Clinical dermatology cases are presented as images and semi- structured text describing skin lesions and their relationships to disease. Metadata assignment to such cases is hampered by lack of a standardized dermatology vocabulary and facilitated methods for indexing legacy collections. In this pilot study descriptive clinical text from Dermatlas, a Web-based repository of dermatology cases, was indexed to Medical Subject
\\u000a In this paper we address the problem of constructing an index for a text document or a collection of documents to answer various\\u000a questions about the occurrences of a pattern when allowing a constant number of errors. In particular, our index can be built\\u000a to report all occurrences, all positions, or all documents where a pattern occurs in time linear
A succinct textindex uses space proportional to the text itself, say, two times n log? for a text of n characters over an alphabet of size ?. In the past few years, there were several exciting results leading to succinct indexes that support efficient pattern matching. In this paper we present the first succinct index for a text that contains wildcards. The space complexity of our index is (3 + o(1))n log? + O(?logn) bits, where ? is the number of wildcard groups in the text. Such an index finds applications in indexing genomic sequences that contain single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), which could be modeled as wildcards.
Tam, Alan; Wu, Edward; Lam, Tak-Wah; Yiu, Siu-Ming
Discussion of weighted index terms in information retrieval focuses on a method for adjusting index weights by processing text in digital libraries that has been highlighted by users. Considers weights in query processing; feedback sources; active reading while accessing digital documents; collaborative information retrieval; and improving index…
Villarroel, Miguel; Fuente, Pablo de la; Pedrero, Alberto; Vegas, Jesus; Adiego, Joaquin
Data warehouse is the central management system having pool of datasets. The traditional data warehouse was designed in such a manner that it can efficiently manage transactional data which is highly dominated by numerical information where as in some data warehouse textual and non transactional ransactional information is encountered. The dataset which contains text data is accessed over the network on the daily basis and performance issue arises. The objective of this paper is to propose an indexing technique based on time complexity and index space complexity for data warehouse used in applications. The performance evaluation of three data warehouse queries is focused in this paper by comparing techniques used mostly with FULL TEXTindexing technique and to observe the results of variable size dataset ataset with respect to time and space complexity.
1 How indexicals function in texts: Discourse, text, and one neo- Gricean account of indexical and the interlocutive relationships developed throughout the discourse. The article also assesses the neo perspective at points of transition between units. My more major goal is to assess the extent to which one neo
The current proliferation of on-line information resources underscores the requirement for the ability to index collections of information and search and retrieve them in a convenient manner. This study develops criteria for analytically comparing the index and search engines and presents results for a number of freely available search engines. A product of this research is a toolkit capable of automatically indexing, searching, and extracting performance statistics from each of the focused search engines. This toolkit is highly configurable and has the ability to run these benchmark tests against other engines as well. Results demonstrate that the tested search engines can be grouped into two levels. Level one engines are efficient on small to medium sized data collections, but show weaknesses when used for collections 100MB or larger. Level two search engines are recommended for data collections up to and beyond 100MB.
Medical post-graduate residency training and medical student training increasingly utilize electronic systems to evaluate trainee performance based on defined training competencies with quantitative and qualitative data, the later of which typically consists of text comments. Medical education is concomitantly becoming a growing area of clinical research. While electronic systems have proliferated in number, little work has been done to help manage and analyze qualitative data from these evaluations. We explored the use of text-mining techniques to assist medical education researchers in sentiment analysis and topic analysis of residency evaluations with a sample of 812 evaluation statements. While comments were predominantly positive, sentiment analysis improved the ability to discriminate statements with 93% accuracy. Similar to other domains, Latent Dirichlet Analysis and Information Gain revealed groups of core subjects and appear to be useful for identifying topics from this data. PMID:23304426
We consider the role of textual structures in medicaltexts. In particular, we examine the impact the lacking recognition of text phenomena has on the validity of medical knowledge bases fed by a natural language understanding front-end. First, we review the results from an empirical study on a sample of medicaltexts considering, in various forms of local coherence phenomena (anaphora and textual ellipses). We then discuss the representation bias emerging in the text knowledge base that is likely to occur when these phenomena are not dealt with--mainly the emergence of referentially incoherent and invalid representations. We then turn to a medicaltext understanding system designed to account for local text coherence. PMID:9357739
We present a unified algorithmic framework to obtain nearly optimal space bounds for text compression and compressed textindexing, apart from lower-order terms. For a text T of n symbols drawn from an alphabet §, our bounds are stated in terms of the hth-order empirical entropy of the text, Hh. In particular, we provide a tight analysis of the Burrows-Wheeler
This paper describes research on the development of a methodology for representing the information in texts and of procedures for relating the linguistic structure of a request to the corresponding representations. The work is being done in the context of a prototype system that will allow physicians and other health professionals to access information in a computerized textbook of hepatitis through natural language dialogues. The interpretation of natural language queries is derived from DIAMOND/DIAGRAM, a linguistically motivated, domain-independent natural language interface developed at SRI. A text access component is being developed that uses representations of the propositional content of text passages and of the hierarchical structure of the text as a whole to retrieve relevant information.
Outline Dynamic Entropy-Compressed Sequences and Full-TextIndexes Veli MÂ¨akinen Gonzalo Navarro of Helsinki, Finland Universidad de Chile, Chile MÂ¨akinen, Navarro Dynamic Compressed Sequences #12;Outline Outline Background Compressed Dynamic Binary Sequences Main Result A Succinct Version A Compressed Version
Background: Text-based patient medical records are a vital resource in medical research. In order to preserve patient confidentiality, however, the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires ...
With the widely use of healthcare information technology in hospitals, the patients' medical records are more and more complex. To transform the text- or image-based medical information into easily understandable and acceptable form for human, we designed and developed an innovation indexing method which can be used to assign an anatomical 3D structure object to every patient visually to store indexes of the patients' basic information, historical examined image information and RIS report information. When a doctor wants to review patient historical records, he or she can first load the anatomical structure object and the view the 3D index of this object using a digital human model tool kit. This prototype system helps doctors to easily and visually obtain the complete historical healthcare status of patients, including large amounts of medical data, and quickly locate detailed information, including both reports and images, from medical information systems. In this way, doctors can save time that may be better used to understand information, obtain a more comprehensive understanding of their patients' situations, and provide better healthcare services to patients.
This paper presents a de-identification study at the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Science and Technology (HST) to automatically de-identify confidential patient information from textmedical records used in intensive ...
Describes an indexing technique based on overlapping word fragments as reference strings that are linked in a directed graph structure which makes possible exact match-, partial match-, and masked-partial match-retrieval and indicates search strategies for each case. Eight figures, two tables, and nine references are provided. (RBF)
In this paper, we present a prototype that helps visualizing the relative importance of sentences extracted from medicaltexts using Embodied Conversational Agents (ECA). We propose to map rhetorical structures automatically recognized in the documents onto a set of communicative acts controlling the expression of an ECA. As a consequence, the ECA will dramatize a sentence to reflect its perceived
The amount of visual medical information being produced in large hospitals is exploding. Most University hospitals produce Millions of images per year (Geneva Radiology: 20'000 images per day). Currently, the access to these images is most often limited to an access by patient identification. Sometimes search by text in the radiology report or in the DICOM headers is possible. Still,
Henning Müller; Joris Heuberger; Antoine Geissbühler
We indexed the contents of a radiology server on the web to facilitate access to research documents and to link reference texts to images contained in radiology databases. Indexation also allows case reports to be transformed with no supplementary work into formats compatible with computer-assisted training. Indexation was performed automatically by ADM-Index, the aim being to identify the medical concepts expressed within each medicaltext. Two types of texts were indexed: medical imaging reference books (Edicerf) and case reports with illustrations and captions (Iconocerf). These documents are now available on a web server with HTML format for Edicerf and on an Oracle database for Iconocerf. When the user consults a chapter of a book or a case report, the indexed terms are displayed in the heading; all reference texts and case reports containing the indexed terms can then be called up instantaneously. The user can express his search in natural language. Indexation follows the same process allowing instantaneous recall of all reference texts and case reports where the same concept appears in the diagnosis or clinical context. By using the context of the case reports as the search index, all case reports involving a common medical concept can be found. The context is interpreted as a question. When the user responds to this question, ADM-Index compares this response with the answer furnished by the reference texts and case reports. Correct or erroneous responses can thus be identified, converting the system into a computer-assisted training tool. PMID:9239347
Duvauferrier, R; Le Beux, P; Pouliquen, B; Seka, L P; Morcet, N; Rolland, Y
In this paper, we develop a genetic algorithm method based on a latent semantic model (GAL) for text clustering. The main difficulty in the application of genetic algorithms (GAs) for document clustering is thousands or even tens of thousands of dimensions in feature space which is typical for textual data. Because the most straightforward and popular approach represents texts with
Objective The US Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) collects spontaneous reports of adverse events following vaccination. Medical officers review the reports and often apply standardized case definitions, such as those developed by the Brighton Collaboration. Our objective was to demonstrate a multi-level text mining approach for automated text classification of VAERS reports that could potentially reduce human workload. Design We selected 6034 VAERS reports for H1N1 vaccine that were classified by medical officers as potentially positive (Npos=237) or negative for anaphylaxis. We created a categorized corpus of text files that included the class label and the symptom text field of each report. A validation set of 1100 labeled text files was also used. Text mining techniques were applied to extract three feature sets for important keywords, low- and high-level patterns. A rule-based classifier processed the high-level feature representation, while several machine learning classifiers were trained for the remaining two feature representations. Measurements Classifiers' performance was evaluated by macro-averaging recall, precision, and F-measure, and Friedman's test; misclassification error rate analysis was also performed. Results Rule-based classifier, boosted trees, and weighted support vector machines performed well in terms of macro-recall, however at the expense of a higher mean misclassification error rate. The rule-based classifier performed very well in terms of average sensitivity and specificity (79.05% and 94.80%, respectively). Conclusion Our validated results showed the possibility of developing effective medicaltext classifiers for VAERS reports by combining text mining with informative feature selection; this strategy has the potential to reduce reviewer workload considerably. PMID:21709163
Nguyen, Michael D; Woo, Emily Jane; Markatou, Marianthi; Ball, Robert
Many challenges must be faced when incorporating full text retrieval into the operating system. The search engine must be a nearly invisible, natural extension to the operating system, just like the file system and the network. The search engine must meet user expectations of an operating system, specifically in areas such as performance, fault tolerance, and security. It must handle
We present a novel implementation of compressed su~x arrays exhibiting new tradeoffs between search time and space occupancy for a given text (or sequence) of n symbols over an alphabet E, where each symbol is encoded by lg ]E I bits. We show...
Grossi, Roberto; Gupta, Ankur; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott
There are millions of public posts to medical message boards by users seeking support and information on a wide range of medical conditions. It has been shown that these posts can be used to gain a greater understanding of patients’ experiences and concerns. As investigators continue to explore large corpora of medical discussion board data for research purposes, protecting the privacy of the members of these online communities becomes an important challenge that needs to be met. Extant entity recognition methods used for more structured text are not sufficient because message posts present additional challenges: the posts contain many typographical errors, larger variety of possible names, terms and abbreviations specific to Internet posts or a particular message board, and mentions of the authors’ personal lives. The main contribution of this paper is a system to de-identify the authors of message board posts automatically, taking into account the aforementioned challenges. We demonstrate our system on two different message board corpora, one on breast cancer and another on arthritis. We show that our approach significantly outperforms other publicly available named entity recognition and de-identification systems, which have been tuned for more structured text like operative reports, pathology reports, discharge summaries, or newswire. PMID:21658289
There are millions of public posts to medical message boards by users seeking support and information on a wide range of medical conditions. It has been shown that these posts can be used to gain a greater understanding of patients' experiences and concerns. As investigators continue to explore large corpora of medical discussion board data for research purposes, protecting the privacy of the members of these online communities becomes an important challenge that needs to be met. Extant entity recognition methods used for more structured text are not sufficient because message posts present additional challenges: the posts contain many typographical errors, larger variety of possible names, terms and abbreviations specific to Internet posts or a particular message board, and mentions of the authors' personal lives. The main contribution of this paper is a system to de-identify the authors of message board posts automatically, taking into account the aforementioned challenges. We demonstrate our system on two different message board corpora, one on breast cancer and another on arthritis. We show that our approach significantly outperforms other publicly available named entity recognition and de-identification systems, which have been tuned for more structured text like operative reports, pathology reports, discharge summaries, or newswire. PMID:21658289
Benton, Adrian; Hill, Shawndra; Ungar, Lyle; Chung, Annie; Leonard, Charles; Freeman, Cristin; Holmes, John H
Due to the wide variety of equipment existing in clinical areas, there is an important question: which and how often electrical safety tests most be applied to the medical equipment. There are important differences about the electrical safety, such as the electrical insulation or the hazard considering the connection between patient and electrical instrumentation. The objective of this work was
Background Text-based patient medical records are a vital resource in medical research. In order to preserve patient confidentiality, however, the U.S. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) requires that protected health information (PHI) be removed from medical records before they can be disseminated. Manual de-identification of large medical record databases is prohibitively expensive, time-consuming and prone to error, necessitating automatic methods for large-scale, automated de-identification. Methods We describe an automated Perl-based de-identification software package that is generally usable on most free-textmedical records, e.g., nursing notes, discharge summaries, X-ray reports, etc. The software uses lexical look-up tables, regular expressions, and simple heuristics to locate both HIPAA PHI, and an extended PHI set that includes doctors' names and years of dates. To develop the de-identification approach, we assembled a gold standard corpus of re-identified nursing notes with real PHI replaced by realistic surrogate information. This corpus consists of 2,434 nursing notes containing 334,000 words and a total of 1,779 instances of PHI taken from 163 randomly selected patient records. This gold standard corpus was used to refine the algorithm and measure its sensitivity. To test the algorithm on data not used in its development, we constructed a second test corpus of 1,836 nursing notes containing 296,400 words. The algorithm's false negative rate was evaluated using this test corpus. Results Performance evaluation of the de-identification software on the development corpus yielded an overall recall of 0.967, precision value of 0.749, and fallout value of approximately 0.002. On the test corpus, a total of 90 instances of false negatives were found, or 27 per 100,000 word count, with an estimated recall of 0.943. Only one full date and one age over 89 were missed. No patient names were missed in either corpus. Conclusion We have developed a pattern-matching de-identification system based on dictionary look-ups, regular expressions, and heuristics. Evaluation based on two different sets of nursing notes collected from a U.S. hospital suggests that, in terms of recall, the software out-performs a single human de-identifier (0.81) and performs at least as well as a consensus of two human de-identifiers (0.94). The system is currently tuned to de-identify PHI in nursing notes and discharge summaries but is sufficiently generalized and can be customized to handle text files of any format. Although the accuracy of the algorithm is high, it is probably insufficient to be used to publicly disseminate medical data. The open-source de-identification software and the gold standard re-identified corpus of medical records have therefore been made available to researchers via the PhysioNet website to encourage improvements in the algorithm. PMID:18652655
Neamatullah, Ishna; Douglass, Margaret M; Lehman, Li-wei H; Reisner, Andrew; Villarroel, Mauricio; Long, William J; Szolovits, Peter; Moody, George B; Mark, Roger G; Clifford, Gari D
Public health officials use syndromic surveillance systems to facilitate early detection and response to infectious disease outbreaks. Emergency department clinical notes are becoming more available for surveillance but present the challenge of accurately extracting concepts from these text data. The purpose of this study was to implement a new system, Emergency MedicalText Classifier (EMT-C), into daily production for syndromic surveillance and evaluate system performance and user satisfaction. The system was designed to meet user preferences for a syndromic classifier that maximized positive predictive value and minimized false positives in order to provide a manageable workload. EMT-C performed better than the baseline system on all metrics and users were slightly more satisfied with it. It is vital to obtain user input and test new systems in the production environment. PMID:24551413
Travers, Debbie; Haas, Stephanie W; Waller, Anna E; Schwartz, Todd A; Mostafa, Javed; Best, Nakia C; Crouch, John
We propose a mixture model for text data designed to capture underlying structure in the history of present illness section of electronic medical records data. Additionally, we propose a method to induce bias that leads to more homogeneous sets of diagnoses for patients in each cluster. We apply our model to a collection of electronic records from an emergency department and compare our results to three other relevant models in order to assess performance. Results using standard metrics demonstrate that patient clusters from our model are more homogeneous when compared to others, and qualitative analyses suggest that our approach leads to interpretable patient sub-populations when applied to real data. Finally, we demonstrate an example of our patient clustering model to identify adverse drug events. PMID:24551361
Henao, Ricardo; Murray, Jared; Ginsburg, Geoffrey; Carin, Lawrence; Lucas, Joseph E.
We propose a mixture model for text data designed to capture underlying structure in the history of present illness section of electronic medical records data. Additionally, we propose a method to induce bias that leads to more homogeneous sets of diagnoses for patients in each cluster. We apply our model to a collection of electronic records from an emergency department and compare our results to three other relevant models in order to assess performance. Results using standard metrics demonstrate that patient clusters from our model are more homogeneous when compared to others, and qualitative analyses suggest that our approach leads to interpretable patient sub-populations when applied to real data. Finally, we demonstrate an example of our patient clustering model to identify adverse drug events. PMID:24551361
Henao, Ricardo; Murray, Jared; Ginsburg, Geoffrey; Carin, Lawrence; Lucas, Joseph E
Latent semantic indexing Dimensionality reduction LSI in information retrieval Web Search and Text Mining http://www.cc.gatech.edu/~agray/6240spr11 IIR 18: Latent Semantic Indexing Alexander Gray Georgia Institute of Technology, College of Computing 2011 Gray: Latent Semantic Indexing 1 / 25 #12;Latent semantic
The self-index is a kind of highly compressed, self-contained full-textindex. It is designed for indexing plain texts in order to reduce its permanent storage, as well as to enhance searching performance. Apart from being a sequence of characters, usually the text has specific internal structure. The data record, as a basic model of structured data, is therefore employed to
Pattern matching on text data has been a fundamental field of Computer Science for nearly 40 years. Databases supporting
full-textindexing functionality on text data are now widely used by biologists. In the theoretical ...
Chiu, Sheng-Yuan; Hon, Wing-Kai; Shah, Rahul; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott
Decision tree classification is a common method used in data mining. It has been used for predicting medical diagnoses. Among data mining methods for classification, decision trees have several advantages such as they are simple to understand and interpret; they are able to handle both numerical and categorical attributes. However, it is well-known that when Gini index is used for
The proliferation of online text, such as found on the World Wide Web and in online databases, motivates the need for space-efficient textindexing methods that support fast string searching. We model this scenario as ...
Text classification is the task of assigning a document to one or more of pre-defined categories based on its contents. This paper presents the results of classifying Arabic language documents by applying the KNN classifier, one time by using N-Gram namely unigrams and bigrams in documents indexing, and another time by using traditional single terms indexing method (bag of words)
\\u000a In the present paper, the issue of patient indexicality in professional medicaltexts has been addressed. To this aim a corpus\\u000a of medical case reports has been compiled to examine both direct and indirect references to the patients described there.\\u000a The studied tokens have been investigated from two perspectives. First, the focus has fallen on patient textual presence\\/absence\\u000a as conditioned
To have comprehensive and completed understanding healthcare status of a patient, doctors need to search patient medical records from different healthcare information systems, such as PACS, RIS, HIS, USIS, as a reference of diagnosis and treatment decisions for the patient. However, it is time-consuming and tedious to do these procedures. In order to solve this kind of problems, we developed a patient-oriented visual index system (VIS) to use the visual technology to show health status and to retrieve the patients' examination information stored in each system with a 3D human model. In this presentation, we present a new approach about how to extract the semantic and characteristic information from the medical record systems such as RIS/USIS to create the 3D Visual Index. This approach includes following steps: (1) Building a medical characteristic semantic knowledge base; (2) Developing natural language processing (NLP) engine to perform semantic analysis and logical judgment on text-based medical records; (3) Applying the knowledge base and NLP engine on medical records to extract medical characteristics (e.g., the positive focus information), and then mapping extracted information to related organ/parts of 3D human model to create the visual index. We performed the testing procedures on 559 samples of radiological reports which include 853 focuses, and achieved 828 focuses' information. The successful rate of focus extraction is about 97.1%.
With the increasing ranks of cell phone ownership is an increase in text messaging, or texting. During 2008, more than 2.5 trillion text messages were sent worldwide--that's an average of more than 400 messages for every person on the planet. Although many of the messages teenagers text each day are perhaps nothing more than "how r u?" or "c u…
Semi-Supervised Active Learning for Modeling Medical Concepts from Free Text RÂ´omer Rosales IKM CKS Siemens Medical Solutions Malvern, PA 19355 USA Praveen Krishnamurthy Department of Computer Science State University of New York Buffalo, NY 14260 USA R. Bharat Rao IKM CKS Siemens Medical Solutions Malvern, PA
in Medication Errors, Philadelphia, PA, USA c University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, USA dDiagnostic E-codes for commonly used, narrow therapeutic indexmedications poorly predict adverse for Health Equity Research and Promotion, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Accepted 3
Springer, as a publisher of scientific and technical literature, has been collaborating with the ADS since the very beginning of the ADS Abstract Service. Once of the culminations of this collaboration was the scanning of all back issues of Solar Physics. We are now in the process of enabling full text searching of all Springer journals in Astronomy and Physics through the ADS. This agreement between Springer and the ADS will be based on a similar agreement between Springer and INSPIRE. That agreement allows full text searching of Springer High Energy Physics journals in SPIRES and its successor INSPIRE, a database of the High Energy Physics literature developed and managed by a collaboration between CERN, DESY, Fermilab, and SLAC. Springer will provide the full text of all the Astronomy and Physics journals to the ADS for indexing. Display of search results will include snippets of text that includes the search terms, to allow the user to immediately see the context of the searched terms in the articles. Such a full text search will allow greatly enhanced search functionality and should allow much more detailed and in-depth searches of the relevant literature at Springer, one of the largest publishers of scientific-technical literature. We are currently in the process to determine whether this full text search capability can be extended to scientific books as well.
We describe an exercise of using Big Data to predict the Michigan Consumer Sentiment Index, a widely used indicator of the state of confidence in the US economy. We carry out the exercise from a pure ex ante perspective. We use the methodology of algorithmic text analysis of an archive of brokers' reports over the period June 2010 through June 2013. The search is directed by the social-psychological theory of agent behaviour, namely conviction narrative theory. We compare one month ahead forecasts generated this way over a 15 month period with the forecasts reported for the consensus predictions of Wall Street economists. The former give much more accurate predictions, getting the direction of change correct on 12 of the 15 occasions compared to only 7 for the consensus predictions. We show that the approach retains significant predictive power even over a four month ahead horizon.
Clinical information is often coded using different terminologies, and therefore is not interoperable. Our goal is to develop a general natural language processing (NLP) system, called MedicalText Extraction, Reasoning and Mapping System (MTERMS), which encodes clinical text using different terminologies and simultaneously establishes dynamic mappings between them. MTERMS applies a modular, pipeline approach flowing from a preprocessor, semantic tagger, terminology mapper, context analyzer, and parser to structure inputted clinical notes. Evaluators manually reviewed 30 free-text and 10 structured outpatient clinical notes compared to MTERMS output. MTERMS achieved an overall F-measure of 90.6 and 94.0 for free-text and structured notes respectively for medication and temporal information. The local medication terminology had 83.0% coverage compared to RxNorm’s 98.0% coverage for free-text notes. 61.6% of mappings between the terminologies are exact match. Capture of duration was significantly improved (91.7% vs. 52.5%) from systems in the third i2b2 challenge. PMID:22195230
Zhou, Li; Plasek, Joseph M; Mahoney, Lisa M; Karipineni, Neelima; Chang, Frank; Yan, Xuemin; Chang, Fenny; Dimaggio, Dana; Goldman, Debora S.; Rocha, Roberto A.
