence has emerged as superior to others, text message medication reminders have the potential to help improve medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN as mobile phone adoption is very high in this population. Objective The purpose of this two-phased study was to develop (Phase I) and test in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (Phase II) a text message system, BPMED, to improve the quality of medication management through increasing medication adherence in African Americans with uncontrolled HTN. Methods In Phase I, we recruited 16 target end-users from a primary care clinic, to assist in the development of BPMED through participating in one of three focus groups. Focus groups sought to gain patient perspectives on HTN, medication adherence, mobile phone use, and the use of text messaging to support medication adherence. Potential intervention designs were presented to participants, and feedback on the designs was solicited. In Phase II, we conducted two pilot RCTs to determine the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of BPMED in primary care and emergency department settings. Both pilot studies recruited approximately 60 participants, who were randomized equally between usual care and the BPMED intervention. Results Although data collection is now complete, data analysis from the

  14. Exploring the application of deep learning techniques on medical text corpora.

    PubMed

    Minarro-Giménez, José Antonio; Marín-Alonso, Oscar; Samwald, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    With the rapidly growing amount of biomedical literature it becomes increasingly difficult to find relevant information quickly and reliably. In this study we applied the word2vec deep learning toolkit to medical corpora to test its potential for improving the accessibility of medical knowledge. We evaluated the efficiency of word2vec in identifying properties of pharmaceuticals based on mid-sized, unstructured medical text corpora without any additional background knowledge. Properties included relationships to diseases ('may treat') or physiological processes ('has physiological effect'). We evaluated the relationships identified by word2vec through comparison with the National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) ontology. The results of our first evaluation were mixed, but helped us identify further avenues for employing deep learning technologies in medical information retrieval, as well as using them to complement curated knowledge captured in ontologies and taxonomies. PMID:25160253

  15. Automated medical image modality recognition by fusion of visual and text information.

    PubMed

    Codella, Noel; Connell, Jonathan; Pankanti, Sharath; Merler, Michele; Smith, John R

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a framework for medical image modality recognition based on a fusion of both visual and text classification methods. Experiments are performed on the public ImageCLEF 2013 medical image modality dataset, which provides figure images and associated fulltext articles from PubMed as components of the benchmark. The presented visual-based system creates ensemble models across a broad set of visual features using a multi-stage learning approach that best optimizes per-class feature selection while simultaneously utilizing all available data for training. The text subsystem uses a pseudoprobabilistic scoring method based on detection of suggestive patterns, analyzing both the figure captions and mentions of the figures in the main text. Our proposed system yields state-of-the-art performance in all 3 categories of visual-only (82.2%), text-only (69.6%), and fusion tasks (83.5%). PMID:25485415

  16. Ancient Egyptian Medical Texts: A Rhetorical Analysis of Two of the Oldest Papyri.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipson, Carol S.

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes two ancient Egyptian technical texts, the Edwin Smith Surgery Manual and the Ebers Manual, to identify complex rhetorical dynamics that present or encourage substantive reformulation of medical practice and thinking within a strongly conservative, authoritarian culture. Shows how the ancient Egyptian rhetorical forms allow for challenges…

  17. Identifying medical terms in patient-authored text: a crowdsourcing-based approach

    PubMed Central

    MacLean, Diana Lynn; Heer, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Background and objective As people increasingly engage in online health-seeking behavior and contribute to health-oriented websites, the volume of medical text authored by patients and other medical novices grows rapidly. However, we lack an effective method for automatically identifying medical terms in patient-authored text (PAT). We demonstrate that crowdsourcing PAT medical term identification tasks to non-experts is a viable method for creating large, accurately-labeled PAT datasets; moreover, such datasets can be used to train classifiers that outperform existing medical term identification tools. Materials and methods To evaluate the viability of using non-expert crowds to label PAT, we compare expert (registered nurses) and non-expert (Amazon Mechanical Turk workers; Turkers) responses to a PAT medical term identification task. Next, we build a crowd-labeled dataset comprising 10 000 sentences from MedHelp. We train two models on this dataset and evaluate their performance, as well as that of MetaMap, Open Biomedical Annotator (OBA), and NaCTeM's TerMINE, against two gold standard datasets: one from MedHelp and the other from CureTogether. Results When aggregated according to a corroborative voting policy, Turker responses predict expert responses with an F1 score of 84%. A conditional random field (CRF) trained on 10 000 crowd-labeled MedHelp sentences achieves an F1 score of 78% against the CureTogether gold standard, widely outperforming OBA (47%), TerMINE (43%), and MetaMap (39%). A failure analysis of the CRF suggests that misclassified terms are likely to be either generic or rare. Conclusions Our results show that combining statistical models sensitive to sentence-level context with crowd-labeled data is a scalable and effective technique for automatically identifying medical terms in PAT. PMID:23645553

  18. Paraphrase acquisition from comparable medical corpora of specialized and lay texts.

    PubMed

    Deléger, Louise; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays a large amount of health information is available to the public, but medical language is often difficult for lay people to understand. Developing means to make medical information more comprehensible is therefore a real need. In this regard, a useful resource would be a corpus of specialized and lay paraphrases. To this end we built comparable corpora of specialized and lay texts on which we applied paraphrasing patterns based on anchors of deverbal noun and verb pairs. The results show that the paraphrases were of good quality (71.4% to 94.2% precision) and that this type of paraphrases was relevant in the context of studying the differences between specialized and lay language. This study also demonstrates that simple paraphrase acquisition methods can also work on texts with a rather small degree of similarity, once similar text segments are detected. PMID:18999095

  19. Prospects and limitations of full-text index structures in genome analysis.

    PubMed

    Vyverman, Michaël; De Baets, Bernard; Fack, Veerle; Dawyndt, Peter

    2012-08-01

    The combination of incessant advances in sequencing technology producing large amounts of data and innovative bioinformatics approaches, designed to cope with this data flood, has led to new interesting results in the life sciences. Given the magnitude of sequence data to be processed, many bioinformatics tools rely on efficient solutions to a variety of complex string problems. These solutions include fast heuristic algorithms and advanced data structures, generally referred to as index structures. Although the importance of index structures is generally known to the bioinformatics community, the design and potency of these data structures, as well as their properties and limitations, are less understood. Moreover, the last decade has seen a boom in the number of variant index structures featuring complex and diverse memory-time trade-offs. This article brings a comprehensive state-of-the-art overview of the most popular index structures and their recently developed variants. Their features, interrelationships, the trade-offs they impose, but also their practical limitations, are explained and compared. PMID:22584621

  20. Mead Data Central's MEDIS: medical information access in full-text.

    PubMed

    Albright, R G

    1989-01-01

    Electronic information access is an imperative skill for the modern health professional. Mead Data Central's MEDIS overcomes the limitations of "abstract-only" information networks and provides rapid access to a large collection of full-text medical information. With its proprietary communications software, Mead can display citations in a paged format with on-screen highlighting (in "reverse video") of search terms as they appear in documents. Users can move through the electronic pages as easily as they would thumb through a journal or book. A practice section on MEDIS is billed only for connect charges for using, and a unique on-line tutorial, which, while not specific for MEDIS, introduces users to searching the Mead system. Training is available to subscribers in several major cities and training software is available. MEDIS is a unique resource to access medical literature in full-text quickly and efficiently. PMID:10303627

  1. TagLine: Information Extraction for Semi-Structured Text in Medical Progress Notes

    PubMed Central

    Finch, Dezon K.; McCart, James A.; Luther, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Statistical text mining and natural language processing have been shown to be effective for extracting useful information from medical documents. However, neither technique is effective at extracting the information stored in semi-structure text elements. A prototype system (TagLine) was developed to extract information from the semi-structured text using machine learning and a rule based annotator. Features for the learning machine were suggested by prior work, and by examining text, and selecting attributes that help distinguish classes of text lines. Classes were derived empirically from text and guided by an ontology developed by the VHA’s Consortium for Health Informatics Research (CHIR). Decision trees were evaluated for class predictions on 15,103 lines of text achieved an overall accuracy of 98.5 percent. The class labels applied to the lines were then used for annotating semi-structured text elements. TagLine achieved F-measure over 0.9 for each of the structures, which included tables, slots and fillers. PMID:25954358

  2. TagLine: Information Extraction for Semi-Structured Text in Medical Progress Notes.

    PubMed

    Finch, Dezon K; McCart, James A; Luther, Stephen L

    2014-01-01

    Statistical text mining and natural language processing have been shown to be effective for extracting useful information from medical documents. However, neither technique is effective at extracting the information stored in semi-structure text elements. A prototype system (TagLine) was developed to extract information from the semi-structured text using machine learning and a rule based annotator. Features for the learning machine were suggested by prior work, and by examining text, and selecting attributes that help distinguish classes of text lines. Classes were derived empirically from text and guided by an ontology developed by the VHA's Consortium for Health Informatics Research (CHIR). Decision trees were evaluated for class predictions on 15,103 lines of text achieved an overall accuracy of 98.5 percent. The class labels applied to the lines were then used for annotating semi-structured text elements. TagLine achieved F-measure over 0.9 for each of the structures, which included tables, slots and fillers. PMID:25954358

  3. Extracting and standardizing medication information in clinical text – the MedEx-UIMA system

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Min; Wu, Yonghui; Shah, Anushi; Priyanka, Priyanka; Denny, Joshua C.; Xu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Extraction of medication information embedded in clinical text is important for research using electronic health records (EHRs). However, most of current medication information extraction systems identify drug and signature entities without mapping them to standard representation. In this study, we introduced the open source Java implementation of MedEx, an existing high-performance medication information extraction system, based on the Unstructured Information Management Architecture (UIMA) framework. In addition, we developed new encoding modules in the MedEx-UIMA system, which mapped an extracted drug name/dose/form to both generalized and specific RxNorm concepts and translated drug frequency information to ISO standard. We processed 826 documents by both systems and verified that MedEx-UIMA and MedEx (the Python version) performed similarly by comparing both results. Using two manually annotated test sets that contained 300 drug entries from medication list and 300 drug entries from narrative reports, the MedEx-UIMA system achieved F-measures of 98.5% and 97.5% respectively for encoding drug names to corresponding RxNorm generic drug ingredients, and F-measures of 85.4% and 88.1% respectively for mapping drug names/dose/form to the most specific RxNorm concepts. It also achieved an F-measure of 90.4% for normalizing frequency information to ISO standard. The open source MedEx-UIMA system is freely available online at http://code.google.com/p/medex-uima/. PMID:25954575

  4. Automatically Detecting Medications and the Reason for their Prescription in Clinical Narrative Text Documents

    PubMed Central

    Meystre, Stéphane M.; Thibault, Julien; Shen, Shuying; Hurdle, John F.; South, Brett R.

    2011-01-01

    An important proportion of the information about the medications a patient is taking is mentioned only in narrative text in the electronic health record. Automated information extraction can make this information accessible for decision-support, research, or any other automated processing. In the context of the “i2b2 medication extraction challenge,” we have developed a new NLP application called Textractor to automatically extract medications and details about them (e.g., dosage, frequency, reason for their prescription). This application and its evaluation with part of the reference standard for this “challenge” are presented here, along with an analysis of the development of this reference standard. During this evaluation, Textractor reached a system-level overall F1-measure, the reference metric for this challenge, of about 77% for exact matches. The best performance was measured with medication routes (F1-measure 86.4%), and the worst with prescription reasons (F1-measure 29%). These results are consistent with the agreement observed between human annotators when developing the reference standard, and with other published research. PMID:20841823

  5. Risk factor detection for heart disease by applying text analytics in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Torii, Manabu; Fan, Jung-Wei; Yang, Wei-Li; Lee, Theodore; Wiley, Matthew T; Zisook, Daniel S; Huang, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In the United States, about 600,000 people die of heart disease every year. The annual cost of care services, medications, and lost productivity reportedly exceeds 108.9 billion dollars. Effective disease risk assessment is critical to prevention, care, and treatment planning. Recent advancements in text analytics have opened up new possibilities of using the rich information in electronic medical records (EMRs) to identify relevant risk factors. The 2014 i2b2/UTHealth Challenge brought together researchers and practitioners of clinical natural language processing (NLP) to tackle the identification of heart disease risk factors reported in EMRs. We participated in this track and developed an NLP system by leveraging existing tools and resources, both public and proprietary. Our system was a hybrid of several machine-learning and rule-based components. The system achieved an overall F1 score of 0.9185, with a recall of 0.9409 and a precision of 0.8972. PMID:26279500

  6. Automation and integration of components for generalized semantic markup of electronic medical texts.

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, J. M.; Berrios, D. C.; Liu, X.; Kim, D. K.; Kaizer, H.; Fagan, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Our group has built an information retrieval system based on a complex semantic markup of medical textbooks. We describe the construction of a set of web-based knowledge-acquisition tools that expedites the collection and maintenance of the concepts required for text markup and the search interface required for information retrieval from the marked text. In the text markup system, domain experts (DEs) identify sections of text that contain one or more elements from a finite set of concepts. End users can then query the text using a predefined set of questions, each of which identifies a subset of complementary concepts. The search process matches that subset of concepts to relevant points in the text. The current process requires that the DE invest significant time to generate the required concepts and questions. We propose a new system--called ACQUIRE (Acquisition of Concepts and Queries in an Integrated Retrieval Environment)--that assists a DE in two essential tasks in the text-markup process. First, it helps her to develop, edit, and maintain the concept model: the set of concepts with which she marks the text. Second, ACQUIRE helps her to develop a query model: the set of specific questions that end users can later use to search the marked text. The DE incorporates concepts from the concept model when she creates the questions in the query model. The major benefit of the ACQUIRE system is a reduction in the time and effort required for the text-markup process. We compared the process of concept- and query-model creation using ACQUIRE to the process used in previous work by rebuilding two existing models that we previously constructed manually. We observed a significant decrease in the time required to build and maintain the concept and query models. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:10566457

  7. BROWSER: An Automatic Indexing On-Line Text Retrieval System. Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, J. H., Jr.

    The development and testing of the Browsing On-line With Selective Retrieval (BROWSER) text retrieval system allowing a natural language query statement and providing on-line browsing capabilities through an IBM 2260 display terminal is described. The prototype system contains data bases of 25,000 German language patent abstracts, 9,000 English…

  8. Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.

    PubMed

    Moore, G W; Hutchins, G M; Miller, R E

    1984-04-01

    Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

  9. Strategies for searching medical natural language text. Distribution of words in the anatomic diagnoses of 7000 autopsy subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, G. W.; Hutchins, G. M.; Miller, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837

  10. The quest for full text: an in-depth examination of Pubget for medical searchers.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, Robin; Hersey, Denise

    2010-10-01

    This article examines Pubget, a free Web-based search engine for life sciences researchers for conducting searches of the medical literature and retrieving full-text PDFs. Its search functionality and add-on features are evaluated to determine potential for library instruction and promotion. With many libraries relying on OpenURL link resolvers to connect searchers with institutional subscriptions, Pubget offers an alternative by combining search, article-level link resolving, and authentication in a single platform. The authors determine advantages and disadvantages for using Pubget based on product testing and make recommendations for institutions interested in "activating" subscriptions in Pubget. PMID:21058175

  11. Text messaging: an innovative method of data collection in medical research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The ubiquitous use of mobile phones in sending and receiving text messages has become a norm for young people. Undeniably, text messaging has become a new and important communication medium not only in the social realm but in education as well. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of using text messaging as a means to collect data for a medical research project. A cross sectional study was carried out during a double blind, randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of a probiotic in the management of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). The study aim was to assess the response rate of weekly symptom reports via Short Message Service (SMS). The subjects were undergraduates in a private medical university in Malaysia. They were identified through a previous university wide study as suffering from IBS based on Rome III criteria. The subjects were randomly assigned to either the treatment arm receiving a daily probiotic, or the placebo arm. They were required to score their symptoms using eight-item-questionnaires at baseline, and thereafter weekly, for a total of 8 weeks. All subjects were given the choice to communicate their symptom scores by text messaging via mobile phones or by email. SMS text messages were sent to remind trial subjects to attend face-to-face visits and to complete a paper based 34-item-questionnaires on IBS quality of life assessment at baseline and at end of 8 weeks. Findings The response rate of weekly symptom scores via Short Message Service (SMS) from a total of 38 subjects was 100%. Through the study, 342 reports were submitted: 33.3% of these were received on the due date without reminder, 60.0% one day after the deadline, after a single reminder, 6.1% 2-3 days after the deadline, after 2-3 reminders and 0.6% 5 days after the deadline, after SMS, phone reminder and face-to-face encounter. All SMS symptom reports, whether on time or late, were complete. With the help of SMS reminder, all trial

  12. Automated semantic indexing of imaging reports to support retrieval of medical images in the multimedia electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A; Mailhot, M

    1999-12-01

    This paper describes preliminary work evaluating automated semantic indexing of radiology imaging reports to represent images stored in the Image Engine multimedia medical record system at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. The authors used the SAPHIRE indexing system to automatically identify important biomedical concepts within radiology reports and represent these concepts with terms from the 1998 edition of the U.S. National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. This automated UMLS indexing was then compared with manual UMLS indexing of the same reports. Human indexing identified appropriate UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 81% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. SAPHIRE automatically identified UMLS Metathesaurus descriptors for 64% of the important biomedical concepts contained in the report set. The overall conclusions of this pilot study were that the UMLS metathesaurus provided adequate coverage of the majority of the important concepts contained within the radiology report test set and that SAPHIRE could automatically identify and translate almost two thirds of these concepts into appropriate UMLS descriptors. Further work is required to improve both the recall and precision of this automated concept extraction process. PMID:10805018

  13. Text mining of the classical medical literature for medicines that show potential in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie C L; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808

  14. Text Mining of the Classical Medical Literature for Medicines That Show Potential in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H.; Xue, Charlie C. L.; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808

  15. Neurolinguistic approach to natural language processing with applications to medical text analysis.

    PubMed

    Duch, Włodzisław; Matykiewicz, Paweł; Pestian, John

    2008-12-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts not found directly in the text. The approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  16. Impact factor of Korean Journal of Pediatrics on Korean Medical Citation Index and Science Citation Index of Web of Science

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sun Hee; Han, Man Yong; Rha, Yeong Ho; Lee, Young Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The total number of times a paper is cited, also known as the impact factor (IF) of a medical journal, is widely implied in evaluating the quality of a research paper. We evaluated the citation index data as an IF of Korean J Pediatr in Korean Medical Citation Index (KoMCI) and JCI of Web of Science. Methods We calculated the IF of Korean J Pediatr at KoMCI supervised by Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. And we estimated the IF of Korean J Pediatr by the JCI of Web of Science although it was never officially reported. Results The IF of Korean J Pediatr on KoMCI has increased from 0.100 in the year 2000, to 0.205 in 2008, and 0.326 in 2009. Although the IF of Korean J Pediatr was 0.006 in 2005, 0.018 in 2006, 0.028 in 2008, 0.066 in 2009, and 0.018 in 2010 according to the JCI of Web of Science, the number of citations are steadily increasing. Conclusion Understanding and realizing the current status will be a stepping stone for further improvement. The next objective of the Korean J Pediatr is to become registered in the SCI or SCIE. Increasing the IF according to the JCI of Web of Science is crucial in order to achieve this goal. PMID:21738548

  17. Health Promotion Text Messaging Preferences and Acceptability Among the Medically Underserved.

    PubMed

    Albright, Karen; Krantz, Mori J; Backlund Jarquín, Paige; DeAlleaume, Lauren; Coronel-Mockler, Stephanie; Estacio, Raymond O

    2015-07-01

    The Colorado Healthy Heart Solutions program uses community health workers to provide health promotion and navigation services for participants in medically underserved, predominantly rural areas who are at risk for developing cardiovascular disease. A text messaging program designed to increase participant engagement and adherence to lifestyle changes was pilot tested with English- and Spanish-speaking participants. Preimplementation focus groups with participants informed the development of text messages that were used in a 6-week pilot program. Postimplementation focus groups and interviews then evaluated the pilot program. Participants reported a preference for concise messages received once daily and for positive messages suggesting specific actions that could be feasibly accomplished within the course of the day. Participants also consistently reported the desire for clarity in message delivery and content, indicating that the source of the messages should be easy to recognize, messages should state clearly when participants were expected to respond to the messages, and any responses should be acknowledged. Links to other websites or resources were generally viewed as trustworthy and acceptable, but were preferred for supplementary material only. These results may inform the development of future chronic disease management programs in underserved areas or augment existing programs using text messaging reinforcement. PMID:25586133

  18. The (see text) in the Praecepta: The Medical Fee and its Impact on the Patient.

    PubMed

    Ecca, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The brief collection of deontological guidelines entitled Praecepta is one of the most important literary evidence regarding the fee of the ancient physician. This chapter focuses on three passages from the Praecepta, which offer us a wealth of information on this topic. Some technical terms used in the text, such as the term μiσθápiov, show clearly that the author intends both to provide guidelines for the ideal bedside manners and to defend the repute of the physicians from the widespread charge of greed. In some regards, the author of the Praecepta depicts medicine as a 'liberal' art: the good physician disdains monetary gain as the main goal of his service, and aims to safeguard the social status and reputation of the medical profession. On the other hand, the author of the Praecepta enlightens his readers on the bad behaviour of both charlatan physicians and bad-mannered patients. PMID:26946684

  19. Tongue and lip frenectomy in Spanish medical texts of the 16th-18th centuries.

    PubMed

    Romero-Maroto, Martín; Sáez-Gómez, José Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The frena of the tongue and lip are normal structures of the buccal cavity, and surgical resection is only necessary in cases of hypertrophy. This article looks at medical texts of the Early Modern Era to analyze the origins and quality of our knowledge on this topic and examine any therapeutic measures proposed. This review shows that while the indications for carrying out tongue frenectomy are very similar to those today (speech and breastfeeding difficulties), those for carrying out a lip frenectomy are very different. Interestingly, apart from purely surgical or medicinal treatments, some authors indicated the need to complement such treatment with educational intervention and what can only be called basic speech therapy. PMID:22916406

  20. Medical care price indexes: theory, construction & empirical analysis of the US series 1927-1990.

    PubMed

    Getzen, T E

    1992-01-01

    The historical development of price indexes as wage adjustment mechanisms is reviewed, as is the theory of aggregation and methods for dealing with quality and technological change. The construction of the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) Medical Care Price Index (MCPI) is detailed. ARIMA analysis of the MCPI for the period 1927-1990 indicates that; (i) the MCPI is largely a damped and delayed function of the CPI, with an average lag of 8 months; (ii) medical care prices rose 2-4 percent faster than the all-items CPI since 1950, but not for 1927-1950; (iii) health expenditures are affected primarily by the general CPI, with little independent effect of specifically medical prices. The MCPI is a reliable measure of changes in consumer prices with strong construct validity. However, it was not designed for use as a deflator of medical expenditures, and is misleading when erroneously employed in that unintended role. The price/quantity duality and linear expenditure function which form the basis of Laspeyres price indexes are not applicable to nonconcatenable goods such as insurance or medical care. In these complex transactions, quality dominates quantity, fixed prices are replaced by reimbursement and professional judgement, and the assumption of additive separability required to use the price index as a deflator of health expenditures is not valid. PMID:10129447

  1. Neurolinguistic Approach to Natural Language Processing with Applications to Medical Text Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Matykiewicz, Paweł; Pestian, John

    2008-01-01

    Understanding written or spoken language presumably involves spreading neural activation in the brain. This process may be approximated by spreading activation in semantic networks, providing enhanced representations that involve concepts that are not found directly in the text. Approximation of this process is of great practical and theoretical interest. Although activations of neural circuits involved in representation of words rapidly change in time snapshots of these activations spreading through associative networks may be captured in a vector model. Concepts of similar type activate larger clusters of neurons, priming areas in the left and right hemisphere. Analysis of recent brain imaging experiments shows the importance of the right hemisphere non-verbal clusterization. Medical ontologies enable development of a large-scale practical algorithm to re-create pathways of spreading neural activations. First concepts of specific semantic type are identified in the text, and then all related concepts of the same type are added to the text, providing expanded representations. To avoid rapid growth of the extended feature space after each step only the most useful features that increase document clusterization are retained. Short hospital discharge summaries are used to illustrate how this process works on a real, very noisy data. Expanded texts show significantly improved clustering and may be classified with much higher accuracy. Although better approximations to the spreading of neural activations may be devised a practical approach presented in this paper helps to discover pathways used by the brain to process specific concepts, and may be used in large-scale applications. PMID:18614334

  2. Comprehensive temporal information detection from clinical text: medical events, time, and TLINK identification

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Wagholikar, Kavishwar B; Li, Dingcheng; Jonnalagadda, Siddhartha R; Tao, Cui; Komandur Elayavilli, Ravikumar; Liu, Hongfang

    2013-01-01

    Background Temporal information detection systems have been developed by the Mayo Clinic for the 2012 i2b2 Natural Language Processing Challenge. Objective To construct automated systems for EVENT/TIMEX3 extraction and temporal link (TLINK) identification from clinical text. Materials and methods The i2b2 organizers provided 190 annotated discharge summaries as the training set and 120 discharge summaries as the test set. Our Event system used a conditional random field classifier with a variety of features including lexical information, natural language elements, and medical ontology. The TIMEX3 system employed a rule-based method using regular expression pattern match and systematic reasoning to determine normalized values. The TLINK system employed both rule-based reasoning and machine learning. All three systems were built in an Apache Unstructured Information Management Architecture framework. Results Our TIMEX3 system performed the best (F-measure of 0.900, value accuracy 0.731) among the challenge teams. The Event system produced an F-measure of 0.870, and the TLINK system an F-measure of 0.537. Conclusions Our TIMEX3 system demonstrated good capability of regular expression rules to extract and normalize time information. Event and TLINK machine learning systems required well-defined feature sets to perform well. We could also leverage expert knowledge as part of the machine learning features to further improve TLINK identification performance. PMID:23558168

  3. Computer-Assisted, Programmed Text, and Lecture Modes of Instruction in Three Medical Training Courses: Comparative Evaluation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deignan, Gerard M.; And Others

    This report contains a comparative analysis of the differential effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), programmed instructional text (PIT), and lecture methods of instruction in three medical courses--Medical Laboratory, Radiology, and Dental. The summative evaluation includes (1) multiple regression analyses conducted to predict…

  4. The Effectiveness of Mobile Phone Text Messaging in Improving Medication Adherence for Patients with Chronic Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ershad Sarabi, Roghayeh; Sadoughi, Farahnaz; Jamshidi Orak, Roohangiz; Bahaadinbeigy, Kambiz

    2016-01-01

    Context Medication non-adherence is a commonly observed problem in the self-administration of treatment, regardless of the disease type. Text messaging reminders, as electronic reminders, provide an opportunity to improve medication adherence. In this study, we aimed to provide evidence addressing the question of whether text message reminders were effective in improving patients’ adherence to medication. Evidence Acquisition We carried out a systematic literature search, using the five electronic bibliographic databases: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane central register of controlled trials. Studies were included on the basis of whether they examined the benefits and effects of short-message service (SMS) interventions on medication adherence. Results The results of this systematic review indicated that text messaging interventions have improved patients’ medication adherence rate (85%, 29.34). Included in the review, those who had problems with adherence, or those whom text messaging was most helpful had HIV, asthma, diabetes, schizophrenia and heart disease (73.5%). The period of intervention varied from 1 week to 14 months. The most common study design was randomized controlled trials (RCTs) (66%) carried out in the developed countries. Conclusions This study demonstrated the potential of mobile phone text messaging for medication non-adherence problem solving. PMID:27437126

  5. TIME as a generic index for outcome-based medical education.

    PubMed

    Willett, Timothy G; Marshall, Kenneth C; Broudo, Marc; Clarke, Michael

    2007-09-01

    TIME (Topics for Indexing Medical Education) is a general-purpose, intermediate-granularity taxonomy of topics that describe the content of undergraduate medical education. Within outcome-based education systems, curriculum planning focuses on the desired product rather than process, and the contributions of curricular elements to achievement of the outcomes must be made visible. In this paper, we discuss how TIME may be used as a content index in curriculum maps to link curricular elements to multiple outcome frameworks. This assists with curriculum development and evaluation, quality assurance, curriculum searching, detection of gaps and redundancies, and sharing of educational objects. TIME is available at http://www.time-item.org (username "guest"; password "guest"). PMID:18236252

  6. [CISMeF: catalog and index of French-speaking medical sites].