In mobile health (M-health), Short Message Service (SMS) has shown to improve disease related self-management and health service outcomes, leading to enhanced patient care. However, the hard limit on character size for each message limits the full value of exploring SMS communication in health care practices. To overcome this problem and improve the efficiency of clinical workflow, we developed an innovative system, MedTxting (available at http://medtxting.askhermes.org), which is a learning-based but knowledge-rich system that compresses medicaltexts in a SMS style. Evaluations on clinical questions and discharge summary narratives show that MedTxting can effectively compress medicaltexts with reasonable readability and noticeable size reduction. Findings in this work reveal potentials of MedTxting to the clinical settings, allowing for real-time and cost-effective communication, such as patient condition reporting, medication consulting, physicians connecting to share expertise to improve point of care. PMID:23304328
Liu, Feifan; Moosavinasab, Soheil; Houston, Thomas K; Yu, Hong
In mobile health (M-health), Short Message Service (SMS) has shown to improve disease related self-management and health service outcomes, leading to enhanced patient care. However, the hard limit on character size for each message limits the full value of exploring SMS communication in health care practices. To overcome this problem and improve the efficiency of clinical workflow, we developed an innovative system, MedTxting (available at http://medtxting.askhermes.org), which is a learning-based but knowledge-rich system that compresses medicaltexts in a SMS style. Evaluations on clinical questions and discharge summary narratives show that MedTxting can effectively compress medicaltexts with reasonable readability and noticeable size reduction. Findings in this work reveal potentials of MedTxting to the clinical settings, allowing for real-time and cost-effective communication, such as patient condition reporting, medication consulting, physicians connecting to share expertise to improve point of care. PMID:23304328
Liu, Feifan; Moosavinasab, Soheil; Houston, Thomas K.; Yu, Hong
To achieve more efficient video indexing and access, we introduce a video database management framework and strategies for video content structure and events mining. The video shot segmentation and key-frame selection strategy are first utilized to parse the continuous video stream into physical units. Video shot grouping, group merging, and scene clustering schemes are then proposed to organize the video
Xingquan Zhu; Walid G. Arefa; Jianping Fan; Ann C. Catlin; Ahmed K. Elmagarmid
Abstract To achieve more efficient video indexing and access, we introduce a video database management framework and strategies for video content structure and events mining The video shot segmentation and representative frame selection strategy are first utilized to parse the continuous video stream into physical units Video shot grouping, group merging, and scene clustering schemes are then proposed to organize
Xingquan Zhu; Walid G. Aref; Jianping Fan; Ann Christine Catlin; Ahmed K. Elmagarmid
Differences in languages have to be bridged in order for intercultural communication to take place. Although the medical field\\u000a requires highly accurate translations for promoting intercultural communication, the present level of support is insufficient.\\u000a In this paper, we propose a system that uses parallel texts to support intercultural communication at hospital reception desks.\\u000a Using parallel texts that have been translated
Mai Miyabe; Kunikazu Fujii; Tomohiro Shigenobu; Takashi Yoshino
Early warning indicators to identify US Veterans at risk of homelessness are currently only inferred from administrative data. References to indicators of risk or instances of homelessness in the free text of medical notes written by Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) providers may precede formal identification of Veterans as being homeless. This represents a potentially untapped resource for early identification. Using natural language processing (NLP), we investigated the idea that concepts related to homelessness written in the free text of the medical record precede the identification of homelessness by administrative data. We found that homeless Veterans were much higher utilizers of VA resources producing approximately 12 times as many documents as non-homeless Veterans. NLP detected mentions of either direct or indirect evidence of homelessness in a significant portion of Veterans earlier than structured data. PMID:25000039
Redd, Andrew; Carter, Marjorie; Divita, Guy; Shen, Shuying; Palmer, Miland; Samore, Matthew; Gundlapalli, Adi V
The relational files within the UMLS Metathesaurus contain rich semantic associations to main concepts. We invoked the technique of Latent Semantic Indexing to generate information matrices based on these relationships and created "semantic vectors" using singular value decomposition. Evaluations were made on the complete set and subsets of Metathesaurus main concepts with the semantic type "Disease or Syndrome." Real number matrices were created with main concepts, lexical variants, synonyms, and associated expressions. Ancestors, children, siblings, and related terms were added to alternative matrices, preserving the hierarchical direction of the relation as the imaginary component of a complex number. Preliminary evaluation suggests that this technique is robust. A major advantage is the exploitation of semantic features which derive from a statistical decomposition of UMLS structures, possibly reducing dependence on the tedious construction of semantic frames by humans. PMID:1807584
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute (HHMI) offers a wide range of educational programs. Part of its work is getting out the word about its own research projects and outreach efforts. On this site, visitors can read short news articles exploring everything from the nature of human evolution and natural selection to fellowship programs. Visitors can browse throughout the offerings chronologically and also look at the important resources on the right-hand side of the page. Here they will find the HHMI On The Web, which features direct links to the BioInteractive web site and Becoming a Scientist, which features 11 HHMI scientists talking about their successes in their fields. The site is rounded out by a link that allows users to sign up for news alerts via email.
Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is a novel approach to\\u000a information retrieval that attempts to model the\\u000a underlying structure of term associations by transforming\\u000a the traditional representation of documents as vectors of\\u000a weighted term frequencies to a new coordinate space where\\u000a both documents and terms are represented as linear\\u000a combinations of underlying semantic factors. In previous\\u000a research, LSI has produced a
We introduce a new variant of the popular Burrows-Wheeler transform (BWT)
called Geometric Burrows-Wheeler Transform (GBWT). Unlike BWT, which merely
permutes the text, GBWT converts the text into a set of points in ...
Chien, Yu-Feng; Hon, Wing-Kai; Shah, Rahul; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott
Large amounts of animal health care data are present in veterinary electronic medical records (EMR) and they present an opportunity for companion animal disease surveillance. Veterinary patient records are largely in free-text without clinical coding or fixed vocabulary. Text-mining, a computer and information technology application, is needed to identify cases of interest and to add structure to the otherwise unstructured data. In this study EMR's were extracted from veterinary management programs of 12 participating veterinary practices and stored in a data warehouse. Using commercially available text-mining software (WordStat™), we developed a categorization dictionary that could be used to automatically classify and extract enteric syndrome cases from the warehoused electronic medical records. The diagnostic accuracy of the text-miner for retrieving cases of enteric syndrome was measured against human reviewers who independently categorized a random sample of 2500 cases as enteric syndrome positive or negative. Compared to the reviewers, the text-miner retrieved cases with enteric signs with a sensitivity of 87.6% (95%CI, 80.4-92.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95%CI, 98.9-99.6%). Automatic and accurate detection of enteric syndrome cases provides an opportunity for community surveillance of enteric pathogens in companion animals. PMID:24485708
Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Jamal, I; Ribble, C; Stephen, C
A comparative study was conducted to find out the scores in Work Ability Index (WAI) of different interviewers–Occupational Health Physician and Work Psychologist–and different versions—comprehensive version of the Work Ability Index and an abridged version. The variations of the WAI scores–higher scores by a non-medical interviewer and by using the abridged version–and conclusions on the use of the WAI–interview instrument
Heinrich Geissler; Juergen Tempel; Brigitta Geissler-Gruber
As part of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) initiative, some 900 diseases have been described using “structured text.” Structured text is words and short phrases entered under labelled contexts. Vocabulary is not controlled. The contexts comprise a template for the disease description. The structured text is both manipulable by machine and readable by humans. Use of the template was natural, and only a few problems arose in using the template. Instructions to disease description composers must be explicit in definitions of the contexts. Diseases to be described are chosen, after clustering related diseases, according to the distinctions that physicians practicing in the area under question believe are important. Limiting disease descriptions to primitive observations and to entities otherwise described within the corpus appears to be both feasible and desirable.
Nelson, Stuart J.; Sherertz, David D.; Erlbaum, Mark S.; Tuttle, Mark S.
An optical disk drive, equipped with additional SCSI commands for full-text search is developed. By hierarchical search architecture of parallel hardware, firmware and software, the system filters information almost at the disk-read speed. The basic search process is executed by a search engine sharing the function with a portion of the error-correcting LSI installed into the optical disk controller. The basic search performance of the developed system is 10 to 25 times faster than that of software. Also, introduction of an associative table for presearching results in performance more than 1000 times faster than that in the case in which no objective lines are found. Though our system does not have large-scale special-purpose hardware for text search, the retrieving speed of the free-text database is dramatically improved.
The development and testing of the Browsing On-line With Selective Retrieval (BROWSER) text retrieval system allowing a natural language query statement and providing on-line browsing capabilities through an IBM 2260 display terminal is described. The prototype system contains data bases of 25,000 German language patent abstracts, 9,000 English…
Computerized indexing and retrieval of medical records is increasingly important; but the use of natural language versus coded languages (SNOP, SNOMED) for this purpose remains controversial. In an effort to develop search strategies for natural language text, the authors examined the anatomic diagnosis reports by computer for 7000 consecutive autopsy subjects spanning a 13-year period at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. There were 923,657 words, 11,642 of them distinct. The authors observed an average of 1052 keystrokes, 28 lines, and 131 words per autopsy report, with an average 4.6 words per line and 7.0 letters per word. The entire text file represented 921 hours of secretarial effort. Words ranged in frequency from 33,959 occurrences of "and" to one occurrence for each of 3398 different words. Searches for rare diseases with unique names or for representative examples of common diseases were most readily performed with the use of computer-printed key word in context (KWIC) books. For uncommon diseases designated by commonly used terms (such as "cystic fibrosis"), needs were best served by a computerized search for logical combinations of key words. In an unbalanced word distribution, each conjunction (logical and) search should be performed in ascending order of word frequency; but each alternation (logical inclusive or) search should be performed in descending order of word frequency. Natural language text searches will assume a larger role in medical records analysis as the labor-intensive procedure of translation into a coded language becomes more costly, compared with the computer-intensive procedure of text searching. PMID:6546837
Discussion of human intellectual indexing versus automatic indexing focuses on automatic indexing. Topics include keyword indexing; negative vocabulary control; counting words; comparative counting and weighting; stemming; words versus phrases; clustering; latent semantic indexing; citation indexes; bibliographic coupling; co-citation; relevance…
Objectives. To apply modern text-mining methods to identify candidate herbs and formulae for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. Methods. The method we developed includes three steps: (1) identification of candidate ancient terms; (2) systemic search and assessment of medical records written in classical Chinese; (3) preliminary evaluation of the effect and safety of candidates. Results. Ancient terms Xia Xiao, Shen Xiao, and Xiao Shen were determined as the most likely to correspond with diabetic nephropathy and used in text mining. A total of 80 Chinese formulae for treating conditions congruent with diabetic nephropathy recorded in medical books from Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty were collected. Sao si tang (also called Reeling Silk Decoction) was chosen to show the process of preliminary evaluation of the candidates. It had promising potential for development as new agent for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy. However, further investigations about the safety to patients with renal insufficiency are still needed. Conclusions. The methods developed in this study offer a targeted approach to identifying traditional herbs and/or formulae as candidates for further investigation in the search for new drugs for modern disease. However, more effort is still required to improve our techniques, especially with regard to compound formulae. PMID:24744808
Zhang, Lei; Li, Yin; Guo, Xinfeng; May, Brian H; Xue, Charlie C L; Yang, Lihong; Liu, Xusheng
An optical disk drive, equipped with additional SCSI commands for full-text search is developed. By hierarchical search architecture of parallel hardware, firmware and software, the system filters information almost at the disk-read speed. The basic search process is executed by a search engine sharing the function with a portion of the error-correcting LSI installed into the optical disk controller. The
In the FRAMEMED system design, the inherent attributes of its concepts are expressed in the hierarchical lists of its 26 Elements (e.g., Agents, Clinical Manifestations, Diseases, Tests, etc.). These concepts, contained in regular structures, are then alphabetized by phrase (and synonym), forming a combined index in which the user may quickly find a concept either alphabetically or hierarchically. Stored in the structures of the index are pointers to four types of knowledge records: 1) Descriptive (definition); 2) Relational (incidental attributes); 3) Conditional (rules); and 4) Procedural (how to). In contrast to the index which is stored in regular structures for rapid access (like relational databases), the knowledge records are stored in free text (variable length) and may include pointers to imaging and audio records. A particular feature of the FRAMEMED system is careful attention to modifiers, an aspect usually not emphasized in other systems. In trying to structure the free text describing a patient encounter, for example, the major concepts such as cough, fever, stiff neck, etc., are relatively easy to code (although a common system has not yet been agreed upon). The devil lies in the modifiers such as 'history of', 'severe,' 'constant,' 'absent,' 'left,' 'abnormal,' etc., particularly when there is concatenation of modifiers modifying modifiers. Our Relational records (in our knowledge base) and our Chronological Medical Records (CMR) in our patient record have the same format, namely, a title, several related items, and a date/author. For example, our disease profile (Relational record) for 'Influenza' might include 'cough,' 'fever,' and 'stiff neck.' The CMR of a particular patient encounter might include the same items. The only differences would be the title (disease name for the disease profile, date for the CMR, and the omission of the redundant date in the date/author line of the CMR). Each related item in either of these records is expressed in a four-part string, namely: 1) Relation; 2) Code; 3) Phrase; and 4) Comment. Modifiers (common ASCII symbols) are structured into each of these parts. For example, if the patient did not have 'cough,' the default '+' in the Relation would be edited to a '-', while 'history of' cough would be '>'. Each Relation can be graded (on a 5-level scale) for both importance and frequency. The Code for a test can carry the result suffix, '+ positive/high,' '-negative/low,' '# abnormal (qualitatively)', or '1 unremarkable/normal.' Topological information, such as '/left,' can be appended to a Code. If the cough is getting worse, its code can have the suffix, '<'. The standardized Phrases associated with the Codes come from the hierarchical lists of the index section described earlier. Phrases are not stored, being rematched to the codes as needed for user display. This practice not only saves memory space but allows a CMR encounter recorded in one language to be displayed in another second language subsequently, requiring only the existence of the hierarchical code/phrase in the second language. A free-text Comment is allowed for any related item in a Relational record or CMR, to allow the doctor to add important nuances such as 'worse on arising' or for a numeric result such as a test result or a thermometer reading. Some structuring can be accommodated in the Comment by introducing symbols such as '> relieved by,' followed by a list containing entries such as 'antacids.' Time can be sturctured through symbol lists such as '@-2 mo' representing '2 months previously.' Because Relational records in the knowledge ase and patient encoutner records in the CMR both display findings in hierarchical order; all similar items (e.g., Agents, Clinical Manifestations, Tests, Procedures, etc.) occur together and in an unique order. (abstract truncated) PMID:8591595
This report contains a comparative analysis of the differential effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI), programmed instructional text (PIT), and lecture methods of instruction in three medical courses--Medical Laboratory, Radiology, and Dental. The summative evaluation includes (1) multiple regression analyses conducted to predict…
The Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index measures the level of individual deployment readiness in Army Nurse Corps officers. The primary purposes of this pilot study were to determine the psychometric properties of the measure for Army Reserve component nurses and enlisted medical personnel and to compare the reliability between groups. The convenience sample consisted of 92 subjects. Internal consistency reliability for three of the six competencies and construct validity using the contrasted-groups approach were examined. Nurses reported greater competency than enlisted personnel in clinical and operational nursing skills but were lower in their self-assessment of soldier and survival skills. Findings suggest that more training in warrior tasks and drills is needed for both groups and that enlisted soldiers must enhance their clinical and operational skills. Unit commanders can use the Readiness Estimate and Deployability Index to measure individual readiness. PMID:17803069
Wilmoth, Margaret C; De Scisciolo, Stephany; Gilchrest, Lacy Justin; Dmochowski, Jacek
The drive to quality-manage medical education has created a need for valid measurement instruments. Validity evidence includes the theoretical and contextual origin of items, choice of response processes, internal structure, and interrelationship of a measure's variables. This research set out to explore the validity and potential utility of an 11-item measurement instrument, whose theoretical and empirical origins were in an Experience Based Learning model of how medical students learn in communities of practice (COPs), and whose contextual origins were in a community-oriented, horizontally integrated, undergraduate medical programme. The objectives were to examine the psychometric properties of the scale in both hospital and community COPs and provide validity evidence to support using it to measure the quality of placements. The instrument was administered twice to students learning in both hospital and community placements and analysed using exploratory factor analysis and a generalizability analysis. 754 of a possible 902 questionnaires were returned (84% response rate), representing 168 placements. Eight items loaded onto two factors, which accounted for 78% of variance in the hospital data and 82% of variance in the community data. One factor was the placement learning environment, whose five constituent items were how learners were received at the start of the placement, people's supportiveness, and the quality of organisation, leadership, and facilities. The other factor represented the quality of training-instruction in skills, observing students performing skills, and providing students with feedback. Alpha coefficients ranged between 0.89 and 0.93 and there were no redundant or ambiguous items. Generalisability analysis showed that between 7 and 11 raters would be needed to achieve acceptable reliability. There is validity evidence to support using the simple 8-item, mixed methods Manchester Clinical Placement Index to measure key conditions for undergraduate medical students' experience based learning: the quality of the learning environment and the training provided within it. Its conceptual orientation is towards Communities of Practice, which is a dominant contemporary theory in undergraduate medical education. PMID:22234383
McLaughlin's Smog Index was compared to the Dale-Chall formula for the determination of reading levels of 48 textbooks in business and distributive education. A Modified Smog Index proved a valid substitute for the Dale-Chall formula when used to evaluate the reading levels of business and distributive education narrative. (Author/CT)
Efficient identification of patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) components in medical articles is helpful in evidence-based medicine. The purpose of this study is to clarify whether first sentences of these components are good enough to train naive Bayes classifiers for sentence-level PICO element detection. We extracted 19,854 structured abstracts of randomized controlled trials with any P/I/O label from PubMed for naive Bayes classifiers training. Performances of classifiers trained by first sentences of each section (CF) and those trained by all sentences (CA) were compared using all sentences by ten-fold cross-validation. The results measured by recall, precision, and F-measures show that there are no significant differences in performance between CF and CA for detection of O-element (F-measure=0.731±0.009 vs. 0.738±0.010, p=0.123). However, CA perform better for I-elements, in terms of recall (0.752±0.012 vs. 0.620±0.007, p<0.001) and F-measures (0.728±0.006 vs. 0.662±0.007, p<0.001). For P-elements, CF have higher precision (0.714±0.009 vs. 0.665±0.010, p<0.001), but lower recall (0.766±0.013 vs. 0.811±0.012, p<0.001). CF are not always better than CA in sentence-level PICO element detection. Their performance varies in detecting different elements. PMID:23899909
The use of Folio Views, a PC DOS based product for free text databases, is explored in three applications in an Integrated Academic Information System (IAIMS): (1) a telephone directory, (2) a grants and contracts newsletter, and (3) nursing care plans. PMID:1666967
In order to ease the burden of electronic note entry on physicians, electronic documentation support tools have been developed to assist in note authoring. There is little evidence of the effects of these tools on attributes of clinical documentation, including document quality. Furthermore, the resultant abundance of duplicated text and…
There were great developments about the TCM since the last years of Warring States. The physiological viewpoints were focused on vessel (channel), zang-fu viscera and various structures of the body. Although there were divergences between medicaltexts and contents because of different viewpoints. It promoted medical experiences and knowledge fast and the characteristic faced more appears. Deep and extensive exploration about these physiological programs enabled relevant knowledge correlating one another, and the holistic body concepts of the Chinese medicine takes shape gradually. Because of various kinds of life-related knowledge gradually become enriched and complicated, the experiences turned into notions and theories, the focus of medical research was changed from "from outside to inside" to "from outside inside". At the same time, the originally exploratory process and the knowledge about the human body gradually tended to be the data--modular, systematical knowledge-network, and became more conveniently operated. PMID:19127852
As medical education research continues to diversify methodologically and theoretically, medical education researchers have been increasingly willing to challenge taken-for-granted assumptions about the form, content and function of medical education. In this AMEE guide we describe historical, discourse and text analysis approaches that can help researchers and educators question the inevitability of things that are currently seen as 'natural'. Why is such questioning important? By articulating our assumptions and interrogating the 'naturalness' of the status quo, one can then begin to ask why things are the way they are. Researchers can, for example, ask whether the models of medical education organization and delivery that currently seem 'natural' to them have been developed in order to provide the most benefit to students or patients--or whether they have, rather, been developed in ways that provide power to faculty members, medical schools or the medical profession as a whole. An understanding of the interplay of practices and power is a valuable tool for opening up the field to new possibilities for better medical education. The recognition that our current models, rather than being 'natural', were created in particular historical contexts for any number of contingent reasons leads inexorably to the possibility of change. For if our current ways of doing things are not, in fact, inevitable, not only can they be questioned, they can be made better; they can changed in ways that are attentive to whom they benefit, are congruent with our current beliefs about best practice and may lead to the production of better doctors. PMID:23259609
Kuper, Ayelet; Whitehead, Cynthia; Hodges, Brian David
Much recent work on gender has emphasized how ideas of male and female differences underlie cultural assumptions about appropriate social relations, behavior, institutions and knowledge. This study focuses on the specific ways that anatomy texts for medical students in the United States have presented male and female anatomy between 1890 and 1989, using both numerical data and analysis of textual examples from 31 texts. Despite public debates about gender representation, anatomy texts have generally remained consistent in how 'the' human body has been depicted in this century. In illustrations, vocabulary and syntax, these texts primarily depict male anatomy as the norm or standard against which female structures are compared. Modern texts thus continue long-standing historical conventions in which male anatomy provides the basic model for 'the' human body. PMID:1411693
One of the principal challenges in the medical practice is the update of the knowledge. One of the prime roles of the Continuing Medical Education is to train the medical practitioners with the latest advances in health care, specialised to their needs. Online courses and classroom teaching with computer-based representations have become an established mode of delivering the medical education.
Background Distinguishing cases from non-cases in free-text electronic medical records is an important initial step in observational epidemiological studies, but manual record validation is time-consuming and cumbersome. We compared different approaches to develop an automatic case identification system with high sensitivity to assist manual annotators. Methods We used four different machine-learning algorithms to build case identification systems for two data sets, one comprising hepatobiliary disease patients, the other acute renal failure patients. To improve the sensitivity of the systems, we varied the imbalance ratio between positive cases and negative cases using under- and over-sampling techniques, and applied cost-sensitive learning with various misclassification costs. Results For the hepatobiliary data set, we obtained a high sensitivity of 0.95 (on a par with manual annotators, as compared to 0.91 for a baseline classifier) with specificity 0.56. For the acute renal failure data set, sensitivity increased from 0.69 to 0.89, with specificity 0.59. Performance differences between the various machine-learning algorithms were not large. Classifiers performed best when trained on data sets with imbalance ratio below 10. Conclusions We were able to achieve high sensitivity with moderate specificity for automatic case identification on two data sets of electronic medical records. Such a high-sensitive case identification system can be used as a pre-filter to significantly reduce the burden of manual record validation. PMID:23452306
Objectives To test the feasibility of using text mining to depict meaningfully the experience of pain in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, to identify novel pain phenotypes, and to propose methods for longitudinal visualization of pain status. Materials and methods Text from 4409 clinical encounters for 33 men enrolled in a 15-year longitudinal clinical/molecular autopsy study of metastatic prostate cancer (Project to ELIminate lethal CANcer) was subjected to natural language processing (NLP) using Unified Medical Language System-based terms. A four-tiered pain scale was developed, and logistic regression analysis identified factors that correlated with experience of severe pain during each month. Results NLP identified 6387 pain and 13?827 drug mentions in the text. Graphical displays revealed the pain ‘landscape’ described in the textual records and confirmed dramatically increasing levels of pain in the last years of life in all but two patients, all of whom died from metastatic cancer. Severe pain was associated with receipt of opioids (OR=6.6, p<0.0001) and palliative radiation (OR=3.4, p=0.0002). Surprisingly, no severe or controlled pain was detected in two of 33 subjects’ clinical records. Additionally, the NLP algorithm proved generalizable in an evaluation using a separate data source (889 Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) discharge summaries). Discussion Patterns in the pain experience, undetectable without the use of NLP to mine the longitudinal clinical record, were consistent with clinical expectations, suggesting that meaningful NLP-based pain status monitoring is feasible. Findings in this initial cohort suggest that ‘outlier’ pain phenotypes useful for probing the molecular basis of cancer pain may exist. Limitations The results are limited by a small cohort size and use of proprietary NLP software. Conclusions We have established the feasibility of tracking longitudinal patterns of pain by text mining of free text clinical records. These methods may be useful for monitoring pain management and identifying novel cancer phenotypes. PMID:23144336
Heintzelman, Norris H; Taylor, Robert J; Simonsen, Lone; Lustig, Roger; Anderko, Doug; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Childs, Lois C; Bova, George Steven
of medical images. Many diagnostic imaging modalities, such as x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), digital radiography, and ultrasound are currently available and are routinely used
The automatic analysis of medical narratives currently suffers from neglecting text structure phenomena such as referential relations between discourse units. This has unwarranted effects on the descriptional adequacy of medical knowledge bases automatically generated from texts. The resulting representation bias can be characterized in terms of incomplete, artificially fragmented and referentially invalid knowledge structures. We focus here on four basic types of textual reference relations, viz. pronominal and nominal anaphora, textual ellipsis and metonymy and show how to deal with them in an adequate text parsing device. Since the types of reference relations we discuss show an increasing dependence on conceptual background knowledge, we stress the need for formally grounded, expressive conceptual representation systems for medical knowledge. Our suggestions are based on experience with MEDSYNDIKATE, a medicaltext knowledge acquisition system designed to properly deal with various sorts of discourse structure phenomena. PMID:10075128
Medieval Islamic medicine in the late Omeyad and early Abbasid periods was based on works translated from the Greek, Sanskrit, Persian, Nabatean and Syriac languages, combining their own experiences in medical practice with the knowledge obtained from these. The majority of sources translated were Greek works; among them, those of Hippocrates and Galen were used prominently. From the theoretical standpoint, medieval Islamic medicine was based on the principles determined by Hippocrates. On the other hand, translations in different fields of medicine were done by specialists in those fields, who also authored their own works. Among them are such well-known figures as Abu Bakr el-Razi, Ibn Sina and Ibn el-Nafis. Islamic medicine saw a brilliant development during the Ayyubid period: with the establishment of many hospitals, clinical medicine and practical experience gained importance. these hospitals were at the same time centres of medical education and training. It is also in this period that the first medical school of the Muslim world was set up in Damascus by Mühezzebüddin el-Dahvar (d. 1231). Medical literature in Turkish originated in the framework of Islamic culture, as was in other fields of science. Early medical works in Turkish were translated from Arabic and Persian in the beginning of the 13th century. Original works in Turkish started to be produced from the end of the 13th and beginning of the 14th centuries. The volume of Turkish medical literature increased considerably throughout the Ottoman period. This experience and the accumulation of references facilitated the acquisition of modern medical knowledge. This paper is an overview of thirteen major works on medicine which were translated into Turkish in the middle of the 15th century. PMID:11624884
The drive to quality-manage medical education has created a need for valid measurement instruments. Validity evidence includes the theoretical and contextual origin of items, choice of response processes, internal structure, and interrelationship of a measure's variables. This research set out to explore the validity and potential utility of an…
Health-related popular articles are easily found among media sources. With the increasing popularity of the internet, medical information--full of misconceptions--has become easily available to the lay people. The ability to recognize misconceptions may require good biomedical knowledge. In this sense, we decided to use articles from the internet…
Oliveira, Julia Martins; Mesquita, Diego Martins; Hermes-Lima, Marcelo
Potentially inappropriate prescribing for older adults is a major public health concern. While there are multiple measures of potentially inappropriate prescribing, the medication appropriateness index (MAI) is one of the most common implicit approaches published in the scientific literature. The objective of this narrative review is to describe findings regarding the MAI's reliability, comparison of the MAI with other quality measures of potentially inappropriate prescribing, its predictive validity with important health outcomes, and its responsiveness to change within the framework of randomized controlled trials. A search restricted to English-language literature involving humans aged 65+ years from January 1992 to June 2013 was conducted using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases using the search term 'medication appropriateness index'. A manual search of the reference lists from identified articles and the authors' article files, book chapters, and recent reviews was conducted to identify additional articles. A total of 26 articles were identified for inclusion in this narrative review. The main findings were that the MAI has acceptable inter- and intra-rater reliability, it more frequently detects potentially inappropriate prescribing than a commonly used set of explicit criteria, it predicts adverse health outcomes, and it is able to demonstrate the positive impact of interventions to improve this public health problem. We conclude that the MAI may serve as a valuable tool for measuring potentially inappropriate prescribing in older adults. PMID:24062215
\\u000a The analysis of video recorded surgical procedures is considered to be a useful extension of the medical curriculum. We can\\u000a foster the development of video-based e-learning courses by working out a unified description method which would facilitate\\u000a the exchange of these materials between different platforms. Sophisticated metadata enables a broader integration of artificial\\u000a intelligence techniques into e-learning. The aim of
Background & objectives: The relationship between obesity and self perception, particularly in children and young adults has important implications for physical and psychosocial health and well-being. A better understanding of this relationship could help target psychology services and public health strategies more effectively. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on physical self concept and cognition of the first year medical undergraduate students in a medical college in north India. The relationship between physical self concept and academic performance and presence of any gender differences were also examined. Methods: The study was carried out on 18-21 yr old first year M.B.B.S. students of Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India. Physical self concept was assessed using short version of Physical Self Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) which is a psychometrically strong instrument for measuring multiple dimensions of physical self-concept. Cognition was assessed by P300 evoked potentials and academic performance was evaluated on the basis of marks obtained in anatomy, physiology and biochemistry subjects. Results: There was no association between BMI and physical self-concept or between BMI and cognition. Gender differences on physical self-concept were also insignificant. No correlation was seen between physical self-concept and academic performance. Interpretation & conclusion: The present results suggest that negative consequences of high body mass index on physical self-concept and cognition are not seen in young adults. It may be that academic achievement nullifies the effect on physical self-concept and the effect on cognition accumulates as the age progresses, therefore, appears later in life. PMID:24434258
This study is an application of the relationship of serial articles published to serial articles cited, developed in theory in the author's “Statistical Bibliography in the Health Sciences” (Bulletin 50: 450-461, July 1962). A ranked list of the indexes of significance of most of the serials indexed in Current List of Medical Literature was derived and erected from 21,000 citations secured in a random sampling of 1962 and 1961 biomedical journals regularly received in the Yale Medical Library. The author measures the gross indexing effectiveness of Current List against his indexes of significance, offers his method and results as means to reach objective standards for indexing and abstracting, and projects his results as measures of general value of the serials analyzed. PMID:5952248
Background and aims This survey was conducted to provide statistical data regarding publications in PubMed-indexed journals from Tabriz University of Medical Sciences Faculty of Dentistry. Materials and methods The database used for this study was PubMed. The search was conducted using key words including the names of the heads of the departments. Papers published between January 1, 2005 and April 31, 2012 were considered. The retrieved abstracts were reviewed and unrelated articles were excluded. Data were transferred to Microsoft Excel software for descriptive statistical analyses. Results A total of 158 papers matched the inclusion criteria, with the majority from the Department of Endodontics (49 articles). The highest proportion (48.3%) of papers was related to in vitro studies, followed by clinical trials, in vivo studies, and case reports. The number of publications showed a considerable increase over the studied period. Conclusion PubMed-indexed publications from different departments have increased steadily, suggesting that research has become an essential component in the evaluated institute. PMID:23277865
Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Mokhtari, Hadi
Background Since their inception, Twitter and related microblogging systems have provided a rich source of information for researchers and have attracted interest in their affordances and use. Since 2009 PubMed has included 123 journal articles on medicine and Twitter, but no overview exists as to how the field uses Twitter in research. Objective This paper aims to identify published work relating to Twitter within the fields indexed by PubMed, and then to classify it. This classification will provide a framework in which future researchers will be able to position their work, and to provide an understanding of the current reach of research using Twitter in medical disciplines. Methods Papers on Twitter and related topics were identified and reviewed. The papers were then qualitatively classified based on the paper’s title and abstract to determine their focus. The work that was Twitter focused was studied in detail to determine what data, if any, it was based on, and from this a categorization of the data set size used in the studies was developed. Using open coded content analysis additional important categories were also identified, relating to the primary methodology, domain, and aspect. Results As of 2012, PubMed comprises more than 21 million citations from biomedical literature, and from these a corpus of 134 potentially Twitter related papers were identified, eleven of which were subsequently found not to be relevant. There were no papers prior to 2009 relating to microblogging, a term first used in 2006. Of the remaining 123 papers which mentioned Twitter, thirty were focused on Twitter (the others referring to it tangentially). The early Twitter focused papers introduced the topic and highlighted the potential, not carrying out any form of data analysis. The majority of published papers used analytic techniques to sort through thousands, if not millions, of individual tweets, often depending on automated tools to do so. Our analysis demonstrates that researchers are starting to use knowledge discovery methods and data mining techniques to understand vast quantities of tweets: the study of Twitter is becoming quantitative research. Conclusions This work is to the best of our knowledge the first overview study of medical related research based on Twitter and related microblogging. We have used 5 dimensions to categorize published medical related research on Twitter. This classification provides a framework within which researchers studying development and use of Twitter within medical related research, and those undertaking comparative studies of research, relating to Twitter in the area of medicine and beyond, can position and ground their work. PMID:25075237
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Whitely Index (WI), the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS), and the Somatosensory Amplification Scale (SAS). The study population consisted of 130 general medical outpatients, 113 general practice patients, and 204 subjects from the general population. The factorial structure of the IAS appeared to consist of two subscales,
Anne E. M. Speckens; Philip Spinhoven; Peter P. A. Sloekers; Jan H. Bolk; Albert M. van Hemert
Mobile Assessment and Treatment for Schizophrenia (MATS) employs ambulatory monitoring methods and cognitive behavioral therapy interventions to assess and improve outcomes in consumers with schizophrenia through mobile phone text messaging. Three MATS interventions were developed to target medication adherence, socialization, and auditory hallucinations. Participants received up to 840 text messages over a 12-week intervention period. Fifty-five consumers with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were enrolled, but 13 consumers with more severe negative symptoms, lower functioning, and lower premorbid IQ did not complete the intervention, despite repeated prompting and training. For completers, the average valid response rate for 216 outcome assessment questions over the 12-week period was 86%, and 86% of phones were returned undamaged. Medication adherence improved significantly, but only for individuals who were living independently. Number of social interactions increased significantly and a significant reduction in severity of hallucinations was found. In addition, the probability of endorsing attitudes that could interfere with improvement in these outcomes was also significantly reduced in MATS. Lab-based assessments of more general symptoms and functioning did not change significantly. This pilot study demonstrated that low-intensity text-messaging interventions like MATS are feasible and effective interventions to improve several important outcomes, especially for higher functioning consumers with schizophrenia. PMID:22080492
Granholm, Eric; Ben-Zeev, Dror; Bradshaw, Kristen R.; Holden, Jason L.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of a medical food (Souvenaid) on body mass index (BMI) and functional abilities in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN\\/SETTING\\/PARTICIPANTS\\/INTERVENTION \\/MEASUREMENTS: These analyses were performed on data from a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, controlled, multicenter, proof-of-concept study with a similarly designed and exploratory 12-week extension period. Patients with mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination score of
P. J. Kamphuis; F. R. J. Verhey; M. G. M. Olde Rikkert; J. W. R. Twisk; S. H. N. Swinkels; P. Scheltens
Women are at higher risk than men for developing major depressive disorder (MDD), but the mechanisms underlying this higher risk are unknown. Here, we report proportionally normalized ?-[11C]methyl-L-tryptophan brain trapping constant (?-[11C]MTrp K*N), an index of serotonin synthesis, in 25 medication-free individuals with MDD and in 25 gender- and age-matched healthy subjects who were studied using positron emission tomography (PET).
Benicio N. Frey; Ivan Skelin; Yojiro Sakai; Masami Nishikawa; Mirko Diksic
Background contextThe impact of lumbar spinal surgery is commonly evaluated with three patient-reported outcome measures: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), the physical component summary (PCS) of the Short Form of the Medical Outcomes Study (SF-36), and pain scales. A minimum clinically important difference (MCID) is a threshold used to measure the effect of clinical treatments. Variable threshold values have been proposed
Anne G. Copay; Steven D. Glassman; Brian R. Subach; Sigurd Berven; Thomas C. Schuler; Leah Y. Carreon
Documentation of the care delivered to hospitalized patients is a ubiquitous and important aspect of medical care. The majority of references to documentation and coding are based on the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Group (MS-DRG) inpatient prospective payment system (IPPS). We educated the members of a clinical care team in a single department (neurosurgery) at our hospital. We measured subsequent documentation improvements in a simple, meaningful, and reproducible fashion. We created a new metric to measure documentation, termed the “normalized case mix index,” that allows comparison of hospitalizations across multiple unrelated MS-DRG groups. Compared to one year earlier, the traditional case mix index, normalized case mix index, severity of illness, and risk of mortality increased one year after the educational intervention. We encourage other organizations to implement and systematically monitor documentation improvement efforts when attempting to determine the accuracy and quality of documentation achieved.
Rosenbaum, Benjamin P.; Lorenz, Robert R.; Luther, Ralph B.; Knowles-Ward, Lisa; Kelly, Dianne L.; Weil, Robert J.
and industrial use represent one of the most widely used MEMS products in the medical field as part speculate that CMUTs can be the next big MEMS product in the medical field. In the early years of researchCapacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers for medical imaging and therapy This article has
Finding full-text Science Times articles on Proquest Databases by using the New York Times Web site with the first few sentences of the article. 8. Copy the title. 9. In a separate window, open the Proquest://www.lib.washington.edu/types/databases/. If connecting from off the UW campus, log in using the proxy server.** 10. Paste the article title
literature on the latest information in patient care, such as side effects of a medication, symptoms- come, positive outcome, negative outcome, and neu- tral outcome. A supervised learning method is used Unified Medical Language System is effective in the task. The effect of context information is significant
Background Poor adherence to antipsychotic medication is a widespread problem, and the largest predictor of relapse in patients with psychosis. Electronic reminders are increasingly used to improve medication adherence for a variety of medical conditions, but have received little attention in the context of psychotic disorders. We aimed to explore the feasibility and acceptability of including short message service (SMS) medication reminders in the aftercare plan of service users discharged from inpatient care on maintenance antipsychotic medication. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, trust-wide survey in the inpatient units of the Oxleas National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust in the UK between June 29 and August 3, 2012. Using a self-report questionnaire and the Drug Attitude Inventory, we examined inpatient attitudes towards antipsychotic drugs, past adherence to antipsychotic medication, frequency of mobile phone ownership, and interest in receiving SMS medication reminders upon discharge from the ward. Predictors of a patient’s interest in receiving electronic reminders were examined using simple logistic regression models. Results Of 273 inpatients, 85 met eligibility criteria for the survey, showed decisional capacity, and agreed to participate. Of the 85 respondents, over a third (31-35%) admitted to have forgotten to take/collect their antipsychotic medication in the past, and approximately half (49%) to have intentionally skipped their antipsychotics or taken a smaller dose than prescribed. Male patients (55%), those with negative attitudes towards antipsychotics (40%), and those unsatisfied with the information they received on medication (35%) were approximately 3 to 4 times more likely to report past intentional poor adherence. The large majority of respondents (80-82%) reported having a mobile phone and knowing how to use SMS, and a smaller majority (59%) expressed an interest in receiving SMS medication reminders after discharge. No variable predicted a patient’s interest in receiving electronic reminders of antipsychotics. Conclusions Automatic SMS reminders of antipsychotic medication were acceptable to the majority of the survey respondents as an optional service offered upon discharge from inpatient care. Automatic electronic reminders deserve further investigation as a flexible, minimally invasive, cost-effective and broadly applicable tool that can potentially improve antipsychotic adherence and clinical outcomes. PMID:24447428
Qian Yang He Ji (QYHJ) is a traditional Chinese medicine composed of Digitalis purpurea, Uncaria gambir, Fructus tribuli terrestris, and Ligustrum lucidum. Here, we explored whether combining an antihypertensive angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) therapy with QYHJ can improve the arterial functionality of hypertensive patients. One hundred and eight hypertensive patients were randomized into 2 groups; 1 group (n = 53) was treated with ARB and the other group (n = 55) was treated with ARB combined with QYHJ. Each of the 2 groups included 3 subgroups (pure hypertension, hypertension with diabetes, and hypertension with coronary heart disease) and was further divided into patients with and without complications. The cardioankle vascular index and intima-media thickness and pulse pressure were the outcome evaluation parameter. Combined QYHJ and ARB treatment reduced the values of cardioankle vascular index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure to significantly lower levels than ARB treatment alone did in hypertension patients after 6 months of treatment. ARB improves hypertension, but a combined QYHJ treatment can additionally ameliorate the arterial functionality not only in solely hypertensive patients but also in hypertensive patients with diabetes and coronary heart disease complications. QYHJ coapplication might be a choice to further improve the arterial functionality during an ARB hypertension treatment. PMID:23188130
Xu, Yan; Yan, Hua; Yao, Min J; Ma, Jie; Jia, Jun M; Ruan, Fen X; Yao, Zeng C; Huang, Hua M; Zheng, Jing; Chen, Ting; Lv, Hua; Endler, Alexander M
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to discuss how text messaging offers a variety of ways to stay vital and visible to younger patrons with whom libraries most need to establish a relationship to ensure their future. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The paper discusses narrowcasting, one-to-one communication and reference queries, all methods of text messaging Findings – Even with the
The ability of the Response Bias Scale (RBS) and the Henry-Heilbronner Index (HHI), along with several other MMPI-2 validity scales, to predict performance on two separate stand-alone symptom validity tests, the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM) and the Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), was examined. Findings from this retrospective data analysis of outpatients seen within a Veterans Affairs medical center (N = 194) showed that group differences between those passing and failing the TOMM were largest for the RBS (d = 0.79), HHI (d = 0.75), and Infrequency (F; d = 0.72). The largest group differences for those passing versus failing the MSVT were greatest on the HHI (d = 0.83), RBS (d = 0.80), and F (d = 0.78). Regression analyses showed that the RBS accounted for the most variance in TOMM scores (20%), whereas the HHI accounted for the most variance in MSVT scores (26%). Nonetheless, due to unacceptably low positive and negative predictive values, caution is warranted in using either one of these indices in isolation to predict performance invalidity. PMID:23493404
Millions of people search online for medicaltext, but these texts are often too complicated to understand. Readability evaluations are mostly based on surface metrics such as character or words counts and sentence syntax, but content is ignored. We compared four types of documents, easy and difficult WebMD documents, patient blogs, and patient educational material, for surface and content-based metrics.
Abstract Medical Informatics has a constant need for basic Medical Language Processing tasks, e.g., for coding into controlled vocabularies, free textindexing and information retrieval. Most of these tasks involve term matching and rely on lexical resources: lists of words with attached information, including in- flected forms and derived words, etc. Such resources are publicly available for the English language
Pierre Zweigenbaum; Robert Baud; Anita Burgun; Fiammetta Namer
Discusses indexing in large text databases, approximate text searching, and space-time tradeoffs for indexedtext searching. Studies the space overhead and retrieval times as functions of the text block size, concludes that an index can be sublinear in space overhead and query time, and applies the analysis to the Web. (Author/LRW)
Which features are the most important for the text classification tasks? In the automatic text categorization area, several studies seek answers to this question. In this paper, a feature extraction tool for Turkish texts (Text2arff) is presented. The toolbox automatically extracts several features such as the frequencies of the words and ngrams, word clustering, Latent semantic indexing etc. The features
M. F. Amasyali; F. Davletov; A. I. Torayew; U. C?iftçi
Background Schizophrenia is a high-cost, chronic, serious mental illness. There is a clear need to improve treatments and expand access to care for persons with schizophrenia, but simple, tailored interventions are missing. Objective To evaluate the impact of tailored mobile telephone text messages to encourage adherence to medication and to follow up with people with psychosis at 12 months. Methods Mobile.Net is a pragmatic randomized trial with inpatient psychiatric wards allocated to two parallel arms. The trial will include 24 sites and 45 psychiatric hospital wards providing inpatient care in Finland. The participants will be adult patients aged 18–65 years, of either sex, with antipsychotic medication (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical classification 2011) on discharge from a psychiatric hospital, who have a mobile phone, are able to use the Finnish language, and are able to give written informed consent to participate in the study. The intervention group will receive semiautomatic system (short message service [SMS]) messages after they have been discharged from the psychiatric hospital. Patients will choose the form, content, timing, and frequency of the SMS messages related to their medication, keeping appointments, and other daily care. SMS messages will continue to the end of the study period (12 months) or until participants no longer want to receive the messages. Patients will be encouraged to contact researchers if they feel that they need to adjust the message in any way. At all times, both groups will receive usual care at the discretion of their team (psychiatry and nursing). The primary outcomes are service use and healthy days by 12 months based on routine data (admission to a psychiatric hospital, time to next hospitalization, time in hospital during this year, and healthy days). The secondary outcomes are service use, coercive measures, medication, adverse events, satisfaction with care, the intervention, and the trial, social functioning, and economic factors. Data will be collected 12 months after baseline. The outcomes are based on the national health registers and patients’ subjective evaluations. The primary analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Trial Registration International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 27704027; http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN27704027 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/69FkM4vcq) PMID:23611874
Progress is reported on the development of a partial syntactic analysis technique for indexingtext. Although over 500,000 words of text have been indexed, this report is limited to the analysis of results at the 115,000 word level. There is the expectation that the error rate of commission, the selection of grammatically incorrect word sequences,…
The Text-Pac System is capable of generating indexes and bulletins to provide a current information service without the selectivity feature. Indexes of the accumulated data base may also be used as a basis for manual retrospective searching. The manual search involves searching computer-prepared indexes from a machine readable data base produced…
The technology underlying text search engines has advanced dramatically in the past decade. The development of a family of new index representations has led to a wide range of innovations in index storage, index construction, and query evaluation. While some of these developments have been consolidated in textbooks, many specific techniques are not widely known or the textbook descriptions are
With the widespread use of full-text information retrieval,passage-retrieval techniques are becoming increasinglypopular. Larger texts can then be replacedby important text excerpts, thereby simplifying the retrievaltask and improving retrieval effectiveness. Passagelevelevidence about the use of words in local contextsis also useful for resolving language ambiguities and improvingretrieval output.Two main text decomposition strategies are introducedin this study, including a...
Gerard Salton; Amit Singhal; Chris Buckley; Mandar Mitra
Objective To assess whether the obesity paradox persists in the long term and to study the effect of optimal medical treatment on this phenomenon. Design A retrospective cohort study. Setting A tertiary care centre in Rotterdam. Participants From January 2000 to December 2005, 6332 patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for coronary artery disease were categorised into underweight (body mass index (BMI)<18.5), normal (18.5–24.9), overweight (25–29.9) and obese (>30). Primary outcome measure Mortality. Secondary outcome measures Cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Results Optimal medical treatment was more common in obese patients as compared with normal weight patients (85% vs 76%; p<0.001). At a mean of 6.1?years, overweight and obese patients had a lower risk of all-cause mortality (HR: 0.75, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.86 and HR: 0.72, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.87, respectively). After adjusting for OMT in the multivariate analysis, BMI did not remain an independent predictor of long-term mortality (HR: 0.90, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.12 and HR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.43, respectively). Conclusion BMI is inversely related to long-term mortality in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention. Patients with a normal BMI are on suboptimal medical treatment when compared with those with a high BMI. A more optimal medical treatment in the obese group may explain the observed improved outcome in these patients. PMID:22327630
Schenkeveld, Lisanne; Magro, Michael; Oemrawsingh, Rohit M; Lenzen, Mattie; de Jaegere, Peter; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; Serruys, Patrick W
Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing is a novel approach to automated document indexing which is based on a statistical latent class model for factor analysis of count data. Fitted from a training corpus of text documents by a generalization of the Expectation Maximization algorithm, the utilized model is able to deal with domain-specific synonymy as well as with polysemous words. In
The volume of biomedical literature has experienced explosive growth in recent years. This is reflected in the corresponding increase in the size of MEDLINE, the largest bibliographic database of biomedical citations. Indexers at the US National Library of Medicine (NLM) need efficient tools to help them accommodate the ensuing workload. After reviewing issues in the automatic assignment of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) to biomedical text, we focus more specifically on the new subheading attachment feature for NLM's MedicalTextIndexer (MTI). Natural Language Processing, statistical, and machine learning methods of producing automatic MeSH main heading/subheading pair recommendations were assessed independently and combined. The best combination achieves 48% precision and 30% recall. After validation by NLM indexers, a suitable combination of the methods presented in this paper was integrated into MTI as a subheading attachment feature producing MeSH indexing recommendations compliant with current state-of-the-art indexing practice. PMID:19166973
Névéol, Aurélie; Shooshan, Sonya E; Humphrey, Susanne M; Mork, James G; Aronson, Alan R
We present results from Oregon Health & Science University's participation in the medical image retrieval task of ImageCLEF 2008. We created a web-based retrieval system built on a full-textindex of the annotations using a Ruby on Rails framework. The text-based search engine was implemented in Ruby using Ferret, a port of Lucene. In addition to this textual index of
Jayashree Kalpathy-cramer; Steven Bedrick; William Hatt; William R. Hersh
Abstract: VD, the result is not nearlyas good: only 36% correct. The authors conclude thatthe reorganization of information by SVD somehow correspondsto human psychology.We have studied high-dimensional random distributedrepresentations, as models of brainlike representation ofinformation (Kanerva, 1994# Kanerva & Sjodin, 1999).In this poster we report on the use of such a representationto reduce the dimensionality of the originalwords-by-contexts matrix. The
This work focuses on some aspects of automatic text processing by using a metric named po defined in a working prototype WIB (Web Intelligent Browser). The word weighting generated by this metric is defined with morphosyntactic considerations and allows the categorization of text words in fuzzy clusters. This weighting could also be used as a model of the original text
, family history and risk factors. Find out what health screenings, exams and immunizations you need or other qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Reliance on any information provided by these websites is solely at your own risk. APS is not responsible
Striving to become the "immigration resource directory on the net," the Immigration Index is a newly launched Website dedicated to news and information about immigration worldwide. Along with breaking headlines from a variety of news sources about immigration-related issues such as asylum, migration, trafficking and women, and much more, the site contains a fully annotated collection of links to immigration materials all around the World Wide Web. Only a month old, some of the categories in the Index's hierarchy still need some filling in. In time, however, the Immigration Index promises to become an invaluable resource for interested parties.