    PubMed

    Darmoni, S J; Leroy, J P; Baudic, F; Douyère, M; Piot, J; Thirion, B

    1999-01-01

    The Internet has now become a major source of health information. The aim of CISMeF is to catalogue and index the main French-speaking sites and documents concerning health. This project was initiated by Rouen University Hospital. Its URL is http://www.chu-rouen.fr/cismef. CISMeF covers all areas of health care and medical sciences, and is indexed both alphabetically and according to subject. It was set up on a Sun workstation under the Sun UNIX operating system and is entirely based on static HTML. By May 1999, the number of sites and documents indexed was already over 6,500, with a mean of 75 new sites added each week. CISMeF is updated via a five-step process: resource collection, filtering, description, classification, and indexing. The Net Scoring criteria are used to assess the quality of health information on the Internet. These criteria concern eight categories: credibility, content, links, design, interactivity, quantitative aspects, ethics and accessibility. CISMeF uses two standard tools to organize information: the MeSH (medical subject heading) thesaurus from the Medline reference database (National Library of Medicine, USA) and the Dublin core metadata format. The sites and documents included in CISMeF are described using the following elements from the Dublin core project: title, author or creator, subject and keywords, description, publisher, date, resource type, format, identifier, and language. PMID:10377501

  7. Morpheme-based, cross-lingual indexing for medical document retrieval.

    PubMed

    Schulz, S; Hahn, U

    2000-09-01

    The increasing availability of machine-readable medical documents is not really matched with the sophistication of currently used retrieval facilities to deal with a variety of critical natural language phenomena. Still most popular are string-matching methods which encounter problems for the medical sublanguage, in particular, concerning the wide-spread use of complex word forms such as noun compounds. We introduce a methodology for the segmentation of complex compounds into medically motivated morphemes. Given the sublanguage patterns in our data these morphemes derive from German, Greek and Latin roots. For indexing and retrieval purposes, such a morpheme dictionary may be further structured by defining the semantic relations among morpheme sets in order to build up a multilingual morpheme thesaurus. We present a tool for thesaurus compilation and management, and outline a methodology for the proper construction and maintenance of a multilingual morpheme thesaurus. PMID:10978912

  8. Undergraduate Full Text Databases: "Bell and Howell Medical Complete" and "InfoTrac Health Reference Center - Academic."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lutishoor; Davidson, Bryan; Bailey, Alberta

    2000-01-01

    Compares/contrasts InfoTrac and ProQuest primarily as full-text resources to supplement retrieval of references contained in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) database. These databases are analyzed by examining their scope in terms of the number and types of serials covered within specific areas using "Ulrich's"…

  9. Preventive maintenance prioritization index of medical equipment using quality function deployment.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Neven; Sharawi, Amr A; Elwahed, Manal Abd; Petti, Alberto; Puppato, Daniele; Balestra, Gabriella

    2015-05-01

    Preventive maintenance is a core function of clinical engineering, and it is essential to guarantee the correct functioning of the equipment. The management and control of maintenance activities are equally important to perform maintenance. As the variety of medical equipment increases, accordingly the size of maintenance activities increases, the need for better management and control become essential. This paper aims to develop a new model for preventive maintenance priority of medical equipment using quality function deployment as a new concept in maintenance of medical equipment. We developed a three-domain framework model consisting of requirement, function, and concept. The requirement domain is the house of quality matrix. The second domain is the design matrix. Finally, the concept domain generates a prioritization index for preventive maintenance considering the weights of critical criteria. According to the final scores of those criteria, the prioritization action of medical equipment is carried out. Our model proposes five levels of priority for preventive maintenance. The model was tested on 200 pieces of medical equipment belonging to 17 different departments of two hospitals in Piedmont province, Italy. The dataset includes 70 different types of equipment. The results show a high correlation between risk-based criteria and the prioritization list. PMID:25029522

  10. Retrieval from full-text medical literature: the dream & the reality.

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, M. C.; McKinin, E. J.; Johnson, E. D.; Mitchell, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    While the retrieval of the full-text of a document might seem to end all the hassle of using traditional retrieval systems, the results of the MEDLINE/Full-Text Project indicate that retrieval from the current full-text databases of biomedical journal literature does not match the dream. During the first phase of the project the researchers learned that searching the full-text databases resulted in the retrieval of a significantly larger number of relevant documents than MEDLINE. However, the full-text databases also resulted in a large number of non-relevant documents. Currently the researchers are focusing on how to search these databases to continue retrieving the large number of relevant documents but without so many non-relevant items. PMID:1807620

  11. The Effectiveness of the Smog Index in Determining the Reading Levels of Business and Distributive Education Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultheis, Robert A.; Anderson, Roberta

    1982-01-01

    McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)

  12. Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Digitalization of audio-visual resources combined with the performances of the networks offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in the scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has been developing MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The good of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable fast efficient retrieval from digital archives or filtering audiovisual broadcasts on the internet. How this kind of technologies could be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on Dublin Core standard and complaint to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform with enables to encode and give access to audio-visual resources in streaming mode. PMID:14664072

  13. Indexing method of digital audiovisual medical resources with semantic Web integration.

    PubMed

    Cuggia, Marc; Mougin, Fleur; Le Beux, Pierre

    2005-03-01

    Digitalization of audiovisual resources and network capability offer many possibilities which are the subject of intensive work in scientific and industrial sectors. Indexing such resources is a major challenge. Recently, the Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) has developed MPEG-7, a standard for describing multimedia content. The goal of this standard is to develop a rich set of standardized tools to enable efficient retrieval from digital archives or the filtering of audiovisual broadcasts on the Internet. How could this kind of technology be used in the medical context? In this paper, we propose a simpler indexing system, based on the Dublin Core standard and compliant to MPEG-7. We use MeSH and the UMLS to introduce conceptual navigation. We also present a video-platform which enables encoding and gives access to audiovisual resources in streaming mode. PMID:15694622

  14. Electronic Documentation Support Tools and Text Duplication in the Electronic Medical Record

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrenn, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    In order to ease the burden of electronic note entry on physicians, electronic documentation support tools have been developed to assist in note authoring. There is little evidence of the effects of these tools on attributes of clinical documentation, including document quality. Furthermore, the resultant abundance of duplicated text and…

  15. Free text databases in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS) at Columbia Presbyterian Medical Center.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A. S.; Shea, S.

    1991-01-01

    The use of Folio Views, a PC DOS based product for free text databases, is explored in three applications in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS): (1) a telephone directory, (2) a grants and contracts newsletter, and (3) nursing care plans. PMID:1666967

  16. Transmission of classical medical texts through languages of the Middle-East.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, L R

    1990-01-01

    Classical texts, i.e. Greek treatises on medicine, reached Western Europe during the Middle-Ages by few ways, mainly either directly from the Hellenistic world, or indirectly through versions in the languages of the Middle-East, especially [Syriac]-Arabic. The comparison between Greek manuscripts and translations may be useful for both correction and interpretation of texts. An extraordinary case may arise when the original Greek treatise is lost and only the Arabic version is available. This is the case of a Commentarium of Galen on the Hippocratic De aere aquis et locis: the treatise has recently been found in a manuscript (Tal'at, tibb 550) at the National Library, Cairo, and is the work of translators of the school of Hunayn ibn Ishâq (9th century), the Nestorian physician who had a skilled philological method of reconstruction of original Greek texts. Other relevant ways of transmission (Byzantine area-Spain mainly at the time of the Emperor Constantine VII Porphyrogenete, Arabian Africa-Salernum with Constantine the African) played an important role in the recovery of Classical Medicine in the Western World, through both Arabic-Muslim and Arabic-Hebrew physicians. PMID:11640111

  17. Towards knowledge-based retrieval of medical images. The role of semantic indexing, image content representation and knowledge-based retrieval.

    PubMed

    Lowe, H J; Antipov, I; Hersh, W; Smith, C A

    1998-01-01

    Medicine is increasingly image-intensive. The central importance of imaging technologies such as computerized tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in clinical decision making, combined with the trend to store many "traditional" clinical images such as conventional radiographs, microscopic pathology and dermatology images in digital format present both challenges and an opportunities for the designers of clinical information systems. The emergence of Multimedia Electronic Medical Record Systems (MEMRS), architectures that integrate medical images with text-based clinical data, will further hasten this trend. The development of these systems, storing a large and diverse set of medical images, suggests that in the future MEMRS will become important digital libraries supporting patient care, research and education. The representation and retrieval of clinical images within these systems is problematic as conventional database architectures and information retrieval models have, until recently, focused largely on text-based data. Medical imaging data differs in many ways from text-based medical data but perhaps the most important difference is that the information contained within imaging data is fundamentally knowledge-based. New representational and retrieval models for clinical images will be required to address this issue. Within the Image Engine multimedia medical record system project at the University of Pittsburgh we are evolving an approach to representation and retrieval of medical images which combines semantic indexing using the UMLS Metathesuarus, image content-based representation and knowledge-based image analysis. PMID:9929345

  18. Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI). Conditions for medical students' learning in hospital and community placements.

    PubMed

    Dornan, Tim; Muijtjens, Arno; Graham, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Albert; Boshuizen, Henny

    2012-12-01

    The drive to quality-manage medical education has created a need for valid measurement instruments. Validity evidence includes the theoretical and contextual origin of items, choice of response processes, internal structure, and interrelationship of a measure's variables. This research set out to explore the validity and potential utility of an 11-item measurement instrument, whose theoretical and empirical origins were in an Experience Based Learning model of how medical students learn in communities of practice (COPs), and whose contextual origins were in a community-oriented, horizontally integrated, undergraduate medical programme. The objectives were to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in both hospital and community COPs and provide validity evidence to support using it to measure the quality of placements. The instrument was administered twice to students learning in both hospital and community placements and analysed using exploratory factor analysis and a generalizability analysis. 754 of a possible 902 questionnaires were returned (84% response rate), representing 168 placements. Eight items loaded onto two factors, which accounted for 78% of variance in the hospital data and 82% of variance in the community data. One factor was the placement learning environment, whose five constituent items were how learners were received at the start of the placement, people's supportiveness, and the quality of organisation, leadership, and facilities. The other factor represented the quality of training-instruction in skills, observing students performing skills, and providing students with feedback. Alpha coefficients ranged between 0.89 and 0.93 and there were no redundant or ambiguous items. Generalisability analysis showed that between 7 and 11 raters would be needed to achieve acceptable reliability. There is validity evidence to support using the simple 8-item, mixed methods Manchester Clinical Placement Index to measure key conditions for

  19. Publication trends of shared decision making in 15 high impact medical journals: a full-text review with bibliometric analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Shared Decision Making (SDM) is increasingly advocated as a model for medical decision making. However, there is still low use of SDM in clinical practice. High impact factor journals might represent an efficient way for its dissemination. We aimed to identify and characterize publication trends of SDM in 15 high impact medical journals. Methods We selected the 15 general and internal medicine journals with the highest impact factor publishing original articles, letters and editorials. We retrieved publications from 1996 to 2011 through the full-text search function on each journal website and abstracted bibliometric data. We included publications of any type containing the phrase “shared decision making” or five other variants in their abstract or full text. These were referred to as SDM publications. A polynomial Poisson regression model with logarithmic link function was used to assess the evolution across the period of the number of SDM publications according to publication characteristics. Results We identified 1285 SDM publications out of 229,179 publications in 15 journals from 1996 to 2011. The absolute number of SDM publications by journal ranged from 2 to 273 over 16 years. SDM publications increased both in absolute and relative numbers per year, from 46 (0.32% relative to all publications from the 15 journals) in 1996 to 165 (1.17%) in 2011. This growth was exponential (P < 0.01). We found fewer research publications (465, 36.2% of all SDM publications) than non-research publications, which included non-systematic reviews, letters, and editorials. The increase of research publications across time was linear. Full-text search retrieved ten times more SDM publications than a similar PubMed search (1285 vs. 119 respectively). Conclusion This review in full-text showed that SDM publications increased exponentially in major medical journals from 1996 to 2011. This growth might reflect an increased dissemination of the SDM concept to the

  20. She will give birth immediately. Pregnancy and childbirth in medieval Hebrew medical texts produced in the Mediterranean West.

    PubMed

    Navas, Carmen Caballero

    2014-01-01

    This essay approaches the medieval Hebrew literature on women's healthcare, with the aim of analysing notions and ideas regarding fertility, pregnancy and childbirth, as conveyed in the texts that form the corpus. Firstly, the work discusses the approach of written texts to pregnancy and childbirth as key elements in the explanation of women's health and the functioning of the female body. In this regard it also explores the role of this approach in the creation of meanings for both the female body and sexual difference. Secondly, it examines female management of pregnancy and childbirth as recorded in Hebrew medical literature. It pays attention to both the attitudes expressed by the authors, translators and copyists regarding female practice, as well as to instances and remedies derived from "local" traditions--that is, from women's experience--in the management of pregnancy and childbirth, also recorded in the texts. Finally, the paper explores how medical theories alien to, or in opposition to, Judaism were adopted or not and, at times, adapted to Jewish notions with the aim of eliminating tensions from the text, on the one hand, and providing Jewish practitioners with adequate training to retain their Christian clientele, on the other. PMID:25481968

  1. An assessment of the visibility of MeSH-indexed medical web catalogs through search engines.

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenbaum, P.; Darmoni, S. J.; Grabar, N.; Douyère, M.; Benichou, J.

    2002-01-01

    Manually indexed Internet health catalogs such as CliniWeb or CISMeF provide resources for retrieving high-quality health information. Users of these quality-controlled subject gateways are most often referred to them by general search engines such as Google, AltaVista, etc. This raises several questions, among which the following: what is the relative visibility of medical Internet catalogs through search engines? This study addresses this issue by measuring and comparing the visibility of six major, MeSH-indexed health catalogs through four different search engines (AltaVista, Google, Lycos, Northern Light) in two languages (English and French). Over half a million queries were sent to the search engines; for most of these search engines, according to our measures at the time the queries were sent, the most visible catalog for English MeSH terms was CliniWeb and the most visible one for French MeSH terms was CISMeF. PMID:12463965

  2. Block selective redaction for minimizing loss during de-identification of burned in text in irreversibly compressed JPEG medical images

    PubMed Central

    Clunie, David A.; Gebow, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. Deidentification of medical images requires attention to both header information as well as the pixel data itself, in which burned-in text may be present. If the pixel data to be deidentified is stored in a compressed form, traditionally it is decompressed, identifying text is redacted, and if necessary, pixel data are recompressed. Decompression without recompression may result in images of excessive or intractable size. Recompression with an irreversible scheme is undesirable because it may cause additional loss in the diagnostically relevant regions of the images. The irreversible (lossy) JPEG compression scheme works on small blocks of the image independently, hence, redaction can selectively be confined only to those blocks containing identifying text, leaving all other blocks unchanged. An open source implementation of selective redaction and a demonstration of its applicability to multiframe color ultrasound images is described. The process can be applied either to standalone JPEG images or JPEG bit streams encapsulated in other formats, which in the case of medical images, is usually DICOM. PMID:26158090

  3. Combined Versus Detailed Evaluation Components in Medical Student Global Rating Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Askew, Kim L.; O’Neill, James C.; Hiestand, Brian; Manthey, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction To determine if there is any correlation between any of the 10 individual components of a global rating index on an emergency medicine (EM) student clerkship evaluation form. If there is correlation, to determine if a weighted average of highly correlated components loses predictive value for the final clerkship grade. Methods This study reviewed medical student evaluations collected over two years of a required fourth-year rotation in EM. Evaluation cards, comprised of a detailed 10-part evaluation, were completed after each shift. We used a correlation matrix between evaluation category average scores, using Spearman’s rho, to determine if there was any correlation of the grades between any of the 10 items on the evaluation form. Results A total of 233 students completed the rotation over the two-year period of the study. There were strong correlations (>0.80) between assessment components of medical knowledge, history taking, physical exam, and differential diagnosis. There were also strong correlations between assessment components of team rapport, patient rapport, and motivation. When these highly correlated were combined to produce a four-component model, linear regression demonstrated similar predictive power in terms of final clerkship grade (R2=0.71, CI95=0.65–0.77 and R2=0.69, CI95=0.63–0.76 for the full and reduced models respectively). Conclusion This study revealed that several components of the evaluation card had a high degree of correlation. Combining the correlated items, a reduced model containing four items (clinical skills, interpersonal skills, procedural skills, and documentation) was as predictive of the student’s clinical grade as the full 10-item evaluation. Clerkship directors should be aware of the performance of their individual global rating scales when assessing medical student performance, especially if attempting to measure greater than four components. PMID:26594284

  4. Medical Care Price Indexes for Patients with Employer-Provided Insurance: Nationally Representative Estimates from MarketScan Data

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Abe; Liebman, Eli; Pack, Sarah; Shapiro, Adam Hale

    2013-01-01

    Objective Commonly observed shifts in the utilization of medical care services to treat diseases may pose problems for official price indexes at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) that do not account for service shifts. We examine how these shifts may lead to different price estimates than those observed in official price statistics at the BLS. Data Sources We use a convenience sample of enrollees with employer-provided insurance from the MarketScan database for the years 2003 to 2007. Population weights that consider the age, sex, and geographic distribution of enrollees are assigned to construct representative estimates. Study Design We compare two types of price indexes: (1) a Service Price Index (SPI) that is similar to the BLS index, which holds services fixed and measures the prices of the underlying treatments; (2) a Medical Care Expenditure Index (MCE) that measures the cost of treating diseases and allows for utilization shifts. Principal Findings Over the entire period of study the CAGR of the SPI grows 0.7 percentage points faster than the preferred MCE index. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the health component of inflation may be overstated by 0.7 percentage points per year, and real GDP growth may be understated by a similar amount. However, more work may be necessary to precisely replicate the indexes of the BLS to obtain a more accurate measure of these price differences. PMID:23088562

  5. Applying conscientiousness index: a tool to explore medical students’ professionalism in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Rukmini, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was aimed to describe lecturers’ perspective concerning the suitable Conscientiousness Index (CI) components and implementations, as well as to compare the CI scores in year 1–4 student batches. Methods Components were formulated from objective measurements based on interviews with 12 faculty members. The components include: attendance, adherence to rules, evaluative feedback submissions, performance in assignments and clinical skills, assignment submissions, volunteerism, accomplishments, and general misconducts. The scores were collected from year 1-4 pre-clinical medical students (N=144) during the first semester of 2014-2015. Final interviews were conducted with 9 faculty members. Quantitative analysis was performed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test. Qualitative analysis was performed using content analysis. Results Using Kruskal-Wallis test, significant difference was found in the CI scores among all years (p=0.000). Post-hoc analysis using Mann-Whitney test showed significant difference in all years except year 1 and 4 (p=0.388). Of the 9 lecturers interviewed during the second interviews, 7 endorsed the importance of CI, while 2 doubted its applicability. Conclusions Due to the unique characteristics of each block, our system had not been able to conduct a balanced CI evaluation, as compared to the original research. We concluded that the implementation of CI would be highly dependent on the faculty members, with their commitment as the main pre-requisite. We hope to involve academic advisors as CI evaluators and improve our student-centered learning for future assessments. Further study is needed to investigate the longitudinal implementation of CI. PMID:27421124

  6. Longitudinal analysis of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer using natural language processing of medical record text

    PubMed Central

    Heintzelman, Norris H; Taylor, Robert J; Simonsen, Lone; Lustig, Roger; Anderko, Doug; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Childs, Lois C; Bova, George Steven

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To test the feasibility of using text mining to depict meaningfully the experience of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, to identify novel pain phenotypes, and to propose methods for longitudinal visualization of pain status. Materials and methods Text from 4409 clinical encounters for 33 men enrolled in a 15-year longitudinal clinical/molecular autopsy study of metastatic prostate cancer (Project to ELIminate lethal CANcer) was subjected to natural language processing (NLP) using Unified Medical Language System-based terms. A four-tiered pain scale was developed, and logistic regression analysis identified factors that correlated with experience of severe pain during each month. Results NLP identified 6387 pain and 13 827 drug mentions in the text. Graphical displays revealed the pain ‘landscape’ described in the textual records and confirmed dramatically increasing levels of pain in the last years of life in all but two patients, all of whom died from metastatic cancer. Severe pain was associated with receipt of opioids (OR=6.6, p<0.0001) and palliative radiation (OR=3.4, p=0.0002). Surprisingly, no severe or controlled pain was detected in two of 33 subjects’ clinical records. Additionally, the NLP algorithm proved generalizable in an evaluation using a separate data source (889 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) discharge summaries). Discussion Patterns in the pain experience, undetectable without the use of NLP to mine the longitudinal clinical record, were consistent with clinical expectations, suggesting that meaningful NLP-based pain status monitoring is feasible. Findings in this initial cohort suggest that ‘outlier’ pain phenotypes useful for probing the molecular basis of cancer pain may exist. Limitations The results are limited by a small cohort size and use of proprietary NLP software. Conclusions We have established the feasibility of tracking longitudinal patterns of pain by text mining

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF A PROGRAMED TEXT IN TEACHING GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS, A SOURCE BOOK ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF PROGRAMED MATERIALS FOR USE IN A CLINICAL DISCIPLINE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILDS, PRESTON L.; ZACHERT, VIRGINIA

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES A STUDY TO DETERMINE WHETHER PROGRAMED INSTRUCTION COULD BE USED TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING OF THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH GYNECOLOGIC NEOPLASMS TO JUNIOR MEDICAL STUDENTS. TWO PROGRAMED TEXTS WERE PREPARED--(1) A "CONTENT" TEXT, AN 830-FRAME LINEARLY PROGRAMED TEXT DESIGNED TO REPLACE CONVENTIONAL CLASSROOM TEACHING OF…

  8. Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors at the Forefront of Improving the Quality and Indexing Chances of its Member Journals

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Chang-Ok; Oh, Se Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The article overviews some achievements and problems of Korean medical journals published in the highly competitive journal environment. Activities of Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors (KAMJE) are viewed as instrumental for improving the quality of Korean articles, indexing large number of local journals in prestigious bibliographic databases and launching new abstract and citation tracking databases or platforms (eg KoreaMed, KoreaMed Synapse, the Western Pacific Regional Index Medicus [WPRIM]). KAMJE encourages its member journals to upgrade science editing standards and to legitimately increase citation rates, primarily by publishing more great articles with global influence. Experience gained by KAMJE and problems faced by Korean editors may have global implications. PMID:23678253

  9. Discourse structures in medical reports--watch out! The generation of referentially coherent and valid text knowledge bases in the MEDSYNDIKATE system.

    PubMed

    Hahn, U; Romacker, M; Schulz, S

    1999-01-01

    The automatic analysis of medical narratives currently suffers from neglecting text structure phenomena such as referential relations between discourse units. This has unwarranted effects on the descriptional adequacy of medical knowledge bases automatically generated from texts. The resulting representation bias can be characterized in terms of incomplete, artificially fragmented and referentially invalid knowledge structures. We focus here on four basic types of textual reference relations, viz. pronominal and nominal anaphora, textual ellipsis and metonymy and show how to deal with them in an adequate text parsing device. Since the types of reference relations we discuss show an increasing dependence on conceptual background knowledge, we stress the need for formally grounded, expressive conceptual representation systems for medical knowledge. Our suggestions are based on experience with MEDSYNDIKATE, a medical text knowledge acquisition system designed to properly deal with various sorts of discourse structure phenomena. PMID:10075128

  10. A Multifaceted Medical Data Information System and One Product: The Index-Handbook of Ototoxic Agents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Miriam T.; Lunin, Lois F.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a biomedical information system that includes a machine-readable data base containing clinical and research data and a publication entitled the Index-Handbook of Ototoxic Agents. (Author)

  11. [The main sources of medieval Islamic medicine and the medical books translated into Turkish in the 10th century texts. Muslim scientists produced original medical works].

    PubMed

    Seşen, R

    1993-01-01

    Medieval Islamic medicine in the late Omeyad and early Abbasid periods was based on works translated from the Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Nabatean and Syriac languages, combining their own experiences in medical practice with the knowledge obtained from these. The majority of sources translated were Greek works; among them, those of Hippocrates and Galen were used prominently. From the theoretical standpoint, medieval Islamic medicine was based on the principles determined by Hippocrates. On the other hand, translations in different fields of medicine were done by specialists in those fields, who also authored their own works. Among them are such well-known figures as Abu Bakr el-Razi, Ibn Sina and Ibn el-Nafis. Islamic medicine saw a brilliant development during the Ayyubid period: with the establishment of many hospitals, clinical medicine and practical experience gained importance. these hospitals were at the same time centres of medical education and training. It is also in this period that the first medical school of the Muslim world was set up in Damascus by Mühezzebüddin el-Dahvar (d. 1231). Medical literature in Turkish originated in the framework of Islamic culture, as was in other fields of science. Early medical works in Turkish were translated from Arabic and Persian in the beginning of the 13th century. Original works in Turkish started to be produced from the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries. The volume of Turkish medical literature increased considerably throughout the Ottoman period. This experience and the accumulation of references facilitated the acquisition of modern medical knowledge. This paper is an overview of thirteen major works on medicine which were translated into Turkish in the middle of the 15th century. PMID:11624884

  12. Framing Service, Benefit, and Credibility Through Images and Texts: A Content Analysis of Online Promotional Messages of Korean Medical Tourism Industry.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jungmi

    2016-07-01

    This study examines how the Korean medical tourism industry frames its service, benefit, and credibility issues through texts and images of online brochures. The results of content analysis suggest that the Korean medical tourism industry attempts to frame their medical/health services as "excellence in surgeries and cancer care" and "advanced health technology and facilities." However, the use of cost-saving appeals was limited, which can be seen as a strategy to avoid consumers' association of lower cost with lower quality services, and to stress safety and credibility. PMID:26644259

  13. What's on the News? The Use of Media Texts in Exams of Clinical Biochemistry for Medical and Nutrition Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Julia Martins; Mesquita, Diego Martins; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    Health-related popular articles are easily found among media sources. With the increasing popularity of the internet, medical information--full of misconceptions--has become easily available to the lay people. The ability to recognize misconceptions may require good biomedical knowledge. In this sense, we decided to use articles from the internet…

  14. Manchester Clinical Placement Index (MCPI). Conditions for Medical Students' Learning in Hospital and Community Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornan, Tim; Muijtjens, Arno; Graham, Jennifer; Scherpbier, Albert; Boshuizen, Henny

    2012-01-01

    The drive to quality-manage medical education has created a need for valid measurement instruments. Validity evidence includes the theoretical and contextual origin of items, choice of response processes, internal structure, and interrelationship of a measure's variables. This research set out to explore the validity and potential utility of an…

  15. Dose optimization for different medical imaging tasks from exposure index, exposure control factor, and MAS in digital radiography.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menglong; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yaying; Chen, Weixia; Hou, Lixia

    2012-09-01

    In radiographic examination, not all medical imaging tasks require the same level of image quality or diagnostic information. Criteria should be established for different imaging tasks to avoid excessive doses where there is no clear net benefit in the diagnosis or the image quality. An exposure index provided by manufacturers would be a useful tool for this purpose. This study aims to establish an optimum exposure index to be used as a guideline for clinical imaging tasks to minimize radiation exposure for chest digital radiography. A three-level classification of image quality (high, medium, and low) for chest imaging tasks was carried out. An anthropomorphic phantom was employed to establish minimum exposure index and exposure (mAs) for clinical imaging task type I (corresponding to high image quality). The exposures of medium and low quality images derived from it. Thirty patients were exposed consecutively with these optimized exposure factors, and clinical tasks were considered, while another 30 patients were exposed with the exposure factors routinely used in practice. Image quality was assessed objectively by a consensus panel. The optimized exposure provided a significant reduction of the mean exposure index from 1,556 to 1,207 (p < 0.0001) and mean patient's entrance surface dose from 0.168 mGy to 0.092 mGy (p < 0.0001). The results show that a clinical-task-determined radiographic procedure is more conducive to radiation protection of patients. In this study, the posteroanterior chest imaging examination was chosen as an example. This procedure can also apply to other body parts and views. PMID:22850227

  16. What's on the news? The use of media texts in exams of clinical biochemistry for medical and nutrition students.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Julia Martins; Mesquita, Diego Martins; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo

    2010-03-01

    Health-related popular articles are easily found among media sources. With the increasing popularity of the internet, medical information - full of misconceptions - has become easily available to the lay people. The ability to recognize misconceptions may require good biomedical knowledge. In this sense, we decided to use articles from the internet as part of a formal exam to evaluate students' learning of Clinical and Applied Biochemistry (CAB). This test, known as the True-or-False (T-or-F) exam, is made up of statements found online that are judged by freshmen medical and nutrition students taking Basic Biochemistry. In the last four teaching-semesters, students' acceptance and responses to T-or-F exam on CAB were evaluated through questionnaires (using a 0-4 Likert scale). Results from 258 students revealed that 71, 87, and 94% of them believed, respectively, that the exam was (i) difficult, (ii) of good quality, and (iii) that using media-questions is relevant for evaluating the learning of CAB. Moreover, the average grade in the T-of-F exam was 5.85 (out of 10). This low average is probably because students are not familiarized with this sort of examination that does not emphasize on memorizations of biochemical pathways and processes - it instead evaluates mostly the comprehension and application of knowledge, levels 2 and 3 in Bloom's scale. Such conclusion was possible by analyzing 192 questions in four exams - 67% were at levels 2, 3 or above. This kind of media-based exam could be well applied to several other disciplines in health sciences. PMID:21567801

  17. Voice vs. Text Chats: Their Efficacy for Learning Probing Questions by Non-Native Speaking Medical Professionals in Online Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Olga

    2012-01-01

    Through an English for Specific Purposes (ESP): Communication in Nursing online course, the present study examines the efficacy of synchronous voice-based and text-based chats as instructional and communicative modes in learning to use open questions for probing in therapeutic dialogues by non-native speaking (NNS) participants, students of a…

  18. Two Similarity Metrics for Medical Subject Headings (MeSH): An Aid to Biomedical Text Mining and Author Name Disambiguation.

    PubMed

    Smalheiser, Neil R; Bonifield, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper, we have created and characterized several similarity metrics for relating any two Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to each other. The article-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the MEDLINE record of the same article. The author-based metric measures the tendency of two MeSH terms to appear in the body of articles written by the same individual (using the 2009 Author-ity author name disambiguation dataset as a gold standard). The two metrics are only modestly correlated with each other (r = 0.50), indicating that they capture different aspects of term usage. The article-based metric provides a measure of semantic relatedness, and MeSH term pairs that co-occur more often than expected by chance may reflect relations between the two terms. In contrast, the author metric is indicative of how individuals practice science, and may have value for author name disambiguation and studies of scientific discovery. We have calculated article metrics for all MeSH terms appearing in at least 25 articles in MEDLINE (as of 2014) and author metrics for MeSH terms published as of 2009. The dataset is freely available for download and can be queried at http://arrowsmith.psych.uic.edu/arrowsmith_uic/mesh_pair_metrics.html. Handling editor: Elizabeth Workman, MLIS, PhD. PMID:27213780

  19. Use of the Metathesaurus and SPECIALIST Lexicon of the Unified Medical Language System, Lexical Matching and Domain-Specific Free-Text to Identify Undocumented Vocabulary

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Eric M.; Wilcke, Jeff R.; Bender, Holly S.

    1998-01-01

    This technique uses lexical matching within domainspecific free-text to locate and remove terms contained in the Metathesaurus or SPECIALIST Lexicon. The remaining character strings of text were presented to domain experts along with the original sections of text for manual review. Internet search engines were used to verify questionable character strings. The key element of this technique was the SPECIALIST Lexicon which was used to remove common words and known variations of medical terms from the text. The removal of these terms reduced the number of non-numeric character strings remaining in the text from 12,075 to 574. Ninety-three percent of 230 randomly selected remaining character strings resulted in the identification of undocumented vocabulary terms.