... A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products ... been altered or updated since it was archived. Enter Search terms Medical Devices Home Medical Devices Resources for You ( ...
In today's fast-paced world, it is becoming increasingly difficult to understand and act promptly upon the content of the many information streams available to us. TextPool addresses this problem by quickly summarizing recent content in live text streams, such as newswires and closed captioning. The summarization is a dynamically changing textual collage that clusters related terms. We tested TextPool with
Conrad Albrecht-buehler; Benjamin Watson; David A. Shamma
Background: Rape has a negative impact on physical and mental health, health-related behaviors, and health service utilization. Timely medical care is important for preventive services.Methods: Cross-sectional data were obtained from a larger 2-year longitudinal study, the National Women’s Study (NWS). A total of 3006 adult women participated in the final data collection wave of the NWS. During a structured telephone
Heidi S Resnick; Melisa M Holmes; Dean G Kilpatrick; Gretchen Clum; Ron Acierno; Connie L Best; Benjamin E Saunders
ABSTRACT Many large collections of full-text documents,are currently,stored,in machine-readable form and processed automatically in various ways. These collections may include different types of documents, such as messages, research articles, and books, and the subject matter may vary widely. To process such collections, robust text analysis methods must be used, capable of handling materials in arbitrary subject areas, and flexible access
Clinical narratives, such as radiology and pathology reports, are commonly available in electronic form. However, they are also commonly entered and stored as free text. Knowledge of the structure of clinical narratives is necessary for enhancing the productivity of healthcare departments and facilitating research. This study attempts to automatically segment medical reports into semantic sections. Our goal is to develop a robust and scalable medical report segmentation system requiring minimum user input for efficient retrieval and extraction of information from free-text clinical narratives. Hand-crafted rules were used to automatically identify a high-confidence training set. This automatically created training dataset was later used to develop metrics and an algorithm that determines the semantic structure of the medical reports. A word-vector cosine similarity metric combined with several heuristics was used to classify each report sentence into one of several pre-defined semantic sections. This baseline algorithm achieved 79% accuracy. A Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier trained on additional formatting and contextual features was able to achieve 90% accuracy. Plans for future work include developing a configurable system that could accommodate various medical report formatting and content standards. PMID:19965054
MeSH indexing of MEDLINE is becoming a more difficult task for the group of highly qualified indexing staff at the US National Library of Medicine, due to the large yearly growth of MEDLINE and the increasing size of MeSH. Since 2002, this task has been assisted by the MedicalTextIndexer or MTI program. We extend previous machine learning analysis by adding a more diverse set of MeSH headings targeting examples where MTI has been shown to perform poorly. Machine learning algorithms exceed MTI’s performance on MeSH headings that are used very frequently and headings for which the indexing frequency is very low. We find that when we combine the MTI suggestions and the prediction of the learning algorithms, the performance improves compared to any single method for most of the evaluated MeSH headings. PMID:24551371
Yepes, Antonio Jose Jimeno; Mork, James G.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Aronson, Alan R.
LOOK program permits user to examine text file in pseudorandom access manner. Program provides user with way of rapidly examining contents of ASCII text file. LOOK opens text file for input only and accesses it in blockwise fashion. Handles text formatting and displays text lines on screen. User moves forward or backward in file by any number of lines or blocks. Provides ability to "scroll" text at various speeds in forward or backward directions.
Query-by-keyword is the paradigm on which machine-based text search is still based. Elaborating on the success of text-based\\u000a search engines, query-by-keyword also gains momentum in multimedia retrieval. For multimedia archives it is hard to achieve\\u000a access, however, when based on text alone. Multimodal indexing is essential for effective access to video archives. For the\\u000a automatic detection of specific concepts, the
Cees G. M. Snoek; Marcel Worring; Jan-Mark Geusebroek; Dennis C. Koelma; Frank J. Seinstra; Arnold W. M. Smeulders
With the dramatic growth of text information, there is an increasing need for powerful text mining systems that can automatically discover useful knowledge from text. Text is generally associated with all kinds of contextual information. Those contexts can be explicit, such as the time and the location where a blog article is written, and the…
This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.
There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.
There are many applications in which the automatic detection and recognition of text embedded in images isuseful. These applications include multimedia systems, digital libraries, and Geographical Information Systems.When machine generated text is printed against clean backgrounds, it can be converted to a computer readbleform (ASCII) using current Optical Character Recognition (OCR) technology. However, text is often printedagainst shaded or textured
We present an algorithm for aligning texts with their translations that is based only on internal evidence. The relaxation process rests on a notion of which word in one text corresponds to which word in the other text that is essentially based on the similarity of their distributions. It exploits a partial alignment of the word level to induce a
Beyond labeling it easier to process than other types, few researchers who use technical text in their work try to define what it is. This paper describes a study that investigates the character of texts typically considered technical. We identify 42 features of a text considered likely to correlate with its degree of technicality. These include both objectively verifiable measures
Terry Copeck; Ken Barker; Sylvain Delisle; Stan Szpakowicz; Jean-François Delannoy
Music is a particular case of audio media that has peculiar requirements for retrieval. Its representation, parallelism and multiple features are some examples of the challenges encountered. In this paper, these challenges are characterized and the techniques commonly used for classification, indexing and searching of music content are described. Whenever possible, comparisons are drawn with text information retrieval.
Ismail Shakra; Gustavo Frederico; Abdulmotaleb El Saddik
Abstract: This research proposes a new strategy where documents are encoded into string vectors and modified version of k means algorithm to be adaptable to string vectors for text clustering. Traditionally, when k means algorithm is used for pattern classification, raw data should be encoded into numerical vectors. This encoding may be difficult, depending on a given application area of pattern classification. For example, in text clustering, encoding full texts given as raw data into numerical vectors leads to two main problems: huge dimensionality and sparse distribution. In this research, we encode full texts into string vectors, and modify the k means algorithm adaptable to string vectors for text clustering.
Digital watermarking applies to variety of media including image, video, audio and text. Because of the nature of digital\\u000a text, its watermarking methods are special. Moreover, these methods basically depend on the script used in the text. This\\u000a paper reviews application of digital watermarking to Farsi (Persian) and similar scripts (like Arabic, Urdu and Pashto) which\\u000a are substantially different from
Those persons who do their own website design will find TextImages most useful. Developed by Stefan Trost, this helpful tool allows users to integrate text written on images into their websites. Visitors can create single text images with this application, along with a wide range of pictures. Visitors also have the ability to precisely adjust the writing, design, format, style, colors, fonts, margins, and spacing as they see fit. The tool is particularly useful for those who want headings or other recurring text to look the same regardless of browser or available fonts. This version is compatible with Windows 7, XP, and Vista.
File Comparator program IFCOMP, is text file comparator for IBM OS/VScompatable systems. IFCOMP accepts as input two text files and produces listing of differences in pseudo-update form. IFCOMP is very useful in monitoring changes made to software at the source code level.
This paper addresses the problem of learning to classify texts by exploiting information derived from both training and testing sets. To accomplish this, clustering is used as a complementary step to text classi- fication, and is applied not only to the training set but also to the testing set. This approach allows us to estimate the location of the testing
A comparison of recently proposed parallel text search methods to alternative available search strategies that use serial processing machines suggests parallel methods do not provide large-scale gains in either retrieval effectiveness or efficiency.
_Internet Web Text_ links users to information about Internet orientation, guides, reference materials, browsing and exploring tools, subject- and word-oriented searching tools, and information about connecting with people.
Machine translation (MT) from text, the topic of this chapter, is perhaps the heart of the GALE project. Beyond being a well defined application that stands on its own, MT from text is the link between the automatic speech recognition component and the distillation component. The focus of MT in GALE is on translating from Arabic or Chinese to English. The three languages represent a wide range of linguistic diversity and make the GALE MT task rather challenging and exciting.
Habash, Nizar; Olive, Joseph; Christianson, Caitlin; McCary, John
Emotion can be expressed in many ways that can be seen such as facial expression and gestures, speech and by written text. Emotion Detection in text documents is essentially a content - based classification problem involving concepts from the domains of Natural Language Processing as well as Machine Learning. In this paper emotion recognition based on textual data and the techniques used in emotion detection are discussed.
... Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention Medication Errors Within the Center for Drug Evaluation and ... broader product safety issues. Drug Products Associated with Medication Errors FDA Drug Safety Communication: Serious medication errors ...
Video structuring and indexing are two crucial processes for multi-media document understanding and information retrieval. This paper presents a novel approach in automatic structuring and indexing lecture videos for an educational video system. By structuring and indexing video content, we can support both topic indexing and semantic querying of multimedia documents. In this paper, our goal is to extract indices of topics and link them with their associated video and audio segments. Two main techniques used in our proposed approach are video image analysis and video text analysis. Using this approach, we obtain accuracy of over 90.0% on our test collection.
Text Exchange System (TES) exchanges and maintains organized textual information including source code, documentation, data, and listings. System consists of two computer programs and definition of format for information storage. Comprehensive program used to create, read, and maintain TES files. TES developed to meet three goals: First, easy and efficient exchange of programs and other textual data between similar and dissimilar computer systems via magnetic tape. Second, provide transportable management system for textual information. Third, provide common user interface, over wide variety of computing systems, for all activities associated with text exchange.
The Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) is an annual event that supports "research within the information retrieval community by providing the infrastructure necessary for large-scale evaluation of text retrieval methodologies." Proceedings of the conference covering all twelve years of its history are available on the TREC homepage. As TREC has evolved, it has added several focus areas that span new and different topics in information retrieval. These tracks mainly examine methods of searching and filtering different types of data, including genomic records, digital video, and data that is given in multiple languages.
The Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) is an "international and interdisciplinary standard that helps libraries, museums, publishers, and individual scholars represent all kinds of literary and linguistic texts for online research and teaching." The site offers information about the TEI consortium; recommendations for the encoding of textual material in various languages; TEI Tutorials that provide introductory and advanced teaching materials, presentations, and user case studies; a history archive of TEI publications and working papers; and much more. This site is primarily for individuals who already possess some knowledge of material encoding.
As electronically mediated communication becomes more prevalent, print is regaining the original pictorial qualities which graphemes (written signs) lost when primitive pictographs (or picture writing) and ideographs (simplified graphemes used to communicate ideas as well as to represent objects) evolved into first written, then printed, texts of…
Here's the tricky part: If we teach ourselves and our students that texts are made to be broken apart, remixed, remade, do we lose the polymorphous perversity that brought us pleasure in the first place? Does the pleasure of transgression evaporate when the borders are opened?
Clustering data streams has been a new research topic, recently emerged from many real data mining applications, and has attracted a lot of research attention. However, there is little work on clustering high-dimensional streaming text data. This paper combines an efficient online spherical k-me ans (OSKM) algorithm with an existing scalable clustering strategy to achieve fast and adaptive clustering of
Home > News [-] Text [+] By EurekAlert Email Print retweet 1 tweet RSS Feeds Newsletters Bookmark identify and quantify the TICs in a matter of seconds." To create the sensor array, the researchers print Awards Subscribe Page 1 of 3Opto-electronic nose sniffs out toxic gases | R&D Mag 10/14/2009http
#12;[Type text] #12;1 I. Introduction. The ongoing shifts in relative power and increasing Â preferably with partners and allies, but alone if necessary Â to deter and defeat acts of aggression. For all national interests and advance international security and stability. #12;2 deter and defeat aggression
Visualizing is a reading comprehension strategy that can be applied to science-themed texts, according to this article from Beyond Weather and the Water Cycle, a magazine that integrates literacy and science skills instruction. The author identifies six online resources that have activities, lesson plans, and more information.
This brief video from WPSU compares technologies from yesterday with today. Yesterday a middle school girl writes in cursive while today a girl the same age texts on her cell. The video suggests that science will bring us technologies of tomorrow.
The Laboratory for Computational Physiology is collecting a large database of patient signals and clinical data from critically ill patients in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). The data will be used as a research ...
.g. ACA Â ACA only Â 5,483 notes (2,543 patients) `adeno carcinoma' or `adenocarcinoma' only Â 299,714 notes (66,057 patients) ACA and (`adeno carcinoma' or `adenocarcinoma') Â 1,209 notes (880 patients for ACA and DJD, increasing the sensitivity or recall for the search. August 25, 2005 Supervised Methods
Although Indian doctors produce half the articles published from the third world, little has been written about Indian medical journals. We examined 75 of the 113 serious English-language journals published in India. Of the 22 included in the Cumulated Index Medicus only 8 were judged by Indian and foreign referees to be of international standard. A survey of Indian authors indicated that foreign journals were chosen for the best papers because of their wider circulation, better refereeing practices, and punctuality. More than 98% of medical articles from India probably go unnoticed by the international medical community. PMID:1351561
Sahni, P; Reddy, P P; Kiran, R; Reddy, K S; Pande, G K; Nundy, S
in given text. After all of these calculations, appropriate indexes were determined. In an attempt to segment multi-paragraph expository texts, Hearst used lexical co-occurrence to estimate semantic relatedness  . Sentences were evaluated... to determine word overlap across the sentences. The connectivity that resulted was used to determine where segmentation of ideas should occur. Text was broken up into sentences and word overlap was measured across these sentences. High overlap indicated a...
Created by the Reception of Texts Project at the Open University, this pilot database is designed to help practitioners of reception studies "address issues of performance with the same degree of rigour and attention to evidence which is expected in textual studies and to develop ways of documenting performance which recognise its cross disciplinary and creative dimensions." To that end, academics and students in classical studies, literature, theater studies, and related fields can use this database to search for information on the performances of Greek plays in the original and in adaptations, versions and translations in English from c.1970 to the present, and in the future, poetry in English which draws on Greek texts, myths, and images. The database offers nine search categories, each with a slightly different search format, some offering only a simple keyword search, others with multiple modifiers, and others with pull-down menus for browsing. With the exception of the Critical Works category, searches ultimately return a Production Details page which generally includes modern and original title, year, theater, dates of performance, company, and music, design, and general notes. A useful feature throughout the database is a Missing Information form, which allows users to submit additional or missing information about specific entries.
Ergito's Virtual Text, started in 2000, was created to provide a more timely and interactive alternative to printed scientific textbooks at the undergraduate and graduate level. This still-developing Web site covers life science writ large, including molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and so on. However, only a small number of features are available free of charge. The first chapter of the molecular biology module -- Genes are DNA -- is available for free, as is Great Experiments, a collection of essays written by authors who conducted original research that has contributed greatly to our understanding of molecular and cellular biology. Great Experiments has a recently added essay by 2001 Nobel Prize winner Paul Nurse, titled "The Discovery of cdc2 as the Key Regulator of the Cell Cycle." These essays are formatted just as the Virtual Text pages are, with downloadable figures, a glossary, an online note-taking feature (notes are automatically compiled with a summary of the essay), glossary, and more. Ergito will soon make available Techniques, another free feature offering descriptions of widely used experimental protocols. Even without free access to the larger body of material in this Web site, Ergito is a fantastic resource for learning about molecular and cellular biology. Users must complete a free registration process to access this Web site.
The world's philosophical and religious traditions have found a fine home at the Internet Sacred Text Archive, which, as the homepage notes, is "a quiet place in cyberspace devoted to religious tolerance and scholarship." Working together with a number of colleagues and volunteers, JB Hare has compiled this vast archive of sacred and philosophical texts from a number of public-domain sources and placed them on the site. What makes the site so intriguing is that Hare has placed detailed information about the sources and standards that have been deployed for each separate project, which will be of great interest to scholars. While the entire site can be searched, there is much to be learned by looking through the topics listed on the main page, which range from Atlantis to Zoroastrianism. Each separate topic contains a number of accurately transcribed (and some times, translated) primary and secondary documents, such as first-hand collections of oral traditions. For persons looking for their own copy of the material contained on the site, a CD-ROM is available for purchase as well.
NASA's Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has many products that contain instantaneous or gridded rain rates often among many other parameters. However, these products because of their completeness can often seem intimidating to users just desiring surface rain rates. For example one of the gridded monthly products contains well over 200 parameters. It is clear that if only rain rates are desired, this many parameters might prove intimidating. In addition, for many good reasons these products are archived and currently distributed in HDF format. This also can be an inhibiting factor in using TRMM rain rates. To provide a simple format and isolate just the rain rates from the many other parameters, the TRMM product created a series of gridded products in ASCII text format. This paper describes the various text rain rate products produced. It provides detailed information about parameters and how they are calculated. It also gives detailed format information. These products are used in a number of applications with the TRMM processing system. The products are produced from the swath instantaneous rain rates and contain information from the three major TRMM instruments: radar, radiometer, and combined. They are simple to use, human readable, and small for downloading.
Information technology may help physicians to manage information more effectively through more accessible clinical indexes, databases of diagnostic test characteristics, computerized audits of clinical activities, on-line access to medical literature, etc. Medical informatics, a new discipline dedicated to the solution of information problems in…
Maintained by Nelson Hilton, Professor of English at the University of Georgia-Athens, this site will quickly become a favorite of Blake scholars. In addition to the full text of David V. Erdman's The Complete Poetry and Prose of William Blake, the site features a hypertext version of Songs of Innocence and of Experience which allows users to explore the various versions of Blake's masterpiece and "proceed from any given poem to any other which followed it in any edition, looping through the various juxtapositions Blake created in the intratextual, echoing world of Songs." In addition, the site also includes a powerful Blake Concordance. Concordance results link to a three-line context in the bottom frame of the page.
As this website proclaims, visitors of the page will find "Timeless TextsÃ¢ÂÂ and Ã¢ÂÂCutting-Edge Code,Ã¢ÂÂ culled from the words of the Bard. This code refers to the source code that users can download from the site, allowing interested parties to develop new noncommercial Shakespeare projects and apps. To get started, visitors can access the Read a Play feature. There's a brief introduction to the editions here, courtesy of Barbara Mowat and Paul Werstine. In the About Us section visitors can learn more about this lovely project and also take a look at links to their digital image collection and a range of K-12 teaching resources.
This well-organized and very thorough website was developed by the physicist Stanislav Sykora with the aim of providing free online texts, theses, and course materials on the subjects of magnetic resonance (MR), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear-magnetic resonance (NMR) and other related topics. The amount of material on the site is impressive. At the top of the page are links to an "MR Blog", as well as to "MR Links" and the "Site Plan & SEARCH". The NMR/MRI Extras section on the right side of the page is particularly useful for visitors interested in all things about MR. Its links to "Events" provides an up-to-date list of symposia, conferences, and meetings, along with links to the events' sites. The "Societies" link offers at least 50 groups about MR, some of which are country-based, and others that are region- or application-based.
The Integrated Medical Model (IMM) is a probabilistic model that estimates medical event occurrences and mission outcomes for different mission profiles. IMM simulation outcomes describing the impact of medical events on the mission may be used to optimize the allocation of resources in medical kits. Efficient allocation of medical resources, subject to certain mass and volume constraints, is crucial to ensuring the best outcomes of in-flight medical events. We implement a new approach to this medical kit optimization problem. METHODS We frame medical kit optimization as a modified knapsack problem and implement an algorithm utilizing a dynamic programming technique. Using this algorithm, optimized medical kits were generated for 3 different mission scenarios with the goal of minimizing the probability of evacuation and maximizing the Crew Health Index (CHI) for each mission subject to mass and volume constraints. Simulation outcomes using these kits were also compared to outcomes using kits optimized..RESULTS The optimized medical kits generated by the algorithm described here resulted in predicted mission outcomes more closely approached the unlimited-resource scenario for Crew Health Index (CHI) than the implementation in under all optimization priorities. Furthermore, the approach described here improves upon in reducing evacuation when the optimization priority is minimizing the probability of evacuation. CONCLUSIONS This algorithm provides an efficient, effective means to objectively allocate medical resources for spaceflight missions using the Integrated Medical Model.
the file title for saving, the described method enables the user to save time by informing him/her about is an important issue for the webmaster improving the indexation of web pages. Let us note that titling that the covering rate of those words present in titles, is very high in the first sentences of a text. Permission
There has been a recent upsurge of interest in computational studies of large bodies of text. The aim of such studies varies widely, from lexicography and studies of language change to automatic indexing methods and statistical models for improving the performance of speech recognition systems and optical character readers. In general, corpus-based studies are critical for the development of adequate
... Those who go to medical school spend most of the first 2 years in labs and classrooms, taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, pharmacology, psychology, microbiology, pathology, medical ethics, and medical law. They ...
... the Eye Glossary Current News How to Help Botox (Medical) Share with a friend Botox (Medical) A link to this article will be ... any list. Close without sharing. Give Us Feedback Botox (Medical) Your name First Name MI Laast Name ...
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SYMED, Inc., developed a unique electronic medical records and information management system. The S2000 Medical Interactive Care System (MICS) incorporates both a comprehensive and interactive medical care support capability and an extensive array of digital medical reference materials in either text or high resolution graphic form. The system was designed, in cooperation with NASA, to improve the effectiveness and efficiency of physician practices. The S2000 is a MS (Microsoft) Windows based software product which combines electronic forms, medical documents, records management, and features a comprehensive medical information system for medical diagnostic support and treatment. SYMED, Inc. offers access to its medical systems to all companies seeking competitive advantages.
Web search engines indextext represented in symbolic form. However, it is well known that a fraction of the text on the web is present in the form of images, and the textual content of these images is not indexed by the search engines. This fact immediately raises a few questions: i) What frac- tion of the images on the
Summarizes the experimental evidence that indicates that textindexing systems based on the assignment of appropriately weighted single terms produce retrieval results superior to those obtained with more elaborate text representations, and provides baseline single term indexing models with which more elaborate content analysis procedures can be…
Medical Matrix is a Web resource that offers a database of Internet clinical medicine resources. Medical Matrix categorizes resources by disease, specialty, and other interest areas. It is designed as a "home page" for a physician's or healthworker's computer. Medical Matrix is a project of the Internet Working Group of the American Medical Informatics Association.
From the NIST Physics Laboratory Physical Reference Data Page, this new addition "provides access to the holdings of NIST Physics Laboratory online data organized by element." The index (accessible in frames, no-frames, or text-only versions) simplifies the process of retrieving online data for each element in the periodic table. By clicking on the element, users may simply choose from a selection of information in the categories of atomic spectra data, x-ray and gamma ray data, radiation dosimetry data, nuclear physics data, and condensed matter physics data. The site is an excellent data reference for users to bookmark.
Background—The appropriate medical treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis is determined largely by the severity of symptoms. Hospital assessment of the severity of disease activity includes investigation of laboratory indices and sigmoidoscopic assessment of mucosal inflammation.Aims—To develop a simplified clinical colitis activity index to aid in the initial evaluation of exacerbations of colitis.Methods—The information for development of the simple index
algorithms). 3 #12;DATA-WAREHOUSING E-COMMERCE Shallow Text Processing Core Components Named Entities Tokens Phrases Clause structure Word Stems Document Indexing/Retrieval Information Extraction Text Classification
This study seeks to increase our understanding of the structure of Medical Informatics. In particular, it focuses on the relationships between information science and information technology on the one hand, and biomedical research, clinical practice, and medical education on the other, that have defined "medical informatics." Using indexing terms and MeSH tree structures assigned to medical informatics literature covered by MEDLINE, co-occurrence analysis provides a "map" of the field. Major research and application focuses arrayed within the map elucidate a finer structure than reported previously. Dimensions "Techniques vs. Systems" and "Signs & Symptoms vs. Processes" form the two axes of the map and relate to the relationships underlying the indexing assignments given to the literature studied. Related studies underway using the INSPEC database will provide a complementary perspective on the structure of medical informatics as a field. PMID:11079952
A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.
Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)
A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.
Guilfoyle, Richard A. (Madison, WI); Guo, Zhen (Bellevue, WA)
We propose a new node centrality measure in networks, the lobby index, which is inspired by Hirsch’s h-index. It is shown that in scale-free networks with exponent ? the distribution of the l-index has power tail with exponent ?(?+1). Properties of the l-index and extensions are discussed.
Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.
Sophisticated text similarity measurements are used to determine relationships between natural-language texts and text excerpts. The resulting linked hypertext maps can be decomposed into text segments and text themes, and these decompositions are usable to identify different text types and text structures, leading to improved text access and utilization. Examples of text decomposition are given for expository and non-expository texts.
The rapid growth of video data leads to an urgent demand for efficient and true contentbased browsing and retrieving systems. In response to such needs, various video content analysis schemes using one or a combination of image, audio, and text information in videos have been proposed to parse, index, or abstract massive amount of data text in video is a very compact and accurate clue for video indexing and summarization. Most video text detection and extraction methods hold assumptions on text color, background contrast, and font style. Moreover, few methods can handle multilingual text well since different languages may have quite different appearances. In this paper, an efficient overlay text detection and extraction method is implemented which deals with complex backgrounds. Based on our observation that there exist transient colors between inserted text and its adjacent background. It is robust with respect to font size, style text, color, orientation and noise and can be used in a large variety of application fields such as mobile robot navigation vehicle license detection and recognition, object identification , document retrieving, etc.
Continuous sedation until death (CSD), the act of reducing or removing the consciousness of an incurably ill patient until death, often provokes medical-ethical discussions in the opinion sections of medical and nursing journals. Some argue that CSD is morally equivalent to physician-assisted death (PAD), that it is a form of "slow euthanasia." A qualitative thematic content analysis of opinion pieces was conducted to describe and classify arguments that support or reject a moral difference between CSD and PAD. Arguments pro and contra a moral difference refer basically to the same ambiguous themes, namely intention, proportionality, withholding artificial nutrition and hydration, and removing consciousness. This demonstrates that the debate is first and foremost a semantic rather than a factual dispute, focusing on the normative framework of CSD. Given the prevalent ambiguity, the debate on CSD appears to be a classical symbolic struggle for moral authority. PMID:23180260
We present a model for predicting expert text entry rates for several input methods on a 12-key mobile phone keypad. The model includes a movement component based on Fitts' law and a linguistic component based on digraph, or letter-pair, probabilities. Predictions are provided for one-handed thumb and two-handed index finger input. For the traditional multi-press method or the lesser-used two-key
Miika Silfverberg; I. Scott MacKenzie; Panu Korhonen
Work on a computer program called SMILE + IBP (SMart Index Learner Plus Issue-Based Prediction) bridges case-based reasoning\\u000a and extracting information from texts. The program addresses a technologically challenging task that is also very relevant\\u000a from a legal viewpoint: to extract information from textual descriptions of the facts of decided cases and apply that information\\u000a to predict the outcomes of new cases.
The Computerized Severity Index (CSI) is a commercially available scoring system for hospital inpatients. Trained abstractors review the patient's paper medical record and enter the diagnoses and relevant physiological attributes. The HELP (Health Evaluation through Logical Processing) System at LDS Hospital stores patient data in discrete codes. This paper describes the development of an automatic interface between the standalone, personal-computer-based severity system and the mainframe-based hospital information system. The interface scores patient severity without the need for manual chart review. Severity scores from the automated and manual methods were identical for 70% of 222 general medical patients scored retrospectively. An evaluation of the causes for differing scores between the two methods is presented. PMID:7949945
Medical neglect occurs when children are harmed or placed at significant risk of harm by gaps in their medical care. This is most likely to occur and to be recognized when families lack resources, commonly due to poverty, and when medical demands are high, such as with complex, severe, and chronic illness. A systematic evaluation of the probabilities for harm from gaps in care versus benefits from improved care will define medical neglect. A broad consideration of child, family, community, and medical system contributions to identified gaps will guide management. Special circumstances, such as lapsed immunizations, unremitting obesity, and medically motivated alterations in care, are often challenging for medical providers. Guidance for these specific situations is available from the American Academy of Pediatrics, and from the medical literature. [Pediatr Ann. 2014;43(11):e253-e259.]. PMID:25369577
... Educator Questions, Comments, Concerns? 800 . 338 . 3633 Taking Medication Diabetes is a progressive condition. Depending on what ... healthcare team will be able to determine which medications they should be taking and help them understand ...
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The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.
... the lower right-hand corner of the player. Medical Marijuana HealthDay August 26, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Chronic ... the American Medical Association found that states with medical marijuana laws had an average 25% lower opiate overdose ...
This exploratory, descriptive study assessed psychiatric medication use in two samples. Students in three social work courses and practicing social workers in a midwestern city were surveyed by mail. Respondents were asked to identify symptoms, psychiatric medication use, effectiveness of drug therapy, side effects, stigma, and to rate the impact of psychiatric medication use on their current or future social
......................................................................................................................... 294 xiii LIST OF FIGURES Page Figure 1 Frequency of MLA-indexed articles on "ink" 1937-2007. ..................... 11 Figure 2 Frequency of MLA-indexed articles on markup languages 1987-2007. 15 Figure 3 Google...: increased text size eliminates access to navigational links. .................................................................................. 57 Figure 9 Basic layout of Google News, showing multiple layers...
This paper addresses the value of linguistically-motivated indexing (LMI) for document and text retrieval. After reviewing the basic concepts involved and the assumptions on which LMI is based, namely that complex index descriptions and terms are necessary, I consider past and recent research on LMI, and specifically on automated LMI via NLP. Experiments in the first phase of research, to
information retrieval, text search is a means for identifying relevant documents [Salton83, Lee8585, Salton89, Burkowski91]. Indexing is usually described from the point of view of implementation, for example, by giving an algorithm for the indexing [Salton81, Salton89, Gonnet91]. However, since the way
Advances in DNA sequencing mean that databases of thousands of human genomes will soon be commonplace. In this paper, we introduce a simple technique for reducing the size of conventional indexes on such highly repetitive texts. Given upper bounds on pattern lengths and edit distances, we pre-process the text with the lossless data compression algorithm LZ77 to obtain a filtered text, for which we store a conventional index. Later, given a query, we find all matches in the filtered text, then use their positions and the structure of the LZ77 parse to find all matches in the original text. Our experiments show that this also significantly reduces query times. PMID:24751871
Dow Jones Indexes has created the Dow Jones Internet Index (DJII) to bring "an ordered perspective" to "the seeming chaos of Internet stocks." The new index includes companies that generate a minimum of 50 percent of their revenues from the Internet. Complete documentation of DJII components, data, historical values, and news are provided on-site.
) Center Department of Radiology Georgetown University SPIE Medical Imaging 2006 2 Main Themes Â· Describe the major modalities in radiology (medical imaging) Â· Essential Physics and Engineering Â· Strengths Medical Imaging 2006 14 Skeletal MRI Scan of Head and Neck Region cpmcnet.columbia.edu/dept/radiology
Text similarity measurements are used to determine relationships between natural-language texts and text excerpts. The resulting linked hypertext maps can be broken down into text segments and themes used to identify different text types and structures, leading to improved information access and utilization. Examples are provided for text…
Automated medical concept recognition is important for medical informatics such as medical document retrieval and text mining research. In this paper, we present a software tool called keyphrase identification program (KIP) for identifying topical concepts from medical documents. KIP combines two functions: noun phrase extraction and keyphrase identification. The former automatically extracts noun phrases from medical literature as keyphrase candidates.
Current textindexing and retrieval techniques have their roots in the field of Information Retrieval where the task is to extract documents that best match a query. With an ever increasing number of documents available due to the easy access through the Internet, the challenge is to provide users with concise and relevant information. We are proposing here a novel,
Description logics and related formalisms are being applied in at least v e applica- tions in medical informatics|terminology, intelligent user interfaces, decision sup- port and semantic indexing, language technology, and systems integration. Impor- tant issues include size, complexity, connectivity, and the wide range of granularity required|medical terminologies require on the order of 250,000 concepts, some in- volving a dozen or
Vector Space Model ( VSM ) is usually used to express text features in text mining with huge dimension, but it can not show the structure of the text set obviously and costs much in computing. A new pursuit projection based text clustering algorithm is proposed. With minimizing (or maximizing) a projecting index, Projection Pursuit searches for an optimal projection
A data acquisition tool which will extract pertinent diagnostic information from radiology reports has been designed and implemented. Pertinent diagnostic information is defined as that clinical data which is used by the HELP medical expert system. The program uses a memory based semantic parsing technique to “understand” the text. Moreover, the memory structures and lexicon necessary to perform this action are automatically generated from the diagnostic knowledge base by using a special purpose compiler. The result is a system where data extraction from free text is directed by an expert system whose goal is diagnosis.
HIV Medicine is an online medical textbook that provides comprehensive and timely information on HIV treatment. Chapters include background information on Acute HIV-1 Infection, and a detailed guide to HIV Therapy. There is also current information about side effects, Lipodystrophy Syndrome, and resistance testing. The online textbook includes an impressive, in-depth index of HIV drugs. Editors Christian Hoffmann and Bernd Sebastian Kamps have years of experience in the medical field and provide free and anonymous access of their text to the public. Collaborators include Nyasha Bakare, MD who has worked at the Research Institute for Genetic and Human Therapy (RIGHT) since 2001, and has been working on the clinical development of a therapeutic HIV vaccine. This Web site is easy to navigate and its layout nicely mirrors the organization of a paper textbook. It will be useful as a research tool for college and graduate students as well as for the layperson who desires more in-depth information on HIV and treatments. Join the mailing list to be notified of new chapters and updates. [TJS
Anticholinergic and sedative medications are commonly used in older adults and are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. The Drug Burden Index was developed to measure the cumulative exposure to these medications in older adults and its impact on physical and cognitive function. This narrative review discusses the research and clinical applications of the Drug Burden Index, and its advantages and limitations, compared with other pharmacologically developed measures of high-risk prescribing.
Kouladjian, Lisa; Gnjidic, Danijela; Chen, Timothy F; Mangoni, Arduino A; Hilmer, Sarah N
Among the urban Pakistani youth, SMS texts have become of critical importance in mediating religious and aesthetic sensations in unexpected domains of everyday life. Although grounded in a distinct valuation of the moral bearing of language upon individuals, texting religious messages is not simply a new way of pursuing a ‘traditional’ form of sociality. Texting reactivates religious texts with an
Authentic or popular texts--such as newspapers, grocery lists, magazines, and pamphlets--can be used effectively in reading instruction. This article first discusses the importance and usefulness of environmental print, or authentic texts, in the context of formal schooling. It then presents a list of authentic texts (several kinds of texts for…
... Evidence Links High Glycemic Index Foods and Dairy Products to Acne 2013-02-20 Medical Nutrition Therapy ... particularly from high glycemic load diets and dairy products, and that medical nutrition therapy (MNT) can play ...
...system of coding and indexingmedical records. The system must allow...procedure, in order to support medical care evaluation studies. (3) The hospital must...alter patient records. Original medical records must be released...
...system of coding and indexingmedical records. The system must allow...procedure, in order to support medical care evaluation studies. (3) The hospital must...alter patient records. Original medical records must be released...
...system of coding and indexingmedical records. The system must allow...procedure, in order to support medical care evaluation studies. (3) The hospital must...alter patient records. Original medical records must be released...
SYMPTOM-FOCUSED PSYCHIATRIC DRUG THERAPY FOR MANAGED CARE. S. Joseph, MD, PhD, MPH. Binghamton, NY: The Haworth Medical Press, 1997, 510 pp., $89.95, hardcover; $39.95, softcover, ISBN 0-7890-0194-2.DIALOGUES. Abbey Strauss. Huntington, WV: University Editions, Inc., 1994, 201pp., $11.95.INNOVATING IN COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH: INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVES. Rockwell Schultz and James R. Greens (Editors). Praeger, 1995, 192pp., $49.95.PREVENTING CHILDHOOD DISORDERS, SUBSTANCE ABUSE, AND DELINQUENCY.
Nicholas A. Cummings; Robert D. Weitz; Ai R. Mahren; Brad Donohue
For a concise summary of the medical assistant profession the Medical Assistants entry in the Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook is must read. The site covers topics ranging from the nature of the profession, working conditions, earnings, and more. The section on training, qualifications and advancement will be of special interest to medical assistant faculty and students. The section on sources of addition information will also be a good launching point for anyone seeking additional online resources.
If medical confidentiality is not observed patients may well be reluctant to disclose information to their doctors or even to seek medical advice. Therefore, argues the author, it is of the utmost importance that doctors strive to protect medical confidentiality, particularly now when it is under threat not only in this country but also overseas. The profession must cease to regard ethical issues to do with confidentiality, and indeed to do with all areas of medical practice, as abstract phenomena requiring no justification. If it does not then it will come under increasing and justified criticism from the community it serves. PMID:3981576
A pdf file that can be read using the free Abode Acrobat Reader or, for more functionality, with Acrobat Pro ($). The eBook's figures, equations, sections, chapters, index, table of contents, code listings, glossary, animations and executable codes (both Applets and Python programs) are linked, much like in a Web document. There are also links to video-based lectures covering most topics in the text, as well as to the slides used in the lectures. Section 1.2 of the text discusses how to use the various electronic features. Some movies are encapsulated into the text and some equations are linked to their xml forms (which can be imported into Maple or Mathematica for manipulation).
Automatic music genre classification is one of the most challenging problems in music information retrieval and management of digital music database. In this paper, we propose a new framework using text category methods to classify music genres. This framework is different from current methods for Music genre classification. In our framework, we consider music as text-like semantic music document, which is represented by a set of music symbol lexicons with a HMM (Hidden Markov Models) cluster. Music symbols can be seemed as high-level features or semantic features like beats or rhythms. We use latent semantic indexing (LSI) technique that is widely adopted in text categorization for music genre classification. From the experimental results, we could achieve an average recall over 70 % for ten musical genres. 1.
Text analysis devices, articles of manufacture, and text analysis methods are described according to some aspects. In one aspect, a text analysis device includes processing circuitry configured to analyze initial text to generate a measurement basis usable in analysis of subsequent text, wherein the measurement basis comprises a plurality of measurement features from the initial text, a plurality of dimension anchors from the initial text and a plurality of associations of the measurement features with the dimension anchors, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to access a viewpoint indicative of a perspective of interest of a user with respect to the analysis of the subsequent text, and wherein the processing circuitry is configured to use the viewpoint to generate the measurement basis.
Turner, Alan E; Hetzler, Elizabeth G; Nakamura, Grant C
This article outlines a model of the two basic components of a text, namely, the system of formal linguistic rules, and the realization of these rules into concrete discourse, by means of particular transformations. (Text is in French.) (CLK)
What is meant by text complexity is a measurement of how challenging a particular text is to read. There are a myriad of different ways of explaining what makes text challenging to read, from the sophistication of the vocabulary employed to the length of its sentences to even measurements of how the text as a whole coheres. Research shows that no…
The Common Core State Standards emphasize the value of teaching students to engage with complex text. But what exactly makes a text complex, and how can teachers help students develop their ability to learn from such texts? The authors of this article discuss five factors that determine text complexity: vocabulary, sentence structure, coherence,…
This article presents 34 characteristics of texts and tasks ("text features") that can make continuous (prose), noncontinuous (document), and quantitative texts easier or more difficult for adolescents and adults to comprehend and use. The text features were identified by examining the assessment tasks and associated texts in the national…
A variety of exercises based on manipulation of a single text are described. The activities involve replacing words or phrases in the text with synonyms or opposites, transposing gender, changing tenses, filling in blanks, and answering multiple-choice questions about linguistic forms. Three brief sample texts are offered. (MSE)
Choice of texts for use in French language instruction is discussed. It is argued that the text's format (e.g., advertising, figurative poetry, journal article, play, prose, etc.) is instrumental in bringing attention to the language in it, and this has implications for the best uses of different text types. (MSE)
To gain meaningful access to the curriculum, students with reading difficulties must overcome substantial barriers imposed by the printed materials they are asked to read. Technology can assist students to overcome these challenges by enabling a shift from printed text to electronic text. By electronic text it means textual material read using a…
Recent years have seen a formalization of medication review by pharmacists in all settings of care. This article describes the different types of medication review provided in primary care in the UK National Health Service (NHS), summarizes the evidence of effectiveness and considers how such reviews might develop in the future. Medication review is, at heart, a diagnostic intervention which aims to identify problems for action by the prescriber, the clinican conducting the review, the patient or all three but can also be regarded as an educational intervention to support patient knowledge and adherence. There is good evidence that medication review improves process outcomes of prescribing including reduced polypharmacy, use of more appropriate medicines formulation and more appropriate choice of medicine. When ‘harder’ outcome measures have been included, such as hospitalizations or mortality in elderly patients, available evidence indicates that whilst interventions could improve knowledge and adherence they did not reduce mortality or hospital admissions with one study showing an increase in hospital admissions. Robust health economic studies of medication reviews remain rare. However a review of cost-effectiveness analyses of medication reviews found no studies in which the cost of the intervention was greater than the benefit. The value of medication reviews is now generally accepted despite lack of robust research evidence consistently demonstrating cost or clinical effectiveness compared with traditional care. Medication reviews can be more effectively deployed in the future by targeting, multi-professional involvement and paying greater attention to medicines which could be safely stopped. PMID:22607195
Blenkinsopp, Alison; Bond, Christine; Raynor, David K
This paper investigates whether abnormal returns permanently exist in transparent U.S. Russell index reconstitution and provides\\u000a evidence to disentangle the competing hypotheses associated with the index effect in the literature. Additions to Russell\\u000a 1000 generate cumulative excess returns of 10.9% from 2 days before May 31 to June 30 while stocks deleted from Russell 2000\\u000a Growth Index suffer cumulative loss
Texts are routinely simplified for language learners with authors relying on a variety of approaches and materials to assist them in making the texts more comprehensible. Readability measures are one such tool that authors can use when evaluating text comprehensibility. This study compares the Coh-Metrix Second Language (L2) Reading Index, a…
Crossley, Scott A.; Allen, David B.; McNamara, Danielle S.
Text data present in images and video contain useful information for automatic annotation, indexing, and structuring of images. Extraction of this information involves detection, localization, tracking, extraction, enhancement, and recognition of the text from a given image. However, variations of text due to differences in size, style, orientation, and alignment, as well as low image contrast and complex background make
This data set traces the varying patterns of national progress in recent decades, documenting impressive long-term Human Development Index (HDI) gains even in most low-income countries. The data set also includes three innovative new measurements: the Inequality-adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI), the Gender Inequality Index (GII) and the Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI). The data set is available in both CSV and SDMX file formats and contains more than 100 indicators that measure quality of life for all UN member states.
The authors propose a processor which provides useful facilities for implementing text editing commands. The processor now being developed is a component of the general front-end editing system which parses the program text and processes the text. This processor attached to a conventional microcomputer system bus executes screen editing functions. Conventional text editing is a typical application of the microprocessors. But in this paper emphasis is given to the firmware and hardware processing of texts in order that the processor can be fabricated in a single VLSI chip. To increase the overall regularity and decrease the design cost, the basic instructions are text editing oriented with short basic cycles. 6 references.
Text clustering divides a set of texts into clusters (parts), so that texts within each cluster are similar in content. It may be used to uncover the structure and content of unknown text sets as well as to give new perspectives on familiar ones. The main contributions of this thesis are an investigation of text representation for Swedish and some extensions of the work on how to use text clustering as an exploration tool. We have also done some work on synonyms and evaluation of clustering results. Text clustering, at least such as it is treated here, is performed using the vector space model, which is commonly used in information retrieval. This model represents texts by the words that appear in them and considers texts similar in content if they share many words. Languages differ in what is considered a word. We have investigated the impact of some of the characteristics of Swedish on text clustering. Swedish has more morphological variation than for instance English. We show that it is beneficial to use the lemma form of words rather than the word forms. Swedish has a rich production of solid compounds. Most of the constituents of these are used on their
Influence of heliogeophysical factors on medicalindexes is studied. Relationship between changes of these indexes and solar flares, magnetic and ionospheric storms is analyzed. Possibility of forecasting the biotropic effects by using the starting of heliogeophysical events as predictions is showed. Comparisons between calculations and experimental data are provided. Reasonable agreement was obtained. PMID:7495908
Bag-of-words representations are used in many NLP applications, such as text classification and sentiment analysis. These representations ignore relations across different sentences in a text and disregard the underlying ...
Dzunic, Zoran, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
We show how to exploit temporal and spatial coherence of image observations to achieve efficient and effective text detection and decoding for a sensor suite moving through an environment rich in text at a variety of scales ...
starts with a'world'state, represented by structures of an application program (e. g., an expert system) that has text generation needs and an impetus to produce a natu-ral language text. The output of generation is a natural language text. The generation process involves the tasks of a) delimiting the content of the eventual text, b) plano ning its structure, c) selecting
What constitutes an informational text covers a broad swath of different types of texts. Biographies & memoirs, speeches, opinion pieces & argumentative essays, and historical, scientific or technical accounts of a non-narrative nature are all included in what the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) envisions as informational text. Also included…
The idea of "slippery texts" provides a useful descriptor for materials that mutate and evolve across different media. Eight adult gamers, encountering the slippery text "American McGee's Alice," demonstrate a variety of ways in which players attempt to manage their attention as they encounter a new text with many resonances. The range of their…
Describes experiments with Australian high school students that investigated differences in performance on chemistry word problems between two learning strategies: text editing, and conventional problem solving. Concluded that text editing had no advantage over problem solving in stoichiometry problems, and that the suitability of a text editing…
Discussion of the use of information retrieval techniques for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links focuses on automatic text summarization. Topics include World Wide Web links, text segmentation, and evaluation of text summarization by comparing automatically generated abstracts with manually prepared abstracts. (Author/LRW)
In recent years, information retrieval techniques have been used for automatic generation of semantic hypertext links. This study applies the ideas from the automatic link generation research to attack another important problem in text processing—automatic text summarization. An automatic “general purpose” text summarization tool would be of immense utility in this age of information overload. Using the techniques used (by
Gerard Salton; Amit Singhal; Mandar Mitra; Chris Buckley
Automated processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text (news documents, web content, journal articles, etc.) is a key task in many data analysis and decision making applications. As data sizes grow, scalability is essential for deep analysis. In many cases, documents are modeled as term or feature vectors and latent semantic analysis (LSA) is used to model latent, or hidden, relationships between documents and terms appearing in those documents. LSA supplies conceptual organization and analysis of document collections by modeling high-dimension feature vectors in many fewer dimensions. While past work on the scalability of LSA modeling has focused on the SVD, the goal of our work is to investigate the use of distributed memory architectures for the entire text analysis process, from data ingestion to semantic modeling and analysis. ParaText is a set of software components for distributed processing, modeling, and analysis of unstructured text. The ParaText source code is available under a BSD license, as an integral part of the Titan toolkit. ParaText components are chained-together into data-parallel pipelines that are replicated across processes on distributed-memory architectures. Individual components can be replaced or rewired to explore different computational strategies and implement new functionality. ParaText functionality can be embedded in applications on any platform using the native C++ API, Python, or Java. The ParaText MPI Process provides a 'generic' text analysis pipeline in a command-line executable that can be used for many serial and parallel analysis tasks. ParaText can also be deployed as a web service accessible via a RESTful (HTTP) API. In the web service configuration, any client can access the functionality provided by ParaText using commodity protocols ... from standard web browsers to custom clients written in any language.
Dunlavy, Daniel M.; Stanton, Eric T.; Shead, Timothy M.
This paper presents a novel method for the analysis of nonlinear text quality in Chinese language. Texts produced by university students in China were represented as scale-free networks (word adjacency model), from which typical network features such as the in/outdegree, clustering coefficient and network dynamics were obtained. The method integrates the classical concepts of network feature representation and text quality series variation. The analytical and numerical scheme leads to a parameter space representation that constitutes a valid alternative to represent the network features. The results reveal that complex network features of different text qualities can be clearly revealed and applied to potential applications in other instances of text analysis.