  20. Published Articles in PubMed-indexed Journals from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Mokhtari, Hadi

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims This survey was conducted to provide statistical data regarding publications in PubMed-indexed journals from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Dentistry. Materials and methods The database used for this study was PubMed. The search was conducted using key words including the names of the heads of the departments. Papers published between January 1, 2005 and April 31, 2012 were considered. The retrieved abstracts were reviewed and unrelated articles were excluded. Data were transferred to Microsoft Excel software for descriptive statistical analyses. Results A total of 158 papers matched the inclusion criteria, with the majority from the Department of Endodontics (49 articles). The highest proportion (48.3%) of papers was related to in vitro studies, followed by clinical trials, in vivo studies, and case reports. The number of publications showed a considerable increase over the studied period. Conclusion PubMed-indexed publications from different departments have increased steadily, suggesting that research has become an essential component in the evaluated institute. PMID:23277865

  1. How Twitter Is Studied in the Medical Professions: A Classification of Twitter Papers Indexed in PubMed

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. Objective This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Methods Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper’s title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. Results As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that

  2. Protocol to describe the analysis of text-based communication in medical records for patients discharged from intensive care to hospital ward

    PubMed Central

    Parsons Leigh, Jeanna; Brown, Kyla; Buchner, Denise; Stelfox, Henry T

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Effective communication during hospital transitions of patient care is fundamental to ensuring patient safety and continuity of quality care. This study will describe text-based communication included in patient medical records before, during and after patient transfer from the intensive care unit (ICU) to a hospital ward (n=10 days) by documenting (1) the structure and focus of physician progress notes within and between medical specialties, (2) the organisation of subjective and objective information, including the location and accessibility of patient data and whether/how this changes during the hospital stay and (3) missing, illegible and erroneous information. Methods This study is part of a larger mixed methods prospective observational study of ICU to hospital ward transfer practices in 10 ICUs across Canada. Medical records will be collected and photocopied for each consenting patient for a period of up to 10 consecutive days, including the final 2 days in the ICU, the day of transfer and the first 7 days on the ward (n=10 days). Textual analysis of medical record data will be completed by 2 independent reviewers to describe communication between stakeholders involved in ICU transfer. Ethics and dissemination Research ethics board approval has been obtained at all study sites, including the coordinating study centre (which covers 4 Calgary-based sites; UofC REB 13-0021) and 6 additional study sites (UofA Pro00050646; UBC PHC Hi4-01667; Sunnybrook 336-2014; QCH 20140345-01H; Sherbrooke 14-172; Laval 2015-2171). Findings from this study will inform the development of an evidence-based tool that will be used to systematically analyse the series of notes in a patient's medical record. PMID:27401367

  3. The Medication Level Variability Index (MLVI) predicts rejection, possibly due to nonadherence, in adult liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Supelana, Christina; Annunziato, Rachel; Schiano, Thomas; Anand, Ravinder; Vaidya, Swapna; Chuang, Kelley; Zack, Yelena; Florman, Sander; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Shemesh, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressants may play a role in late rejection in liver transplant recipients. In children, emerging data suggest that adherence can be measured by computing the standard deviation (SD) of consecutive blood levels of tacrolimus, resulting in a number that reflects the degree of variability between individual measures (the Medication Level Variability Index, MLVI). A higher MLVI value means erratic immunosuppression, likely due to less adherence. Data on this method in adults are limited. We obtained data from the medical charts of 150 randomly selected adult recipients. The MLVI was significantly higher in patients who had biopsy-confirmed rejection (mean MLVI=3.8, SD=3.2) as compared with the rest of the cohort (mean MLVI=2.3, SD=1.5; p<0.01), and it was significantly higher in patients who had a rejection as compared with patients who had a biopsy that was not read as a rejection (mean MLVI=2.6, SD=1.6; p<0.01). The MLVI was both associated with rejection and predicted its occurrence. A threshold MLVI of 2.0 resulted in 77% sensitivity and 60% specificity in predicting rejection; a threshold of 1.8 resulted in a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 48%. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) in a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.81). The MLVI is associated with and can predict rejection, possibly related to nonadherence, in adult liver transplant recipients. PMID:24931127

  4. Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS): A Pilot Trial of An Interactive Text-Messaging Intervention for Medication Adherence, Socialization, and Auditory Hallucinations

    PubMed Central

    Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492

  5. An Index of Multiple Psychosocial, Syndemic Conditions Is Associated with Antiretroviral Medication Adherence Among HIV-Positive Youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Lisa M; Hotton, Anna L; Garofalo, Rob; Muldoon, Abigail L; Jaffe, Kaitlyn; Bouris, Alida; Voisin, Dexter; Schneider, John

    2016-04-01

    Medication adherence among HIV-infected individuals is critical to limit disease progression and onward transmission. Evidence indicates that among youth living with HIV (YLH), adherence is suboptimal and related to co-morbid psychosocial conditions. Cross-sectional data from 212 YLH, ages 16-29, collected between 2011-2014 in Chicago were analyzed to assess the relationship of multiple psychosocial conditions (e.g., depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, moderate/heavy marijuana use, moderate/heavy alcohol use, HIV-related stigma) to ART adherence (i.e., a "syndemic.") Adherence was regressed on an index of increasing numbers of psychosocial conditions, controlling for demographic and treatment factors as well as enrollment site. The mean age of participants was 24, 89% were male, 87% black, and 91% behaviorally infected. Psychosocial conditions were prevalent, including 38% and 34% with high depressive and anxiety symptoms, respectively, 54% and 25% with a moderate/high level of marijuana and alcohol use, respectively, and 46% reporting high HIV-related stigma. In regression analysis, the likelihood of ART adherence decreased with the number of syndemic conditions (linear dose response, p = 0.02) as did the odds of viral load suppression (p = 0.008). Interventions to address these conditions in concert with biomedical treatment as prevention for YLH are needed. PMID:27028184

  6. Modified Medical Research Council scale vs Baseline Dyspnea Index to evaluate dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Thierry; Burgel, Pierre Régis; Paillasseur, Jean-Louis; Caillaud, Denis; Deslée, Gaetan; Chanez, Pascal; Roche, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of dyspnea in COPD patients relies in clinical practice on the modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) scale, whereas the Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI) is mainly used in clinical trials. Little is known on the correspondence between the two methods. Methods Cross-sectional analysis was carried out on data from the French COPD cohort Initiatives BPCO. Dyspnea was assessed by the mMRC scale and the BDI. Spirometry, plethysmography, Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale, St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire, exacerbation rates, and physician-diagnosed comorbidities were obtained. Correlations between mMRC and BDI scores were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficient. An ordinal response model was used to examine the contribution of clinical data and lung function parameters to mMRC and BDI scores. Results Data are given as median (interquartile ranges, [IQR]). Two-hundred thirty-nine COPD subjects were analyzed (men 78%, age 65.0 years [57.0; 73.0], forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] 48% predicted [34; 67]). The mMRC grade and BDI score were, respectively, 1 [1–3] and 6 [4–8]. Both BDI and mMRC scores were significantly correlated at the group level (rho =−0.67; P<0.0001), but analysis of individual data revealed a large scatter of BDI scores for any given mMRC grade. In multivariate analysis, both mMRC grade and BDI score were independently associated with lower FEV1% pred, higher exacerbation rate, obesity, depression, heart failure, and hyperinflation, as assessed by the inspiratory capacity/total lung capacity ratio. The mMRC dyspnea grade was also associated with the thromboembolic history and low body mass index. Conclusion Dyspnea is a complex symptom with multiple determinants in COPD patients. Although related to similar factors (including hyperinflation, depression, and heart failure), BDI and mMRC scores likely explore differently the dyspnea intensity in COPD patients and are clearly not interchangeable. PMID

  7. Implementation of Free Text Format Nursing Diagnoses at a University Hospital's Medical Department. Exploring Nurses' and Nursing Students' Experiences on Use and Usefulness. A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Frigstad, Sigrun Aasen; Nøst, Torunn Hatlen; André, Beate

    2015-01-01

    Background. Nursing documentation has long traditions and represents core element of nursing, but the documentation is often criticized of being incomplete. Nursing diagnoses are an important research topic in nursing in terms of quality of nursing assessment, interventions, and outcome in addition to facilitating communication and continuity. Aim. The aim of this study was to explore the nurses' and nursing students' experiences after implementing free text format nursing diagnoses in a medical department. Method. The study design included educational intervention of free text nursing diagnoses. Data was collected through five focus group interviews with 18 nurses and 6 students as informants. The data was analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results. The informants describe positive experiences concerning free text format nursing diagnoses' use and usefulness; it promotes reflection and discussion and is described as a useful tool in the diagnostic process, though it was challenging to find the diagnosis' appropriate formulation. Conclusion. Our findings indicate a valid usability of free text format nursing diagnoses as it promotes the diagnostic process. The use seems to enhance critical thinking and may serve as valuable preparation towards an implementation of standardized nursing diagnoses. Use and support of key personnel seem valuable in an implementation process. PMID:26075091

  8. A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy–Based Text Messaging Intervention Versus Medical Management for HIV-Infected Substance Users: Study Protocol for a Pilot Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Kevin; Ybarra, Michele L; Reback, Cathy J; Rawson, Richard A; Chokron Garneau, Helene; Chavez, Kathryn; Venegas, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background Evidence-based psychosocial interventions for addictions and related conditions such as cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) are underutilized. Obstacles to implementation of CBT in clinical settings include limited availability of quality training, supervision, and certification in CBT for clinicians; high rates of clinician turnover and high caseloads; and limited qualifications of the workforce to facilitate CBT expertise. Objective Mobile phone–based delivery of CBT, if demonstrated to be feasible and effective, could be transformative in broadening its application and improving the quality of addiction treatment. No experimental interventions that deliver CBT targeting both drug use and medication adherence using text messaging have been previously reported; as such, the objective of this study is to develop and test an SMS-based treatment program for HIV-positive adults with comorbid substance use disorders. Methods With user input, we developed a 12-week CBT-based text messaging intervention (TXT-CBT) targeting antiretroviral (ART) adherence, risk behaviors, and drug use in a population of HIV-infected substance users. Results The intervention has been developed and is presently being tested in a pilot randomized clinical trial. Results will be reported later this year. Conclusions This investigation will yield valuable knowledge about the utility of a cost-effective, readily deployable text messaging behavioral intervention for HIV-infected drug users. PMID:27341852

  9. Medical Student and Tutor Perceptions of Video Versus Text in an Interactive Online Virtual Patient for Problem-Based Learning: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Round, Jonathan; Vaughan, Sophie; Poulton, Terry; Zary, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    Background The impact of the use of video resources in primarily paper-based problem-based learning (PBL) settings has been widely explored. Although it can provide many benefits, the use of video can also hamper the critical thinking of learners in contexts where learners are developing clinical reasoning. However, the use of video has not been explored in the context of interactive virtual patients for PBL. Objective A pilot study was conducted to explore how undergraduate medical students interpreted and evaluated information from video- and text-based materials presented in the context of a branched interactive online virtual patient designed for PBL. The goal was to inform the development and use of virtual patients for PBL and to inform future research in this area. Methods An existing virtual patient for PBL was adapted for use in video and provided as an intervention to students in the transition year of the undergraduate medicine course at St George’s, University of London. Survey instruments were used to capture student and PBL tutor experiences and perceptions of the intervention, and a formative review meeting was run with PBL tutors. Descriptive statistics were generated for the structured responses and a thematic analysis was used to identify emergent themes in the unstructured responses. Results Analysis of student responses (n=119) and tutor comments (n=18) yielded 8 distinct themes relating to the perceived educational efficacy of information presented in video and text formats in a PBL context. Although some students found some characteristics of the videos beneficial, when asked to express a preference for video or text the majority of those that responded to the question (65%, 65/100) expressed a preference for text. Student responses indicated that the use of video slowed the pace of PBL and impeded students’ ability to review and critically appraise the presented information. Conclusions Our findings suggest that text was perceived to be a

  10. Improving and measuring inpatient documentation of medical care within the MS-DRG system: education, monitoring, and normalized case mix index.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P; Lorenz, Robert R; Luther, Ralph B; Knowles-Ward, Lisa; Kelly, Dianne L; Weil, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Documentation of the care delivered to hospitalized patients is a ubiquitous and important aspect of medical care. The majority of references to documentation and coding are based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). We educated the members of a clinical care team in a single department (neurosurgery) at our hospital. We measured subsequent documentation improvements in a simple, meaningful, and reproducible fashion. We created a new metric to measure documentation, termed the "normalized case mix index," that allows comparison of hospitalizations across multiple unrelated MS-DRG groups. Compared to one year earlier, the traditional case mix index, normalized case mix index, severity of illness, and risk of mortality increased one year after the educational intervention. We encourage other organizations to implement and systematically monitor documentation improvement efforts when attempting to determine the accuracy and quality of documentation achieved. PMID:25214820

  11. Improving and Measuring Inpatient Documentation of Medical Care within the MS-DRG System: Education, Monitoring, and Normalized Case Mix Index

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Benjamin P.; Lorenz, Robert R.; Luther, Ralph B.; Knowles-Ward, Lisa; Kelly, Dianne L.; Weil, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Documentation of the care delivered to hospitalized patients is a ubiquitous and important aspect of medical care. The majority of references to documentation and coding are based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). We educated the members of a clinical care team in a single department (neurosurgery) at our hospital. We measured subsequent documentation improvements in a simple, meaningful, and reproducible fashion. We created a new metric to measure documentation, termed the “normalized case mix index,” that allows comparison of hospitalizations across multiple unrelated MS-DRG groups. Compared to one year earlier, the traditional case mix index, normalized case mix index, severity of illness, and risk of mortality increased one year after the educational intervention. We encourage other organizations to implement and systematically monitor documentation improvement efforts when attempting to determine the accuracy and quality of documentation achieved. PMID:25214820

  12. Mechanization of libaray procedures in the medium-sized medical library. VII. Relevancy of cited articles in citation indexing.

    PubMed

    Barlup, J

    1969-07-01

    Science Citation Index is one of a number of indexes based on the assumption that the papers cited by one author refer to work which is relevant to the subject discussed by the author citing them. Cleverdon, however, has questioned that assumption, and it was to test the assumption that this research was undertaken. An attempt was made to determine what percent of articles cited were related to the citing article. The conclusion reached was that in the field of medicine approximately 72 percent of the cited papers were considered related to the original paper by the authors of the original, thus apparently bearing out the assumption for citation indexing. PMID:5789818

  13. Spatial Patterns of the Indications of Acupoints Using Data Mining in Classic Medical Text: A Possible Visualization of the Meridian System

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, Taehyung; Lee, In-Seon; Kim, Sanghyun; Jang, Hyunchul; Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    The indications of acupoints are thought to be highly associated with the lines of the meridian systems. The present study used data mining methods to analyze the characteristics of the indications of each acupoint and to visualize the relationships between the acupoints and disease sites in the classic Korean medical text Chimgoogyeongheombang. Using a term frequency-inverse document frequency (tf-idf) scheme, the present study extracted valuable data regarding the indications of each acupoint according to the frequency of the cooccurrences of eight Source points and eighteen disease sites. Furthermore, the spatial patterns of the indications of each acupoint on a body map were visualized according to the tf-idf values. Each acupoint along the different meridians exhibited different constellation patterns at various disease sites. Additionally, the spatial patterns of the indications of each acupoint were highly associated with the route of the corresponding meridian. The present findings demonstrate that the indications of each acupoint were primarily associated with the corresponding meridian system. Furthermore, these findings suggest that the routes of the meridians may have clinical implications in terms of identifying the constellations of the indications of acupoints. PMID:26539224

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Personalized Text Message Reminders to Promote Medication Adherence Among HIV-Positive Adolescents and Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Robert; Kuhns, Lisa M; Hotton, Anna; Johnson, Amy; Muldoon, Abigail; Rice, Dion

    2016-05-01

    HIV-positive adolescents and young adults often experience suboptimal medication adherence, yet few interventions to improve adherence in this group have shown evidence of efficacy. We conducted a randomized trial of a two-way, personalized daily text messaging intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) among N = 105 poorly adherent HIV-positive adolescents and young adults, ages 16-29. Adherence to ART was assessed via self-reported visual analogue scale (VAS; 0-100 %) at 3 and 6-months for mean adherence level and proportion ≥90 % adherent. The average effect estimate over the 6-month intervention period was significant for ≥90 % adherence (OR = 2.12, 95 % CI 1.01-4.45, p < .05) and maintained at 12-months (6 months post-intervention). Satisfaction scores for the intervention were very high. These results suggest both feasibility and initial efficacy of this approach. Given study limitations, additional testing of this intervention as part of a larger clinical trial with objective and/or clinical outcome measures of adherence is warranted. PMID:26362167

  15. Decreasing the load? Is a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review in older people an effective intervention to reduce a patient's Drug Burden Index? Protocol of a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van der Meer, Helene G; Wouters, Hans; van Hulten, Rolf; Pras, Niesko; Taxis, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Older people often use medications with anticholinergic or sedative side effects which increase the risk of falling and worsen cognitive impairment. The Drug Burden Index (DBI) is a measure of the burden of anticholinergic and sedative medications. Medication reviews are typically done by a pharmacist in collaboration with a general practitioner to optimise the medication use and reduce these adverse drug events. We will evaluate whether a Multidisciplinary Multistep Medication Review (3MR) is an effective intervention to reduce a patient's DBI. Methods A randomised controlled trial including 160 patients from 15 community pharmacies will be conducted. Per pharmacy, 1 pharmacist will perform a structured 3MR in close collaboration with the general practitioner, including the objective to reduce the DBI. Analysis Primary outcome—the difference in proportion of patients having a decrease in DBI≥0.5 in the intervention and control groups at follow-up. Secondary outcomes—anticholinergic and sedative side effects, falls, cognitive function, activities of daily living, quality of life, hospital admission, and mortality. Ethics and dissemination The burden of patients will be kept at a minimum. The 3MR can be considered as usual care by the pharmacist and general practitioner. Medical specialists will be consulted, if necessary. The intervention is specifically aimed at older community-dwelling patients in an attempt to optimise prescribing, in particular, to reduce medication with anticholinergic and sedative properties. Study results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be distributed through information channels targeting professionals. Trial registration number NCT02317666; Pre-results. PMID:26700279

  16. Text Mining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  17. Mechanization of library procedures in the medium-sized medical library. XII. An information retrieval system: a combination of a manual selective dissemination of information, and a personal file indexing system by computer.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Evans, G T

    1970-04-01

    The introduction of a manual selective dissemination of information system with a computer-based personal index service into a Medical School Library is described. An account is given of the selection of participants, the development and maintenance of search profiles, the daily procedures, the forms and outputs of the system, and the computer index maintenance system. The costs of both the manual citation selection system and the computer index maintenance system are reported. PMID:5439901

  18. Text Sets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giorgis, Cyndi; Johnson, Nancy J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents annotations of approximately 30 titles grouped in text sets. Defines a text set as five to ten books on a particular topic or theme. Discusses books on the following topics: living creatures; pirates; physical appearance; natural disasters; and the Irish potato famine. (SG)

  19. Varying levels of difficulty index of skills-test items randomly selected by examinees on the Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The goal of this study was to characterize the difficulty index of the items in the skills test components of the class I and II Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination (KEMTLE), which requires examinees to select items randomly. Methods: The results of 1,309 class I KEMTLE examinations and 1,801 class II KEMTLE examinations in 2013 were subjected to analysis. Items from the basic and advanced skills test sections of the KEMTLE were compared to determine whether some were significantly more difficult than others. Results: In the class I KEMTLE, all 4 of the items on the basic skills test showed significant variation in difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as 4 of the 5 items on the advanced skills test (P<0.05). In the class II KEMTLE, 4 of the 5 items on the basic skills test showed significantly different difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as all 3 of the advanced skills test items (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the skills test components of the class I and II KEMTLE, the procedure in which examinees randomly select questions should be revised to require examinees to respond to a set of fixed items in order to improve the reliability of the national licensing examination. PMID:26883810

  20. The impact on patient safety of free-text entry of nursing orders into an electronic medical record in an integrated delivery system.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Katherine; Peres, Alan; Tatham, Judith M

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of Computerized Provider Order Entry (CPOE) has been shown to reduce the incidence of medication-related errors in hospitals. Successful implementation of CPOE and electronic health records requires redesigning workflows and analysis of information collected and training of staff to use these new systems. However, well intentioned processes that seem to solve a unique problem can sometimes go in an unanticipated direction for several reasons. This can have unintentional consequences, especially when the built-in safeguards are not engaged. This poster describes one organization's efforts to identify the causes of one such breakdown, and how the obvious solutions were inappropriate. PMID:16779382

  1. ["Medical Texts and Jorunals," and Resources on "Prenatal Risk,""Premature and Low Birthweight Infants,""Infant Nutrition and Breastfeeding"; "Effectiveness of Early Intervention." IPHA Birth-to-Three Clearinghouse Bibliographies 5, 6, 7, 8, and 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Public Health Association, Springfield.

    Five separate bibliographies present citations of resources regarding prenatal risk, premature and low birthweight infants, infant nutrition and breastfeeding, and early intervention for infants with disabilities. The first bibliography lists 133 references from medical texts and journals regarding child development, disabilities, diagnosis, and…

  2. Byzantine medical manuscripts: towards a new catalogue, with a specimen for an annotated checklist of manuscripts based on an index of Diels' Catalogue.

    PubMed

    Touwaide, Alain

    2009-01-01

    Greek manuscripts containing medical texts were inventoried at the beginning of the 20th century by a team of philologists under the direction of Hermann Diels. The resulting catalogue, however useful it was when new and still is today, needs to be updated not only because some manuscripts have been destroyed, certain collections and single items have changed location, new shelfmark systems have been sometimes adopted and cataloguing has made substantial progress, but also because in Diels' time the concept of ancient medicine was limited, the method used in compiling data was not standardized and, in a time of manual recording and handling of information, mistakes could not be avoided. The present article is an introduction to a new catalogue of Greek medical manuscripts. In the first part, it surveys the history of the heuristic and cataloguing of Greek medical manuscripts from the 16th century forward; in the second part, it highlights the problems in Diels' catalogue and describes the genesis and methods of the new catalogue, together with the plan for its completion; and in the third part, it provides a sample of such a new catalogue, with a list of the Greek medical manuscripts in the libraries of the United Kingdom and Ireland. PMID:20349553

  3. A Multi-Worksite Analysis of the Relationships among Body Mass Index, Medical Utilization and Worker Productivity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The relationships between worker health and productivity are becoming clearer. However, few large scale studies have measured the direct and indirect cost burden of overweight and obesity among employees using actual biometric values. Objective To quantify the direct medical and indirect (absence and productivity) cost burden of overweight and obesity in workers. Subjects A cross-sectional study of 10,026 employees in multiple professions and worksites across the U.S. Measures The main outcomes were five self-reported measures of workers’ annual healthcare use and productivity: doctor visits, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, absenteeism (days absent from work), and presenteeism (percent on-the-job productivity losses). Multivariate count and continuous data models (Poisson, negative binomial and zero-inflated Poisson) were estimated. Results After adjusting for covariates, obese employees had 20% higher doctor visits than normal weight employees (CI 16%, 24%, p < 0.01) and 26% higher emergency room visits (CI 11%, 42%, p < 0.01). Rates of doctor and emergency room visits for overweight employees were no different than those of normal weight employees. Compared to normal weight employees, presenteeism rates were 10% and 12% higher for overweight and obese employees, respectively (CI 5%, 15% and 5%, 19%, all p < 0.01). Taken together, compared to normal weight employees, obese and overweight workers were estimated to cost employers $644 and $201 more per employee per year, respectively. Conclusions This study provides evidence that employers face a financial burden imposed by obesity. Implementation of effective workplace programs for the prevention and management of excess weight will benefit employers and their workers. PMID:20061888

  4. Block Addressing Indices for Approximate Text Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza-Yates, Ricardo; Navarro, Gonzalo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses indexing in large text databases, approximate text searching, and space-time tradeoffs for indexed text searching. Studies the space overhead and retrieval times as functions of the text block size, concludes that an index can be sublinear in space overhead and query time, and applies the analysis to the Web. (Author/LRW)

  5. Medical narratives in electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Tange, H J; Hasman, A; de Vries Robbé, P F; Schouten, H C

    1997-08-01

    In this article, we describe the state of the art and directions of current development and research with respect to the inclusion of medical narratives in electronic medical-record systems. We used information about 20 electronic medical-record systems as presented in the literature. We divided these systems into 'classical' systems that matured before 1990 and are now used in a broad range of medical domains, and 'experimental' systems, more recently developed and, in general, more innovative. In the literature, three major challenges were addressed: facilitation of direct data entry, achieving unambiguous understandability of data, and improvement of data presentation. Promising approaches to tackle the first and second challenge are the use of dynamic data-entry forms that anticipate sensible input, and free-text data entry followed by natural-language interpretation. Both these approaches require a highly expressive medical terminology. How to facilitate the access to medical narratives has not been studied much. We found facilitating examples of presenting this information as fluent prose, of optimising the screen design with fixed position cues, and of imposing medical narratives with a structure of indexable paragraphs that can be used in flowsheets. We conclude that further study is needed to develop an optimal searching structure for medical narratives. PMID:9476152

  6. The great contribution: Index Medicus, Index-Catalogue, and IndexCat

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Stephen J.; Gallagher, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The systematic indexing of medical literature by the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (now the National Library of Medicine) has been called “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.” In the 1870s, the library launched two indexes: the Index Medicus and the Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office. Index Medicus is better remembered today as the forerunner of MEDLINE, but Index Medicus began as the junior partner of what the library saw as its major publication, the Index-Catalogue. However, the Index-Catalogue had been largely overlooked by many medical librarians until 2004, when the National Library of Medicine released IndexCat, the online version of Index-Catalogue. Access to this huge amount of material raised new questions: What was the coverage of the Index-Catalogue? How did it compare and overlap with the Index Medicus? Method: Over 1,000 randomly generated Index Medicus citations were cross-referenced in IndexCat. Results: Inclusion, form, content, authority control, and subject headings were evaluated, revealing that the relationship between the two publications was neither simple nor static through time. In addition, the authors found interesting anomalies that shed light on how medical literature was selected and indexed in “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.” PMID:19404501

  7. An integrated medical record and data system for primary care. Part 3: the diagnostic index manual and computer methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Froom, J; Culpepper, L; Boisseau, V

    1977-07-01

    Manual and computer versions of the diagnostic of the index-E-Book are described. Methods for establisment and maintenance of both indexes are given and the relative merits of each are delineated. Uses of diagnostic indexes are presented which are appropriate to solo and group practices. The role of the diagnostic index in curriculum development within a family practice training setting is also illustrated. PMID:886284

  8. Improving text recognition by distinguishing scene and overlay text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quehl, Bernhard; Yang, Haojin; Sack, Harald

    2015-02-01

    Video texts are closely related to the content of a video. They provide a valuable source for indexing and interpretation of video data. Text detection and recognition task in images or videos typically distinguished between overlay and scene text. Overlay text is artificially superimposed on the image at the time of editing and scene text is text captured by the recording system. Typically, OCR systems are specialized on one kind of text type. However, in video images both types of text can be found. In this paper, we propose a method to automatically distinguish between overlay and scene text to dynamically control and optimize post processing steps following text detection. Based on a feature combination a Support Vector Machine (SVM) is trained to classify scene and overlay text. We show how this distinction in overlay and scene text improves the word recognition rate. Accuracy of the proposed methods has been evaluated by using publicly available test data sets.

  9. Navy Medical Information Storage and Retrieval System: Navy MEDISTARS. TR-1-71-Part 2, Manual of Indexing Terms; First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey-Klee, Diane M.

    A computer-based information storage and retrieval system was designed and implemented for processing Navy neuropsychiatric case history reports. The system design objectives were to produce a dynamic and flexible medical information processing tool. The system that was designed has been given the name NAVY MEDical Information STorage and…

  10. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  11. Text What?! What Is Text Rendering?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis-Haley, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    Text rendering is a method of deconstructing text that allows students to make decisions regarding the importance of the text, select the portions that are most meaningful to them, and then share it with classmates--all without fear of being ridiculed. The research on students constructing meaning from text is clear. In order for knowledge to…

  12. A recent advance in the automatic indexing of the biomedical literature.

    PubMed

    Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E; Humphrey, Susanne M; Mork, James G; Aronson, Alan R

    2009-10-01

    The volume of biomedical literature has experienced explosive growth in recent years. This is reflected in the corresponding increase in the size of MEDLINE, the largest bibliographic database of biomedical citations. Indexers at the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) need efficient tools to help them accommodate the ensuing workload. After reviewing issues in the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to biomedical text, we focus more specifically on the new subheading attachment feature for NLM's Medical Text Indexer (MTI). Natural Language Processing, statistical, and machine learning methods of producing automatic MeSH main heading/subheading pair recommendations were assessed independently and combined. The best combination achieves 48% precision and 30% recall. After validation by NLM indexers, a suitable combination of the methods presented in this paper was integrated into MTI as a subheading attachment feature producing MeSH indexing recommendations compliant with current state-of-the-art indexing practice. PMID:19166973

  13. The Only Safe SMS Texting Is No SMS Texting.

    PubMed

    Toth, Cheryl; Sacopulos, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Many physicians and practice staff use short messaging service (SMS) text messaging to communicate with patients. But SMS text messaging is unencrypted, insecure, and does not meet HIPAA requirements. In addition, the short and abbreviated nature of text messages creates opportunities for misinterpretation, and can negatively impact patient safety and care. Until recently, asking patients to sign a statement that they understand and accept these risks--as well as having policies, device encryption, and cyber insurance in place--would have been enough to mitigate the risk of using SMS text in a medical practice. But new trends and policies have made SMS text messaging unsafe under any circumstance. This article explains these trends and policies, as well as why only secure texting or secure messaging should be used for physician-patient communication. PMID:26856033

  14. PPD-QALY-an index for cost-effectiveness in orthopedics: providing essential information to both physicians and health care policy makers for appropriate allocation of medical resources.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Christopher P; Howard, Timothy

    2013-09-01

    Because of the increasing health care costs and the need for proper allocation of resources, it is important to ensure the best use of health benefits for sick and injured people of the population. An index or indicator is needed to help us quantify what is being spent so that comparisons with other options can be implemented. Cost-effective analysis seems to be well suited to provide this essential information to health care policy makers and those charged with distributing disability funds so that the proper allocation of resources can be achieved. There is currently no such index to show whether the benefits paid out are the most cost-effective. By comparing the quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of a treatment method to the disability an individual would experience, on the basis of lost wages as measure of disability, we provide decision makers more information for the basis of cost allocation in health care. To accomplish this, we describe a new term, the PPD-QALY (permanent partial disability-quality of life year). This term was developed to establish an index to which musculoskeletal care can be compared, to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a treatment on the basis of the monetary value of the disability. This term serves to standardize the monetary value of an injury. Cost-effective analysis in arthroscopic surgery may prove to be a valuable asset in this role and to provide decision makers the information needed to determine the societal benefit from new arthroscopic procedures as they are developed and implemented. PMID:23924750

  15. Text Maps: Helping Students Navigate Informational Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Brenda H.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that a text map is an instructional approach designed to help students gain fluency in reading content area materials. Discusses how the goal is to teach students about the important features of the material and how the maps can be used to build new understandings. Presents the procedures for preparing and using a text map. (SG)

  16. Automatic segmentation of clinical texts.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Emilia; Channin, David S; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Furst, Jacob; Lytinen, Steven; Raicu, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054

  17. An Introduction to Voice Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, James G.

    1986-01-01

    Uses and sources of voice indexing (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice indexing enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice indexing on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)

  18. Automatic Syntactic Analysis of Free Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Christoph

    1990-01-01

    Discusses problems encountered with the syntactic analysis of free text documents in indexing. Postcoordination and precoordination of terms is discussed, an automatic indexing system call COPSY (context operator syntax) that uses natural language processing techniques is described, and future developments are explained. (60 references) (LRW)

  19. Writing Home/Decolonizing Text(s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asher, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The article draws on postcolonial and feminist theories, combined with critical reflection and autobiography, and argues for generating decolonizing texts as one way to write and reclaim home in a postcolonial world. Colonizers leave home to seek power and control elsewhere, and the colonized suffer loss of home as they know it. This dislocation…

  20. Text File Display Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vavrus, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.

  1. XML and Free Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Ken Roger

    2002-01-01

    Discusses problems with marking free text, text that is either natural language or semigrammatical but unstructured, that prevent well-formed XML from marking text for readily available meaning. Proposes a solution to mark meaning in free text that is consistent with the intended simplicity of XML versus SGML. (Author/LRW)

  2. Contextual Text Mining

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mei, Qiaozhu

    2009-01-01

    With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…

  3. Contextual models of clinical publications for enhancing retrieval from full-text databases.

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, G. P.; Shortliffe, E. H.

    1995-01-01

    Conventional methods for retrieving information from the medical literature are imprecise and inefficient. Information retrieval systems employ unmanageable indexing vocabularies or use full-text representations that overwhelm the user with irrelevant information. This paper describes a document representation designed to improve the precision of searching in textual databases without significantly compromising recall. The representation augments simple text word representations with contextual models that reflect recurring semantic themes in clinical publications. Using this representation, a searcher may indicate both the terms of interest and the contexts in which they should occur. The contexts limit the potential interpretations of text words, and thus form the basis for more precise searching. In this paper, we discuss the shortcomings of traditional retrieval systems and describe our context-based representation. Improved retrieval performance with contextual models is illustrated by example, and a more extensive study is proposed. We present an evaluation of the contextual models as an indexing scheme, using a variation of the traditional inter-indexer consistency experiments, and we demonstrate that contextual indexing is reproducible by minimally trained physicians and medical students. PMID:8563412

  4. Questioning the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Stephanie

    2001-01-01

    One way teachers can improve students' reading comprehension is to teach them to think while reading, questioning the text and carrying on an inner conversation. This involves: choosing the text for questioning; introducing the strategy to the class; modeling thinking aloud and marking the text with stick-on notes; and allowing time for guided…

  5. Text Coherence in Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  6. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  7. GPU-Accelerated Text Mining

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Xiaohui; Mueller, Frank; Zhang, Yongpeng; Potok, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    Accelerating hardware devices represent a novel promise for improving the performance for many problem domains but it is not clear for which domains what accelerators are suitable. While there is no room in general-purpose processor design to significantly increase the processor frequency, developers are instead resorting to multi-core chips duplicating conventional computing capabilities on a single die. Yet, accelerators offer more radical designs with a much higher level of parallelism and novel programming environments. This present work assesses the viability of text mining on CUDA. Text mining is one of the key concepts that has become prominent as an effective means to index the Internet, but its applications range beyond this scope and extend to providing document similarity metrics, the subject of this work. We have developed and optimized text search algorithms for GPUs to exploit their potential for massive data processing. We discuss the algorithmic challenges of parallelization for text search problems on GPUs and demonstrate the potential of these devices in experiments by reporting significant speedups. Our study may be one of the first to assess more complex text search problems for suitability for GPU devices, and it may also be one of the first to exploit and report on atomic instruction usage that have recently become available in NVIDIA devices.

  8. Pharmacovigilance using Clinical Text.

    PubMed

    Lependu, Paea; Iyer, Srinivasan V; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Harpaz, Rave; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Cooke, John P; Shah, Nigam H

    2013-01-01

    The current state of the art in post-marketing drug surveillance utilizes voluntarily submitted reports of suspected adverse drug reactions. We present data mining methods that transform unstructured patient notes taken by doctors, nurses and other clinicians into a de-identified, temporally ordered, patient-feature matrix using standardized medical terminologies. We demonstrate how to use the resulting high-throughput data to monitor for adverse drug events based on the clinical notes in the EHR. PMID:24303315

  9. Composing Texts, Composing Lives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perl, Sondra

    1994-01-01

    Using composition, reader response, critical, and feminist theories, a teacher demonstrates how adult students respond critically to literary texts and how teachers must critically analyze the texts of their teaching practice. Both students and teachers can use writing to bring their experiences to interpretation. (SK)

  10. Solar Energy Project: Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    The text is a compilation of background information which should be useful to teachers wishing to obtain some technical information on solar technology. Twenty sections are included which deal with topics ranging from discussion of the sun's composition to the legal implications of using solar energy. The text is intended to provide useful…

  11. Texting on the Move

    MedlinePlus

    ... But texting is more likely to contribute to car crashes. We know this because police and other authorities ... you swerve all over the place, cut off cars, or bring on a collision because of ... a fatal crash. Tips for Texting It's hard to live without ...

  12. Making Sense of Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the triadic nature regarding meaning construction of texts. Grounded in Rosenblatt's (1995; 1998; 2004) Transactional Theory, research conducted in an undergraduate Language Arts curriculum course revealed that when presented with unfamiliar texts, students used prior experiences, social interactions, and literary…

  13. Teaching Text Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Robert; Bernhardt, Stephen A.

    1996-01-01

    Reports that although a rhetoric of visible text based on page layout and various design features has been defined, what a writer should know about design is rarely covered. Describes and demonstrates a scope and sequence of learning that encourages writers to develop skills as text designers. Introduces helpful literature that displays visually…

  14. The Perfect Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    A chemistry teacher describes the elements of the ideal chemistry textbook. The perfect text is focused and helps students draw a coherent whole out of the myriad fragments of information and interpretation. The text would show chemistry as the central science necessary for understanding other sciences and would also root chemistry firmly in the…

  15. Text File Comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kotler, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.

  16. Lossy Text Compression Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Venka; Latifi, Shahram

    Most text documents contain a large amount of redundancy. Data compression can be used to minimize this redundancy and increase transmission efficiency or save storage space. Several text compression algorithms have been introduced for lossless text compression used in critical application areas. For non-critical applications, we could use lossy text compression to improve compression efficiency. In this paper, we propose three different source models for character-based lossy text compression: Dropped Vowels (DOV), Letter Mapping (LMP), and Replacement of Characters (ROC). The working principles and transformation methods associated with these methods are presented. Compression ratios obtained are included and compared. Comparisons of performance with those of the Huffman Coding and Arithmetic Coding algorithm are also made. Finally, some ideas for further improving the performance already obtained are proposed.

  17. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  18. Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    To index at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's indexing has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided indexing system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  19. Establishment of a Comprehensive List of Candidate Antiaging Medicinal Herb Used in Korean Medicine by Text Mining of the Classical Korean Medical Literature, “Dongeuibogam,” and Preliminary Evaluation of the Antiaging Effects of These Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Moo Jin; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Shin, Byung Cheul; Han, Yoo Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung

    2015-01-01

    The major objectives of this study were to provide a list of candidate antiaging medicinal herbs that have been widely utilized in Korean medicine and to organize preliminary data for the benefit of experimental and clinical researchers to develop new drug therapies by analyzing previous studies. “Dongeuibogam,” a representative source of the Korean medicine literature, was selected to investigate candidate antiaging medicinal herbs and to identify appropriate terms that describe the specific antiaging effects that these herbs are predicted to elicit. In addition, we aimed to review previous studies that referenced the selected candidate antiaging medicinal herbs. From our chosen source, “Dongeuibogam,” we were able to screen 102 terms describing antiaging effects, which were further classified into 11 subtypes. Ninety-seven candidate antiaging medicinal herbs were selected using the criterion that their antiaging effects were described using the same terms as those employed in “Dongeuibogam.” These candidates were classified into 11 subtypes. Of the 97 candidate antiaging medicinal herbs selected, 47 are widely used by Korean medical doctors in Korea and were selected for further analysis of their antiaging effects. Overall, we found an average of 7.7 previous studies per candidate herb that described their antiaging effects. PMID:25861371

  20. UMLS Concept Indexing for Production Databases

    PubMed Central

    Nadkarni, Prakash; Chen, Roland; Brandt, Cynthia

    2001-01-01

    Objectives: To explore the feasibility of using the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus as the basis for a computational strategy to identify concepts in medical narrative text preparatory to indexing. To quantitatively evaluate this strategy in terms of true positives, false positives (spuriously identified concepts) and false negatives (concepts missed by the identification process). Methods: Using the 1999 UMLS Metathesaurus, the authors processed a training set of 100 documents (50 discharge summaries, 50 surgical notes) with a concept-identification program, whose output was manually analyzed. They flagged concepts that were erroneously identified and added new concepts that were not identified by the program, recording the reason for failure in such cases. After several refinements to both their algorithm and the UMLS subset on which it operated, they deployed the program on a test set of 24 documents (12 of each kind). Results: Of 8,745 matches in the training set, 7,227 (82.6 percent ) were true positives, whereas of 1,701 matches in the test set, 1,298 (76.3 percent) were true positives. Matches other than true positive indicated potential problems in production-mode concept indexing. Examples of causes of problems were redundant concepts in the UMLS, homonyms, acronyms, abbreviations and elisions, concepts that were missing from the UMLS, proper names, and spelling errors. Conclusions: The error rate was too high for concept indexing to be the only production-mode means of preprocessing medical narrative. Considerable curation needs to be performed to define a UMLS subset that is suitable for concept matching. PMID:11141514

  1. Machine Translation from Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John

    Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.

  2. Text Exchange System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. V.; Hanson, R. J.

    1986-01-01

    Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.

  3. Reading Authorship into Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Walter

    2000-01-01

    Provides eight concepts, with illustrative questions for interpreting the authorship of texts, that are borrowed from cultural studies literature: (1) representation; (2) the gaze; (3) voice; (4) intertextuality; (5) absence; (6) authority; (7) mediation; and (8) reflexivity. States that examples were taken from British Columbia's (Canada) social…

  4. Polymorphous Perversity in Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Eilola, Johndan

    2012-01-01

    Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?

  5. Taming the Wild Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allyn, Pam

    2012-01-01

    As a well-known advocate for promoting wider reading and reading engagement among all children--and founder of a reading program for foster children--Pam Allyn knows that struggling readers often face any printed text with fear and confusion, like Max in the book Where the Wild Things Are. She argues that teachers need to actively create a…

  6. Text, Narration, and Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesebro, James W.

    1989-01-01

    "Text and Performance Quarterly" (TPQ) is the new name (beginning 1989) of a journal that started in 1980 under the name "Literature in Performance." This partial (promotional) issue of "TPQ" consists of a single article from the January 1989 issue that briefly explains the background and scope of the re-defined publication and then goes on to…

  7. Sexism in Math Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Barbara

    1977-01-01

    Describes instances of sexism found in six widely used elementary math textbooks. Research methodology involved analysis of all word problems and pictures of human figures in the texts. Recommendations for combating sexism within the schools are presented. Available from: P.O. Box 10085, Eugene, Oregon 97401. (Author/DB)

  8. Teaching Expository Text Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelongo, Jose; Berber-Jimenez, Lola; Hernandez, Anita C.; Hosking, David

    2006-01-01

    Many students enter high school unskilled in the art of reading to learn from science textbooks. Even students who can read full-length novels often find science books difficult to read because students have relatively little practice with the various types of expository text structures used by such textbooks (Armbruster, 1991). Expository text…

  9. Text Mining for Neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirupattur, Naveen; Lapish, Christopher C.; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-06-01

    Text mining, sometimes alternately referred to as text analytics, refers to the process of extracting high-quality knowledge from the analysis of textual data. Text mining has wide variety of applications in areas such as biomedical science, news analysis, and homeland security. In this paper, we describe an approach and some relatively small-scale experiments which apply text mining to neuroscience research literature to find novel associations among a diverse set of entities. Neuroscience is a discipline which encompasses an exceptionally wide range of experimental approaches and rapidly growing interest. This combination results in an overwhelmingly large and often diffuse literature which makes a comprehensive synthesis difficult. Understanding the relations or associations among the entities appearing in the literature not only improves the researchers current understanding of recent advances in their field, but also provides an important computational tool to formulate novel hypotheses and thereby assist in scientific discoveries. We describe a methodology to automatically mine the literature and form novel associations through direct analysis of published texts. The method first retrieves a set of documents from databases such as PubMed using a set of relevant domain terms. In the current study these terms yielded a set of documents ranging from 160,909 to 367,214 documents. Each document is then represented in a numerical vector form from which an Association Graph is computed which represents relationships between all pairs of domain terms, based on co-occurrence. Association graphs can then be subjected to various graph theoretic algorithms such as transitive closure and cycle (circuit) detection to derive additional information, and can also be visually presented to a human researcher for understanding. In this paper, we present three relatively small-scale problem-specific case studies to demonstrate that such an approach is very successful in

  10. Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

  11. The Texting Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Susan Stone

    2009-01-01

    The author was appointed principal of a large, urban comprehensive high school in spring 2008. One of the first things she had to figure out was how she would develop a connection with her students when there were so many of them--nearly 2,000--and only one of her. Texts may be exchanged more quickly than having a conversation over the phone,…

  12. Physicians: Choosing Your Medical Specialty

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Text size Email How to Choose a Medical Specialty Choosing a medical specialty is a career- ... most challenging aspects of patient care. “Choosing a Medical Specialty”—A Guide on What to Expect from ...

  13. Selecting Full-Text Undergraduate Periodicals Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Still, Julie M.; Kassabian, Vibiana

    1999-01-01

    Examines how libraries and librarians can compare full-text general periodical indices, using ProQuest Direct, Periodical Abstracts (via Ovid), and EBSCOhost as examples. Explores breadth and depth of coverage; manipulation of results (email/download/print); ease of use (searching); and indexing quirks. (AEF)

  14. TRMM Gridded Text Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocker, Erich Franz

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.

  15. Recognizing musical text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Alastair T.; Brown, B. M.; Thorne, M. P.

    1993-08-01

    This paper reports on some recent developments in a software product that recognizes printed music notation. There are a number of computer systems available which assist in the task of printing music; however the full potential of these systems cannot be realized until the musical text has been entered into the computer. It is this problem that we address in this paper. The software we describe, which uses computationally inexpensive methods, is designed to analyze a music score, previously read by a flat bed scanner, and to extract the musical information that it contains. The paper discusses the methods used to recognize the musical text: these involve sampling the image at strategic points and using this information to estimate the musical symbol. It then discusses some hard problems that have been encountered during the course of the research; for example the recognition of chords and note clusters. It also reports on the progress that has been made in solving these problems and concludes with a discussion of work that needs to be undertaken over the next five years in order to transform this research prototype into a commercial product.

  16. The HLD (CalMod) index and the index question.

    PubMed

    Parker, W S

    1998-08-01

    The malocclusion index problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann Index in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any index. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many indexes have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) Index is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this index. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the index. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The index problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) Index has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the index question and one solution in the United States. PMID:9714277

  17. Text Mining the History of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Carter, Jacob; Toon, Elizabeth; McNaught, John; Timmermann, Carsten; Worboys, Michael; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Historical text archives constitute a rich and diverse source of information, which is becoming increasingly readily accessible, due to large-scale digitisation efforts. However, it can be difficult for researchers to explore and search such large volumes of data in an efficient manner. Text mining (TM) methods can help, through their ability to recognise various types of semantic information automatically, e.g., instances of concepts (places, medical conditions, drugs, etc.), synonyms/variant forms of concepts, and relationships holding between concepts (which drugs are used to treat which medical conditions, etc.). TM analysis allows search systems to incorporate functionality such as automatic suggestions of synonyms of user-entered query terms, exploration of different concepts mentioned within search results or isolation of documents in which concepts are related in specific ways. However, applying TM methods to historical text can be challenging, according to differences and evolutions in vocabulary, terminology, language structure and style, compared to more modern text. In this article, we present our efforts to overcome the various challenges faced in the semantic analysis of published historical medical text dating back to the mid 19th century. Firstly, we used evidence from diverse historical medical documents from different periods to develop new resources that provide accounts of the multiple, evolving ways in which concepts, their variants and relationships amongst them may be expressed. These resources were employed to support the development of a modular processing pipeline of TM tools for the robust detection of semantic information in historical medical documents with varying characteristics. We applied the pipeline to two large-scale medical document archives covering wide temporal ranges as the basis for the development of a publicly accessible semantically-oriented search system. The novel resources are available for research purposes, while

  18. Text Mining the History of Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Paul; Batista-Navarro, Riza Theresa; Kontonatsios, Georgios; Carter, Jacob; Toon, Elizabeth; McNaught, John; Timmermann, Carsten; Worboys, Michael; Ananiadou, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Historical text archives constitute a rich and diverse source of information, which is becoming increasingly readily accessible, due to large-scale digitisation efforts. However, it can be difficult for researchers to explore and search such large volumes of data in an efficient manner. Text mining (TM) methods can help, through their ability to recognise various types of semantic information automatically, e.g., instances of concepts (places, medical conditions, drugs, etc.), synonyms/variant forms of concepts, and relationships holding between concepts (which drugs are used to treat which medical conditions, etc.). TM analysis allows search systems to incorporate functionality such as automatic suggestions of synonyms of user-entered query terms, exploration of different concepts mentioned within search results or isolation of documents in which concepts are related in specific ways. However, applying TM methods to historical text can be challenging, according to differences and evolutions in vocabulary, terminology, language structure and style, compared to more modern text. In this article, we present our efforts to overcome the various challenges faced in the semantic analysis of published historical medical text dating back to the mid 19th century. Firstly, we used evidence from diverse historical medical documents from different periods to develop new resources that provide accounts of the multiple, evolving ways in which concepts, their variants and relationships amongst them may be expressed. These resources were employed to support the development of a modular processing pipeline of TM tools for the robust detection of semantic information in historical medical documents with varying characteristics. We applied the pipeline to two large-scale medical document archives covering wide temporal ranges as the basis for the development of a publicly accessible semantically-oriented search system. The novel resources are available for research purposes, while

  19. Reading Text While Driving

    PubMed Central

    Horrey, William J.; Hoffman, Joshua D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In this study, we investigated how drivers adapt secondary-task initiation and time-sharing behavior when faced with fluctuating driving demands. Background Reading text while driving is particularly detrimental; however, in real-world driving, drivers actively decide when to perform the task. Method In a test track experiment, participants were free to decide when to read messages while driving along a straight road consisting of an area with increased driving demands (demand zone) followed by an area with low demands. A message was made available shortly before the vehicle entered the demand zone. We manipulated the type of driving demands (baseline, narrow lane, pace clock, combined), message format (no message, paragraph, parsed), and the distance from the demand zone when the message was available (near, far). Results In all conditions, drivers started reading messages (drivers’ first glance to the display) before entering or before leaving the demand zone but tended to wait longer when faced with increased driving demands. While reading messages, drivers looked more or less off road, depending on types of driving demands. Conclusions For task initiation, drivers avoid transitions from low to high demands; however, they are not discouraged when driving demands are already elevated. Drivers adjust time-sharing behavior according to driving demands while performing secondary tasks. Nonetheless, such adjustment may be less effective when total demands are high. Application This study helps us to understand a driver’s role as an active controller in the context of distracted driving and provides insights for developing distraction interventions. PMID:25850162

  20. Ototoxic Medications (Medication Effects)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toggle navigation Careers Certification Publications Events Advocacy Continuing Education Practice Management Research Home / Information for the Public / Hearing and Balance Ototoxic Medications ( ...

  1. Full Text Journal Subscriptions: An Evolutionary Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luther, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of companies offering Web accessible subscriptions to full text electronic versions of scientific, technical, and medical journals (Academic Press, Blackwell, EBSCO, Elsevier, Highwire Press, Information Quest, Institute of Physics, Johns Hopkins University Press, OCLC, OVID, Springer, and SWETS). Also lists guidelines for…

  2. Evaluation of Mental Index, Mandibular Cortical Index and Panoramic Mandibular Index on Dental Panoramic Radiographs in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Hastar, Esin; Yilmaz, H. Huseyin; Orhan, Hikmet

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of gender and dental status on the mental index, mandibular cortical index and panoramic mandibular index from dental panoramic radiographs in elderly who had osteoporosis or did not have osteoporosis. Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 487 elderly dental patients (age range 60–88 years) were evaluated. It were recorded osteoporotic status according to the patients’ medical anamnesis and values of the mandibular cortical index (MCI), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical width (MCW) Results: Dental status was statistically significantly associated with the mandibular cortical width, panoramic mandibular index and the categories of MCI (P<.05). There were statistically different mandibular cortical width and panoramic mandibular index values in patients with osteoporosis and without osteoporosis (P<.05) Conclusions: Our study showed that there were statistically significant differences according to gender, dental status, and values of the MCW, MCI and PMI between patients with and those without osteoporosis. PMID:21228957

  3. Medical Transcriptionists

    MedlinePlus

    ... equipment or software that is connected to their computer. However, technological advances have changed the way medical ... this section Medical transcriptionists must be comfortable using computers. Medical transcriptionists typically need postsecondary education. Prospective medical ...

  4. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000899.htm Medical marijuana To use the sharing features on this page, ... have legalized marijuana for medical use. How Does Medical Marijuana Work? Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten ...

  5. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  6. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  7. Important Text Characteristics for Early-Grades Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Koons, Heather; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core set a standard for all children to read increasingly complex texts throughout schooling. The purpose of the present study was to explore text characteristics specifically in relation to early-grades text complexity. Three hundred fifty primary-grades texts were selected and digitized. Twenty-two text characteristics were identified…

  8. A Recent Advance in the Automatic Indexing of the Biomedical Literature

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E.; Humphrey, Susanne M.; Mork, James G.; Aronson, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    The volume of biomedical literature has experienced explosive growth in recent years. This is reflected in the corresponding increase in the size of MEDLINE®, the largest bibliographic database of biomedical citations. Indexers at the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) need efficient tools to help them accommodate the ensuing workload. After reviewing issues in the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH® terms) to biomedical text, we focus more specifically on the new subheading attachment feature for NLM’s Medical Text Indexer (MTI). Natural Language Processing, statistical, and machine learning methods of producing automatic MeSH main heading/subheading pair recommendations were assessed independently and combined. The best combination achieves 48% precision and 30% recall. After validation by NLM indexers, a suitable combination of the methods presented in this paper was integrated into MTI as a subheading attachment feature producing MeSH indexing recommendations compliant with current state-of-the-art indexing practice. PMID:19166973

  9. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress.

    PubMed

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B

    2007-09-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or 'BioNLP' in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  10. Frontiers of biomedical text mining: current progress

    PubMed Central

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Yu, Hong; Cohen, Kevin B.

    2008-01-01

    It is now almost 15 years since the publication of the first paper on text mining in the genomics domain, and decades since the first paper on text mining in the medical domain. Enormous progress has been made in the areas of information retrieval, evaluation methodologies and resource construction. Some problems, such as abbreviation-handling, can essentially be considered solved problems, and others, such as identification of gene mentions in text, seem likely to be solved soon. However, a number of problems at the frontiers of biomedical text mining continue to present interesting challenges and opportunities for great improvements and interesting research. In this article we review the current state of the art in biomedical text mining or ‘BioNLP’ in general, focusing primarily on papers published within the past year. PMID:17977867

  11. High Performance Biomedical Time Series Indexes Using Salient Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Mortazavi, Bobak; Bui, Alex A.T.; Sarrafzadeh, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The advent of remote and wearable medical sensing has created a dire need for efficient medical time series databases. Wearable medical sensing devices provide continuous patient monitoring by various types of sensors and have the potential to create massive amounts of data. Therefore, time series databases must utilize highly optimized indexes in order to efficiently search and analyze stored data. This paper presents a highly efficient technique for indexing medical time series signals using Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH). Unlike previous work, only salient (or interesting) segments are inserted into the index. This technique reduces search times by up to 95% while yielding near identical search results. PMID:23367072

  12. Information fusion for automatic text classification

    SciTech Connect

    Dasigi, V.; Mann, R.C.; Protopopescu, V.A.

    1996-08-01

    Analysis and classification of free text documents encompass decision-making processes that rely on several clues derived from text and other contextual information. When using multiple clues, it is generally not known a priori how these should be integrated into a decision. An algorithmic sensor based on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) (a recent successful method for text retrieval rather than classification) is the primary sensor used in our work, but its utility is limited by the {ital reference}{ital library} of documents. Thus, there is an important need to complement or at least supplement this sensor. We have developed a system that uses a neural network to integrate the LSI-based sensor with other clues derived from the text. This approach allows for systematic fusion of several information sources in order to determine a combined best decision about the category to which a document belongs.

  13. Formal semantic and computer text processing, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Meunier, J.G.; Lepage, F.

    1983-01-01

    Computer processing of large nonpreedited natural language texts has often been limited either to managing and editing or to analysing basic levels of content (indexes, concordances, clusters, etc.). Few systems approach syntactic information, even less semantic information. Because of the complexity and the originality of the underlying semantic information of any text it is not possible to import directly the AI and computational semantic concepts. It is necessary to explore news paths. The research presented here is oriented toward the understanding of certain semantic aspects in computer text processing (words and meaning representation and inference patterns). This is done through a model theoretic approach embedded in an algebraic language. The hypothesis which governs the concepts and the distinctions is the following: discourse in a text constitutes a semantic space built of an ordered set of sentences which are of different logical types and which present a specific pattern of coherence expressible in a syntactic manner. 47 references.

  14. Text mining for the biocuration workflow

    PubMed Central

    Hirschman, Lynette; Burns, Gully A. P. C; Krallinger, Martin; Arighi, Cecilia; Cohen, K. Bretonnel; Valencia, Alfonso; Wu, Cathy H.; Chatr-Aryamontri, Andrew; Dowell, Karen G.; Huala, Eva; Lourenço, Anália; Nash, Robert; Veuthey, Anne-Lise; Wiegers, Thomas; Winter, Andrew G.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular biology has become heavily dependent on biological knowledge encoded in expert curated biological databases. As the volume of biological literature increases, biocurators need help in keeping up with the literature; (semi-) automated aids for biocuration would seem to be an ideal application for natural language processing and text mining. However, to date, there have been few documented successes for improving biocuration throughput using text mining. Our initial investigations took place for the workshop on ‘Text Mining for the BioCuration Workflow’ at the third International Biocuration Conference (Berlin, 2009). We interviewed biocurators to obtain workflows from eight biological databases. This initial study revealed high-level commonalities, including (i) selection of documents for curation; (ii) indexing of documents with biologically relevant entities (e.g. genes); and (iii) detailed curation of specific relations (e.g. interactions); however, the detailed workflows also showed many variabilities. Following the workshop, we conducted a survey of biocurators. The survey identified biocurator priorities, including the handling of full text indexed with biological entities and support for the identification and prioritization of documents for curation. It also indicated that two-thirds of the biocuration teams had experimented with text mining and almost half were using text mining at that time. Analysis of our interviews and survey provide a set of requirements for the integration of text mining into the biocuration workflow. These can guide the identification of common needs across curated databases and encourage joint experimentation involving biocurators, text mining developers and the larger biomedical research community. PMID:22513129

  15. Computer-Based Medical System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.

  16. A Review of Medical Education and Medical Informatics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, R. Brian; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…

  17. Ranking Medical Subject Headings using a factor graph model

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wei; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Wang, Shuang; Jiang, Xiaoqian; Ohno-Machado, Lucila

    2015-01-01

    Automatically assigning MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) to articles is an active research topic. Recent work demonstrated the feasibility of improving the existing automated Medical Text Indexer (MTI) system, developed at the National Library of Medicine (NLM). Encouraged by this work, we propose a novel data-driven approach that uses semantic distances in the MeSH ontology for automated MeSH assignment. Specifically, we developed a graphical model to propagate belief through a citation network to provide robust MeSH main heading (MH) recommendation. Our preliminary results indicate that this approach can reach high Mean Average Precision (MAP) in some scenarios. PMID:26306236

  18. Data Compression in Full-Text Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Timothy C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Describes compression methods for components of full-text systems such as text databases on CD-ROM. Topics discussed include storage media; structures for full-text retrieval, including indexes, inverted files, and bitmaps; compression tools; memory requirements during retrieval; and ranking and information retrieval. (Contains 53 references.)…

  19. Text Readability and Intuitive Simplification: A Comparison of Readability Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, David B.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2011-01-01

    Texts are routinely simplified for language learners with authors relying on a variety of approaches and materials to assist them in making the texts more comprehensible. Readability measures are one such tool that authors can use when evaluating text comprehensibility. This study compares the Coh-Metrix Second Language (L2) Reading Index, a…

  20. Knowledge Based Understanding of Radiology Text

    PubMed Central

    Ranum, David L.

    1988-01-01

    A data acquisition tool which will extract pertinent diagnostic information from radiology reports has been designed and implemented. Pertinent diagnostic information is defined as that clinical data which is used by the HELP medical expert system. The program uses a memory based semantic parsing technique to “understand” the text. Moreover, the memory structures and lexicon necessary to perform this action are automatically generated from the diagnostic knowledge base by using a special purpose compiler. The result is a system where data extraction from free text is directed by an expert system whose goal is diagnosis.

  1. Classroom Texting in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettijohn, Terry F.; Frazier, Erik; Rieser, Elizabeth; Vaughn, Nicholas; Hupp-Wilds, Bobbi

    2015-01-01

    A 21-item survey on texting in the classroom was given to 235 college students. Overall, 99.6% of students owned a cellphone and 98% texted daily. Of the 138 students who texted in the classroom, most texted friends or significant others, and indicate the reason for classroom texting is boredom or work. Students who texted sent a mean of 12.21…

  2. Optimizing Medical Kits for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keenan, A. B,; Foy, Millennia; Myers, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.

  3. Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Whitney, Paul D; Willse, Alan R; Lopresti, Charles A; White, Amanda M

    2014-10-28

    Text analysis methods, text analysis apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis method includes accessing information indicative of data content of a collection of text comprising a plurality of different topics, using a computing device, analyzing the information indicative of the data content, and using results of the analysis, identifying a presence of a new topic in the collection of text.

  4. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  5. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  6. KSC Construction Cost Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

  7. References to medical authors in non-medical Latin literature.

    PubMed

    Mazzini, Innocenzo

    2014-01-01

    My contribution focuses on discussing the knowledge Roman non-medical authors had of medical literature. My research suggests that the medical authors known and cited belong mainly to the classical and Hellenistic age. The occasions or reasons for an intellectual in antiquity to turn his attention to medical texts were mainly twofold: to bolster a philosophical or ethical claim, and to confirm medical theories. PMID:25195323

  8. Mining the Text: 34 Text Features that Can Ease or Obstruct Text Comprehension and Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sheida

    2012-01-01

    This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…

  9. Thesaurus-Based Automatic Book Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Martin

    1982-01-01

    Describes technique for automatic book indexing requiring dictionary of terms with text strings that count as instances of term and text in form suitable for processing by text formatter. Results of experimental application to portion of book text are presented, including measures of precision and recall. Ten references are noted. (EJS)

  10. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Possession of marijuana is illegal under federal law. Medical marijuana refers to using marijuana to treat certain medical ... Medical marijuana may be: Smoked Vaporized Eaten Taken as a liquid extract Marijuana leaves and buds contain substances ...

  11. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... A medical, or nonsurgical, abortion can be done within 7 weeks from the first day of the woman's last ...