Ke, Xiaohua; Zeng, Yongqiang; Ma, Qinghua; Zhu, Lin
, United States of America, 2 Middletown Medical, Middletown, New York, United States of America Abstract Background: Obesity, typically quantified in terms of Body Mass Index (BMI) exceeding threshold values and Tropical Medicine, United States of America Received January 19, 2012; Accepted May 25, 2012; Published
A printed text can be considered a picture on which readers project their own image in order to understand its original meaning. This process is explained via several kinds of original documents. Implications for instruction in reading a foreign language are discussed and several examples are given. (Text is in French.) (AMH)
Explicit semantic analysis (ESA) utilizes an immense Wikipedia index matrix in its interpreter part. This part of the analysis multiplies a large matrix by a term vector to produce a high-dimensional concept vector. A similarity measurement between two texts is performed between two concept vectors with numerous dimensions. The cost is expensive in both interpretation and similarity measurement steps. This paper proposes an economic scheme of ESA, named econo-ESA. We investigate two aspects of this proposal: dimensional reduction and experiments with various data. We use eight recycling test collections in semantic text similarity. The experimental results show that both the dimensional reduction and test collection characteristics can influence the results. They also show that an appropriate concept reduction of econo-ESA can decrease the cost with minor differences in the results from the original ESA. PMID:24790807
This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…
The Universal Index System (UIS) is an index management system that uses a uniform interface to solve the heterogeneity problem among database management systems. UIS provides an easy-to-use common interface to access all underlying data, but also allows different underlying database management systems, storage representations, and access methods.
Kelley, Steve; Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timos; Wallace, Sarah
The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…
A method is described by which a rhetorical-structure tree can be realized by a text structure made up of sections, paragraphs, sentences, vertical lists, and other textual patterns, with discourse connectives added (in the correct positions) to mark rhetorical relations. We show that text-structuring can be formulated as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem, so that all solutions respecting constraints on text-structure
With the advent of centralized data warehouses, where\\u000a data might be stored as electronic documents or as text\\u000a fields in databases, text mining has increased in\\u000a importance and economic value. One important goal in text\\u000a mining is automatic classification of electronic\\u000a documents. Computer programs scan text in a document and\\u000a apply a model that assigns the document to one or
Sholom M. Weiss; Chidanand Apte; Fred J. Damerau; David E. Johnson; Frank J. Oles; Thilo Goetz; Thomas Hampp
Reviews a 1974 East German publication on translation of scientific literature from Russian to German. Considers terminology, different standard levels of translation in East Germany, and other matters related to translation. (Text is in German.) (DH)
Textarc is an unconventional tool that gives readers the opportunity to discover patterns and concepts in texts. Still in a developmental stage, the site offers readers the opportunity to utilize human visual processing by allowing intuition to help extract meaning from a text. By exposing every word at once, the eye is able to make connections and decipher meaning otherwise overlooked by normal reading, thereby exposing the essence of a text. The site currently has Hamlet available as a full textarc text, and is in the process of exposing more literary works. Not only of value for avid readers and literary critics, the site offers librarians and archivists new approaches to cataloguing. On the whole, this new and innovative creation is at a minimum intriguing, and the site is definitely worth a visit.
... pregnancy resulted after a traumatic event such as rape or incest The woman may not wish to ... American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Clinical management guidelines of obstetrician-gynecologists. Medical management of abortion. Obstet Gynecol . 2005 ...
... fluid in the body. Vasodilators (Also known as Nitrates. Nitroglycerin tablets are a form of vasodilator.) Commonly ... include: Isosorbide dinitrate (Isordil) Nesiritide (Natrecor) Hydralazine (Apresoline) Nitrates Minoxidil What the Medication Does Relaxes blood vessels ...
Recent work has shown improvements in text clustering and classifl- cation tasks by integrating conceptual features extracted from ontologies. In this paper we present text mining experiments in the medical domain in which the on- tological structures used are acquired automatically in an unsupervised learning process from the text corpus in question. We compare results obtained using the automatically learned
Research indicates that using a cell phone to talk or text while maneuvering a vehicle impairs driving performance. However, few published studies directly compare the distracting effects of texting using a hands-free (i.e., speech-based interface) versus handheld cell phone, which is an important issue for legislation, automotive interface design and driving safety training. This study compared the effect of speech-based versus handheld text entries on simulated driving performance by asking participants to perform a car following task while controlling the duration of a secondary text-entry task. Results showed that both speech-based and handheld text entries impaired driving performance relative to the drive-only condition by causing more variation in speed and lane position. Handheld text entry also increased the brake response time and increased variation in headway distance. Text entry using a speech-based cell phone was less detrimental to driving performance than handheld text entry. Nevertheless, the speech-based text entry task still significantly impaired driving compared to the drive-only condition. These results suggest that speech-based text entry disrupts driving, but reduces the level of performance interference compared to text entry with a handheld device. In addition, the difference in the distraction effect caused by speech-based and handheld text entry is not simply due to the difference in task duration. PMID:25089769
He, J; Chaparro, A; Nguyen, B; Burge, R J; Crandall, J; Chaparro, B; Ni, R; Cao, S
Medication calculation needs to be completed accurately for proper patient treatment. In this section you will need to review and improve your medication math. Understanding math: Math and Culture Refresher: Take the amount of fluid in the bottle and times that by the dose ordered. Then divide this number by the amount of drug in the bottle. This will give you the volume of the drug that you need to administer. Diagram of formulas Math Formulas Math ...
Medical acoustics can be subdivided into diagnostics and therapy. Diagnostics are further separated into auditory and ultrasonic methods, and both employ low amplitudes. Therapy (excluding medical advice) uses ultrasound for heating, cooking, permeablizing, activating and fracturing tissues and structures within the body, usually at much higher amplitudes than in diagnostics. Because ultrasound is a wave, linear wave physics are generally applicable, but recently nonlinear effects have become more important, even in low-intensity diagnostic applications.
Teachers in today's classrooms struggle every day to design instructional interventions that would build students' reading skills and strategies in order to ensure their comprehension of complex texts. Text complexity can be determined in both qualitative and quantitative ways. In this article, the authors describe various innovative…
Computer programs, like literature, deserve attention not only to conceptual and verbal (linguistic) structure but also to visual structure, i.e., the qualities of alphanumeric text fonts and other graphic symbols, the spatial arrangement of isolated texts and symbols, the temporal sequencing of individual parts of the program, and the use of color (including gray values). With the increasing numbers of
Text categorization is a well-known task based essentially on statistical approaches using neural networks, Support Vector Machines and other machine learning algorithms. Texts are generally considered as bags of words without any order. Although these approaches have proven to be efficient, they do not provide users with comprehensive and reusable rules about their data. Such rules are, however, very important
Previous experimental studies have indicated that young people's text comprehension and summarisation skills can be improved by techniques based on text concept mapping (TCM). However, these studies have done little to elucidate a practical pedagogy that can make the techniques adoptable within the context of typical secondary school classrooms.…
Objective: This research aims to identify the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance. Background: In the past decade, a number of on-road, epidemiological, and simulator-based studies reported the negative impact of talking on a cell phone on driving behavior. However, the impact of text messaging on simulated driving performance is still not fully understood. Method: Forty participants engaged
Frank A. Drews; Hina Yazdani; Celeste N. Godfrey; Joel M. Cooper; David L. Strayer
Factorization (2000) #12;Vector Space Model (1960s and 1970s) Gerard Salton's Information Retrieval System SMART: System for the Mechanical Analysis and Retrieval of Text (Salton's Magical Automatic Retriever of Text Model (1960s and 1970s) Gerard Salton's Information Retrieval System SMART: System for the Mechanical
Text clustering typically involves clusteringin a high dimensional space, whichappears difficult with regard to virtuallyall practical settings. In addition, given aparticular clustering result it is typicallyvery hard to come up with a good explanationof why the text clusters havebeen constructed the way they are. In thispaper, we propose a new approach forapplying background knowledge duringpreprocessing in order to improve clusteringresults
Text clustering typically involves cluster- ing in a high dimensional space, which appears difficult with regard to virtually all practical settings. In addition, given a particular clustering result it is typically very hard to come up with a good ex- planation of why the text clusters have been constructed the way they are. In this paper, we propose a new
Frequent itemset originates from association rule mining. Recently, it has been applied in text mining such as document categorization, clustering, etc. In this paper, we conduct a study on text clustering using frequent itemsets. The main contribution of this paper is three manifolds. First, we present a review on existing methods of document clustering using frequent patterns. Second, a new
Wen Zhang; Taketoshi Yoshida; Xijin Tang; Qing Wang
SUMMARIST is an attempt to create a robust automated text summarization system, based on the 'equation': summarization = topic identification + interpretation + generation. Each of these stages contains several independent modules, many of them trained on large corpora of text. We describe the system's architecture and provide details of some of its modules.
We introduce a methodology for automating the maintenance of domain-specific ontolo- gies based on natural language text understanding. A given taxonomy is incrementally updated as new concepts are acquired from real-world texts. The acquisition proc ess is centered around the linguistic and conceptual \\
Text recycling, also referred to as self-plagiarism, is the reproduction of an author's own text from a previous publication in a new publication. Opinions on the acceptability of this practice vary, with some viewing it as acceptable and efficient, and others as misleading and unacceptable. In light of the lack of consensus, journal editors often have difficulty deciding how to act upon the discovery of text recycling. In response to these difficulties, we have created a set of guidelines for journal editors on how to deal with text recycling. In this editorial, we discuss some of the challenges of developing these guidelines, and how authors can avoid undisclosed text recycling. PMID:25127654
The growth in digital camera usage combined with a worldly abundance of text has translated to a rich new era for a classic problem of pattern recognition, reading. While traditional document processing often faces challenges such as unusual fonts, noise, and unconstrained lexicons, scene text reading amplifies these challenges and introduces new ones such as motion blur, curved layouts, perspective projection, and occlusion among others. Reading scene text is a complex problem involving many details that must be handled effectively for robust, accurate results. In this work, we describe and evaluate a reading system that combines several pieces, using probabilistic methods for coarsely binarizing a given text region, identifying baselines, and jointly performing word and character segmentation during the recognition process. By using scene context to recognize several words together in a line of text, our system gives state-of-the-art performance on three difficult benchmark data sets. PMID:24356356
Using standard data analysis techniques, researchers explore the links between disturbance growth and quasi-geostrophic potential vorticity (PV) gradients; appearance and disappearance of cutoff lows and blocking highs and their relation to a zonal index (properly defined in terms of PV); and teleconnections between different flow patterns and their relation to the zonal index. It was found that the PV index and the eddy index correlate better than a zonal index (defined by zonal wind) and the eddy index. In the frequency domain there are three frequencies (.03, .07 and .17 cpd (cycle per day) corresponding to periods of 33, 14 and 6 days) at which PV index and the eddy index exhibit local maxima. The high correlation found at periods of 33 days is mainly due to eddy activity at high latitudes while the local correlation maxima found at the shorter periods are mainly due mid-latitude eddy activity. The correlation between the PV index and the geopotential height anomaly at 500 mb, at each grid point in the Northern Hemisphere, shows the existence of most of the teleconnection patterns summarized by Wallace and Gutzler (1981): the North Atlantic Oscillation, the North Pacific Oscillation, and the Pacific/North American patterns. Results show that the Isentropic Potential Vorticity (IPV) analysis can be a very useful and powerful tool when used to understand the dynamics of several large scale atmospheric systems. Although the data are limited to only one winter, and it is difficult to assess the statistical significance of the correlation coefficients presented here, the results are encouraging from physical viewpoint.
Cumulative subject, author, publisher, and report number indexes referencing articles, books, reports, and patents are provided. The dynamics of fire, behavior and properties of materials, fire modeling and test burns, fire protection, fire safety, fire service organization, apparatus and equipment, fire prevention suppression, planning, human behavior, medical problems, codes and standards, hazard identification, safe handling of materials, and insurance economics of loss and prevention are among the subjects covered.
Scharff and Ahumada (2002, 2003) measured text legibility for light text and dark text. For paragraph readability and letter identification, responses to light text were slower and less accurate for a given contrast. Was this polarity effect (1) an artifact of our apparatus, (2) a physiological difference in the separate pathways for positive and negative contrast or (3) the result of increased experience with dark text on light backgrounds? To rule out the apparatus-artifact hypothesis, all data were collected on one monitor. Its luminance was measured at all levels used, and the spatial effects of the monitor were reduced by pixel doubling and quadrupling (increasing the viewing distance to maintain constant angular size). Luminances of vertical and horizontal square-wave gratings were compared to assess display speed effects. They existed, even for 4-pixel-wide bars. Tests for polarity asymmetries in display speed were negative. Increased experience might develop full letter templates for dark text, while recognition of light letters is based on component features. Earlier, an observer ran all conditions at one polarity and then switched. If dark and light letters were intermixed, the observer might use component features on all trials and do worse on the dark letters, reducing the polarity effect. We varied polarity blocking (completely blocked, alternating smaller blocks, and intermixed blocks). Letter identification responses times showed polarity effects at all contrasts and display resolution levels. Observers were also more accurate with higher contrasts and more pixels per degree. Intermixed blocks increased the polarity effect by reducing performance on the light letters, but only if the randomized block occurred prior to the nonrandomized block. Perhaps observers tried to use poorly developed templates, or they did not work as hard on the more difficult items. The experience hypothesis and the physiological gain hypothesis remain viable explanations.
Medical transcriptionists are experts in the language of medicine. Describes what they do and what their working conditions, earnings, employment prospects, and training requirements are. Includes sources of additional information. (Author)
The factor analytic development and validation of numerous index scores to measure patient attitudes regarding characteristics of doctors and medical care services is described. Index scores meeting factor analytic criteria and found to be reliable were used to study the nature and number of attitudinal dimensions underlying patient satisfaction. The use of index scores which have met logical and empirical
people with disabilities, the elderly and migrants. However, due to the ambiguity and complexity to disabilities, or who have to read texts in a language they do not have a good command of. In all these cases
The game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs Leizhen Cai Department of Computer@math.nsysu.edu.tw May, 1998. y Abstract This paper discusses the game chromatic index and game coloring index of graphs. We prove that if a graph G is k-degenerate, then its game coloring index is at most #1;+ 3k 1
This study explore the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUH) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur`an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF\\/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF\\/IDF was used for term weighting,
Mohammed Naji Al-Kabi; Ghassan Kanaan; Riyad Al-Shalabi; Saja I. Al-Sinjilawi; Ronza S. Al-Mustafa
This study explores the implementation of a text classification method to classify the prophet Mohammed (PBUB) hadiths (sayings) using Sahih Al-Bukhari classification. The sayings explain the Holy Qur'an, which considered by Muslims to be the direct word of Allah. Present method adopts TF\\/IDF (Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency) which is used usually for text search. TF\\/IDF was used for term weighting,
Social networks are rich in various kinds of contents such as text and multimedia. The ability to apply text mining algorithms effectively in the context of text data is critical for a wide variety of applications. Social networks require text mining algorithms for a wide variety of applications such as keyword search, classification, and clustering. While search and classification are well known applications for a wide variety of scenarios, social networks have a much richer structure both in terms of text and links. Much of the work in the area uses either purely the text content or purely the linkage structure. However, many recent algorithms use a combination of linkage and content information for mining purposes. In many cases, it turns out that the use of a combination of linkage and content information provides much more effective results than a system which is based purely on either of the two. This paper provides a survey of such algorithms, and the advantages observed by using such algorithms in different scenarios. We also present avenues for future research in this area.
MISR Thumbnail Index The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was successfully launched into sun-synchronous polar orbit aboard Terra, ... America Oceans/Seas Arctic Ocean Atlantic Ocean Gulf of Mexico Indian Ocean ...
A searchable index of the CAD Centre, a postgraduate teaching and research unit in design manufacture and engineering management, with research focused on design methods and computer support of the design process for engineering applications.
In this media-rich lesson plan, students explore the refraction of light at the boundary between materials: they learn about the refractive indices of various materials and measure the index of refraction of plastic or gelatin.
This paper addresses the indexing and retrieval of mathematical symbols from digitized documents. The proposed approach exploits\\u000a Shape Contexts (SC) to describe the shape of mathematical symbols. Indexed symbols are represented with a vector space-based\\u000a method that is grounded on SC clustering. We explore the use of the Self Organizing Map (SOM) to perform the clustering and\\u000a we compare several
In this Biodiversity Counts activity, students learn how scientists calculate a biodiversity index using a page from the phone book as their data source. The printable five-page PDF handout includes a series of inquiry-based questions to get students thinking about what they already know about biodiversity and how living and non-living things are connected, step-by-step directions for calculating a biodiversity index, and a worksheet that includes brainstorming questions and areas for recording answers.
The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.
This catalog, maintained by Eric Lease Morgan, a systems librarian at North Carolina State University, specializes in American literature, English literature, and philosophy. Alex is particularly helpful because the search interface allows researchers to both look for documents and search the content of those documents. Users first search standard fields such as author, title, or publication date; then they can search the content of documents they select from their returns list. Though returns in content searches would be more convenient were they hyperlinked to the complete record for the text, such a search nonetheless has obvious utility for someone writing on, for example, flower imagery in Shakespearian sonnets or Emerson's vision of democracy. Another nice feature of the catalog is the ability to convert documents to .pdf files on-the-fly (with the font and spacing customizable). Alternately, users can download the whole collection of American or English literature or philosophy texts and the tools to search the texts.
Identifying molecular biomarkers has become one of the important tasks for scientists to assess the different phenotypic states of cells or organisms correlated to the genotypes of diseases from large-scale biological data. In this paper, we proposed a text-mining-based method to discover biomarkers from PubMed. First, we construct a database based on a dictionary, and then we used a finite state machine to identify the biomarkers. Our method of text mining provides a highly reliable approach to discover the biomarkers in the PubMed database. PMID:23197989
Students learn about the sorts of devices designed by biomedical engineers and the many other engineering specialties that are required in their design of medical diagnostics, therapeutic aids, surgical devices and procedures, and replacement parts. They discuss the special considerations that must be made when dealing with the human body, such as being minimally invasive, biocompatible, keeping sterile, lightweight, corrosion resistant, long lasting and electrically safe. They also explore how "form fits function." Students gain an appreciation for the amazing devices that improve our quality of life. This lesson serves as a starting point for students to begin to ponder how the medical devices in their everyday lives work.
The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. [Name removed] was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned [name removed]'s conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits. PMID:11366533
The library facilities, resource materials, training of librarians and so on are described at first. The library collection is that of middle sized medical library. However, since the facilities are not enough to handle it, it is necessary for the library to be supplemented by information services. Then primary information services such as reading of materials, interlibrary loan and journal acquisition system of the recent issues for each laboratory is outlined. Secondary information services centered around on-line information retrieval service, contents sheet service and preparation of index cards are also described. What a medical library should be is considered in terms of its relation to information services.
This document is part of Subvolume I4 'Inosilicates' of Volume 27 'Magnetic properties of non-metallic inorganic compounds based on transition elements' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III Condensed Matter. It contains the data of the tobermorite group of silicates (Text)
Because public schools are designed to serve the widest range of interests and are committed to the ideal of democracy, teachers cannot afford to avoid teaching works or presenting ideas that offend some members of communities. Students need to learn the value of controversy and of the challenges posed by a text. Richard Wright's "Native Son" and…
Presents three text compression methods of increasing power and evaluates each based on the trade-off between compression gain and processing time. The advantages of using hash coding for speed and optimal arithmetic coding to successor information for compression gain are discussed. (26 references) (Author/CLB)
HERMAN employs Evans & Sutherland Picture System 2 to provide screenoriented editing capability for DEC PDP-11 series computer. Text altered by visual indication of characters changed. Group of HERMAN commands provides for higher level operations. HERMAN provides special features for editing FORTRAN source programs.
In celebration of the work of Claire Kramsch, this article affirms her promotion of the literary text "to enrich and enliven the classroom, making the act of reading reflective and self-reflective, and creating a common culture of interpretation and debate within each classroom." (Author/VWL)
Discusses recent research in reading comprehension, discourse analysis, and literary theory as it bears on the way in which the teaching of literary texts can be integrated into a general approach to the teaching of language as social discourse. Suggests a new approach to integrating language and literature in foreign language teaching. (SED)
This column describes and evaluates almost 40 texts, instructional kits, and teacher resources on values, interpersonal relations, self-awareness, self-help skills, juvenile psychology, and youth suicide. Eight effective picture books for the primary grades and seven titles in values fiction for teens are also reviewed. (SJL)
Creative Writing Text and Context: British and Irish Literature from 1900 to the Present Modernism; Scottish Literature; Contemporary Literature Scottish Universities' International Summer School 7 July Â 16 together students and academics who, irrespective of their national, religious, cultural or gender
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This text is designed to provide teachers, students, and the general public with an overview of key solar energy concepts. Various energy terms are defined and explained. Basic thermodynamic laws are discussed. Alternative energy production is described in the context of the present energy situation. Described are the principal contemporary solar…
, crossÂreferencing [Salton and Buckley, 1989]. 2 #12; Finn A ffi rup Nielsen, DSP, IMM, DTU May 26, 1999 or ``Syntactic''. ffl Vector space, or ``Statistic'' (Gerard Salton, Cornell, [Salton et al., 1975]) DiscreteÂofÂword data matrix is sparse. ffl [Salton and Buckley, 1988]: ``These [text retrieval] results depend
Text document clustering plays an important role in providing in- tuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by organizing large amounts of information into a small number of meaningful clus- ters. The bag of words representation used for these clustering methods is often unsatisfactory as it ignores relationships between important terms that do not co-occur literally. In order to deal with the
Text document clustering plays an important role in pro- viding intuitive navigation and browsing mechanisms by or- ganizing large sets of documents into a small number of meaningful clusters. The bag of words representation used for these clustering methods is often unsatisfactory as it ig- nores relationships between important terms that do not co- occur literally. In order to deal
A critical edition takes into account all the different known versions of the same text in order to show the differ- ences between any two distinct versions. The construction of a critical edition is a long and, sometimes, tedious work. Some software that help the philologist in such a task have been available for a long time for the European
The purpose of this essay is to examine how writing has shaped the nature of the Quarterly over 75 years. Here the author explores how stylistic elements have changed over time, how form has interacted with function and content, and how well the resulting text has served the several communities within physical education. He makes the following…
of Health. The recognition, lexicon reduction, and information retrieval algorithms and experiments System Head Immune System Neck/Cervical Integumentary System Pelvic/Sacrum/Coccyx Musculoskeletal System
Subscribers to the popular news or blog feeds (RSS/Atom) often face the problem of information overload as these feed sources usually deliver large number of items periodically. One solution to this problem could be clustering similar items in the feed reader to make the information more manageable for a user. Clustering items at the feed reader end is a challenging task as usually only a small part of the actual article is received through the feed. In this paper, we propose a method of improving the accuracy of clustering short texts by enriching their representation with additional features from Wikipedia. Empirical results indicate that this enriched representation of text items can substantially improve the clustering accuracy when compared to the conventional bag of words representation.
There is a growing interest for the application of artificial intelligence in law. Research activities have investigated different areas : formulating legislation with the aid of logical models, legal reasoning, case-based reasoning, developing expert systems applied to the juridical or administrative domains. In project A.C.A.T. (Acquisition des connaissances et analyse de textes), we explore the possibility of creating knowledge bases
There are obvious reasons for trying to automate the production of multilingual documentation, especially for routine subject-matter in restricted domains (e.g. technical instructions). Two approaches have been adopted: Machine Translation (MT) of a source text, and Multilingual Natural Language Generation (M-NLG) from a knowledge base. For MT, information extraction is a major difficulty, since the meaning must be derived by
We propose a new spam detection technique using the text clustering based on vector space model. Our method computes disjoint clusters automatically using a spherical k-means algorithm for all spam\\/non-spam mails and obtains centroid vectors of the clusters for extracting the cluster description. For each centroid vectors, the label (`spam' or `non-spam') is assigned by calculating the number of spam
David D. Friedman, Professor of Law at Santa Clara University, has made his textbook, "Price Theory: An Intermediate Text" available on the web. The book focuses on trying to teach students the "economic way of thinking" and the "analytical core of economics -- price theory." Topics covered include consumer choice, market structure and economic efficiency. Price Theory also contains chapters on less conventional topics such as the political marketplace, the economics of law and law breaking; and the economics of love and marriage.
Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects. PMID:9656007
Medical disease sometimes affects patients through neuropsychiatric manifestations. When neuropsychiatric symptoms are predominant, identifying medical disease early in the illness course is imperative because many of these conditions are reversible with appropriate treatment. A high index of suspicion is required on the part of clinicians, particularly when patients also present with physical signs or unexplained symptoms that might suggest a broader, systemic process. The processes that most commonly cause neuropsychiatric symptoms include infectious, autoimmune, endocrinologic, metabolic, and neoplastic diseases. This article focuses on the most common of these conditions, and conditions for which early diagnosis and treatment are particularly important. PMID:25134879
With the goal of creating a single, comprehensive index to American quilts, the Quilt Index builds on the work of 4 state quilt documentation and digitization projects: the Michigan Quilt Project, Kentucky Quilt Project, Illinois Quilt Research Project, and Quilts of Tennessee (more information about these projects is at the site). Currently almost 900 quilt images and pieces of information are searchable in the Quilt Index. The project has established standards for data elements to be collected, and forms to facilitate the addition of quilt documentation from other states. Quilts dating from 1800 to 1999 can be searched by pattern name, quilter's name, location made, date, and collection or documentation project. Searches by pattern name (baby blocks, ocean waves, wedding ring) are possible, but the interface is quite picky about singular and plural. Several ways to browse are also available, such as by collection, period, and style/technique, or choose "view the entire index" to display 887 quilts and records. The Quilt Index is hosted by MATRIX, the humanities technology center at Michigan State University that also hosts H-Net, Humanities and Social Sciences OnLine.
Rapid growth and progress in the medical, industrial, security and technology fields means more and more consideration for the use of camera based optical character recognition (OCR) Applying OCR to scanned documents is quite mature, and there are many commercial and research products available on this topic. These products achieve acceptable recognition accuracy and reasonable processing times especially with trained software, and constrained text characteristics. Even though the application space for OCR is huge, it is quite challenging to design a single system that is capable of performing automatic OCR for text embedded in an image irrespective of the application. Challenges for OCR systems include; images are taken under natural real world conditions, Surface curvature, text orientation, font, size, lighting conditions, and noise. These and many other conditions make it extremely difficult to achieve reasonable character recognition. Performance for conventional OCR systems drops dramatically as the degradation level of the text image quality increases. In this paper, a new recognition method is proposed to recognize solid or dotted line degraded characters. The degraded text string is localized and segmented using a new algorithm. The new method was implemented and tested using a development framework system that is capable of performing OCR on camera captured images. The framework allows parameter tuning of the image-processing algorithm based on a training set of camera-captured text images. Novel methods were used for enhancement, text localization and the segmentation algorithm which enables building a custom system that is capable of performing automatic OCR which can be used for different applications. The developed framework system includes: new image enhancement, filtering, and segmentation techniques which enabled higher recognition accuracies, faster processing time, and lower energy consumption, compared with the best state of the art published techniques. The system successfully produced impressive OCR accuracies (90% -to- 93%) using customized systems generated by our development framework in two industrial OCR applications: water bottle label text recognition and concrete slab plate text recognition. The system was also trained for the Arabic language alphabet, and demonstrated extremely high recognition accuracy (99%) for Arabic license name plate text recognition with processing times of 10 seconds. The accuracy and run times of the system were compared to conventional and many states of art methods, the proposed system shows excellent results.
This study investigated the psychohysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college\\u000a students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper\\u000a trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis\\/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature\\u000a from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of
Framing, the effect of context on cognitive processes, is a prominent topic of research in psychology and public opinion research. Research on framing has traditionally relied on controlled experiments and manually annotated document collections. In this paper we present a method that allows for quantifying the relative strengths of competing linguistic frames based on corpus analysis. This method requires little human intervention and can therefore be efficiently applied to large bodies of text. We demonstrate its effectiveness by tracking changes in the framing of terror over time and comparing the framing of abortion by Democrats and Republicans in the U.S. PMID:23874909
Anyone who has spent time looking into science books with young children has no doubt experienced the endless questions that the information and visuals in the books can stimulate. Can snakes climb trees? How do frogs hide from predators? Why do volcanoes erupt? Books prompt questions, which can lead to further reading about and investigations of science topics. Whether from a textbook or a nonfiction trade book, informational text can be the fuel that sparks curiosity about and interest in science, thus contributing to the development of science attitudes.
CELT, an "online database of contemporary and historical topics from many areas, including literature and the other arts," is aimed at the greatest possible range of readers, from academic scholars to the general public. Texts at the site can be searched, read on-screen, or downloaded. Other works available at CELT include essays by Michael Collins, the Dail debates on the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, works by James Connolly and Padraic Pearse, and almost the whole corpus of Hiberno-Norman French poetry.
The American Accounting Association (AAA) lists the print resources and electronic databases where AAA journals are indexed and abstracted at this Tools for Finding Indexed Accounting Research page. The detailed list includes indexing and abstracting devices for a number of journals -- Accounting Horizons, The Accounting Review, Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory, Behavioral Research in Accounting, Issues in Accounting Education, Journal of the American Taxation Association, Journal of Information Systems, and the Journal of Management Accounting Research -- with date coverage and full-text information included for each.
Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years.
Lee, Y.-J. [Taoyuan City Government, No. 7, Hsien Fu Road, Taoyuan City, Taoyuan, Taiwan (China)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Huang Chingming [Guangzhou Jinan University, Guangzhou (China)]. E-mail: email@example.com
This is an activity about the Kp index, a quantification of fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field due to the relative strength of a magnetic storm. Learners will take a reading from a magnetometer site and make a Kp index estimate to predict whether or not an aurora display will occur near that site. This resource is designed to support student analysis of THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) Magnetometer line-plot data. This activity requires the use of a computer with Internet access. This is activity 18 in Exploring Magnetism: Earthâs Magnetic Personality.
This Wikipedia page has the cleanest version of the Schmidt Sting Pain Index I've seen online. Justin O. Schmidt created this index after years of work with Hymenoptera, and relates his vast experience with their venom to a scale that can be understood by all. The page has only a few references, but one of those will take you to Christ Starr's four stage sting pain scale. At the top of the scale are bullet ants, and pepsis wasps, at the bottom are sweat bees and fire ants.
The GeoIndex Search Engine, which is continually updated, contains some new features making a regular reviewing of the site worthwhile. GeoIndex is "a powerful Search Engine developed, owned and maintained by Datasurge Company to specifically fill a need for the Geo-Environmental professional" by covering geotechnical, environmental, hydrogeology, geology, mining, and petroleum topics. The highlights of the site include the clear and descriptive search results, and the well-designed and browsable "nested" categories including companies, associations, education, and government Web sites. [JAB
The statistics on geographic distribution of AGU membership in the United States (Eos, 63, 667, August 31, 1982) led me to the introduction of a new geophysical index, which I suggest be called the JGR Index (not after my own initials). It is defined as the number of AGU members per 100,000 inhabitants and measures the degree of interest in, and loyalty to, AGU of the population of a given state.Using preliminary population data from the 1980 census, the following interesting order emerges:
. INTRODUCTION In reaction to the scalability problems encountered with centralized information retrieval engines manageable even for web-size document collections. Furthermore, our experiments show that at the same time to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for personal or classroom use is granted
:00 am- 12: 30 am Â· Life Writing for Everyone Â· Climate Change: Myths, the Science, Reality, Challenges Length Dates: Sept. 29- Oct. 27] 7:00 pm- 8:30 pm Â· The U.S. & the Middle East: "Dancing on the Heads
, the speech of news and documentary presenters, sports commentaries and even newspaper film reviews be ascertained. A newspaper film review gives an incomplete and temporally re-ordered account of the events of information about the content of films and television programmes has become available in the form of audio
A new testing process is described. The design of the test procedure is covered in detail, and the several language processing features incorporated into the SMART system are individually evaluated. (20 references) (Author)
The pro-life movement has a problem, an undiagnosed illness, as it were, which may cause the movement to self-destruct. It is a problem commonly found among those ardently involved in saving the lives of the unborn, the crippled, the senile and others unable to fend for themselves. The problem is an overvaluation of medical care often taking the form of
Developed at University College Cork, the Corpus of Electronic Texts project is intended "to bring the wealth of Irish literary and historical culture (in Irish, Latin, Anglo-Norman French, and English) to the Internet in a rigorously scholarly project." Additionally, the project is designed to be utilized by a wide group of interested parties, including students, academics, and the general public. Visitors may peruse the documents by language of original publication, or by viewing a complete list of all the works currently available (many in HTML or pdf format) from the project's website. Some of the rather compelling works available here include the complete works of Oscar Wilde, the political writings of Michael Collins, and various historical documents regarding the struggle for Irish independence. [KMG
Our paper introduces a new way to filter spam using as background the Kolmogorov complexity theory and as learning component a Support Vector Machine. Our idea is to skip the classical text analysis in use with standard filtering techniques, and to focus on the measure of the informative content of a message to classify it as spam or legitimate. Exploiting the fact that we can estimate a message information content through compression techniques, we represent an e-mail as a multi-dimensional real vector and we train a Support Vector Machine to get a classifier achieving accuracy rates in the range of 90%-97%, bringing our combined technique at the top of the current spam filtering technologies.
We present SENT (semantic features in text), a functional interpretation tool based on literature analysis. SENT uses Non-negative Matrix Factorization to identify topics in the scientific articles related to a collection of genes or their products, and use them to group and summarize these genes. In addition, the application allows users to rank and explore the articles that best relate to the topics found, helping put the analysis results into context. This approach is useful as an exploratory step in the workflow of interpreting and understanding experimental data, shedding some light into the complex underlying biological mechanisms. This tool provides a user-friendly interface via a web site, and a programmatic access via a SOAP web server. SENT is freely accessible at http://sent.dacya.ucm.es. PMID:19458159
Vazquez, Miguel; Carmona-Saez, Pedro; Nogales-Cadenas, Ruben; Chagoyen, Monica; Tirado, Francisco; Carazo, Jose Maria; Pascual-Montano, Alberto
Southeast Asian Images and Text, a joint production of the Center for Southeast Asian Studies, the General Library System, and the Division of Information Technology at the University of Wisconsin, is the beginning of an attempt to provide an "interactive multimedia database" including hyptertext bibliographic references and descriptive text for each multimedia item. The project is in its first phase: a searchable collection of images from the Philippines. Future plans include expansion of this collection to over 6,000 images and digital sound and video archives. The power of the site is its search capability, which offers keyword, atlas, and multiple field search. There are also 6 predefined searches that allow users to take a "virtual tour" through the collection, and a searchable inverted index of cataloging terms used in the development of the site. The site is accompanied by an essay on the development of photography in the Philippines, which demonstrates the integration of the project into multidisciplinary studies on the Philippines.
Medication error is an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality, yet it can be a confusing and underappreciated concept. This article provides a review for practicing physicians that focuses on medication error (1) terminology and definitions, (2) incidence, (3) risk factors, (4) avoidance strategies, and (5) disclosure and legal consequences. A medication error is any error that occurs at any point in the medication use process. It has been estimated by the Institute of Medicine that medication errors cause 1 of 131 outpatient and 1 of 854 inpatient deaths. Medication factors (eg, similar sounding names, low therapeutic index), patient factors (eg, poor renal or hepatic function, impaired cognition, polypharmacy), and health care professional factors (eg, use of abbreviations in prescriptions and other communications, cognitive biases) can precipitate medication errors. Consequences faced by physicians after medication errors can include loss of patient trust, civil actions, criminal charges, and medical board discipline. Methods to prevent medication errors from occurring (eg, use of information technology, better drug labeling, and medication reconciliation) have been used with varying success. When an error is discovered, patients expect disclosure that is timely, given in person, and accompanied with an apology and communication of efforts to prevent future errors. Learning more about medication errors may enhance health care professionals' ability to provide safe care to their patients. PMID:24981217
Wittich, Christopher M; Burkle, Christopher M; Lanier, William L
Medication errors cause substantial harm to patients. We need good methods for counting errors, and we need to know how errors defined in different ways and ascertained by different methods are related to the harm that patients suffer. As errors arise within the complex and poorly designed systems of hospital and primary care, analysis of the factors that lead to error, for example by failure mode and effects analysis, may encourage better designs and reduce harms. There is almost no information on the best ways to train prescribers to be safe or to design effective computerized decision support to help them, although both are important in reducing medication errors and should be investigated. We also need to know how best to provide patients with the data they need to be part of initiatives for safer prescribing. PMID:22360355
As opposed to ‘video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery’ which requires general anesthesia, double-lumen tracheal intubation and single lung ventilation, medical thoracoscopy (or ‘pleuroscopy’) is frequently performed in the respiratory endoscopy suite using local anesthesia. It can be done by well-trained physicians, either pulmonologists or thoracic surgeons, and its main indication is related to diagnosis and treatment of pleural effusions. Also, pneumothorax can
In many scientific, medical, and defense applications of image/video compression, an [Symbol: see text]? error bound is required. However, pure[Symbol: see text]?-optimized image coding, colloquially known as near-lossless image coding, is prone to structured errors such as contours and speckles if the bit rate is not sufficiently high; moreover, most of the previous [Symbol: see text]?-based image coding methods suffer from poor rate control. In contrast, the [Symbol: see text]2 error metric aims for average fidelity and hence preserves the subtlety of smooth waveforms better than the ? error metric and it offers fine granularity in rate control, but pure [Symbol: see text]2-based image coding methods (e.g., JPEG 2000) cannot bound individual errors as the [Symbol: see text]?-based methods can. This paper presents a new compression approach to retain the benefits and circumvent the pitfalls of the two error metrics. A common approach of near-lossless image coding is to embed into a DPCM prediction loop a uniform scalar quantizer of residual errors. The said uniform scalar quantizer is replaced, in the proposed new approach, by a set of context-based [Symbol: see text]2-optimized quantizers. The optimization criterion is to minimize a weighted sum of the [Symbol: see text]2 distortion and the entropy while maintaining a strict [Symbol: see text]? error bound. The resulting method obtains good rate-distortion performance in both [Symbol: see text]2 and [Symbol: see text]? metrics and also increases the rate granularity. Compared with JPEG 2000, the new method not only guarantees lower [Symbol: see text]? error for all bit rates, but also it achieves higher PSNR for relatively high bit rates. PMID:24144660
An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.
to form a shock troop for the Papacy, a small, mobile, well-educated, group of men who had mobilityHome Articles Index Audio Patron Saints of Education Recommended Reading USA Directory Contact THE JESUIT MODEL OF EDUCATION By Fr. Michael McMahon This conference was given by Fr. Michael Mc
Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)
GeoIndex, povided by the Datasurge Company, is a search engine specially geared towards geo-environmental professionals. Specific database topics include geotechnical, environmental, hydrogeology, geology, mining, and petroleum. The website is searched via phrases entered by the user. Searches can be narrowed by entering multiple phrases and limiting the search to one of the four key areas: Companies, Associations, Education, and Government.
This 3-D animation is a visualization of the Miller indices (Miller indexes) showing approximately 24 various possible planes. The 3 intercepts are shown along with the plane notation. This would be useful for understanding reciprocal lattice vectors, specifically in crystallographic studies for electrical engineering.
The Vocational Opinion Index (VOI) is an instrument used to measure an individual's job readiness posture (JRP). JRP is a term used to define an individual's attitudes, perceptions, and motivations as they reflect on his ability to obtain and maintain a job. The VOI determines an individual's JRP by assessing three psychological diminsions:…
Metamaterials---artificially structured materials with tailored electromagnetic response---can be designed to have properties difficult or impossible to achieve with traditional materials fabrication methods. Here we present a structured metamaterial, based on conducting split ring resonators (SRRs), which has an effective index of refraction with a constant spatial gradient. We experimentally confirm the gradient by measuring the deflection of a microwave beam
The paper discusses indexation mainly as a tool to maintain minimum wage floors in the face of certain events, i.e., as minimum wage adjustments after price or wage inflation has already taken place. The first section demonstrates that the standard neocla...
In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an index of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…
The Drug Impact Index provides a set of indicators designed to determine the extent of the local drug problem in a community. Each indicator includes a technical note on the data sources, a graph showing comparative statistics on that indicator for the Portland area and for the State of Oregon, and brief remarks on the implications of the data.…
Western Center for Drug-Free Schools and Communities.
1 1 Probabilistic Latent Semantic Indexing Thomas Hofmann Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual@cs.ucsd.edu 2 Outline I. Latent Semantic Analysis II. Singular Value Decomposition III. Probabilistic Latent. There is a disconnect between topics and keywords. 4 Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA) Â· LSA attempts to discover
This inventory lists for more than 16,000 astronomers and other persons with relation to astronomy their dates of life and biographical resources (books, papers, encyclopedic entries, obituaries, etc.). Besides professional and amateur astronomers, the index contains numerous mathematicians, physicists, geodesists, geologists, geophysicists, meteorologists, globe and instrument makers, pioneers of space flight, patrons of astronomy, and others.
The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from latent semantic indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new
A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.
In this paper, I present a method for the evaluation of the quality of translated text, namely, a translation ability index, which shows the relative position of the translation ability of a Machine Translation (MT) system on a measurement scale. The measurements are made by an analysis ratio which is able to make absolute measurements and a conversion and magnitude
... H. Shmerling, M.D. is associate physician at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and associate professor at Harvard Medical ... a practicing rheumatologist for over 20 years at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. He is an active teacher in ...
Smoking cessation - medications; Smokeless tobacco - medications; Medications for stopping tobacco ... Creating a plan to help you deal with smoking urges. Getting support from a doctor, counselor, or ...
Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), a well known technique in Information Retrieval has been partially successful in text retrieval and no major breakthrough has been achieved in text classification as yet. A significant step forward in this regard was made by Hofmann, who presented the probabilistic LSI (PLSI) model, as an alternative to LSI. If we wish to consider exchangeable representations for documents and words, PLSI is not successful which further led to the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model . A new local Latent Semantic Indexing method has been proposed by some authors called "Local Relevancy Ladder-Weighted LSI" (LRLW-LSI) to improve text classification . In this paper we study LSI and its variants in detail , analyze the role played by them in text classification and conclude with future directions in this area.
An X-ray transparent and biological inert medical clip for treating aneurisms and the like is described. A graphite reinforced composite film is molded into a unitary structure having a pair of hourglass-like cavities hinged together with a pair of jaws for grasping the aneurism extending from the wall of one cavity. A silicone rubber pellet is disposed in the other cavity to exert a spring force through the hinge area to normally bias the jaws into contact with each other.
This activity (on pages 15-23) combines interactive role-playing and graphing to introduce learners to the health affects of pollen. In the first part, learners role-play a detective on a medical case and the main character in the case. Learners formulate a hypothesis about a patient's illness. In the second part, learners graph evidence based on pollen counts and create a "final report" about what caused the patient's health problem. This activity smoothly combines health education, environmental science, and math.
Museum, University O.; Nebraska Cooperative Extension 4-H Youth Development
Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760
This very ambitious project from Indiana University was funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities, and it continues to be updated on a regular basis. The Film Literature Index (FLI) annually indexes 150 film and television periodicals from 30 countries in their entirety, along with 200 other periodicals selectively for articles on film and television. The FLI database can be searched by subject headings, names, production titles, or by corporate names. Visitors can browse around, or perform advanced searches as their needs require. More information about the project can be found in the "About FLI" section, which can be accessed at the top of the homepage. Here visitors can learn about the history of the FLI, and also read about various papers and presentations that document the creation of the FLI Online site.
Although numerous directories of CGI resources exist, The CGI Resource Index, a product of Matt's Script Archive, Inc., is one of the more useful and informed. Each of the 2,187 links to CGI resources is briefly described, categorized for browsing, and searchable. The resources annotated in this collection range from ready-made, free CGI programs in a variety of languages to tutorials on CGI programming. The most interesting feature this index provides is the ability to rate each of the resources on a scale of one to ten and, for registered users, the ability to comment on the resources. These ratings are available while browsing the resources and can be helpful in choosing a resource to use. While more comprehensive search capabilities would make this site even more useful, it is nonetheless one for Web programmers to bookmark.
The New Economy Index is a series of indicators that are "gathered from existing public and private data, to illustrate fundamental structural changes in the US economy, to show what those changes mean in the lives of working Americans, and to measure the nation's progress in several key foundation areas for future economic growth." The data in this excellent resource are divided into three sections. What's New About the New Economy includes thirteen indications that show the uniqueness and structure of the new technology-based and innovation-based economy. The second section considers the ways in which the New Economy will affect the lives of American workers. Finally, the third section, Foundations for Future Growth, projects the future growth of technology in the US. The site also includes information about the data sources, endnotes, and several side articles. Although the New Economy Index was created in 1998, the information is still valid and useful.
Objective General practitioners have a key role in updating their patients’ medication. Poor communication regarding patients’ drug use may easily occur when patients cross health care levels. We wanted to explore whether such inadequate communication leads to errors in patients’ medication on admission, during hospital stay, and after discharge, and whether these errors were potentially harmful. Design Exploratory case study of 30 patients. Setting General practices in central Norway and medical ward of Innlandet Hospital Trust Gjøvik, Norway. Subjects 30 patients urgently admitted to the medical ward, and using three or more drugs on admission. Main outcome measures Discrepancies between the patients’ actual drugs taken and what was recorded on admission to hospital, during hospitalization, at discharge, and five weeks after hospital stay. The discrepancies were grouped according to the NCC Merp Index for Categorizing Medication Errors to assess their potential harm. Results The 30 patients used a total of 250 drugs, and 50 medication errors were found, affecting 18 of the patients; 27 errors were potentially harmful, according to NCC Merp Index: 23 in category E, four in category F. Half of the errors originated from an incomplete medication list in the referral letter. Conclusion The majority of the medication errors were made when the patients were admitted to hospital, and a substantial proportion were potentially harmful. The medication list should be reviewed together with the patient on admission, and each patient should carry an updated medication list provided by his or her general practitioner. PMID:23050954
Ontology-Based Knowledge Discovery and Sharing in Bioinformatics and Medical Informatics: A Brief application in medical and biological areas. Index Terms--bioinformatics; medical informatics; knowledge AND RESEARCH MOTIVATION In medical informatics area, an abundance of digital data has promised a profound
Objectives To determine the past-year medical misuse prevalence for 4 controlled medication classes (pain, stimulant, sleeping, and antianxiety) among adolescents, and to assess substance use outcomes among adolescents who report medical misuse. Design A Web-based survey was self-administered by 2744 secondary school students in 2009-2010. Setting Two southeastern Michigan school districts. Participants The sample had a mean age of 14.8 years and was 51.1% female. The racial/ethnic distribution was 65.0% white, 29.5% African American, 3.7% Asian, 1.3% Hispanic, and 0.5% other. Main Outcome Measures Past-year medical use and misuse of 4 controlled medication classes. Results Eighteen percent of the sample reported past-year medical use of at least 1 prescribed controlled medication. Among past-year medical users, 22.0% reported misuse of their controlled medications, including taking too much, intentionally getting high, or using to increase alcohol or other drug effects. Medical misusers were more likely than nonmisusers to divert their controlled medications and to abuse other substances. The odds of a positive screening result for drug abuse were substantially higher among medical misusers (adjusted odds ratio, 7.8; 95% confidence interval, 4.3-14.2) compared with medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately. The odds of drug abuse did not differ between medical users who used their controlled medications appropriately and nonusers. Conclusions Most adolescents who used controlled medications took their medications appropriately. Substance use and diversion of controlled medications were more prevalent among adolescents who misused their controlled medications. Careful therapeutic monitoring could reduce medical misuse and diversion of controlled medications among adolescents. PMID:21810634
McCabe, Sean Esteban; West, Brady T.; Cranford, James A.; Ross-Durow, Paula; Young, Amy; Teter, Christian J.; Boyd, Carol J.
29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA
Archiving official written documents such as invoices, reminders and account statements in business and private area gets more and more important. Creating appropriate index entries for document archives like sender's name, creation date or document number is a tedious manual work. We present a novel approach to handle automatic indexing of documents based on generic positional extraction of index terms. For this purpose we apply the knowledge of document templates stored in a common full text search index to find index positions that were successfully extracted in the past.