  12. The Challenge of Challenging Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Timothy; Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…

  13. Technical Vocabulary in Specialised Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Teresa Mihwa; Nation, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Describes two studies of technical vocabulary, one using an anatomy text and the other an applied linguistics text. Technical vocabulary was found by rating words in the texts on a four-step scale. Found that technical vocabulary made up a very substantial proportion of both the different words and the running words in texts. (Author/VWL)

  14. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection.

    PubMed

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature globally computed from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this paper, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel text-attentional convolutional neural network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/non-text information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates the main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called contrast-enhancement maximally stable extremal regions (MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 data set, with an F-measure of 0.82, substantially improving the state-of-the-art results. PMID:27093723

  15. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2013-05-28

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.

  16. Abortion - medical

    MedlinePlus

    Therapeutic medical abortion; Elective medical abortion; Induced abortion; Nonsurgical abortion ... The pregnancy is harmful to the woman's health (therapeutic abortion). The pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event ...

  17. Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network for Scene Text Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tong; Huang, Weilin; Qiao, Yu; Yao, Jian

    2016-06-01

    Recent deep learning models have demonstrated strong capabilities for classifying text and non-text components in natural images. They extract a high-level feature computed globally from a whole image component (patch), where the cluttered background information may dominate true text features in the deep representation. This leads to less discriminative power and poorer robustness. In this work, we present a new system for scene text detection by proposing a novel Text-Attentional Convolutional Neural Network (Text-CNN) that particularly focuses on extracting text-related regions and features from the image components. We develop a new learning mechanism to train the Text-CNN with multi-level and rich supervised information, including text region mask, character label, and binary text/nontext information. The rich supervision information enables the Text-CNN with a strong capability for discriminating ambiguous texts, and also increases its robustness against complicated background components. The training process is formulated as a multi-task learning problem, where low-level supervised information greatly facilitates main task of text/non-text classification. In addition, a powerful low-level detector called Contrast- Enhancement Maximally Stable Extremal Regions (CE-MSERs) is developed, which extends the widely-used MSERs by enhancing intensity contrast between text patterns and background. This allows it to detect highly challenging text patterns, resulting in a higher recall. Our approach achieved promising results on the ICDAR 2013 dataset, with a F-measure of 0.82, improving the state-of-the-art results substantially.

  18. AB027. Penile augmentation: informed text briefing

    PubMed Central

    Park, Nam Cheol

    2016-01-01

    The men’s desire to have larger and longer penis have created endless medical demands throughout human history. Until up to date, various medical skills for penile augmentation have developed in aspect of experimental and clinical outcome. Recently with throwing away socially unacceptable ideas, the need for penile augmentation is considered as equivalent level with mammoplasty for breast augmentation in women for cosmetic and psychological reason. Concurrently advanced technologies in medical material and tissue engineering provide a variety of options to features functional plastic surgery as well as defected tissue compensation procedures. This creative description works accordingly presents state of art knowledge on the penile augmentation with more than 100 full-colored helpful illustrations clarifying penile surgical anatomy, operative procedures by experienced surgeon from the traditional fat transfer to the penile disassembly technique, the newest tissue engineering techniques by researchers with valuable data of world top level, auxiliary medical devices, and how to reconstruct for damaged penis by a quack or accident. Obviously this text book will be a great guidebook in clinical practice for all who are involved or interested in the penile augmentation procedure.

  19. Compare and Contrast Electronic Text with Traditionally Printed Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karchmer, Rachel

    The electronic text program described in this lesson plan guides students to compare and contrast the characteristics of electronic text with the characteristics of traditionally printed text, gaining a deeper understanding of how to navigate and comprehend information found on the Internet. During a 30 minute and a 45 minutes lesson, students…

  20. Chinese Text Segmentation for Text Retrieval: Achievements and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Zimin; Tseng, Gwyneth

    1993-01-01

    Reviews methods of text segmentation for Chinese text retrieval systems, including single character-based approaches and multicharacter-based approaches; discusses problems of Chinese text segmentation, including morphological complexities, ambiguity of segmentation, and natural language parsing problems; and suggests further research. (Contains…

  1. The Impact of Text Browsing on Text Retrieval Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Richard C.; Chignell, Mark H.; Charoenkitkarn, Nipon; Golovchinsky, Gene; Kopak, Richard W.

    2001-01-01

    Compares empirical results from three experiments using Text Retrieval Conference (TREC) data and search topics that involved three different user interfaces. Results show that marking Boolean queries on text, which encourages browsing, and hypertext interfaces to text retrieval systems can benefit recall and can also benefit novice users.…

  2. Test of Picture-Text Amalgams in Procedural Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, David Edey

    Designed to assess how people read and comprehend information presented in picture-text amalgams in procedural texts, this instrument presents various combinations of text information and illustrative information on slides. Subjects are assigned to one of four conditions and directed to follow the instructions presented on the slides. Videotapes…

  3. Metamorphoses d'un texte (Metamorphoses of a Text).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meitinger, Guy Roger

    1993-01-01

    A variety of exercises based on manipulation of a single text are described. The activities involve replacing words or phrases in the text with synonyms or opposites, transposing gender, changing tenses, filling in blanks, and answering multiple-choice questions about linguistic forms. Three brief sample texts are offered. (MSE)

  4. Supported eText: Assistive Technology through Text Transformations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Inman, Lynne; Horney, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…

  5. Litterature: Retour au texte (Literature: Return to the Text).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noe, Alfred

    1993-01-01

    Choice of texts for use in French language instruction is discussed. It is argued that the text's format (e.g., advertising, figurative poetry, journal article, play, prose, etc.) is instrumental in bringing attention to the language in it, and this has implications for the best uses of different text types. (MSE)

  6. Analysis of biomedical text for chemical names: a comparison of three methods.

    PubMed Central

    Wilbur, W. J.; Hazard, G. F.; Divita, G.; Mork, J. G.; Aronson, A. R.; Browne, A. C.

    1999-01-01

    At the National Library of Medicine (NLM), a variety of biomedical vocabularies are found in data pertinent to its mission. In addition to standard medical terminology, there are specialized vocabularies including that of chemical nomenclature. Normal language tools including the lexically based ones used by the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to manipulate and normalize text do not work well on chemical nomenclature. In order to improve NLM's capabilities in chemical text processing, two approaches to the problem of recognizing chemical nomenclature were explored. The first approach was a lexical one and consisted of analyzing text for the presence of a fixed set of chemical segments. The approach was extended with general chemical patterns and also with terms from NLM's indexing vocabulary, MeSH, and the NLM SPECIALIST lexicon. The second approach applied Bayesian classification to n-grams of text via two different methods. The single lexical method and two statistical methods were tested against data from the 1999 UMLS Metathesaurus. One of the statistical methods had an overall classification accuracy of 97%. PMID:10566344

  7. 48 CFR 3052.211-70 - Index for specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.211-70 Index for specifications. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3011.204-70 insert the following clause: Index for Specifications (DEC 2003) If an index or table... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Index for...

  8. 48 CFR 3052.211-70 - Index for specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.211-70 Index for specifications. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3011.204-70 insert the following clause: Index for Specifications (DEC 2003) If an index or table... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Index for...

  9. 48 CFR 3052.211-70 - Index for specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.211-70 Index for specifications. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3011.204-70 insert the following clause: Index for Specifications (DEC 2003) If an index or table... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Index for...

  10. 48 CFR 3052.211-70 - Index for specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.211-70 Index for specifications. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3011.204-70 insert the following clause: Index for Specifications (DEC 2003) If an index or table... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Index for...

  11. 48 CFR 3052.211-70 - Index for specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3052.211-70 Index for specifications. As prescribed in (HSAR) 48 CFR 3011.204-70 insert the following clause: Index for Specifications (DEC 2003) If an index or table... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Index for...

  12. Text mining in healthcare. Applications and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Raja, Uzma; Mitchell, Tara; Day, Timothy; Hardin, J Michael

    2008-01-01

    Healthcare information systems collect massive amounts of textual and numeric information about patients, visits, prescriptions, physician notes and more. The information encapsulated within electronic clinical records could lead to improved healthcare quality, promotion of clinical and research initiatives, fewer medical errors and lower costs. However, the documents that comprise the health record vary in complexity, length and use of technical vocabulary. This makes knowledge discovery complex. Commercial text mining tools provide a unique opportunity to extract critical information from textual data archives. In this paper, we share our experience of a collaborative research project to develop predictive models by text mining electronic clinical records. We provide an overview of the text mining process, examples of existing studies, experiences of our collaborative project and future opportunities. PMID:19267032

  13. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  14. Dangers of Texting While Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... laws Currently there is no national ban on texting or using a wireless phone while driving, but a number of states have passed laws banning texting or wireless phones or requiring hands-free use ...

  15. Correcting OCR text by association with historical datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Susan E.; Schlaifer, Jonathan; Sabir, Tehseen F.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Straughan, Scott; Thoma, George R.

    2003-01-01

    The Medical Article Records System (MARS) developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications uses scanning, OCR and automated recognition and reformatting algorithms to generate electronic bibliographic citation data from paper biomedical journal articles. The OCR server incorporated in MARS performs well in general, but fares less well with text printed in small or italic fonts. Affiliations are often printed in small italic fonts in the journals processed by MARS. Consequently, although the automatic processes generate much of the citation data correctly, the affiliation field frequently contains incorrect data, which must be manually corrected by verification operators. In contrast, author names are usually printed in large, normal fonts that are correctly converted to text by the OCR server. The National Library of Medicine"s MEDLINE database contains 11 million indexed citations for biomedical journal articles. This paper documents our effort to use the historical author, affiliation relationships from this large dataset to find potential correct affiliations for MARS articles based on the author and the affiliation in the OCR output. Preliminary tests using a table of about 400,000 author/affiliation pairs extracted from the corrected data from MARS indicated that about 44% of the author/affiliation pairs were repeats and that about 47% of newly converted author names would be found in this set. A text-matching algorithm was developed to determine the likelihood that an affiliation found in the table corresponding to the OCR text of the first author was the current, correct affiliation. This matching algorithm compares an affiliation found in the author/affiliation table (found with the OCR text of the first author) to the OCR output affiliation, and calculates a score indicating the similarity of the affiliation found in the table to the OCR affiliation. Using a ground truth set of 519 OCR author/OCR affiliation/correct affiliation

  16. Too Dumb for Complex Texts?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauerlein, Mark

    2011-01-01

    High school students' lack of experience and practice with reading complex texts is a primary cause of their difficulties with college-level reading. Filling the syllabus with digital texts does little to address this deficiency. Complex texts demand three dispositions from readers: a willingness to probe works characterized by dense meanings, the…

  17. Choosing Software for Text Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    Review of text processing software for microcomputers covers data entry, text editing, document formatting, and spelling and proofreading programs including "Wordstar,""PeachText,""PerfectWriter,""Select," and "The Word Plus.""The Whole Earth Software Catalog" and a new terminal to be manufactured for OCLC by IBM are mentioned. (EJS)

  18. Text Signals Influence Team Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Rysavy, Monica D.; Taricani, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory quasi-experimental investigation describes the influence of text signals on team visual map artifacts. In two course sections, four-member teams were given one of two print-based text passage versions on the course-related topic "Social influence in groups" downloaded from Wikipedia; this text had two paragraphs, each…

  19. Slippery Texts and Evolving Literacies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…

  20. Informational Text and the CCSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspen Institute, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…

  1. ParaText : scalable text analysis and visualization.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-07-01

    Automated analysis of unstructured text documents (e.g., web pages, newswire articles, research publications, business reports) is a key capability for solving important problems in areas including decision making, risk assessment, social network analysis, intelligence analysis, scholarly research and others. However, as data sizes continue to grow in these areas, scalable processing, modeling, and semantic analysis of text collections becomes essential. In this paper, we present the ParaText text analysis engine, a distributed memory software framework for processing, modeling, and analyzing collections of unstructured text documents. Results on several document collections using hundreds of processors are presented to illustrate the exibility, extensibility, and scalability of the the entire process of text modeling from raw data ingestion to application analysis.

  2. Text Association Analysis and Ambiguity in Text Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhonde, S. B.; Paikrao, R. L.; Rahane, K. U.

    2010-11-01

    Text Mining is the process of analyzing a semantically rich document or set of documents to understand the content and meaning of the information they contain. The research in Text Mining will enhance human's ability to process massive quantities of information, and it has high commercial values. Firstly, the paper discusses the introduction of TM its definition and then gives an overview of the process of text mining and the applications. Up to now, not much research in text mining especially in concept/entity extraction has focused on the ambiguity problem. This paper addresses ambiguity issues in natural language texts, and presents a new technique for resolving ambiguity problem in extracting concept/entity from texts. In the end, it shows the importance of TM in knowledge discovery and highlights the up-coming challenges of document mining and the opportunities it offers.

  3. Complex dynamics of text analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yongqiang; Ma, Qinghua; Zhu, Lin

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a novel method for the analysis of nonlinear text quality in Chinese language. Texts produced by university students in China were represented as scale-free networks (word adjacency model), from which typical network features such as the in/outdegree, clustering coefficient and network dynamics were obtained. The method integrates the classical concepts of network feature representation and text quality series variation. The analytical and numerical scheme leads to a parameter space representation that constitutes a valid alternative to represent the network features. The results reveal that complex network features of different text qualities can be clearly revealed and applied to potential applications in other instances of text analysis.

  4. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  5. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  6. ParaText : scalable text modeling and analysis.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.

    2010-06-01

    Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.

  7. Aggregated Indexing of Biomedical Time Series Data

    PubMed Central

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Mortazavi, Bobak; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Bui, Alex A.T.

    2016-01-01

    Remote and wearable medical sensing has the potential to create very large and high dimensional datasets. Medical time series databases must be able to efficiently store, index, and mine these datasets to enable medical professionals to effectively analyze data collected from their patients. Conventional high dimensional indexing methods are a two stage process. First, a superset of the true matches is efficiently extracted from the database. Second, supersets are pruned by comparing each of their objects to the query object and rejecting any objects falling outside a predetermined radius. This pruning stage heavily dominates the computational complexity of most conventional search algorithms. Therefore, indexing algorithms can be significantly improved by reducing the amount of pruning. This paper presents an online algorithm to aggregate biomedical times series data to significantly reduce the search space (index size) without compromising the quality of search results. This algorithm is built on the observation that biomedical time series signals are composed of cyclical and often similar patterns. This algorithm takes in a stream of segments and groups them to highly concentrated collections. Locality Sensitive Hashing (LSH) is used to reduce the overall complexity of the algorithm, allowing it to run online. The output of this aggregation is used to populate an index. The proposed algorithm yields logarithmic growth of the index (with respect to the total number of objects) while keeping sensitivity and specificity simultaneously above 98%. Both memory and runtime complexities of time series search are improved when using aggregated indexes. In addition, data mining tasks, such as clustering, exhibit runtimes that are orders of magnitudes faster when run on aggregated indexes.

  8. Detection of text strings from mixed text/graphics images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Chien-Hua; Papachristou, Christos A.

    2000-12-01

    A robust system for text strings separation from mixed text/graphics images is presented. Based on a union-find (region growing) strategy the algorithm is thus able to classify the text from graphics and adapts to changes in document type, language category (e.g., English, Chinese and Japanese), text font style and size, and text string orientation within digital images. In addition, it allows for a document skew that usually occurs in documents, without skew correction prior to discrimination while these proposed methods such a projection profile or run length coding are not always suitable for the condition. The method has been tested with a variety of printed documents from different origins with one common set of parameters, and the experimental results of the performance of the algorithm in terms of computational efficiency are demonstrated by using several tested images from the evaluation.

  9. Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C

    2015-03-31

    Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes a display configured to depict visible images, and processing circuitry coupled with the display and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a first vector of a text item and which comprises a plurality of components, to access a second vector of the text item and which comprises a plurality of components, to weight the components of the first vector providing a plurality of weighted values, to weight the components of the second vector providing a plurality of weighted values, and to combine the weighted values of the first vector with the weighted values of the second vector to provide a third vector.

  10. California Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California N Index User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N Index runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N Index to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...

  11. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  12. Chemical-text hybrid search engines.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yingyao; Zhou, Bin; Jiang, Shumei; King, Frederick J

    2010-01-01

    As the amount of chemical literature increases, it is critical that researchers be enabled to accurately locate documents related to a particular aspect of a given compound. Existing solutions, based on text and chemical search engines alone, suffer from the inclusion of "false negative" and "false positive" results, and cannot accommodate diverse repertoire of formats currently available for chemical documents. To address these concerns, we developed an approach called Entity-Canonical Keyword Indexing (ECKI), which converts a chemical entity embedded in a data source into its canonical keyword representation prior to being indexed by text search engines. We implemented ECKI using Microsoft Office SharePoint Server Search, and the resultant hybrid search engine not only supported complex mixed chemical and keyword queries but also was applied to both intranet and Internet environments. We envision that the adoption of ECKI will empower researchers to pose more complex search questions that were not readily attainable previously and to obtain answers at much improved speed and accuracy. PMID:20047295

  13. Texting while driving: is speech-based text entry less risky than handheld text entry?

    PubMed

    He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S

    2014-11-01

    Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769

  14. Sandia Text ANaLysis Extensible librarY Server

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-05-11

    This is a server wrapper for STANLEY (Sandia Text ANaLysis Extensible librarY). STANLEY provides capabilities for analyzing, indexing and searching through text. STANLEY Server exposes this capability through a TCP/IP interface allowing third party applications and remote clients to access it.

  15. The Seven Deadly Sins of Full-Text Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Reva

    1989-01-01

    Describes some of the problems encountered in full text searching and suggests ways to overcome them. Areas discussed include differences between online and offline versions of full text; lack of precise and flexible indexing; software inadequacies; record displays; typographical errors; and problems with both global and source searching. (six…

  16. Machine-aided indexing for NASA STI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    One of the major components of the NASA/STI processing system is machine-aided indexing (MAI). MAI is a computer process that generates a set of indexing terms selected from NASA's thesaurus, is used for indexing technical reports, is based on text, and is reviewed by indexers. This paper summarizes the MAI objectives and discusses the NASA Lexical Dictionary, subject switching, and phrase matching or natural languages. The benefits of using MAI are mentioned, and MAI production improvement and the future of MAI are briefly addressed.

  17. Natural Language Processing Versus Content-Based Image Analysis for Medical Document Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Deserno, Thomas M.; Darmoni, Stéfan J.; Güld, Mark Oliver; Aronson, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    One of the most significant recent advances in health information systems has been the shift from paper to electronic documents. While research on automatic text and image processing has taken separate paths, there is a growing need for joint efforts, particularly for electronic health records and biomedical literature databases. This work aims at comparing text-based versus image-based access to multimodal medical documents using state-of-the-art methods of processing text and image components. A collection of 180 medical documents containing an image accompanied by a short text describing it was divided into training and test sets. Content-based image analysis and natural language processing techniques are applied individually and combined for multimodal document analysis. The evaluation consists of an indexing task and a retrieval task based on the “gold standard” codes manually assigned to corpus documents. The performance of text-based and image-based access, as well as combined document features, is compared. Image analysis proves more adequate for both the indexing and retrieval of the images. In the indexing task, multimodal analysis outperforms both independent image and text analysis. This experiment shows that text describing images can be usefully analyzed in the framework of a hybrid text/image retrieval system. PMID:19633735

  18. Zum Uebersetzen fachlicher Texte (On the Translation of Technical Texts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friederich, Wolf

    1975-01-01

    Reviews a 1974 East German publication on translation of scientific literature from Russian to German. Considers terminology, different standard levels of translation in East Germany, and other matters related to translation. (Text is in German.) (DH)

  19. Understanding and Teaching Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Teachers in today's classrooms struggle every day to design instructional interventions that would build students' reading skills and strategies in order to ensure their comprehension of complex texts. Text complexity can be determined in both qualitative and quantitative ways. In this article, the authors describe various innovative…

  20. Text Rendering: Beginning Literary Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Sandra L.

    1990-01-01

    Argues that "text rendering"--responding to oral readings by saying back remembered words or phrases--forces students to prolong their initial responses to texts and opens initial response to the influence of other readers. Argues that silence following oral readings allows words to sink into students' minds, creating individual images and…

  1. Improve Reading with Complex Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards have cast a renewed light on reading instruction, presenting teachers with the new requirements to teach close reading of complex texts. Teachers and administrators should consider a number of essential features of close reading: They are short, complex texts; rich discussions based on worthy questions; revisiting…

  2. The Text and Cultural Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apple, Michael W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses ways of approaching text and textbooks as embodiments of a larger process of cultural politics, focusing on the analysis of the relationships involved in their production, contexts, use, and reading. Newer forms of analysis that emphasize the politics of how students actually create meanings around texts are reviewed. (SLD)

  3. Toward integrated scene text reading.

    PubMed

    Weinman, Jerod J; Butler, Zachary; Knoll, Dugan; Feild, Jacqueline

    2014-02-01

    The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state-of-the-art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:24356356

  4. Healing texts and healing techniques in indigenous Balinese medicine.

    PubMed

    McCauley, A P

    1988-01-01

    Case histories of three prominent Balinese healers illustrate various ways that indigenous medical texts are used in healing. Most healers employ mantras, spells and inscriptions from the texts because they believe them to have innate power which can heal. A smaller group of healers are literate in the archaic language used in the palm-leaf medical manuscripts. However, their use of these manuscripts often differs from the literal and unambiguous way that Westerners read medical documents. An examination of Balinese medical manuscripts, in the context of the conventions of Balinese literature, demonstrates the use of these texts to align the body with the macrocosm and to reaffirm the beliefs of the ancestors. PMID:3227378

  5. Injury narrative text classification using factorization model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Narrative text is a useful way of identifying injury circumstances from the routine emergency department data collections. Automatically classifying narratives based on machine learning techniques is a promising technique, which can consequently reduce the tedious manual classification process. Existing works focus on using Naive Bayes which does not always offer the best performance. This paper proposes the Matrix Factorization approaches along with a learning enhancement process for this task. The results are compared with the performance of various other classification approaches. The impact on the classification results from the parameters setting during the classification of a medical text dataset is discussed. With the selection of right dimension k, Non Negative Matrix Factorization-model method achieves 10 CV accuracy of 0.93. PMID:26043671

  6. Medication Errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to reduce the risk of medication errors to industry and others at FDA. Additionally, DMEPA prospectively reviews ... List of Abbreviations Regulations and Guidances Guidance for Industry: Safety Considerations for Product Design to Minimize Medication ...

  7. Besides Precision & Recall: Exploring Alternative Approaches to Evaluating an Automatic Indexing Tool for MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    Névéol, Aurélie; Zeng, Kelly; Bodenreider, Olivier

    2006-01-01

    Objective This paper explores alternative approaches for the evaluation of an automatic indexing tool for MEDLINE, complementing the traditional precision and recall method. Materials and methods The performance of MTI, the Medical Text Indexer used at NLM to produce MeSH recommendations for biomedical journal articles is evaluated on a random set of MEDLINE citations. The evaluation examines semantic similarity at the term level (indexing terms). In addition, the documents retrieved by queries resulting from MTI index terms for a given document are compared to the PubMed related citations for this document. Results Semantic similarity scores between sets of index terms are higher than the corresponding Dice similarity scores. Overall, 75% of the original documents and 58% of the top ten related citations are retrieved by queries based on the automatic indexing. Conclusions The alternative measures studied in this paper confirm previous findings and may be used to select particular documents from the test set for a more thorough analysis. PMID:17238409

  8. Effectively processing medical term queries on the UMLS Metathesaurus by layered dynamic programming

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mapping medical terms to standardized UMLS concepts is a basic step for leveraging biomedical texts in data management and analysis. However, available methods and tools have major limitations in handling queries over the UMLS Metathesaurus that contain inaccurate query terms, which frequently appear in real world applications. Methods To provide a practical solution for this task, we propose a layered dynamic programming mapping (LDPMap) approach, which can efficiently handle these queries. LDPMap uses indexing and two layers of dynamic programming techniques to efficiently map a biomedical term to a UMLS concept. Results Our empirical study shows that LDPMap achieves much faster query speeds than LCS. In comparison to the UMLS Metathesaurus Browser and MetaMap, LDPMap is much more effective in querying the UMLS Metathesaurus for inaccurately spelled medical terms, long medical terms, and medical terms with special characters. Conclusions These results demonstrate that LDPMap is an efficient and effective method for mapping medical terms to the UMLS Metathesaurus. PMID:25079259

  9. Medical Appointments

    MedlinePlus

    ... trouble concentrating, stomach problems or emotional issues like anxiety. New or increasing side effects or reactions to your medications. Again, for how long? How serious are they? Medication compliance: How well you’ve been taking your medications. Have you missed doses? If so, ...

  10. MEDICAL "DEPRIVATION."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SUCHMAN, EDWARD A.

    THE SOCIAL AND MEDICAL PROBLEM TODAY HAS SHIFTED FROM PROVIDING FOR THE EMERGENCY MEDICAL NEEDS OF THE INDIGENT SICK TO RAISING THE LEVEL OF LOWER CLASS PARTICIPATION IN THE BENEFITS OF MODERN MEDICINE. GREATER ATTENTION IS BEING FOCUSED ON MEDICAL DEPRIVATION SUFFERED BY LARGE SEGMENTS OF THE POPULATION WHO DO NOT SHARE EQUALLY IN MEDICAL…

  11. Stemming Malay Text and Its Application in Automatic Text Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasukawa, Michiko; Lim, Hui Tian; Yokoo, Hidetoshi

    In Malay language, there are no conjugations and declensions and affixes have important grammatical functions. In Malay, the same word may function as a noun, an adjective, an adverb, or, a verb, depending on its position in the sentence. Although extensively simple root words are used in informal conversations, it is essential to use the precise words in formal speech or written texts. In Malay, to make sentences clear, derivative words are used. Derivation is achieved mainly by the use of affixes. There are approximately a hundred possible derivative forms of a root word in written language of the educated Malay. Therefore, the composition of Malay words may be complicated. Although there are several types of stemming algorithms available for text processing in English and some other languages, they cannot be used to overcome the difficulties in Malay word stemming. Stemming is the process of reducing various words to their root forms in order to improve the effectiveness of text processing in information systems. It is essential to avoid both over-stemming and under-stemming errors. We have developed a new Malay stemmer (stemming algorithm) for removing inflectional and derivational affixes. Our stemmer uses a set of affix rules and two types of dictionaries: a root-word dictionary and a derivative-word dictionary. The use of set of rules is aimed at reducing the occurrence of under-stemming errors, while that of the dictionaries is believed to reduce the occurrence of over-stemming errors. We performed an experiment to evaluate the application of our stemmer in text mining software. For the experiment, text data used were actual web pages collected from the World Wide Web to demonstrate the effectiveness of our Malay stemming algorithm. The experimental results showed that our stemmer can effectively increase the precision of the extracted Boolean expressions for text categorization.

  12. Why is Light Text Harder to Read Than Dark Text?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, Lauren V.; Ahumada, Albert J.

    2005-01-01

    Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.

  13. An Experimental Text-Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Joan

    1976-01-01

    An experimental text-commentary of selected passages from Sophocles'"Antigone" is described. The commentary is intended for students seeking more than a conventional translation who do not know enough Greek to use a standard commentary. (RM)

  14. Text Mining in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Charu C.; Wang, Haixun

    Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.

  15. Text Structures, Readings, and Retellings: An Exploration of Two Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Prisca; Arya, Poonam; Wilson, Pat; Jin, Lijun

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between children's use of reading strategies and language cues while reading and their comprehension after reading two texts: "Cherries and Cherry Pits" (Williams, 1986) and "There's Something in My Attic" (Mayer, 1988). The data were drawn from a larger study of the reading strategies of…

  16. Center for Devices and Radiological Health Publications Index, August 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    This is the first Publications Index to be published by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health. Previous indexes, titled 'Bureau of Radiological Health Publications Index', were published before the Center was formed in 1982 through the merger of the Bureau of Radiological Health and the Bureau of Medical Devices; the last of these indexes was published in October 1980. The 1988 edition contains records of medical device and radiological health documents authored or published by the Center from 1978 through 1986. It should not be considered all-inclusive since those documents for which bibliographic information was not available have been excluded. The Publications Index is being distributed to Center staff, state radiological health programs, and libraries on the Center's publication mailing list. The Center plans to update and publish the Index every other year to provide a convenient record of published Center documents.

  17. Text from corners: a novel approach to detect text and caption in videos.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Lin, Kai-Hsiang; Fu, Yun; Hu, Yuxiao; Liu, Yuncai; Huang, Thomas S

    2011-03-01

    Detecting text and caption from videos is important and in great demand for video retrieval, annotation, indexing, and content analysis. In this paper, we present a corner based approach to detect text and caption from videos. This approach is inspired by the observation that there exist dense and orderly presences of corner points in characters, especially in text and caption. We use several discriminative features to describe the text regions formed by the corner points. The usage of these features is in a flexible manner, thus, can be adapted to different applications. Language independence is an important advantage of the proposed method. Moreover, based upon the text features, we further develop a novel algorithm to detect moving captions in videos. In the algorithm, the motion features, extracted by optical flow, are combined with text features to detect the moving caption patterns. The decision tree is adopted to learn the classification criteria. Experiments conducted on a large volume of real video shots demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed approaches and the real-world system. Our text and caption detection system was recently highlighted in a worldwide multimedia retrieval competition, Star Challenge, by achieving the superior performance with the top ranking. PMID:20729170

  18. Practical vision based degraded text recognition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammad, Khader; Agaian, Sos; Saleh, Hani

    2011-02-01

    Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published

  19. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 825-Index - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false A Appendix A to Part 825-Index Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix A to Part 825—Index...

  20. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 825-Index - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false A Appendix A to Part 825-Index Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix A to Part 825—Index...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix A to Part 825-Index - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false A Appendix A to Part 825-Index Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Appendix A to Part 825—Index...

  2. Validity and reliability of the Persian versions of WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index and Lequesne Algofunctional Index.

    PubMed

    Nadrian, Haidar; Moghimi, Nasrin; Nadrian, Elham; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Bahmanpour, Kaveh; Iranpour, Abedin; Bellamy, Nicholas

    2012-07-01

    The WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index and Lequesne Algofunctional Index have not been translated and validated for Iranian patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee or hip. The aim of this study was to validate the Persian form of WOMAC OA Index and Lequesne Algofunctional Index and to assess their test-retest reliability and convergent validity. Forward/backward translations and consensus panels were conducted to obtain the Persian versions of WOMAC OA Index and Lequesne Algofunctional Index. A non-probability sample of 116 patients with knee/hip osteoarthritis was asked to complete the WOMAC OA Index and Lequesne Algofunctional Index as well as Medical Outcomes Study-20-Item Short Form (SF-20) questionnaires, a visual analogue scales (VAS) of pain and demographic information form. Internal consistency (using Cronbach's alpha) and convergent validity (by examining the Pearson's correlation coefficients) were evaluated to determine the psychometric properties of the questionnaires. In order to evaluate test-retest reliability, 20 randomly selected patients completed the questionnaires, on a second occasion, 7-10 days later. Cronbach's alpha coefficients and intraclass correlation coefficients for the WOMAC OA Index and Algofunctional Index subscales ranged from 0.63 to 0.94 and from 0.53 to 0.96, respectively. Statistically significant correlations were found between WOMAC OA Index, Algofunctional Index and SF-20 subscales and VAS for pain. The Persian version of WOMAC demonstrated a more acceptable validity, internal consistency and reliability compared with the Lequesne Algofunctional Index. However, both indices are valid and reliable instruments for evaluating the OA severity of knee/hip in Iran. PMID:22526476

  3. Biomarker Identification Using Text Mining

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Liu, Chunmei

    2012-01-01

    Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989

  4. Seventy Years of the Journal "Medical Archives".

    PubMed

    Masic, Izet

    2016-02-01

    This year journal "Medical Archives" celebrates 70th anniversary of its continuing publication. Medical Archives is oldest biomedical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the oldest medical journals in Europe, established in the year 1947, as official scientific and professional journal of Association of Physicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until present Medical Archives has published over 5000 articles. Today Medical Archives is internationally recognized medical peer-reviewed indexed journal, visible in more than 30 international on-line databases. PMID:26980925

  5. Solar Concepts: A Background Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorham, Jonathan W.

    This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…

  6. Teaching Drama: Text and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Joanne

    Because playwrights are limited to textual elements that an audience can hear and see--dialogue and movement--much of a drama's tension and interest lie in the subtext, the characters' emotions and motives implied but not directly expressed by the text itself. The teacher must help students construct what in a novel the author may have made more…

  7. Reviving "Walden": Mining the Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt Julia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how the author and her high school English students begin their study of Thoreau's "Walden" by mining the text for quotations to inspire their own writing and discussion on the topic, "How does Thoreau speak to you or how could he speak to someone you know?" (SR)

  8. "Reading" Young Children's Visual Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantaleo, Sylvia

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses a study that explored first-grade students' responses to and interpretations of eight picture books with metafictive devices. The article focuses on children's visual and written responses to the picture books and describes the relationship between the students' visual and verbal texts with respect to storytelling. The two…

  9. Policy Discourses in School Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguire, Meg; Hoskins, Kate; Ball, Stephen; Braun, Annette

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we focus on some of the ways in which schools are both productive of and constituted by sets of "discursive practices, events and texts" that contribute to the process of policy enactment. As Colebatch (2002: 2) says, "policy involves the creation of order--that is, shared understandings about how the various participants will act…

  10. A Visually Oriented Text Editor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, J. E.

    1985-01-01

    HERMAN employs Evans & Sutherland Picture System 2 to provide screenoriented editing capability for DEC PDP-11 series computer. Text altered by visual indication of characters changed. Group of HERMAN commands provides for higher level operations. HERMAN provides special features for editing FORTRAN source programs.

  11. Values Education: Texts and Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This column describes and evaluates almost 40 texts, instructional kits, and teacher resources on values, interpersonal relations, self-awareness, self-help skills, juvenile psychology, and youth suicide. Eight effective picture books for the primary grades and seven titles in values fiction for teens are also reviewed. (SJL)

  12. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  13. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  14. HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  15. HUMAN USE INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  16. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  17. Drought Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Valdes, J. B.

    2003-04-01

    Droughts are related with prolonged time periods during moisture is significantly below normal situation. Drought indexes try to scale the main drought features based on similar definitions. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is a well-known index, which for a given aggregation-time measures the deviation from the normality of the precipitation. One of the SPI weak points in the representation of drought phenomenon is that drought duration should be analyzed by using different aggregation-times. In this work, a new index is presented, which simultaneously characterize droughts based on the deviation from the normal precipitation regime and the drought persistence, both from the statistical point of view. The new index does not require aggregation at different time-lengths. Instead droughts are treated as multivariate events, whose dimensionality depends on the duration. Probabilistic events with different dimensionalities are compared on a common dimension of interest. In this case the dimension chosen is the mean frequency of recurrence. The derived index, named Drought Frequency Index (DFI) may be used to characterize historical droughts or current situation. It can be apply not only over precipitation but also over flows or other hydroclimatic variables. The new index was applied to several places in USA and Spain both for precipitation and flow historical sequences, and compared with SPI. The DFI allows the representation of the main drought characteristics in a single value, based on the stochastic feature of the phenomenon, and scaled on the mean frequency of recurrence.

  18. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  19. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  20. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  1. Performance of Malaysian Medical Journals.

    PubMed

    Abrizah, Abdullah

    2016-03-01

    Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation. PMID:27547108

  2. Performance of Malaysian Medical Journals

    PubMed Central

    Abrizah, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Indexation status matters for scholarly journal prestige and trust. The performance of Malaysian medical journals at the international level is gauged through the global citation databases, and at the national level through MyCite, a national citation indexing system. The performance indicators include journals publication productivity, the citations they garner, and their scores on other bibliometric indices such as journal impact factor (IF), and h-index. There is a growing consciousness amongst journal editorials to improve quality and increase chances of getting indexed in MyCite. Although it is now possible to gauge journal performance within Malaysia, through MyCite, the government and public are concerned about journal performance in international databases. Knowing the performance of journals in MyCite will help the editors and publishers to improve the quality and visibility of Malaysian journals and strategise to bring their journal to the international level of indexation. PMID:27547108

  3. Full-Text Cancer Literature Retrieval by Computer

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Morris F.

    1987-01-01

    A physician with a personal computer equipped with a modem linked to a telephone line can now access directly to the extensive cancer literature stored in vast computerized medical databases. This permits efficient on-line search and retrieval, not only of MEDLINE, the National Library of Medicine's world-wide medical literature abstracts, but also of the full-text of much of the cancer literature and of the National Cancer Institute's information and treatment protocols in its Physician Data Query (PDQ).

  4. Medical Questions? Medline has Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modlin, Melanie

    1998-01-01

    Developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM), the electronic version of "Index Medicus," Medline is the world's largest collection of published medical knowledge. Discussion includes accessing Medline (cost-free) with a Web browser, librarians as links between patients and physicians; and examples of Medline searches. (AEF)

  5. Cardiac Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diovan) What the Medication Does Rather than lowering levels of angiotensin II (as ACE inhibitors do) angiotensin II receptor blockers prevent this chemical from having any effects on the heart and blood vessels. This keeps blood pressure from rising. Reason for Medication Used to treat or improve ...

  6. Medication reviews.

    PubMed

    Blenkinsopp, Alison; Bond, Christine; Raynor, David K

    2012-10-01

    Recent years have seen a formalization of medication review by pharmacists in all settings of care. This article describes the different types of medication review provided in primary care in the UK National Health Service (NHS), summarizes the evidence of effectiveness and considers how such reviews might develop in the future. Medication review is, at heart, a diagnostic intervention which aims to identify problems for action by the prescriber, the clinician conducting the review, the patient or all three but can also be regarded as an educational intervention to support patient knowledge and adherence. There is good evidence that medication review improves process outcomes of prescribing including reduced polypharmacy, use of more appropriate medicines formulation and more appropriate choice of medicine. When 'harder' outcome measures have been included, such as hospitalizations or mortality in elderly patients, available evidence indicates that whilst interventions could improve knowledge and adherence they did not reduce mortality or hospital admissions with one study showing an increase in hospital admissions. Robust health economic studies of medication reviews remain rare. However a review of cost-effectiveness analyses of medication reviews found no studies in which the cost of the intervention was greater than the benefit. The value of medication reviews is now generally accepted despite lack of robust research evidence consistently demonstrating cost or clinical effectiveness compared with traditional care. Medication reviews can be more effectively deployed in the future by targeting, multi-professional involvement and paying greater attention to medicines which could be safely stopped. PMID:22607195

  7. DeepMeSH: deep semantic representation for improving large-scale MeSH indexing

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Shengwen; You, Ronghui; Wang, Hongning; Zhai, Chengxiang; Mamitsuka, Hiroshi; Zhu, Shanfeng

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexing, which is to assign a set of MeSH main headings to citations, is crucial for many important tasks in biomedical text mining and information retrieval. Large-scale MeSH indexing has two challenging aspects: the citation side and MeSH side. For the citation side, all existing methods, including Medical Text Indexer (MTI) by National Library of Medicine and the state-of-the-art method, MeSHLabeler, deal with text by bag-of-words, which cannot capture semantic and context-dependent information well. Methods: We propose DeepMeSH that incorporates deep semantic information for large-scale MeSH indexing. It addresses the two challenges in both citation and MeSH sides. The citation side challenge is solved by a new deep semantic representation, D2V-TFIDF, which concatenates both sparse and dense semantic representations. The MeSH side challenge is solved by using the ‘learning to rank’ framework of MeSHLabeler, which integrates various types of evidence generated from the new semantic representation. Results: DeepMeSH achieved a Micro F-measure of 0.6323, 2% higher than 0.6218 of MeSHLabeler and 12% higher than 0.5637 of MTI, for BioASQ3 challenge data with 6000 citations. Availability and Implementation: The software is available upon request. Contact: zhusf@fudan.edu.cn Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307646

  8. [Changes in medical indicators during heliogeophysical disturbances].

    PubMed

    Sergeenko, N P; Kuleshova, V P

    1995-01-01

    Influence of heliogeophysical factors on medical indexes is studied. Relationship between changes of these indexes and solar flares, magnetic and ionospheric storms is analyzed. Possibility of forecasting the biotropic effects by using the starting of heliogeophysical events as predictions is showed. Comparisons between calculations and experimental data are provided. Reasonable agreement was obtained. PMID:7495908

  9. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  10. Developing a Controlled Vocabulary for the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center Outpatient Clinical Information System

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Anthony S.; Shea, Steven

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a Controlled Vocabulary for medication and problem/diagnostic lists in an ambulatory patient care information system within the institution's overall IAIMS framework. This Controlled Vocabulary is used in a spell-checking filter for uploading existing free text data and for on-line entry of new data by physicians. The Controlled Vocabulary consists of a reference file, keyed by code, and an inverted word index file to access it. It is currently loaded with an in-house produced set of medication codes and SNOMED Level 1 Disease codes supplemented by additional user entries.

  11. SENT: semantic features in text

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, Miguel; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Chagoyen, Monica; Tirado, Francisco; Carazo, Jose Maria; Pascual-Montano, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    We present SENT (semantic features in text), a functional interpretation tool based on literature analysis. SENT uses Non-negative Matrix Factorization to identify topics in the scientific articles related to a collection of genes or their products, and use them to group and summarize these genes. In addition, the application allows users to rank and explore the articles that best relate to the topics found, helping put the analysis results into context. This approach is useful as an exploratory step in the workflow of interpreting and understanding experimental data, shedding some light into the complex underlying biological mechanisms. This tool provides a user-friendly interface via a web site, and a programmatic access via a SOAP web server. SENT is freely accessible at http://sent.dacya.ucm.es. PMID:19458159

  12. Spam Filtering without Text Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbes, Sihem; Richard, Gilles

    Our paper introduces a new way to filter spam using as background the Kolmogorov complexity theory and as learning component a Support Vector Machine. Our idea is to skip the classical text analysis in use with standard filtering techniques, and to focus on the measure of the informative content of a message to classify it as spam or legitimate. Exploiting the fact that we can estimate a message information content through compression techniques, we represent an e-mail as a multi-dimensional real vector and we train a Support Vector Machine to get a classifier achieving accuracy rates in the range of 90%-97%, bringing our combined technique at the top of the current spam filtering technologies.

  13. Text Mining for Protein Docking

    PubMed Central

    Badal, Varsha D.; Kundrotas, Petras J.; Vakser, Ilya A.

    2015-01-01

    The rapidly growing amount of publicly available information from biomedical research is readily accessible on the Internet, providing a powerful resource for predictive biomolecular modeling. The accumulated data on experimentally determined structures transformed structure prediction of proteins and protein complexes. Instead of exploring the enormous search space, predictive tools can simply proceed to the solution based on similarity to the existing, previously determined structures. A similar major paradigm shift is emerging due to the rapidly expanding amount of information, other than experimentally determined structures, which still can be used as constraints in biomolecular structure prediction. Automated text mining has been widely used in recreating protein interaction networks, as well as in detecting small ligand binding sites on protein structures. Combining and expanding these two well-developed areas of research, we applied the text mining to structural modeling of protein-protein complexes (protein docking). Protein docking can be significantly improved when constraints on the docking mode are available. We developed a procedure that retrieves published abstracts on a specific protein-protein interaction and extracts information relevant to docking. The procedure was assessed on protein complexes from Dockground (http://dockground.compbio.ku.edu). The results show that correct information on binding residues can be extracted for about half of the complexes. The amount of irrelevant information was reduced by conceptual analysis of a subset of the retrieved abstracts, based on the bag-of-words (features) approach. Support Vector Machine models were trained and validated on the subset. The remaining abstracts were filtered by the best-performing models, which decreased the irrelevant information for ~ 25% complexes in the dataset. The extracted constraints were incorporated in the docking protocol and tested on the Dockground unbound benchmark set

  14. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  15. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  16. 38 CFR 17.110 - Copayments for medication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 17.110 Section 17.110 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL... component of the Medical Consumer Price Index as follows: For each calendar year, the Index as of the...): Example for determining copayment amount. The ratio of the prescription drug component of the...

  17. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  18. Generic Medications: Are They the Same?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Size Small Text Medium Text Large Text Contrast Dark on Light Light on Dark Donate Search Menu Donate What is Glaucoma? Care ... Low Vision Resources Medication Guide Resources on the Web » See All Articles Help the Cause Glaucoma affects ...

  19. Discriminability measures for predicting readability of text on textured backgrounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharff, L. F.; Hill, A. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Several discriminability measures were examined for their ability to predict reading search times for three levels of text contrast and a range of backgrounds (plain, a periodic texture, and four spatial-frequency-filtered textures created from the periodic texture). Search times indicate that these background variations only affect readability when the text contrast is low, and that spatial frequency content of the background affects readability. These results were not well predicted by the single variables of text contrast (Spearman rank correlation = -0.64) and background RMS contrast (0.08), but a global masking index and a spatial-frequency-selective masking index led to better predictions (-0.84 and -0.81, respectively). c2000 Optical Society of America.

  20. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  1. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  2. Medical Acoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beach, Kirk; Dunmire, Barbrina

    Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.

  3. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  4. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  5. The Body of the Text: Literacy's Corporeal Constant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marvin, Carolyn

    1994-01-01

    Considers the role of bodily routines and practices as a component in the study of literacy. Examines a practice by physicians in the late 19th and early 20th centuries of binding fine or rare texts in human skin. Relates this embodied literacy practice to the transformation of medical practice from an oral to a textual discipline. (SR)

  6. Neural net learning issues in classification of free text documents

    SciTech Connect

    Dasigi, V.R.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-03-01

    In intelligent analysis of large amounts of text, not any single clue indicates reliably that a pattern of interest has been found. When using multiple clues, it is not known how these should be integrated into a decision. In the context of this investigation, we have been using neural nets as parameterized mappings that allow for fusion of higher level clues extracted from free text. By using higher level clues and features, we avoid very large networks. By using the dominant singular values computed by Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) and applying neural network algorithms for integrating these values and the outputs from other ``sensors,`` we have obtained preliminary encouraging results with text classification.

  7. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  8. Posture and Texting: Effect on Balance in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Nurwulan, Nurul Retno; Jiang, Bernard C.; Iridiastadi, Hardianto

    2015-01-01

    Using a mobile phone while doing another activity is a common dual-task activity in our daily lives. This study examined the effect of texting on the postural stability of young adults. Twenty college students were asked to perform static and dynamic postural stability tasks. Traditional COP and multivariate multiscale entropy (MMSE) were used to assess the static postural stability and the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) was used to assess the dynamic postural stability. Results showed that (1) texting impaired postural stability, (2) the complexity index did not change much although the task conditions changed, and (3) performing texting is perceived to be more difficult. PMID:26230323

  9. Sustainability index for Taipei

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-J. . E-mail: yungjaanlee@pchome.com.tw; Huang Chingming . E-mail: michael@everwin.com.tw

    2007-08-15

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years.

  10. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  11. Index of endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, Satya

    1957-01-01

    The author discusses the difficulties involved in defining the term “endemicity”, and suggests a new approach to the problem—namely, the establishment of indices of endemicity, based on such data as are usually collected by national health administrations (mortality and morbidity rates, spleen-rates, case incidence in seaports, etc.). Examples are given of the calculation of the endemicity index for a number of diseases from different types of data obtained from various countries. An important advantage of the endemicity index is that it provides an easy means of studying the geographical pattern of endemic foci of disease. PMID:13479767

  12. Image query and indexing for digital x rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, L. Rodney; Thoma, George R.

    1998-12-01

    The web-based medical information retrieval system (WebMIRS) allows interned access to databases containing 17,000 digitized x-ray spine images and associated text data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). WebMIRS allows SQL query of the text, and viewing of the returned text records and images using a standard browser. We are now working (1) to determine utility of data directly derived from the images in our databases, and (2) to investigate the feasibility of computer-assisted or automated indexing of the images to support image retrieval of images of interest to biomedical researchers in the field of osteoarthritis. To build an initial database based on image data, we are manually segmenting a subset of the vertebrae, using techniques from vertebral morphometry. From this, we will derive and add to the database vertebral features. This image-derived data will enhance the user's data access capability by enabling the creation of combined SQL/image-content queries.

  13. Medical Device Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Medical Device Safety Medical Device Safety Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ...

  14. An ecology of text: using text retrieval to study alife on the net.

    PubMed

    Best, M L

    1997-01-01

    I introduce a new alife model, an ecology based on a corpus of text, and apply it to the analysis of posts to USENET News. In this corporal ecology posts are organisms, the newsgroups of NetNews define an environment, and human posters situated in their wider context make up a scarce resource. I apply latent semantic indexing (LSI), a text retrieval method based on principal component analysis, to distill from the corpus those replicating units of text. LSI arrives at suitable replicators because it discovers word co-occurrences that segregate and recombine with appreciable frequency. I argue that natural selection is necessarily in operation because sufficient conditions for its occurrence are met: replication, mutagenicity, and trait/fitness covariance. I describe a set of experiments performed on a static corpus of over 10,000 posts. In these experiments I study average population fitness, a fundamental element of population ecology. My study of fitness arrives at the unhappy discovery that a flame-war, centered around an overly prolific poster, is the king of the jungle. PMID:9654782

  15. Medical migration.

    PubMed

    Loefler, I J

    2001-10-01

    The issue of professional migration, however emotional it may have become, ought not to be regarded in moralizing terms. The history of western medicine is the history of migrating physicians. A doctor who moves from a locality to another to take up a new assignment there cannot be said to have "abandoned his patients". This emotional bond has become the victim of specialization and of depersonalization of medical services and not of medical migration, brain drain or otherwise. The primary reason for medical migration is not financial; the desire to migrate usually begins with the desire to learn. Professionals crave in the first line for professional satisfaction. The migration of medical manpower cannot be stopped with administrative measures and will not be stopped by exhortations and appeals, moralization and condemnations. Brain drain is a global phenomenon and has always been so. A country which loses its professionals, its doctors, should examine the social relationships within the profession and should investigate whether the opportunities for deriving professional satisfaction from everyday work exist or whether these have been thwarted by the hierarchy, conservatism, cronyism and the general lack of comprehension of what good medical care is about. PMID:11593497

  16. Medical Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2015-06-01

    The Medical Renaissance started as the regular Renaissance did in the early 1400s and ended in the late 1600s. During this time great medical personalities and scholar humanists made unique advances to medicine and surgery. Linacre, Erasmus, Leonicello and Sylvius will be considered first, because they fit the early classic Renaissance period. Andreas Vesalius and Ambroise Paré followed thereafter, making outstanding anatomical contributions with the publication of the "Human Factory" (1543) by Vesalius, and describing unique surgical developments with the publication of the "The Apologie and Treatise of Ambroise Paré." At the end of the Renaissance and beginning of the New Science, William Harvey, noted British medical doctor and cardiovascular researcher, discovered the general circulation. He published his findings in "The Motu Cordis" in 1628 (Figure 1). The Medical Renaissance, in summary, included a great number of accomplished physicians and surgeons who made especial contributions to human anatomy; Vesalius assembled detailed anatomical information; Paré advanced surgical techniques; and Harvey, a medical genius, detailed the circulatory anatomy and physiology. PMID:26065591

  17. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  18. Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

  19. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  20. The Misery Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  1. Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  2. Effects of Picture Labeling on Science Text Processing and Learning: Evidence from Eye Movements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…

  3. Medical genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Jorde, L.B.; Carey, J.C.; White, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    This book on the subject of medical genetics is a textbook aimed at a very broad audience: principally, medical students, nursing students, graduate, and undergraduate students. The book is actually a primer of general genetics as applied to humans and provides a well-balanced introduction to the scientific and clinical basis of human genetics. The twelve chapters include: Introduction, Basic Cell Biology, Genetic Variation, Autosomal Dominant and Recessive Inheritance, Sex-linked and Mitochondrial Inheritance, Clinical Cytogenetics, Gene Mapping, Immunogenetics, Cancer Genetics, Multifactorial Inheritance and Common Disease, Genetic Screening, Genetic Diagnosis and Gene Therapy, and Clinical Genetics and Genetic Counseling.

  4. Medical leasing.

    PubMed

    Holden, Elizabeth A

    2012-01-01

    Leases for medical space can have far-reaching (and sometimes unintentional) consequences for the future of the practice and the costs of the business. In order to prevent hardship and expense down the line, it is especially important to review the lease to make sure that it reflects the practice's goals, needs, and structure. This article provides a number of provisions that are especially crucial to review and negotiate when leasing medical space, including use restrictions, assignment and subleasing clauses, build-out terms, and legal compliance requirements. PMID:22594070

  5. NASA's online machine aided indexing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.

  6. Machine-aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.

  7. Information Activities in Medical Library : Tokyo Women's Medical College Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishioka, Masayuki

    The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.

  8. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  9. Video text localization using wavelet and shearlet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Purnendu; Chaudhuri, B. B.

    2013-12-01

    Text in video is useful and important in indexing and retrieving the video documents efficiently and accurately. In this paper, we present a new method of text detection using a combined dictionary consisting of wavelets and a recently introduced transform called shearlets. Wavelets provide optimally sparse expansion for point-like structures and shearlets provide optimally sparse expansions for curve-like structures. By combining these two features we have computed a high frequency sub-band to brighten the text part. Then K-means clustering is used for obtaining text pixels from the Standard Deviation (SD) of combined coefficient of wavelets and shearlets as well as the union of wavelets and shearlets features. Text parts are obtained by grouping neighboring regions based on geometric properties of the classified output frame of unsupervised K-means classification. The proposed method tested on a standard as well as newly collected database shows to be superior to some of the existing methods.

  10. A Prefix Trie Index for Inverted Files.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Michael J.

    1997-01-01

    Applies a prefix trie index, or trie hashing, to the problem of providing fast search times, fast load times, and fast update properties in a bibliographic or full-text retrieval system with inverted files. Statistics are given for a test database consisting of an online catalog at the University of Western Ontario. (Author/LRW)

  11. General Periodical Indexes on CD-ROM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Smith, Timothy Ray

    1990-01-01

    Describes and compares several general interest periodical indexes available on CD-ROM. Features described include target audience, coverage, updates, subscription prices, licensing, the availability of turnkey systems, search features and interfaces, screen displays, full-text support, and installation and support. The addresses of the companies…

  12. Research on Interactive Knowledge-Based Indexing: The MedIndEx Prototype

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, Susanne M.

    1989-01-01

    The general purpose of the MedIndEx (Medical Indexing Expert) Project at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is to design, develop, and test interactive knowledge-based systems for computer-assisted indexing of literature in the MEDLINE® database using terms from the MeSH® (Medical Subject Headings) thesaurus. In conventional MEDLINE indexing, although indexers enter MeSH descriptors at computer terminals, they consult the thesaurus, indexing manual, and other tools in published form. In the MedIndEx research prototype, the thesaurus and indexing rules are incorporated into a computerized knowledge base (KB) which provides specific assistance not possible in the conventional indexing system. We expect such a system, which combines principles and methods of artificial intelligence and information retrieval, will facilitate expert indexing that takes place at NLM.

  13. Enriching text with images and colored light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

  14. Medical genetics

    SciTech Connect

    Nora, J.J.; Fraser, F.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of medical genetics for the practitioner treating or counseling patients with genetic disease. It includes a discussion of the relationship of heredity and diseases, the chromosomal basis for heredity, gene frequencies, and genetics of development and maldevelopment. The authors also focus on teratology, somatic cell genetics, genetics and cancer, genetics of behavior.

  15. Glaucoma medications.

    PubMed

    Chae, Bora; Cakiner-Egilmez, Tulay; Desai, Manishi

    2013-01-01

    Glaucoma is a common eye condition that affects millions of individuals worldwide, making it the second-leading cause of blindness. Because glaucoma is associated with increased IOP level, the primary goal in treatment of glaucoma includes lowering IOP to prevent further progression of the disease. While various surgical interventions exist, medical therapy is currently the first line of treatment. Medical treatment of glaucoma includes topical beta-blockers, alpha-2 agonists, prostaglandins, parasympathomimetics and CAIs. Anti-glaucoma agents help reduce IOP by affecting the production of aqueous humor or increasing the outflow of aqueous through the trabecular or uveoscleral pathway. Choosing an appropriate medical regimen can be challenging and various factors such as efficacy, safety, cost and patient compliance must be considered. First-line treatment is often topical beta-blockers or prostaglandin analogs. However, beta-blocking agents can be associated with systemic side effects and need to be used cautiously in patients with serious concomitant cardiopulmonary disease. Alpha-2 agonists and parasympathomimetics are often considered second- or third-line treatment options but good adjunctive agents. Oral CAIs are often indicated for patients with elevated IOP in an acute setting or for patients resistant to other glaucoma medications and patients who are not good surgical candidates. PMID:23505792

  16. BIRAM: a content-based image retrieval framework for medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ramon A.; Furuie, Sergio S.

    2006-03-01

    In the medical field, digital images are becoming more and more important for diagnostics and therapy of the patients. At the same time, the development of new technologies has increased the amount of image data produced in a hospital. This creates a demand for access methods that offer more than text-based queries for retrieval of the information. In this paper is proposed a framework for the retrieval of medical images that allows the use of different algorithms for the search of medical images by similarity. The framework also enables the search for textual information from an associated medical report and DICOM header information. The proposed system can be used for support of clinical decision making and is intended to be integrated with an open source picture, archiving and communication systems (PACS). The BIRAM has the following advantages: (i) Can receive several types of algorithms for image similarity search; (ii) Allows the codification of the report according to a medical dictionary, improving the indexing of the information and retrieval; (iii) The algorithms can be selectively applied to images with the appropriated characteristics, for instance, only in magnetic resonance images. The framework was implemented in Java language using a MS Access 97 database. The proposed framework can still be improved, by the use of regions of interest (ROI), indexing with slim-trees and integration with a PACS Server.

  17. The tree BVOC index.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  18. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  19. Commercial Driver Medical Examinations

    PubMed Central

    Moffitt, Gary; Hanowski, Richard J.; Kales, Stefanos N.; Porter, Richard J.; Hegmann, Kurt T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to assess relationships between body mass index (BMI) and comorbid conditions within a large sample of truck drivers. Methods: Commercial driver medical examination data from 88,246 commercial drivers between 2005 and 2012 were analyzed for associations between BMI, medical disorders, and driver certification. Results: Most drivers were obese (53.3%, BMI >30.0 kg/m2) and morbidly obese (26.6%, BMI >35.0 kg/m2), higher than prior reports. Obese drivers were less likely to be certified for 2 years and more likely to report heart disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, nervous disorders, sleep disorders, and chronic low back pain (all P < 0.0001). There are relationships between multiple potentially disqualifying conditions and increasing obesity (P < 0.0001). Morbid obesity prevalence increased 8.9% and prevalence of three or more multiple conditions increased fourfold between 2005 and 2012. Conclusions: Obesity is related to multiple medical factors as well as increasing numbers of conditions that limit driving certification. PMID:25710607

  20. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  1. Social science and linguistic text analysis of nurses' records: a systematic review and critique.

    PubMed

    Buus, Niels; Hamilton, Bridget Elizabeth

    2016-03-01

    The two aims of the paper were to systematically review and critique social science and linguistic text analyses of nursing records in order to inform future research in this emerging area of research. Systematic searches in reference databases and in citation indexes identified 12 articles that included analyses of the social and linguistic features of records and recording. Two reviewers extracted data using established criteria for the evaluation of qualitative research papers. A common characteristic of nursing records was the economical use of language with local meanings that conveyed little information to the uninitiated reader. Records were dominated by technocratic-medical discourse focused on patients' bodies, and they depicted only very limited aspects of nursing practice. Nurses made moral evaluations in their categorisation of patients, which reflected detailed surveillance of patients' disturbing behaviour. The text analysis methods were rarely transparent in the articles, which could suggest research quality problems. For most articles, the significance of the findings was substantiated more by theoretical readings of the institutional settings than by the analysis of textual data. More probing empirical research of nurses' records and a wider range of theoretical perspectives has the potential to expose the situated meanings of nursing work in healthcare organisations. PMID:26109278

  2. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  3. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  4. How to keep up with the medical literature: IV. Using the literature to solve clinical problems.

    PubMed

    Haynes, R B; McKibbon, K A; Fitzgerald, D; Guyatt, G H; Walker, C J; Sackett, D L

    1986-10-01

    Ideally, searches for published articles to solve clinical problems should lead to the best evidence on a given topic quickly and at reasonable expense. This goal can be achieved with modern information skills, sources, and services. In this article, we describe and compare various means, from textbooks to computers, that provide access to information of potential value in addressing clinical problems as they arise. Using the problem of understanding and controlling the risk for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among personnel of a community hospital, we examined the following sources for their utility in locating journal literature: general and specialty medical texts, personal reprint collections, expert clinicians, recent journal issues, library textbook collections, the Index Medicus "Bibliography of Reviews" and subject index, and MEDLINE computer searching. For this problem, Index Medicus and MEDLINE were the best sources of up-to-date articles, but MEDLINE was three times as fast. PMID:3530083

  5. Temporal reasoning over clinical text: the state of the art

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiyi; Rumshisky, Anna; Uzuner, Ozlem

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide an overview of the problem of temporal reasoning over clinical text and to summarize the state of the art in clinical natural language processing for this task. Target audience This overview targets medical informatics researchers who are unfamiliar with the problems and applications of temporal reasoning over clinical text. Scope We review the major applications of text-based temporal reasoning, describe the challenges for software systems handling temporal information in clinical text, and give an overview of the state of the art. Finally, we present some perspectives on future research directions that emerged during the recent community-wide challenge on text-based temporal reasoning in the clinical domain. PMID:23676245

  6. What's so Simple about Simplified Texts? A Computational and Psycholinguistic Investigation of Text Comprehension and Text Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Yang, Hae Sung; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2014-01-01

    This study uses a moving windows self-paced reading task to assess both text comprehension and processing time of authentic texts and these same texts simplified to beginning and intermediate levels. Forty-eight second language learners each read 9 texts (3 different authentic, beginning, and intermediate level texts). Repeated measures ANOVAs…

  7. Medical Office Assistants' Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Dept. of Education, Victoria.

    This handbook is intended both as a text for use in medical office assistant (MOA) training programs in colleges and as a handbook for people working in medical offices. Addressed in the individual sections of the manual are the following topics: responsibilities of the medical office assistant, office organization, appointments and the waiting…

  8. Medical tourism.

    PubMed

    Reed, Christie M

    2008-11-01

    Searches of the literature or Internet using the term "medical tourism" produce two sets of articles: travel for the purpose of delivering health care or travel for the purpose of seeking health care. The first usage primarily appears in the medical literature and is beyond the scope of this article, which focuses on travel to seek health care. Still, there are some aspects these two topics have in common: both are affected by ease and speed of international travel and communication associated with globalization, and both raise questions about continuity of care as well as issues related to cultural, language, and legal differences; both also raise questions about ethics. This article describes some of the motivating factors, contributing elements, and challenges in elucidating trends, as well as implications for clinicians who provide pretravel advice and those who care for ill returning travelers. PMID:19061760

  9. Randomised Trial of Text Messaging on Adherence to Cardiovascular Preventive Treatment (INTERACT Trial)

    PubMed Central

    Wald, David S.; Bestwick, Jonathan P.; Raiman, Lewis; Brendell, Rebecca; Wald, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Background About one third of patients prescribed blood pressure or lipid-lowering drugs for the prevention of coronary heart disease and stroke do not take their medication as prescribed. We conducted a randomized trial to evaluate text messaging as a means of improving adherence to cardiovascular disease preventive treatment. Methods 303 patients taking blood pressure and/or lipid-lowering medications were randomly assigned to being sent text messages (Text group, 151) or not being sent them (No text group, 152). Texts were sent daily for 2 weeks, alternate days for 2 weeks and weekly thereafter for 22 weeks (6 months overall), using an automated computer programme. Patients were asked to respond on whether they had taken their medication, whether the text reminded them to do so if they had forgotten, and if they had not taken their medication to determine if there was a reason for not doing so. At 6 months, use of medication was assessed. Results Two patients were lost to follow-up, providing data on 301 for analysis. In the No text group 38/151 (25%) took less than 80% of the prescribed regimen (ie. stopped medication completely or took it on fewer than 22 of the last 28 days of follow-up) compared to 14/150 patients (9%) in the Text group – an improvement in adherence affecting 16 per 100 patients (95% CI 7 to 24), p<0.001. The texts reminded 98/151 patients (65%) to take medication on at least one occasion and lead to 20/151 (13%) who stopped taking medication because of concern over efficacy or side-effects, resuming treatment. Conclusions In patients taking blood pressure or lipid-lowering treatment for the prevention of cardiovascular disease, text messaging improved medication adherence compared with no text messaging. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN74757601 PMID:25479285

  10. Medical manslaughter.

    PubMed

    Lyons, B

    2013-01-01

    On November 29, 2011 Dr Conrad Murray was sentenced to four years in prison after being convicted of the involuntary manslaughter of Michael Jackson. Expert witness statements indicated that Murray's actions were an "extreme departure from the standard of care", particularly with regard to (1) inappropriately treating insomnia with a surgical anaesthetic (propofol); (2) failing to acquire sufficiently informed consent; (3) administering propofol without the necessary monitoring equipment; (4) delaying contacting the emergency services; and (5) making ineffective resuscitation efforts. Further medical evidence argued that Murray's care of Jackson contained "17 egregious violations", defined as acts that posed a foreseeable danger to the patient's life. These deficiencies, it was stated, constituted gross negligence. Such events might seem remote from daily medical practice in Ireland. However, medical errors resulting in patient death are reported to be unfortunately frequent, even if such fatalities are rarely as dramatic, or as public, as that of Michael Jackson. Medical care is not necessarily straightforward, and any treatment outcome is dependent on clinician skill, the nature of the intervention, and on the pathological condition of the patient. Regardless of these latter two factors, a poor outcome still may occur through physician omissions or the commission of errors or violations. Merry and McCall Smith distinguish between errors and violations on the following basis: (1) errors are not deliberate, and result in unintentional actions and consequences; (2) violations, on the other hand, entail a deliberate deviation from accepted rules or norms. It was alleged that much of Dr Murray's professional conduct in this case fell into the latter category. PMID:23472376

  11. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  12. Selection of information resources for education in medical pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-González, Maria Dolores; Sanchez-Vanderkast, Egbert

    2005-01-01

    Pharmacology is the foundation science of medical pharmacotherapy. Education in medical pharmacology (EP) requires the use of information resources (IR) to meet the challenge of the continuous introduction of new drugs and new educational, didactic and pedagogical theories to enhance knowledge. Hence criteria for selecting bibliographic material for EP should be clearly outlined and implemented. In this work we present a method to select IR for EP based on systems theory and focusing on the factors determining: (a) the integration of a list of recommended IR for EP; (b) the design of the acquisition list for faculty and students work; (c) the overall organization of the resources available for its optimal use and benefit in the educational process; and (d) a general strategy for assessing the impact of the bibliographic infrastructure. The proposal is based on information from: (i) lists of recommended readings in the academic program of the Pharmacology course given at the School of Medicine of UNAM in the last 30 years; (ii) the extent of discipline development measured by two indexes derived from the contents of Goodman and Gilman's "Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics" (G & G); (iii) the number of texts currently found in the collection of FM-UNAM which are classified in the section of Pharmacology using the Library of Congress Classification System (LCCS); and (iv) the comparison of academic versus standardized classification of pharmacology topics, such as Medical Subject Heading (MESH) and LCCS The importance of this proposal relates to its usefulness for EP and for other medical disciplines. PMID:16416687

  13. Medical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccara, A. Claude; Mordon, Serge

    2015-10-01

    In re-listening to the lectures of Charles Townes shortly after the invention of the laser (e.g., in the Boston Science Museum), one can already have a realistic vision of the potentialities of this new tool in the field of medical therapy, as evidenced by the use of the laser in ophthalmology to cure retinal detachment in the 1960's. Since then, applications have flourished in the domain of therapy. We will thus illustrate here only some of the main fields of application of medical lasers. On the opposite, the use of lasers in medical imaging is, with one exception in ophthalmology, still at the development level. It is becoming a diagnostic tool in addition to high performance imaging facilities that are often very expensive (such as CT scan, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and nuclear imaging). Even if progress is sometimes slow, one can now image with light inside the human body, in spite of the strong scattering of light by tissues, in the same way as a pathologist sees surgical specimens.

  14. Medical Telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Telemetry is the process whereby physiological or other data is acquired by instruments, translated into radio signals and j sent to a receiving station where the signals are decoded and recorded. Extensively used in I space operations, it is finding new Earth applications, among them transmission of medical data between emergency vehicles and hospitals. For example, transmission of an electrocardiogram from an ambulance to a hospital enables a physician to read the telemetered EKG and advise ambulance attendants on emergency procedures. Central Medical Emergency Dispatch (CMED) operates as a regional emergency medical communications center for Cleveland, Ohio and Cuyahoga County. The CMED system includes radio and telephone communications from hospital-to-hospital and from ambulance-to-hospital, but for improved emergency life support CMED sought to add a county-wide telemetry capability. The problem was that there were only eight radio frequencies available for telemetry and there were more than 30 potential users in Cleveland alone. NASA's Lewis Research Center volunteered its expert assistance. The Center's engineers studied the systems of other telemetry using cities, surveyed area hospitals to assure compatibility of telemetry equipment, and advised what types of equipment would be needed in emergency vehicles and at the various hospitals. The Lewis plan suggested that CMED be designated the central coordinating agency for the Cuyahoga County system, monitoring all telemetry frequencies and, when requested, assigning one not in use or one to be used at a sufficient distance that it would create no interference problem.

  15. Trends of E-Learning Research from 2000 to 2008: Use of Text Mining and Bibliometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Jui-long

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…

  16. Medication errors: an overview for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L

    2014-08-01

    Medication error is an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality, yet it can be a confusing and underappreciated concept. This article provides a review for practicing physicians that focuses on medication error (1) terminology and definitions, (2) incidence, (3) risk factors, (4) avoidance strategies, and (5) disclosure and legal consequences. A medication error is any error that occurs at any point in the medication use process. It has been estimated by the Institute of Medicine that medication errors cause 1 of 131 outpatient and 1 of 854 inpatient deaths. Medication factors (eg, similar sounding names, low therapeutic index), patient factors (eg, poor renal or hepatic function, impaired cognition, polypharmacy), and health care professional factors (eg, use of abbreviations in prescriptions and other communications, cognitive biases) can precipitate medication errors. Consequences faced by physicians after medication errors can include loss of patient trust, civil actions, criminal charges, and medical board discipline. Methods to prevent medication errors from occurring (eg, use of information technology, better drug labeling, and medication reconciliation) have been used with varying success. When an error is discovered, patients expect disclosure that is timely, given in person, and accompanied with an apology and communication of efforts to prevent future errors. Learning more about medication errors may enhance health care professionals' ability to provide safe care to their patients. PMID:24981217

  17. Corpus-based error detection in a multilingual medical thesaurus.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Roosewelt L; Pacheco, Edson; Cancian, Pindaro S; Nohama, Percy; Schulz, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Cross-language document retrieval systems require support by some kind of multilingual thesaurus for semantically indexing documents in different languages. The peculiarities of the medical sublanguage, together with the subjectivism of lexicographers' choices, complicates the thesaurus construction process. It furthermore requires a high degree of communication and interaction between the lexicographers involved. In order to detect errors, a systematic procedure is therefore necessary. We here describe a method which supports the maintenance of the multilingual medical subword repository of the MorphoSaurus system which assigns language-independent semantic identifiers to medical texts. Based on the assumption that the distribution of these semantic identifiers should be similar whenever comparing closely related texts in different languages, our approach identifies those semantic identifiers that vary most in distribution comparing language pairs. The revision of these identifiers and the lexical items related to them revealed multiple errors which were subsequently classified and fixed by the lexicographers. The overall quality improvement of the thesaurus was finally measured using the OHSUMED IR benchmark, resulting in a significant improvement of the retrieval quality for one of the languages tested. PMID:17911773

  18. Extracting BI-RADS Features from Portuguese Clinical Texts

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Houssam; Cunha, Filipe; Moreira, Inês C.; Cruz-Correia, Ricardo; Sousa, Eliana; Page, David; Burnside, Elizabeth; Dutra, Inês

    2013-01-01

    In this work we build the first BI-RADS parser for Portuguese free texts, modeled after existing approaches to extract BI-RADS features from English medical records. Our concept finder uses a semantic grammar based on the BIRADS lexicon and on iterative transferred expert knowledge. We compare the performance of our algorithm to manual annotation by a specialist in mammography. Our results show that our parser’s performance is comparable to the manual method. PMID:23797461

  19. INDEX OF TEXTBOOK PRICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GOLDSTEIN, HAROLD; AND OTHERS

    THE RISE IN COSTS OF TEXTBOOKS AND RELATED EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS WAS STUDIED TO PROVIDE INFORMATION WHICH WOULD ASSIST EDUCATION AUTHORITIES IN THE PREPARATION OF INSTITUTIONAL BUDGETS. THE STUDY WAS STRUCTURED INTO (1) ELEMENTARY-SECONDARY SCHOOL TEXTS AND RELATED MATERIALS AND (2) COLLEGE LEVEL TEXTS AND RELATED MATERIALS. DATA WERE OBTAINED…

  20. Salient Segmentation of Medical Time Series Signals

    PubMed Central

    Woodbridge, Jonathan; Lan, Mars; Sarrafzadeh, Majid; Bui, Alex

    2016-01-01

    Searching and mining medical time series databases is extremely challenging due to large, high entropy, and multidimensional datasets. Traditional time series databases are populated using segments extracted by a sliding window. The resulting database index contains an abundance of redundant time series segments with little to no alignment. This paper presents the idea of “salient segmentation”. Salient segmentation is a probabilistic segmentation technique for populating medical time series databases. Segments with the lowest probabilities are considered salient and are inserted into the index. The resulting index has little redundancy and is composed of aligned segments. This approach reduces index sizes by more than 98% over conventional sliding window techniques. Furthermore, salient segmentation can reduce redundancy in motif discovery algorithms by more than 85%, yielding a more succinct representation of a time series signal.

  1. Psychophysiological patterns during cell phone text messaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Mei; Peper, Erik

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of the non-texting hand; and respiration from the thorax and abdomen. The counter-balanced procedure consisted of a 2 min pre-baseline, 1 min receiving text messages, 2 min middle baseline, 1 min sending text messages and 2 min post-baseline. The results indicated that all subjects showed significant increases in respiration rate, heart rate, SC, and shoulder and thumb SEMG as compared to baseline measures. Eighty-three percentage of the participants reported hand and neck pain during texting, and held their breath and experienced arousal when receiving text messages. Subjectively, most subjects were unaware of their physiological changes. The study suggests that frequent triggering of these physiological patterns (freezing for stability and shallow breathing) may increase muscle discomfort symptoms. Thus, participants should be trained to inhibit these responses to prevent illness and discomfort. PMID:19199025

  2. Supporting Students' Movement up the Staircase of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    2013-01-01

    Standard 10 of the Common Core State Standards attends to students' capacity with complex text. This standard distinguishes the Common Core State Standards from previous standards documents. This article describes a process--the Text Complexity Multi-Index (TCMI)--that supports teachers in studying texts to support their students in…

  3. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  4. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  5. [Medical writers in medical research].

    PubMed

    Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Danielsen, Anne Kjærgaard; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2013-08-19

    Larger research units often comprise persons of several professions in order to secure a high level of efficiency and quality in the different tasks. In Denmark, employees with special competencies within the field of writing and publication are rarely used in research units. The purpose of this study was to present the advantages and challenges associated with the involvement of medical writers in academic environments. PMID:23952980

  6. Development of Language Analysis Procedures With Application to Automatic Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Carol Elizabeth

    Specifically, the problem which this research addresses is the development of procedures which define the relational attributes to words in English text. These relational attributes are considered an essential part of any good index and therefore an antecedent to the production of good indexes by automated means. The organization of this…

  7. A Survey in Indexing and Searching XML Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luk, Robert W. P.; Leong, H. V.; Dillon, Tharam S.; Chan, Alvin T. S.; Croft, W. Bruce; Allan, James

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of XML focuses on indexing techniques for XML documents, grouping them into flat-file, semistructured, and structured indexing paradigms. Highlights include searching techniques, including full text search and multistage search; search result presentations; database and information retrieval system integration; XML query languages; and…

  8. Computerized medication administration records decrease medication occurrences.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A L; Hill, J J; Wilson, R G; Nipper, K; Kwon, I W

    1997-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated that medication errors occur at a number of locations in the continuum between ordering of drug therapy and administration of the medication. Computer management of patient medication profiles offers the opportunity to enhance communication between pharmacists and nurses, and to decrease medication errors and delays in delivery of therapy. A number of authors have postulated that computerization of medication profiles would enhance medication delivery accuracy and timeliness, but no study has demonstrated this improvement. We report the results of a retrospective analysis undertaken to assess the improvements resulting from sharing a computerized medication record. We used a broader definition of medication occurrences that includes the more traditional definition, and averted errors, delays in delivery of medications and information, and disagreements between pharmacy and nursing medication profiles. We compared medication occurrences reported through an existing internal system between two periods; the first when separate pharmacy and nursing medication records were used, and the second period when a shared medication record was used by pharmacy and nursing. Average medication occurrences per admission decreased from 0.1084 to 0.0658 (p < 0.01). Medication occurrences per dose decreased from 0.0005 to 0.0003 (p < 0.01). The use of a shared medication record by pharmacy and nursing led to a statistically significant decrease in medication occurrences. Information shared between the two professions allowed timely resolution of discrepancies in medication orders, leading to better execution of drug therapy, decreased medication occurrences, and increased efficiency. PMID:10166241

  9. [Medical nanodevices].

    PubMed

    Sugimachi, Masaru; Sunagawa, Kenji

    2006-02-01

    Development of implantable medical nanodevices enables us continuous automatic treatment of patients from inside of their body. Bionic devices, interfacing with neural systems and substituting native functions, such as bionic pacemaker, bionic pressure controller are candidates to miniaturize. For such miniaturization, efforts to reduce size of power supply (e.g., biological fuel cell) and to establish reliable high-throughput, low power telecommunication (e.g., spread spectrum telecommunication) are required. Simple devices such as pacemakers would benefit from miniaturization by lowering invasion and by developing a new usage such as ventricular resynchronization. PMID:16454192

  10. Medical electromechatronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osipov, Y. M.; Syryamkin, V. I.; Osipov, O. Y.

    2015-11-01

    The first part of the article presentsdevices of rehabilitation electromechatronics.As a research work, the author's team has performed sketch and technical developments on this subject, which are protected by patents of the Russian Federation. The second part providesan overview of medical robotic surgery, which is ideal for imperfections removing.It also describes capabilities of the author's team in development of active driveline based "iron" hands.Scalpels never tremble in the iron hands, which are not afraid of the aftershocks and never get tired.They can perform operations during not less than 48 consecutive hours.

  11. Medical clip

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baucom, R. M. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An X-ray transparent and biological inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is described. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.

  12. Mobile Text Messaging for Health: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Amanda K.; Cole-Lewis, Heather; Bernhardt, Jay M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review of reviews is to identify mobile text-messaging interventions designed for health improvement and behavior change and to derive recommendations for practice. We have compiled and reviewed existing systematic research reviews and meta-analyses to organize and summarize the text-messaging intervention evidence base, identify best-practice recommendations based on findings from multiple reviews, and explore implications for future research. Our review found that the majority of published text-messaging interventions were effective when addressing diabetes self-management, weight loss, physical activity, smoking cessation, and medication adherence for antiretroviral therapy. However, we found limited evidence across the population of studies and reviews to inform recommended intervention characteristics. Although strong evidence supports the value of integrating text-messaging interventions into public health practice, additional research is needed to establish longer-term intervention effects, identify recommended intervention characteristics, and explore issues of cost-effectiveness. PMID:25785892

  13. Medical imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, D.

    1996-09-01

    There are a number of medically related imaging programs at synchrotron facilities around the world. The most advanced of these are the dual energy transvenous coronary angiography imaging programs, which have progressed to human imaging for some years. The NSLS facility will be discussed and patient images from recent sessions from the NSLS and HASYLAB will be presented. The effort at the Photon Factory and Accumulator Ring will also be briefly covered, as well as future plans for the new facilities. Emphasis will be on the new aspects of these imaging programs; this includes imaging with a peripheral venous injection of the iodine contrast agent, imaging at three photon energies, and the potential of a hospital-based compact source. Other medical programs to be discussed, are the multiple energy computed tomography (MECT) project at the NSLS and plans for a MECT program at the ESRF. Recently, experiments performed at the NSLS to image mammography phantoms using monochromatic beam have produced very promising results. This program will be discussed as well as some new results from imaging a phantom using a thin Laue crystal analyzer after the object to eliminate scatter onto the detector. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. Medical robotics.

    PubMed

    Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Baroni, Guido; Casolo, Federico; De Momi, Elena; Gini, Giuseppina; Matteucci, Matteo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2011-01-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) and mechatronics play a basic role in medical robotics and computer-aided therapy. In the last three decades, in fact, ICT technology has strongly entered the health-care field, bringing in new techniques to support therapy and rehabilitation. In this frame, medical robotics is an expansion of the service and professional robotics as well as other technologies, as surgical navigation has been introduced especially in minimally invasive surgery. Localization systems also provide treatments in radiotherapy and radiosurgery with high precision. Virtual or augmented reality plays a role for both surgical training and planning and for safe rehabilitation in the first stage of the recovery from neurological diseases. Also, in the chronic phase of motor diseases, robotics helps with special assistive devices and prostheses. Although, in the past, the actual need and advantage of navigation, localization, and robotics in surgery and therapy has been in doubt, today, the availability of better hardware (e.g., microrobots) and more sophisticated algorithms(e.g., machine learning and other cognitive approaches)has largely increased the field of applications of these technologies,making it more likely that, in the near future, their presence will be dramatically increased, taking advantage of the generational change of the end users and the increasing request of quality in health-care delivery and management. PMID:21642033

  15. SCARF SOCIAL FUNCTIONING INDEX

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, R.; Thara, R.; Srinivasan, Latha; Kumar, Shuba

    1995-01-01

    Several instruments measuring social functioning have been developed in the last four decades, as a result of the increasing interest in community care of the chronic mentally ill. SCARF Social Functioning Index (SSFI) was developed to meet the pressing need for an instrument which was easy to administer and which could be used by all mental health professionals. The SSFI comprises four main sections: self concern, occupational role, role in the family and other social roles. Each section has several subsections covering different areas of social functioning. Validity and reliability have been established for a group of normals, patients suffering from schizophrenia and from Hansen's disease. Internal consistencies of these factors were high Factor analysis derived four main factors, which included nearly all items of the SSFI. This paper reports on the development and standardization of the instrument. PMID:21743742

  16. Disease Severity Index

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Clifford J.

    1980-01-01

    Workers studying several diseases have devised severity levels under the term “disease staging” to facilitate both research on the disease and the choice of treatment for individual patients. These categories are usually ad hoc, and hence neither widely accepted nor susceptable to improvement with increasing knowledge. Other workers have developed quantitative assays of the sensitivity of biological organisms under the term bioassay. The present paper applies an adaptation of bioassay to the assessment of the degree of sickness severity of individual patients. In practice using the index requires only a simple table look-up. The feasibility and suitability of the technique were tested on records of 908 metastatic breast cancer patients which happened to be available. Study of other data is highly desirable.

  17. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  18. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  19. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  20. Rapid shallow breathing index

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  1. Poor communication on patients’ medication across health care levels leads to potentially harmful medication errors

    PubMed Central

    Frydenberg, Karin; Brekke, Mette

    2012-01-01

    Objective General practitioners have a key role in updating their patients’ medication. Poor communication regarding patients’ drug use may easily occur when patients cross health care levels. We wanted to explore whether such inadequate communication leads to errors in patients’ medication on admission, during hospital stay, and after discharge, and whether these errors were potentially harmful. Design Exploratory case study of 30 patients. Setting General practices in central Norway and medical ward of Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik, Norway. Subjects 30 patients urgently admitted to the medical ward, and using three or more drugs on admission. Main outcome measures Discrepancies between the patients’ actual drugs taken and what was recorded on admission to hospital, during hospitalization, at discharge, and five weeks after hospital stay. The discrepancies were grouped according to the NCC Merp Index for Categorizing Medication Errors to assess their potential harm. Results The 30 patients used a total of 250 drugs, and 50 medication errors were found, affecting 18 of the patients; 27 errors were potentially harmful, according to NCC Merp Index: 23 in category E, four in category F. Half of the errors originated from an incomplete medication list in the referral letter. Conclusion The majority of the medication errors were made when the patients were admitted to hospital, and a substantial proportion were potentially harmful. The medication list should be reviewed together with the patient on admission, and each patient should carry an updated medication list provided by his or her general practitioner. PMID:23050954

  2. A unified framework for multioriented text detection and recognition.

    PubMed

    Yao, Cong; Bai, Xiang; Liu, Wenyu

    2014-11-01

    High level semantics embodied in scene texts are both rich and clear and thus can serve as important cues for a wide range of vision applications, for instance, image understanding, image indexing, video search, geolocation, and automatic navigation. In this paper, we present a unified framework for text detection and recognition in natural images. The contributions of this paper are threefold: 1) text detection and recognition are accomplished concurrently using exactly the same features and classification scheme; 2) in contrast to methods in the literature, which mainly focus on horizontal or near-horizontal texts, the proposed system is capable of localizing and reading texts of varying orientations; and 3) a new dictionary search method is proposed, to correct the recognition errors usually caused by confusions among similar yet different characters. As an additional contribution, a novel image database with texts of different scales, colors, fonts, and orientations in diverse real-world scenarios, is generated and released. Extensive experiments on standard benchmarks as well as the proposed database demonstrate that the proposed system achieves highly competitive performance, especially on multioriented texts. PMID:25203989

  3. Characterizing Reading Comprehension of Mathematical Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterholm, Magnus

    2006-01-01

    This study compares reading comprehension of three different texts: two mathematical texts and one historical text. The two mathematical texts both present basic concepts of group theory, but one does it using mathematical symbols and the other only uses natural language. A total of 95 upper secondary and university students read one of the…

  4. Examining Text Complexity in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Elmore, Jeff; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Koons, Heather H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Stenner, A. Jackson

    2016-01-01

    The Common Core raises the stature of texts to new heights, creating a hubbub. The fuss is especially messy at the early grades, where children are expected to read more complex texts than in the past. But early-grades teachers have been given little actionable guidance about text complexity. The authors recently examined early-grades texts to…

  5. The Text Marking Patterns of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nist, Sherrie L.; Kirby, Katie

    1989-01-01

    Examines patterns in college students' text markings using texts from three content areas: history, political science, and sociology. Indicates little differential marking between various text-types. Concludes that students seem to have little idea how to mark text efficiently. (MG)

  6. Seventy Years of the Journal “Medical Archives”

    PubMed Central

    Masic, Izet

    2016-01-01

    This year journal “Medical Archives” celebrates 70th anniversary of its continuing publication. Medical Archives is oldest biomedical journal in Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of the oldest medical journals in Europe, established in the year 1947, as official scientific and professional journal of Association of Physicians of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Until present Medical Archives has published over 5000 articles. Today Medical Archives is internationally recognized medical peer-reviewed indexed journal, visible in more than 30 international on-line databases. PMID:26980925

  7. Solar index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  8. Medical interventions for acanthamoeba keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Alkharashi, Majed; Lindsley, Kristina; Law, Hua Andrew; Sikder, Shameema

    2016-01-01

    Background Acanthamoeba are microscopic, free-living, single-celled organisms which can infect the eye and lead to Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). AK can result in loss of vision in the infected eye or loss of eye itself; however, there are no formal guidelines or standards of care for the treatment of AK. Objectives To evaluate the relative effectiveness and safety of medical therapy for the treatment of AK. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2015, Issue 1), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to January 2015), EMBASE (January 1980 to January 2015), PubMed (1948 to January 2015), Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database (LILACS) (1982 to January 2015), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 9 January 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of medical therapy for AK, regardless of the participants' age, sex, or etiology of disease. We included studies that compared either anti-amoeba therapy (drugs used alone or in combination with other medical therapies) with no anti-amoeba therapy or one anti-amoeba therapy with another anti-amoeba therapy. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently screened search results and full-text reports, assessed risk of bias, and abstracted data. We used standard methodological procedures as set forth by the Cochrane Collaboration. Main results We included one RCT (56 eyes of 55 participants) in this review. The study compared two types of topical biguanides for the treatment of AK

  9. An Experiment Comparing Lexical and Statistical Methods for Extracting MeSH Terms from Clinical Free Text

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Gregory F.; Miller, Randolph A.

    1998-01-01

    Abstract Objective: A primary goal of the University of Pittsburgh's 1990-94 UMLS-sponsored effort was to develop and evaluate PostDoc (a lexical indexing system) and Pindex (a statistical indexing system) comparatively, and then in combination as a hybrid system. Each system takes as input a portion of the free text from a narrative part of a patient's electronic medical record and returns a list of suggested MeSH terms to use in formulating a Medline search that includes concepts in the text. This paper describes the systems and reports an evaluation. The intent is for this evaluation to serve as a step toward the eventual realization of systems that assist healthcare personnel in using the electronic medical record to construct patient-specific searches of Medline. Design: The authors tested the performances of PostDoc, Pindex, and a hybrid system, using text taken from randomly selected clinical records, which were stratified to include six radiology reports, six pathology reports, and six discharge summaries. They identified concepts in the clinical records that might conceivably be used in performing a patient-specific Medline search. Each system was given the free text of each record as an input. The extent to which a system-derived list of MeSH terms captured the relevant concepts in these documents was determined based on blinded assessments by the authors. Results: PostDoc output a mean of approximately 19 MeSH terms per report, which included about 40% of the relevant report concepts. Pindex output a mean of approximately 57 terms per report and captured about 45% of the relevant report concepts. A hybrid system captured approximately 66% of the relevant concepts and output about 71 terms per report. Conclusion: The outputs of PostDoc and Pindex are complementary in capturing MeSH terms from clinical free text. The results suggest possible approaches to reduce the number of terms output while maintaining the percentage of terms captured, including the

  10. E-Texts in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Charles

    2008-01-01

    A May 2007 Congressional advisory committee found that average full-time undergraduates spent between $700 and $1,000 on textbooks in 2003-2004 and that from 1987-2004, textbook prices at four-year public colleges rose 109 percent compared to a rise in the Consumer Price Index of 65 percent. Higher education is transitioning from atoms…

  11. "Strict" Anadeixis, Discourse Deixis and Text Structuring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Taking English as the example language, the article begins by presenting a Scale of indexicality characterizing context-bound expression types, ranging from those signalling pure deixis at one pole, to ones expressing pure anaphora at the other. On the basis of this Scale, the article attempts to determine the specific way in which demonstratives…

  12. Keyword Extraction from Arabic Legal Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rammal, Mahmoud; Bahsoun, Zeinab; Al Achkar Jabbour, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to apply local grammar (LG) to develop an indexing system which automatically extracts keywords from titles of Lebanese official journals. Design/methodology/approach: To build LG for our system, the first word that plays the determinant role in understanding the meaning of a title is analyzed and grouped as…

  13. Medical alert bracelet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ... People with diabetes should always wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace that emergency medical workers will ...

  14. Medication Use during Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications that are necessary. What Medications Can Cause Birth Defects? We know that taking certain medications during pregnancy ... may visit the FDA Pregnancy Registry website. National Birth Defects Prevention Study: Medications and Birth Defects The Centers ...

  15. The Medical Home

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy The Medical Home KidsHealth > For Parents > The Medical Home Print ... home" for your child. What Does the Term "Medical Home" Mean? A medical home isn't a ...

  16. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment. PMID:27215115

  17. Medical information in Agnipurana.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P V V; Subhaktha, P K J P; Narayana, A

    2007-01-01

    Agnipurana is one amongst the 18 Purana of the Hindu literature. Its title is so because it was narrated by Agni to Vaśistha. It consists of 16000 stanzas distributed in 383 chapters. It has not only the compilation of special topics from different Ayurvedic texts but also carries information regarding some missing links, serets and some issues which are not disussed in Ayurveda. There is deference of opinion regarding the date of this Purana. Medical information given in Agnipurana was taken from Suśruta Samhita, Astanga Sangraha, Vrnda Madhava and Cakradatta etc. At some places slokas were reproduced and at some places zist has been taken. Basic principles, anatomy, physiology, medicine etc. medical information is available in Agnipurana which is being presented in this article. PMID:19569455

  18. The role of the medical school-based consumer health information service.

    PubMed

    La Rocco, A

    1994-01-01

    Historically, medical information has been provided to patients at the physician's discretion. Although this method never has been wholly satisfactory, the trend toward bureaucratic organization of medical care, characterized by impersonal patient encounters and prompted by increased emphasis on cost controls, has restricted patient information even further. Yet, at the same time, the upsurge in consumer power has created patient demand for more health information. Consumers feel they have a right to expect help in obtaining information so they can make informed decisions with respect to their medical care. This paper focuses on the medical school-based consumer health service in this context. In particular, it calls attention to the medical school library as the foundation for expanded health information resources, pointing to the tools of information retrieval, as well as the substantive information contained in the medical, nursing, and allied health literature. In this setting, the consumer health librarian is called upon to act as a mediator in providing quality-filtered information to the patron, while at the same time remaining within the confines of professional expertise as a librarian. Important sources of health information are highlighted, particularly online databases, drug indexes, therapeutic texts, and physician specialist directories. PMID:8136760

  19. Text mining applications in psychiatry: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Abbe, Adeline; Grouin, Cyril; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Falissard, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    The expansion of biomedical literature is creating the need for efficient tools to keep pace with increasing volumes of information. Text mining (TM) approaches are becoming essential to facilitate the automated extraction of useful biomedical information from unstructured text. We reviewed the applications of TM in psychiatry, and explored its advantages and limitations. A systematic review of the literature was carried out using the CINAHL, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane databases. In this review, 1103 papers were screened, and 38 were included as applications of TM in psychiatric research. Using TM and content analysis, we identified four major areas of application: (1) Psychopathology (i.e. observational studies focusing on mental illnesses) (2) the Patient perspective (i.e. patients' thoughts and opinions), (3) Medical records (i.e. safety issues, quality of care and description of treatments), and (4) Medical literature (i.e. identification of new scientific information in the literature). The information sources were qualitative studies, Internet postings, medical records and biomedical literature. Our work demonstrates that TM can contribute to complex research tasks in psychiatry. We discuss the benefits, limits, and further applications of this tool in the future. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26184780

  20. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, July-December 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-05-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements common to the cases heard and ruled upon are: Case name (owner(s) of facility); Full text reference (volume and pagination); Issuance number Issues raised by appellants; Legal citations (cases, regulations, and statutes); Name of facility, Docket number; Subject matter of issues and/or rulings; Type of hearing (operating license, operating license amendment, etc); Type of issuance (memorandum, order, decision, etc.). These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats: Case Name Index, Headers and Digests, Legal Citations Index, Subject Index, and Facility Index.

  1. Targeting Oral and Cultural Proficiency for Medical Personnel: An Examination of Current Medical Spanish Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…

  2. Mobile medical image retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duc, Samuel; Depeursinge, Adrien; Eggel, Ivan; Müller, Henning

    2011-03-01

    Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in

  3. A PC-Based Free Text DSS for Health Care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grams, Ralph R.; Buchanan, Paul; Massey, James K.; Jin, Ming

    1987-01-01

    A free Decision Support System(DST) has been constructed for health care professional that allows the analysis of complex medical cases and the creation of diagnostic list of potential diseases for clinical evaluation.The system uses a PC-based text management system specifically designed for desktop operation. The texts employed in the decision support package include the Merck Manual (published by Merck Sharpe & Dohme) and Control of Communicable Diseas in Man (published by the American Public Health Association). The background and design of the database are discussed along with a structured analysis procedure for handling free text DSS system. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology and conclusions are drawn in the summary that point to expanded areas of professional intention and new frontiers yet to be explored in this rapidly progressing field.

  4. Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.

  5. NASA Uniform Files Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files Index coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  6. Freedom System Text and Graphics System (TAGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.

  7. Consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Tange, H J

    1999-12-01

    This article presents an overview of a research project concerning the consultation of medical narratives in the electronic medical record (EMR). It describes an analysis of user needs, the design and implementation of a prototype EMR system, and the evaluation of the ease of consultation of medical narratives when using this system. In a questionnaire survey, 85 hospital physicians judged the quality of their paper-based medical record with respect to data entry, information retrieval and some other aspects. Participants were more positive about the paper medical record than the literature suggests. They wished to maintain the flexibility of data entry but indicated the need to improve the retrieval of information. A prototype EMR system was developed to facilitate the consultation of medical narratives. These parts were divided into labeled segments that could be arranged source-oriented and problem-oriented. This system was used to evaluate the ease of information retrieval of 24 internists and 12 residents at a teaching hospital when using free-text medical narratives divided at different levels of detail. They solved, without time pressure, some predefined problems concerning three voluminous, inpatient case records. The participants were randomly allocated to a sequence that was balanced by patient case and learning effect. The division of medical narratives affected speed, but not completeness of information retrieval. Progress notes divided into problem-related segments could be consulted 22% faster than when undivided. Medical history and physical examination divided into segments at organ-system level could be consulted 13% faster than when divided into separate questions and observations. These differences were statistically significant. The fastest divisions were also appreciated as the best combination of easy searching and best insight in the patient case. The results of our evaluation study suggest a trade-off between searching and reading: too much

  8. Making Students Talk about Expository Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a comparison between how six teachers and their 17-year-old students talked about texts in civics and nursing science during regular lessons and during two lessons where structured text talk in smaller groups was used. The majority of students were poor readers and attended vocational programmes. The text talks were videotaped.…

  9. Text Matters in Learning to Read.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H.

    A study examined the opportunities provided by several types of text for beginning readers to learn about three aspects of written English: (1) consistent, common letter-sound patterns; (2) the most frequent words; and (3) the contexts of sentences and texts. Results indicate that texts based on high-frequency words give beginning readers ample…

  10. The Ecological Approach to Text Visualization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, James A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents both theoretical and technical bases on which to build a "science of text visualization." The Spatial Paradigm for Information Retrieval and Exploration (SPIRE) text-visualization system, which images information from free-text documents as natural terrains, serves as an example of the "ecological approach" in its visual metaphor, its…

  11. Using Text Messages to Communicate with Patrons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konshak, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Text messaging is an ideal communications method for libraries, which often want to send short, concise messages to their patrons near and far. Uses for text messaging in libraries include reminders about items' due dates, hold pickup notices, program reminders, and even short messages of content. Some libraries are already using text messaging…

  12. Academic Journal Embargoes and Full Text Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sam

    2003-01-01

    Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…

  13. Text Complexity: Primary Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Hiebert, Elfrieda H.; Bowen, Kimberly; Relyea-Kim, E. Jackie; Kung, Melody; Elmore, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    The research question was, "What text characteristics do primary teachers think are most important for early grades text complexity?" Teachers from across the United States accomplished a two-part task. First, to stimulate teachers' thinking about important text characteristics, primary teachers completed an online paired-text…

  14. Teacher Modeling Using Complex Informational Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Modeling in complex texts requires that teachers analyze the text for factors of qualitative complexity and then design lessons that introduce students to that complexity. In addition, teachers can model the disciplinary nature of content area texts as well as word solving and comprehension strategies. Included is a planning guide for think aloud.

  15. Mathematical Texts as Narrative: Rethinking Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietiker, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for reading mathematics texts as narratives. Building from a narrative framework of Meike Bal, a reader's experience with the mathematical content as it unfolds in the text (the "mathematical story") is distinguished from his or her logical reconstruction of the content beyond the text (the…

  16. Does Writing Summaries Improve Memory for Text?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spirgel, Arie S.; Delaney, Peter F.

    2016-01-01

    In five experiments, we consistently found that items included in summaries were better remembered than items omitted from summaries. We did not, however, find evidence that summary writing was better than merely restudying the text. These patterns held with shorter and longer texts, when the text was present or absent during the summary writing,…

  17. Learning To Use a Text Editor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beal, Carole R.; Griffin, Elizabeth A.

    Designed to determine how quickly elementary school children can learn to use a text editor and what editing concepts are difficult for them to master, this study presents preliminary data on children's acquisition of text editor skills and on the kinds of revisions they accomplished with the text editor. Observations were made on a total of 25…

  18. The Costs of Texting in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Dakota; Henderson, Bruce B.

    2015-01-01

    Many college students seem to find it impossible to resist the temptation to text on electronic devices during class lectures and discussions. One common response of college professors is to yield to the inevitable and try to ignore student texting. However, research indicates that because of limited cognitive capacities, even simple texting can…

  19. Text Messaging for Student Communication and Voting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Stephen; Hagan, Paul; Morgan, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Text messaging has gained widespread popularity in higher education as a communication tool and as a means of engaging students in the learning process. In this study we report on the use of text messaging in a large, year-one introductory chemistry module where students were encouraged to send questions and queries to a dedicated text number both…

  20. Evaluation Methods of The Text Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popa, Marius

    2006-01-01

    The paper highlights some evaluation methods to assess the quality characteristics of the text entities. The main concepts used in building and evaluation processes of the text entities are presented. Also, some aggregated metrics for orthogonality measurements are presented. The evaluation process for automatic evaluation of the text entities is…

  1. Assessing Text Readability Using Cognitively Based Indices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossley, Scott A.; Greenfield, Jerry; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2008-01-01

    Many programs designed to compute the readability of texts are narrowly based on surface-level linguistic features and take too little account of the processes which a reader brings to the text. This study is an exploratory examination of the use of Coh-Metrix, a computational tool that measures cohesion and text difficulty at various levels of…

  2. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator.

    PubMed

    Zlobina, K E; Guria, G Th

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  3. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zlobina, K. E.; Guria, G. Th.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  4. Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  5. Document Exploration and Automatic Knowledge Extraction for Unstructured Biomedical Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, S.; Totaro, G.; Doshi, N.; Thapar, S.; Mattmann, C. A.; Ramirez, P.

    2015-12-01

    We describe our work on building a web-browser based document reader with built-in exploration tool and automatic concept extraction of medical entities for biomedical text. Vast amounts of biomedical information are offered in unstructured text form through scientific publications and R&D reports. Utilizing text mining can help us to mine information and extract relevant knowledge from a plethora of biomedical text. The ability to employ such technologies to aid researchers in coping with information overload is greatly desirable. In recent years, there has been an increased interest in automatic biomedical concept extraction [1, 2] and intelligent PDF reader tools with the ability to search on content and find related articles [3]. Such reader tools are typically desktop applications and are limited to specific platforms. Our goal is to provide researchers with a simple tool to aid them in finding, reading, and exploring documents. Thus, we propose a web-based document explorer, which we called Shangri-Docs, which combines a document reader with automatic concept extraction and highlighting of relevant terms. Shangri-Docsalso provides the ability to evaluate a wide variety of document formats (e.g. PDF, Words, PPT, text, etc.) and to exploit the linked nature of the Web and personal content by performing searches on content from public sites (e.g. Wikipedia, PubMed) and private cataloged databases simultaneously. Shangri-Docsutilizes Apache cTAKES (clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System) [4] and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to automatically identify and highlight terms and concepts, such as specific symptoms, diseases, drugs, and anatomical sites, mentioned in the text. cTAKES was originally designed specially to extract information from clinical medical records. Our investigation leads us to extend the automatic knowledge extraction process of cTAKES for biomedical research domain by improving the ontology guided information extraction

  6. Immunosuppressive Medications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are commonly used in the nephrologist’s practice in the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases and transplantation, and they are investigational in the treatment of AKI and ESRD. Drug development has been rapid over the past decades as mechanisms of the immune response have been better defined both by serendipity (the discovery of agents with immunosuppressive activity that led to greater understanding of the immune response) and through mechanistic study (the study of immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases and the critical pathways or mutations that contribute to disease). Toxicities of early immunosuppressive agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, stimulated intense investigation for agents with more specificity and less harmful effects. Because the mechanisms of the immune response were better delineated over the past 30 years, this specialty is now bestowed with a multitude of therapeutic options that have reduced rejection rates and improved graft survival in kidney transplantation, provided alternatives to cytotoxic therapy in immune-mediated diseases, and opened new opportunities for intervention in diseases both common (AKI) and rare (atypical hemolytic syndrome). Rather than summarizing clinical indications and clinical trials for all currently available immunosuppressive medications, the purpose of this review is to place these agents into mechanistic context together with a brief discussion of unique features of development and use that are of interest to the nephrologist. PMID:26170177

  7. Medical muddle.

    PubMed

    Gartrell, Nanette

    2014-01-01

    Nanette Gartrell, MD, is a psychiatrist and researcher whose investigations have documented the mental health and psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people over the past four decades. Nanette is the principal investigator of an ongoing longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination. Now in its 27th year, this project has been cited internationally in the debates over equality in marriage, foster care, and adoption. Previously on the faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, Nanette is currently a Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. In 2013, Nanette received the Association of Women Psychiatrists Presidential Commendation Award for "selfless and enduring vision, leadership, wisdom, and mentorship in the fields of women's mental health, ethics, and gender research." At the age of 63, Nanette experienced a 3 ½ month period of intractable, incapacitating dizziness for which there was never a clear diagnosis. PMID:24400630

  8. Immunosuppressive Medications.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C

    2016-02-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are commonly used in the nephrologist's practice in the treatment of autoimmune and immune-mediated diseases and transplantation, and they are investigational in the treatment of AKI and ESRD. Drug development has been rapid over the past decades as mechanisms of the immune response have been better defined both by serendipity (the discovery of agents with immunosuppressive activity that led to greater understanding of the immune response) and through mechanistic study (the study of immune deficiencies and autoimmune diseases and the critical pathways or mutations that contribute to disease). Toxicities of early immunosuppressive agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, and cyclophosphamide, stimulated intense investigation for agents with more specificity and less harmful effects. Because the mechanisms of the immune response were better delineated over the past 30 years, this specialty is now bestowed with a multitude of therapeutic options that have reduced rejection rates and improved graft survival in kidney transplantation, provided alternatives to cytotoxic therapy in immune-mediated diseases, and opened new opportunities for intervention in diseases both common (AKI) and rare (atypical hemolytic syndrome). Rather than summarizing clinical indications and clinical trials for all currently available immunosuppressive medications, the purpose of this review is to place these agents into mechanistic context together with a brief discussion of unique features of development and use that are of interest to the nephrologist. PMID:26170177

  9. An integrated multimedia medical information network system.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, K; Makino, J; Sasagawa, N; Nagira, M

    1998-01-01

    An integrated multimedia medical information network system at Shimane Medical university has been developed to organize medical information generated from each section and provide information services useful for education, research and clinical practice. The report describes the outline of our system. It is designed to serve as a distributed database for electronic medical records and images. We are developing the MML engine that is to be linked to the world wide web (WWW) network system. To the users, this system will present an integrated multimedia representation of the patient records, providing access to both the image and text-based data required for an effective clinical decision making and medical education. PMID:10384445

  10. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  11. Bilingual Text Messaging Translation: Translating Text Messages From English Into Spanish for the Text4Walking Program

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, Giselle; Ingram, Diana; Welch, Mary Jane; Ocampo, Edith V

    2015-01-01

    Background Hispanic adults in the United States are at particular risk for diabetes and inadequate blood pressure control. Physical activity improves these health problems; however Hispanic adults also have a low rate of recommended aerobic physical activity. To address improving physical inactivity, one area of rapidly growing technology that can be utilized is text messaging (short message service, SMS). A physical activity research team, Text4Walking, had previously developed an initial database of motivational physical activity text messages in English that could be used for physical activity text messaging interventions. However, the team needed to translate these existing English physical activity text messages into Spanish in order to have culturally meaningful and useful text messages for those adults within the Hispanic population who would prefer to receive text messages in Spanish. Objective The aim of this study was to translate a database of English motivational physical activity messages into Spanish and review these text messages with a group of Spanish speaking adults to inform the use of these text messages in an intervention study. Methods The consent form and study documents, including the existing English physical activity text messages, were translated from English into Spanish, and received translation certification as well as Institutional Review Board approval. The translated text messages were placed into PowerPoint, accompanied by a set of culturally appropriate photos depicting barriers to walking, as well as walking scenarios. At the focus group, eligibility criteria for this study included being an adult between 30 to 65 years old who spoke Spanish as their primary language. After a general group introduction, participants were placed into smaller groups of two or three. Each small group was asked to review a segment of the translated text messages for accuracy and meaningfulness. After the break out, the group was brought back together

  12. Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/medwords/medicalwordsdownload.html Understanding Medical Words Tutorial: Download Instructions To use ... contains 80 swf files] appendix_header.png appendixa.html appendixb.html correct.mp3 index.html oneMoreBlank.mp3 ...

  13. Statewide air medical transports for Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Garthe, Elizabeth; Mango, Nicholas K; Prenney, Brad

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Massachusetts Department of Public Health (MDPH) established a process to centralize air medical transport information. This database is one of the first statewide, population-based sources for civilian rotary-wing air medical transports (U.S. Coast Guard, police, and military missions are not included). The purpose of this database is to facilitate MDPH review of air medical transport service utilization, with input from a multidisciplinary committee. This article discusses the challenges in producing uniform data from multiple service submissions and presents aggregate "baseline" utilization information for 1996. These data served as a starting point for later studies using data linkage. This indexed article is the first to report statewide, population-based data for all types of air medical helicopter transports. The only other indexed "statewide air medical transport" paper focused on scene transports to trauma centers in Pennsylvania. A previous article by the authors in the July-September 2000 Air Medical Journal provided an overview of air medical transports for fatal motor vehicle crashes for 1 region of the state. PMID:12585073

  14. Radiation Oncology in Undergraduate Medical Education: A Literature Review

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Kristopher E.B.; Duncan, Graeme

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.

  15. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  16. How to Use Current Medical Literature and APA Format Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peek, Robin

    Directives and guidance in obtaining current medical literature are provided in this publication with special emphasis given to locating material in the Portland, Oregon area. The uses and types of periodical indexes are identified and periodical index citation examples are indicated. Explanations are offered on: (1) how to conduct an effective…

  17. Personal Identification by Keystroke Dynamics in Japanese Free Text Typing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samura, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Haruhiko

    Biometrics is classified into verification and identification. Many researchers on the keystroke dynamics have treated the verification of a fixed short password which is used for the user login. In this research, we pay attention to the identification and investigate several characteristics of the keystroke dynamics in Japanese free text typing. We developed Web-based typing software in order to collect the keystroke data on the Local Area Network and performed experiments on a total of 112 subjects, from which three groups of typing level, the beginner's level and above, the normal level and above and the middle level and above were constructed. Based on the identification methods by the weighted Euclid distance and the neural network for the extracted feature indexes in Japanese texts, we evaluated identification performances for the three groups. As a result, high accuracy of personal identification was confirmed in both methods, in proportion to the typing level of the group.

  18. Integrated clinical workstations for image and text data capture, display, and teleconsultation.

    PubMed Central

    Dayhoff, R.; Kuzmak, P. M.; Kirin, G.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) DHCP Imaging System digitally records clinically significant diagnostic images selected by medical specialists in a variety of hospital departments, including radiology, cardiology, gastroenterology, pathology, dermatology, hematology, surgery, podiatry, dental clinic, and emergency room. These images, which include true color and gray scale images, scanned documents, and electrocardiogram waveforms, are stored on network file servers and displayed on workstations located throughout a medical center. All images are managed by the VA's hospital information system (HIS), allowing integrated displays of text and image data from all medical specialties. Two VA medical centers currently have DHCP Imaging Systems installed, and other installations are underway. PMID:7949899

  19. Gene prioritization and clustering by multi-view text mining

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Text mining has become a useful tool for biologists trying to understand the genetics of diseases. In particular, it can help identify the most interesting candidate genes for a disease for further experimental analysis. Many text mining approaches have been introduced, but the effect of disease-gene identification varies in different text mining models. Thus, the idea of incorporating more text mining models may be beneficial to obtain more refined and accurate knowledge. However, how to effectively combine these models still remains a challenging question in machine learning. In particular, it is a non-trivial issue to guarantee that the integrated model performs better than the best individual model. Results We present a multi-view approach to retrieve biomedical knowledge using different controlled vocabularies. These controlled vocabularies are selected on the basis of nine well-known bio-ontologies and are applied to index the vast amounts of gene-based free-text information available in the MEDLINE repository. The text mining result specified by a vocabulary is considered as a view and the obtained multiple views are integrated by multi-source learning algorithms. We investigate the effect of integration in two fundamental computational disease gene identification tasks: gene prioritization and gene clustering. The performance of the proposed approach is systematically evaluated and compared on real benchmark data sets. In both tasks, the multi-view approach demonstrates significantly better performance than other comparing methods. Conclusions In practical research, the relevance of specific vocabulary pertaining to the task is usually unknown. In such case, multi-view text mining is a superior and promising strategy for text-based disease gene identification. PMID:20074336

  20. Medical marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moretti, Michael

    1991-08-01

    Solid state lasers are the real highlight of my talk today, and were really the star of the year. In every application area I can think of, people have tried with some success to introduce corturiercial solid state products. I'll go into more detail, but aside from solid state, a very significant event happened in Deceniber when one of the laser angioplasty companies (Advanced Interventional Systens) received FDA clearance to begin marketing the excimer for coronary applications (Figure 1) . This is the first time to my knowledge that an excimer has ever been cleared for a medical application in the United States. It's an event that we didn't really expect to happen so soon. It's extremely significant and we'll see where it goes from here. The system needs to be road-tested a bit but to get past the FDA is the major obstacle. Looking back to solid state laser the importance of solid state lasers is as researchers become more involved with the excimer and conduct more clinical studies in ophthalmology, they realize that it's not going to be a panacea for all refractive surgery or other ophthalmolic applications. In many cases it looks like the solid state laser may be the laser of choice in certain types of surgery; most notably perhaps in refractive surgery. We've all read about the success of the excimer at least in capturing the press's attention for corneal sculpting and vision correction. Well, it could be that actually the next generation will be a solid state laser, so let's keep an open mind here.

  1. "Medical bookmarks--a virtual medical library".

    PubMed

    Vassallo, D J; Rowe, M

    2002-06-01

    How does one go about finding specific medical information on the internet? Medical Bookmarks is the name of an easily remembered website (http://www.medical-bookmarks.org.uk) set up as a virtual library by the librarian at the Royal Hospital Haslar. It is specifically designed to give easy access to all the important medical sites on the internet, doing away with the need to remember the exact addresses of other websites, and as such it is relevant to civilian and military doctors in both industrialised and developing nations. It also interlinks sites of particular relevance to military doctors, including military medical sites and a NATO Defence Medical Services site. PMID:12174565

  2. [Medical image compression: a review].

    PubMed

    Noreña, Tatiana; Romero, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Modern medicine is an increasingly complex activity , based on the evidence ; it consists of information from multiple sources : medical record text , sound recordings , images and videos generated by a large number of devices . Medical imaging is one of the most important sources of information since they offer comprehensive support of medical procedures for diagnosis and follow-up . However , the amount of information generated by image capturing gadgets quickly exceeds storage availability in radiology services , generating additional costs in devices with greater storage capacity . Besides , the current trend of developing applications in cloud computing has limitations, even though virtual storage is available from anywhere, connections are made through internet . In these scenarios the optimal use of information necessarily requires powerful compression algorithms adapted to medical activity needs . In this paper we present a review of compression techniques used for image storage , and a critical analysis of them from the point of view of their use in clinical settings. PMID:23715317

  3. The Role of Reading Time Complexity and Reading Speed in Text Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallot, Sebastian; O'Brien, Beth A.; Haussmann, Anna; Kloos, Heidi; Lyby, Marlene S.

    2014-01-01

    Reading speed is commonly used as an index of reading fluency. However, reading speed is not a consistent predictor of text comprehension, when speed and comprehension are measured on the same text within the same reader. This might be due to the somewhat ambiguous nature of reading speed, which is sometimes regarded as a feature of the reading…

  4. Biomechanical patterns of text-message distraction.

    PubMed

    Le, Peter; Hwang, Jaejin; Grawe, Sarah; Li, Jing; Snyder, Alison; Lee, Christina; Marras, William S

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify biomechanical measures that can distinguish texting distraction in a laboratory-simulated driving environment. The goal would be to use this information to provide an intervention for risky driving behaviour. Sixteen subjects participated in this study. Three independent variables were tested: task (texting, visual targeting, weighted and non-weighted movements), task direction (front and side) and task distance (close and far). Dependent variables consisted of biomechanical moments, head displacement and the length of time to complete each task. Results revealed that the time to complete each task was higher for texting compared to other tasks. Peak moments during texting were only distinguishable from visual targeting. Peak head displacement and cumulative biomechanical exposure measures indicated that texting can be distinguished from other tasks. Therefore, it may be useful to take into account both temporal and biomechanical measures when considering warning systems to detect texting distraction. PMID:25867196

  5. The network of concepts in written texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caldeira, S. M. G.; Petit Lobão, T. C.; Andrade, R. F. S.; Neme, A.; Miranda, J. G. V.

    2006-02-01

    Complex network theory is used to investigate the structure of meaningful concepts in written texts of individual authors. Networks have been constructed after a two phase filtering, where words with less meaning contents are eliminated and all remaining words are set to their canonical form, without any number, gender or time flexion. Each sentence in the text is added to the network as a clique. A large number of written texts have been scrutinised, and it is found that texts have small-world as well as scale-free structures. The growth process of these networks has also been investigated, and a universal evolution of network quantifiers have been found among the set of texts written by distinct authors. Further analyses, based on shuffling procedures taken either on the texts or on the constructed networks, provide hints on the role played by the word frequency and sentence length distributions to the network structure.

  6. Entropy analysis of natural language written texts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, C.; Karamanos, K.; Diakonos, F. K.; Constantoudis, V.; Papageorgiou, H.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the relative contribution of ordered and stochastic components in natural written texts and examine the influence of text category and language on these. To this end, a binary representation of written texts and the generated symbolic sequences are examined by the standard block entropy analysis and the Shannon and Kolmogorov entropies are obtained. It is found that both entropies are sensitive to both language and text category with the text category sensitivity to follow almost the same trends in both languages (English and Greek) considered. The values of these entropies are compared with those of stochastically generated symbolic sequences and the nature of correlations present in this representation of real written texts is identified.

  7. The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1997-01-01

    Describes early Hebrew citation indexes, both embedded and book-length, and discusses terminological variation, format, precision of locators, the order of index entries and assumption of user knowledge, knowledge of the compilers, and recommendations for further research. (59 references) (LRW)

  8. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  9. Magazine Index: Popular Literature Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Rod

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of Magazine Index (MI) which is now available on-line through the Dialog system. Features of MI include wide coverage of 372 general interest periodicals, cover to cover indexing, several access methods, and two name authority files. (JPF)

  10. Linguistic Indexicality in Algebra Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as indexicals assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. Indexical words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…

  11. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects described in this index are listed by subject matter. The index gives the program name, author, source, description, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student, average completion time, logic and program, purpose for which program was designed, supplementary…

  12. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  13. [Medical research in Chile: quantitative indicators].

    PubMed

    Krauskopf, M; Mackenzie, M R; Krauskopf, E; Clavel, E; Prat, A M

    1993-10-01

    Diverse indicators were used to examine medical research in Chile. According to participation in Fondecyt projects, it was concluded that 420 persons were involved in medical sciences research and that 41.9% of them had no postgraduate title. During the eighties, there was a clear aging of the community dedicated to medical research. The scientific productivity was assessed through the inventory of publications in indexed journals. During the eighties, the number of articles in Clinical Medicine and Biomedical Sciences increased two-fold. The University of Chile published the greatest number of articles, followed by the Catholic University and, with a remarkable lower amount, other Universities. The impact of the published articles in Clinical Medicine and Biomedical Sciences was calculated from the citations that they generated from 1986 to 1988. Likewise, the articles registered in 1985 with the higher citation indexes were identified. PMID:8191125

  14. Further Suicidal Behavior Among Medically Serious Suicide Attempters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beautrais, Annette L.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of rates of further suicidal behavior among individuals making medically serious suicide attempts may help to predict suicide and suicide attempt from baseline characteristics of the individual and the index suicide attempt. Data are drawn from a 5-year study of 302 individuals making medically serious suicide attempts with information…

  15. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  16. Medical Image Retrieval: A Multimodal Approach.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yu; Steffey, Shawn; He, Jianbiao; Xiao, Degui; Tao, Cui; Chen, Ping; Müller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Medical imaging is becoming a vital component of war on cancer. Tremendous amounts of medical image data are captured and recorded in a digital format during cancer care and cancer research. Facing such an unprecedented volume of image data with heterogeneous image modalities, it is necessary to develop effective and efficient content-based medical image retrieval systems for cancer clinical practice and research. While substantial progress has been made in different areas of content-based image retrieval (CBIR) research, direct applications of existing CBIR techniques to the medical images produced unsatisfactory results, because of the unique characteristics of medical images. In this paper, we develop a new multimodal medical image retrieval approach based on the recent advances in the statistical graphic model and deep learning. Specifically, we first investigate a new extended probabilistic Latent Semantic Analysis model to integrate the visual and textual information from medical images to bridge the semantic gap. We then develop a new deep Boltzmann machine-based multimodal learning model to learn the joint density model from multimodal information in order to derive the missing modality. Experimental results with large volume of real-world medical images have shown that our new approach is a promising solution for the next-generation medical imaging indexing and retrieval system. PMID:26309389

  17. Generalized flexibility-rigidity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity index and flexibility index. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity index, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility index based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.

  18. Price Indexes for Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael P.

    The need for a system of price indexes for colleges and universities is discussed. First, past efforts to develop price indexes are reviewed, dating back to 1952 and highlighting two specific indexes, the Higher Education Price Index (HEPI) and the Uniform Price Index Calculation System (UPICS). For the latter, the price indexes of direct costs…

  19. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  20. Understanding machines from text and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, Mary; Just, Marcel A.

    1987-12-01

    Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text, (2) to reactivate information that has already been represented, and (3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Using data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrams more often than high-ability text. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite for encoding new information from a diagram. Instructional materials typically use both text and diagrams to explain how machines work. In this paper we give an account of what information is involved in understanding a mechanical device and the role that diagrams might play in communicating this information. We propose a model of how people read a text and inspect an accompanying diagram which states that people inspect diagrams for three reasons: (1) to form a representation of information read in the text; (2) to reactivate information that was alsready represented, and *3) to encode information that is absent from the text. Uinsg data from subjects' eye fixations while they read a text and inspected an accompanying diagram, we find that low-ability subjects need to inspect diagrmas more often than high-ability tesxt. The data also suggest that knowledge of what is relevant in a diagram might be a prerequisite and encoding information on a diagram.