Esser, Daniel; Schuster, Daniel; Muthmann, Klemens; Berger, Michael; Schill, Alexander
OBJECTIVE To examine the longitudinal effects of medication nonadherence (MNA) on key costs and estimate potential savings from increased adherence using a novel methodology that accounts for shared correlation among cost categories. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Veterans with type 2 diabetes (740,195) were followed from January 2002 until death, loss to follow-up, or December 2006. A novel multivariate, generalized, linear, mixed modeling approach was used to assess the differential effect of MNA, defined as medication possession ratio (MPR) ?0.8 on healthcare costs. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess potential cost savings at different MNA levels using the Consumer Price Index to adjust estimates to 2012 dollar value. RESULTS Mean MPR for the full sample over 5 years was 0.78, with a mean of 0.93 for the adherent group and 0.58 for the MNA group. In fully adjusted models, all annual cost categories increased ?3% per year (P = 0.001) during the 5-year study time period. MNA was associated with a 37% lower pharmacy cost, 7% lower outpatient cost, and 41% higher inpatient cost. Based on sensitivity analyses, improving adherence in the MNA group would result in annual estimated cost savings ranging from ?$661 million (MPR <0.6 vs. ?0.6) to ?$1.16 billion (MPR <1 vs. 1). Maximal incremental annual savings would occur by raising MPR from <0.8 to ?0.8 ($204,530,778) among MNA subjects. CONCLUSIONS Aggressive strategies and policies are needed to achieve optimal medication adherence in diabetes. Such approaches may further the so-called “triple aim” of achieving better health, better quality care, and lower cost. PMID:22912429
Egede, Leonard E.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Dismuke, Clara E.; Lynch, Cheryl P.; Axon, R. Neal; Zhao, Yumin; Mauldin, Patrick D.
These comments seek to take issue with the contention that society has a responsibility to provide its members with any needed health care. In order to deal with this claim we must first make clear exactly what it meant by the proposition. I take it that those who embrace this view mean considerably more than that each of us has a moral obligation to contribute to those in need of medical attention who are unable, for one reason or another, to afford the necessary care. This is a moral proposition and is traditionally dealt with under the heading of charity. But the contention, as here used, means considerably more since its main implications are not moral but primarily political. PMID:23061581
Grassroots AIDS activist groups denounce the Clinton Administration's stance on banning medicinal use of marijuana due to the lack of clinical evidence supporting its benefits. The 1997 meeting of the San Francisco Medical Society and the New England Journal of Medicine both agreed, following a review of 75 scientific studies of the medicinal benefits of marijuana, that the benefits of smoked marijuana include relief from pain and the reduction of nausea caused by anti-cancer drugs. The Federal government is attempting to punish physicians for prescribing marijuana to their patients, a situation being opposed by the Bay Area Physicians for Human Rights who have initiated a suit against the government. A hearing to stop this prosecution was scheduled for March 21. PMID:11364533
Medical telesensors are self-contained integrated circuits for measuring and transmitting vital signs over a distance of approximately 1-2 meters. The circuits are unhoused and contain a sensor, signal processing and modulation electronics, a spread-spectrum transmitter, an antenna and a thin-film battery. We report on a body-temperature telesensor, which is sufficiently small to be placed on a tympanic membrane in a child's ear. We also report on a pulse-oximeter telesensor and a micropack receiver/long- range transmitter unit, which receives form a telesensor array and analyzes and re-transmits the vital signs over a longer range. Signal analytics are presented for the pulse oximeter, which is currently in the form of a finger ring. A multichip module is presented as the basic signal-analysis component. The module contains a microprocessor, a field=programmable gate array, memory elements and other components necessary for determining trauma and reporting signals.
Ferrell, Trinidad L.; Crilly, P. B.; Smith, S. F.; Wintenberg, Alan L.; Britton, Charles L., Jr.; Morrison, Gilbert W.; Ericson, M. N.; Hedden, D.; Bouldin, Donald W.; Passian, A.; Downey, Todd R.; Wig, A. G.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice
Several discriminability measures were examined for their ability to predict reading search times for three levels of text contrast and a range of backgrounds (plain, a periodic texture, and four spatial-frequency-filtered textures created from the periodic texture). Search times indicate that these background variations only affect readability when the text contrast is low, and that spatial frequency content of the background affects readability. These results were not well predicted by the single variables of text contrast (Spearman rank correlation = -0.64) and background RMS contrast (0.08), but a global masking index and a spatial-frequency-selective masking index led to better predictions (-0.84 and -0.81, respectively). c2000 Optical Society of America.
Scharff, L. F.; Hill, A. L.; Ahumada, A. J. Jr; Watson, A. B. (Principal Investigator)
Abstract—Text clustering is the process of segmenting a particular collection of texts into subgroups including content based similar ones. The purpose of text clustering is to meet human interests in information searching and understanding. This study proposes a new fast hierarchical text clustering algorithm HBSH (Hash-based Structure Hierarchical Clustering), which is suitable for massive text clustering. This algorithm uses hash table instead of numerical vectors as its input data. Compared with the other clustering algorithms, the HBSH performs the text clustering process without setting clustering center number and has minor space complexity in advance, which can achieve better performance. The experimental results illustrate that the average time of HBSH is faster than that of traditional text clustering algorithms. Index Terms—hierarchical, text clustering, hash table I.
... A to Z Index Follow FDA En Español Enter Search terms Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products ... been altered or updated since it was archived. Enter Search terms For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Section ...
MEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency? Serious injury or illness. What do I do if there is a medical emergency occurring or one has occurred? CALL 911. Paramedics and ambulance service or visitor. What information do I need to have readily available when reporting a medical emergency
MEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency? Serious injury or illness. What do I do if there is a medical emergency occurring or one has occurred? NOTIFY 911 or University Police. Paramedics and ambulance, the employee to the nearest medical facility or CALL 911 for emergency assistance CALL OptaComp at 877
MEDICAL EMERGENCIES What is a medical emergency? Serious injury or illness. What do I do if there is a medical emergency occurring or one has occurred? CALL 911. Paramedics and ambulance service or visitor. What information do I need to have readily available when reporting a medical emergency? Building
For many years now, software practitioners have been collecting metrics from source code in an effort to better understand the software they are developing or changing. Maintainability Index (MI) is a composite metric that incorporates a number of traditional source code metrics into a single number that indicates relative maintainability. As originally proposed by Oman and Hagemeister, the MI is comprised of weighted Halstead metrics (effort or volume), McCabe's Cyclomatic Complexity, lines of code (LOC), and number of comments [1, 2]. Two equations were presented: one that considered comments and one that did not.
The Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) is an initiative of the Global Leaders for Tomorrow Environment Task Force, World Economic Forum. The ESI is a measure of overall progress towards environmental sustainability, developed for 142 countries. It permits cross-national comparisons of environmental progress in a systematic and quantitative fashion, with the hopes of promoting a more analytically driven approach to environmental decision making. The documents, which include an ESI press release, a ranking of countries, maps, and full ESI reports from 2000 to 2002, seek to provide in-depth details on the analytical framework, quantitative methodology, and data sources that underlie the ESI.
Sensors is the first self-contained series to deal with the whole area of sensors. It describes general aspects, technical and physical fundamentals, construction, function, applications and developments of the various types of sensors. Consisting of nine volumes altogether, with eight dedicated to various topics and the ninth as cumulative index, each volume offers in-depth information in one particular field within sensor technology. The entire set is an indispensable reference work for both specialists and newcomers, researchers and developers working in this interdisciplinary field that ranges from research to commercial application.
Background: Psychosocial characteristics might contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of cardiovascular disease as it is increasingly recognised that biomedical risk factors do not fully explain its dynamics. This study aimed to describe psychometric indexes in a Portuguese community sample relating them to known cardiovascular disease risk factors. Methods: Anthropometric, blood pressure, serum measurements and information on demographic, social, medical
by Chernoff's bound on asymptotic probability of error we propose the alpha-divergence measure and a surrogate information systems, digital libraries , medical information processing, video indexing, multi-sensor fusion of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Biomedical Engineering, and Statistics at the University
This publication contains descriptions of 59 hospitals and other medical agencies which offer job opportunities to nurses and those trained in the allied health professions. Included in the descriptions are a brief introduction, salaries and/or benefits, employment opportunities, location, and source of further information. A geographical index…
Natural Language Processing (NLP) systems used in the analysis of medicaltexts are mostly evaluated both as part of a larger system and with respect to a specific goal (document retrieval, decision support). Since NLP systems can be integrated as a module in different applications, an application independent analysis and evaluation of their performance is more tailored to the needs of the application developer. We evaluated the performance of the MetaMap system  in mapping words in MEDLINE® abstracts to medical concepts present in the UMLS® Metathesaurus®. More specifically, the effects of the distinct user options MetaMap provides are analyzed.
Klein, Henny; Weeber, Marc; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje T.W.; Vos, Rein
According to Science Citation Index, the Czechoslovak medical sciences contributed about 1.2% of the world medical knowledge pool in the 1960s. This contribution decreased to about 0.6% in the 1980s. The reasons for this decline are many and varied, such as the suppression of certain fields of scientific research by the Communist government and the degradation of the position of scientists in society, four major waves of emigration since 1938, and the compartmentalization of science into three separate branches (universities, ministerial research institutes, and Academy of Scinece institutes). Contemporary efforts to ameliorate the situation include setting up grant-giving agencies to distribute research funds on a competitive basis and the coordination of agencies promoting medical research in the Czech and Slovak Republics. The future of Czech and Slovak Medical sciencies requires international collaboration, slimming the number of scientists,' increased sending of young scientists abroad while waiting for greater economic prosperity, privatization of medical care, and efforts to minimize brain drain.' Correcting the consequences of 40 years of a totalitarian communist regime will be painful and difficult.
Schreiber, V. (Charles Univ., Prague (Czechoslovakia))
This index lists all publications, including newsletters, received by the National Sea Grant Depository (NSGD) in 1977. It supplements the earlier publications covering the period 1968-1976. A separate Sea Grant Newsletters Index will not be published thi...
The depth of frost penetration can be calculated by means of the modified Berggren formula whose dependent variables are various soils characteristics and air freezing index. Because the last comprehensive study of the distribution of freezing indexes in ...
We compute the index and associated spectral density for fluctuation operators which are defined via the Lagrangian of SQCD in the background of non-abelian confined multimonopoles. To this end we generalize the standard index calculations of Callias and Weinberg to the case of asymptotically nontrivial backgrounds. The resulting index is determined by topological charges. We conjecture that this index counts one quarter of the dimension of the moduli space of confined multimonopoles.
We propose a new universal objective image quality index, which is easy to calculate and applicable to various image processing applications. Instead of using traditional error summation methods, the proposed index is designed by modeling any image distortion as a combination of three factors: loss of correlation, luminance distortion, and contrast distortion. Although the new index is mathematically defined and
This note summarizes some of the currently available insights in automatic indexing. The emphasis is on aspects that are expected to be useful in a practical automatic indexing applications. The discussion is necessarily cursory, but the references will lead interested readers to a deeper treatment of the indexing problem.
This paper analyzes the effect of indexed wage contracts on inflation and social welfare in a Barro--Gordon model with state-contingent monetary policy. Wage indexation reduces the inflation bias but may raise the variance of inflation rates. In social optimum, wages are fully indexed to the price level, but this requires optimal wage adjustments to productivity shocks. If wage adjustments to
In intelligent analysis of large amounts of text, not any single clue indicates reliably that a pattern of interest has been found. When using multiple clues, it is not known how these should be integrated into a decision. In the context of this investigation, we have been using neural nets as parameterized mappings that allow for fusion of higher level clues extracted from free text. By using higher level clues and features, we avoid very large networks. By using the dominant singular values computed by Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) and applying neural network algorithms for integrating these values and the outputs from other ``sensors,`` we have obtained preliminary encouraging results with text classification.
Dasigi, V.R. [Sacred Heart Univ., Santurce (Puerto Rico). Dept. of Computer Science and Information Technology; Mann, R.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
The text retrieval method using Latent Semantic Indexing (L SI) technique with truncated Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) has been intensively st udied in recent years. The SVD reduces the noise contained in the original representationof the term-document matrix and improves the information retrieval accuracy. Recent studi es indicate that SVD is mostly useful for small homogeneous data collections. For large
Dimension reduction methods, such as Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), when ap- plied to semantic space built upon text collections, improve information retrieval, infor- mation ltering and word sense disambiguation. A new dual probability model based on the similarity concepts is introduced to provide deeper understanding of LSI. Se- mantic associations can be quantitatively characterized by their statistical signicance, the likelihood.
Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) is an information retrieval method that organizes information into a semantic structure that takes advantage of some of the implicit higher-order associations of words with text objects. The resulting structure reflects the major associative patterns in the data while ignoring some of the smaller variations that may be due to idiosyncrasies in the word usage of
Nanette Gartrell, MD, is a psychiatrist and researcher whose investigations have documented the mental health and psychological well-being of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people over the past four decades. Nanette is the principal investigator of an ongoing longitudinal study of lesbian families in which the children were conceived by donor insemination. Now in its 27th year, this project has been cited internationally in the debates over equality in marriage, foster care, and adoption. Previously on the faculty at Harvard Medical School and the University of California, San Francisco, Nanette is currently a Visiting Distinguished Scholar at the Williams Institute, UCLA School of Law. In 2013, Nanette received the Association of Women Psychiatrists Presidential Commendation Award for "selfless and enduring vision, leadership, wisdom, and mentorship in the fields of women's mental health, ethics, and gender research." At the age of 63, Nanette experienced a 3 ½ month period of intractable, incapacitating dizziness for which there was never a clear diagnosis. PMID:24400630
Since grade prediction remains an important factor in medical student selection procedures, the ability to make accurate predictions is important. The Prediction Index used at the University of California at Irvine is described which considers overall premedical grade point average (GPA), GPA of specified science courses, and two subtests of the…
This paper suggests that the purpose of humanities teaching within medical education should be primarily to teach and promote the informed, attentive, critical, and precise reading of the multiple texts that constitute medicine as a discursive field-in short, a poetics of medicine. This claim is illustrated by reconsidering Margaret Edson's play Wit, not as it is often used in medical education, as a cautionary tale about unprofessional behavior or as a way to inculcate "humanistic skills," but as an analysis of the relationships between texts and feelings-or cognition and emotion, or science and art. This reading is illustrated by comparing the poetics of Wit with those of two other texts representing ovarian cancer: a scientific paper in Oncology and a clinical case conference in JAMA. PMID:23996055
This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary, a machine aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for Aerospace Information (CASI). This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.
Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.
This report describes the NASA Lexical Dictionary (NLD), a machine-aided indexing system used online at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Center for AeroSpace Information (CASI). This system automatically suggests a set of candidate terms from NASA's controlled vocabulary for any designated natural language text input. The system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, nonsyntactic analysis of input text and an extensive knowledge base that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts. The functions of the various NLD system components are described in detail, and production and quality benefits resulting from the implementation of machine-aided indexing at CASI are discussed.
Silvester, June P.; Genuardi, Michael T.; Klingbiel, Paul H.
The European Union has long been concerned with looking at how migrants are integrated into various member states (and several non-EU countries), and this visually delightful and well-thought out site is a great resource for researchers and policy analysts. Drawing on a wide range of data sources, the Migrant Integration Policy Index (MIPEX) covers policy areas like long-term residence, access to nationality, and political participation. After looking over the "About" section, visitors should be comfortable enough to dive right in. Visitors may wish to start by using the interactive mapping and charting function to look at how various countries are performing in terms of integration, and then move on to the "Key Findings" section which offers some summary statistics on the six policy areas covered here. Additionally, visitors can sign up to receive email updates and information via an RSS feed.
An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,
Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.
Based in London, the Index on Censorship is committed to logging free expression abuses in scores of countries, reporting on censorship issues from all over the world, and adding to the debates on those issues. On the top of their homepage, visitors will see several sections, including "About", "Magazine", "Events", and "Projects". Further down on the site, visitors can read the latest news from the world of censorship, including reports on restrictions placed on journalists and different legal battles intended to secure the rights of journalists across the globe. Visitors are also welcome to browse through their archives, which date back to October 2005. The site also includes a number of RSS feeds and tags.
The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.
1 OSCAR4: a flexible architecture for chemical text-mining Authors: David M. Jessop, Sam Adams, Egon L.Willighagen, Lezan Hawizy, Peter Murray-Rust* Unilever Centre for Molecular Science Informatics, Department of Chemistry, Lensfield Road... KT: Identifying, Indexing and Ranking Chemical Formulae and Chemical Names in Digital Documents. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. 29 Article 12 12 Lowe DM, Corbett PT, Murray-Rust P, Glen RC: Chemical name to structure: OPSIN, an open source solution. J. Chem...
Jessop, David M; Adams, Sam; Willighagen, Egon L; Hawizy, Lezan; Murray-Rust, Peter
This paper proposes a Discriminative Semantic Feature (DSF) method for vector space model based text categorization. The DSF\\u000a method, which involves two stages, first reduces the dimension of the document vector space by Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI),\\u000a and then applies a Robust linear Discriminant analysis Model (RDM), which improves the classical LDA by a energy-adaptive\\u000a regularization criteria, to extract the
Historically, medical information has been provided to patients at the physician's discretion. Although this method never has been wholly satisfactory, the trend toward bureaucratic organization of medical care, characterized by impersonal patient encounters and prompted by increased emphasis on cost controls, has restricted patient information even further. Yet, at the same time, the upsurge in consumer power has created patient demand for more health information. Consumers feel they have a right to expect help in obtaining information so they can make informed decisions with respect to their medical care. This paper focuses on the medical school-based consumer health service in this context. In particular, it calls attention to the medical school library as the foundation for expanded health information resources, pointing to the tools of information retrieval, as well as the substantive information contained in the medical, nursing, and allied health literature. In this setting, the consumer health librarian is called upon to act as a mediator in providing quality-filtered information to the patron, while at the same time remaining within the confines of professional expertise as a librarian. Important sources of health information are highlighted, particularly online databases, drug indexes, therapeutic texts, and physician specialist directories. PMID:8136760
Images are an integral part of medical practice for diagnosis, treatment planning and teaching. Image retrieval has gained in importance mainly as a research domain over the past 20 years. Both textual and visual retrieval of images are essential. In the process of mobile devices becoming reliable and having a functionality equaling that of formerly desktop clients, mobile computing has gained ground and many applications have been explored. This creates a new field of mobile information search & access and in this context images can play an important role as they often allow understanding complex scenarios much quicker and easier than free text. Mobile information retrieval in general has skyrocketed over the past year with many new applications and tools being developed and all sorts of interfaces being adapted to mobile clients. This article describes constraints of an information retrieval system including visual and textual information retrieval from the medical literature of BioMedCentral and of the RSNA journals Radiology and Radiographics. Solutions for mobile data access with an example on an iPhone in a web-based environment are presented as iPhones are frequently used and the operating system is bound to become the most frequent smartphone operating system in 2011. A web-based scenario was chosen to allow for a use by other smart phone platforms such as Android as well. Constraints of small screens and navigation with touch screens are taken into account in the development of the application. A hybrid choice had to be taken to allow for taking pictures with the cell phone camera and upload them for visual similarity search as most producers of smart phones block this functionality to web applications. Mobile information access and in particular access to images can be surprisingly efficient and effective on smaller screens. Images can be read on screen much faster and relevance of documents can be identified quickly through the use of images contained in the text. Problems with the many, often incompatible mobile platforms were discovered and are listed in the text. Mobile information access is a quickly growing domain and the constraints of mobile access also need to be taken into account for image retrieval. The demonstrated access to the medical literature is most relevant as the medical literature and their images are clearly the largest knowledge source in the medical field.
... Own Medical Records? It's a great idea. Many health care experts recommend that patients keep their own medical summaries or Personal Medical Records (PMRs). That way, they can bring them along ...
... H. Shmerling, M.D. is associate physician at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and associate professor at Harvard Medical ... a practicing rheumatologist for over 20 years at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center. He is an active teacher in ...
A May 2007 Congressional advisory committee found that average full-time undergraduates spent between $700 and $1,000 on textbooks in 2003-2004 and that from 1987-2004, textbook prices at four-year public colleges rose 109 percent compared to a rise in the Consumer Price Index of 65 percent. Higher education is transitioning from atoms…
The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.
This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files Index coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.
This paper describes the basic philosophy and implementation of MPLUS (M+), a robust medicaltext analysis tool that uses a semantic model based on Bayesian Networks (BNs). BNs provide a concise and useful formalism for representing semantic patterns in medicaltext, and for recognizing and reasoning over those patterns. BNs are noise-tolerant, and facilitate the training of M+. 1
Lee M. Christensen; Peter J. Haug; Marcelo Fiszman
Purpose: To review the published literature pertaining to radiation oncology in undergraduate medical education. Methods and Materials: Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE Daily Update and EMBASE databases were searched for the 11-year period of January 1, 1998, through the last week of March 2009. A medical librarian used an extensive list of indexed subject headings and text words. Results: The search returned 640 article references, but only seven contained significant information pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates. One article described a comprehensive oncology curriculum including recommended radiation oncology teaching objectives and sample student evaluations, two described integrating radiation oncology teaching into a radiology rotation, two described multidisciplinary anatomy-based courses intended to reinforce principles of tumor biology and radiotherapy planning, one described an exercise designed to test clinical reasoning skills within radiation oncology cases, and one described a Web-based curriculum involving oncologic physics. Conclusions: To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review of the literature pertaining to teaching radiation oncology to medical undergraduates, and it demonstrates the paucity of published work in this area of medical education. Teaching radiation oncology should begin early in the undergraduate process, should be mandatory for all students, and should impart knowledge relevant to future general practitioners rather than detailed information relevant only to oncologists. Educators should make use of available model curricula and should integrate radiation oncology teaching into existing curricula or construct stand-alone oncology rotations where the principles of radiation oncology can be conveyed. Assessments of student knowledge and curriculum effectiveness are critical.
Dennis, Kristopher E.B., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Radiation Oncology Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Duncan, Graeme [Radiation Oncology Program, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)
Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…
This study investigated the longitudinal trends of e-learning research using text mining techniques. Six hundred and eighty-nine (689) refereed journal articles and proceedings were retrieved from the Science Citation Index/Social Science Citation Index database in the period from 2000 to 2008. All e-learning publications were grouped into two…
This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.
... Who We Are Contact Us Donate Incontinence Treatment: Medication Jump to Topic Lifestyle changes Dietary changes Medication Bowel management/retraining program Biofeedback therapy Surgical treatments ...
Summary: Pincer nails are a common problem, and various treatments have been reported. However, there is no simple assessment of severity. We designed a curvature index for the nail plate to assess the severity of pincer nail. Measurement of the curvature index was as follows. The apparent width of the nail tip was defined as A, and the traced length of the nail tip was defined as B. The curvature index was defined as B divided by A (B/A). With this curvature index, it is easy to describe the severity of the pincer nail and to compare the improvement before and after treatment.
Beginning with a critical analysis of the role drugs play in the behavior of consumers and health professionals, this text aims at evaluating the influence of both traditional and new promotional strategies of the pharmaceutical industry designed to create values and believes that exceed what in fact can be expected from drug consumption. Some examples were chosen to illustrate the intensification of the medicalization process. Special emphasis was given to the irrational use of amphetamines to diminish the appetite and to control weight or to treat children supposedly suffering from Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) as well as to drugs used in cases of depression and supposed andropause. PMID:21936162
The classic function of health sciences libraries is to build and maintain a knowledge base and to provide timely access to that collective memory for the purpose of learning, teaching, caring for patients, conducting research or managing an organization. The formats and representation of that knowledge base are changing rapidly, as are the methods and techniques for gaining access to information. Medical libraries have long used computers for cataloging and controlling records but are now shifting to acquiring, managing and distributing bibliographic and full-text information to local library ”networks.” PMID:3811353
This study uses a moving windows self-paced reading task to assess both text comprehension and processing time of authentic texts and these same texts simplified to beginning and intermediate levels. Forty-eight second language learners each read 9 texts (3 different authentic, beginning, and intermediate level texts). Repeated measures ANOVAs…
Crossley, Scott A.; Yang, Hae Sung; McNamara, Danielle S.
Objectives To provide an overview of the problem of temporal reasoning over clinical text and to summarize the state of the art in clinical natural language processing for this task. Target audience This overview targets medical informatics researchers who are unfamiliar with the problems and applications of temporal reasoning over clinical text. Scope We review the major applications of text-based temporal reasoning, describe the challenges for software systems handling temporal information in clinical text, and give an overview of the state of the art. Finally, we present some perspectives on future research directions that emerged during the recent community-wide challenge on text-based temporal reasoning in the clinical domain. PMID:23676245
This study investigated the effects of reading a science text illustrated by either a labeled or unlabeled picture. Both the online process of reading the text and the offline conceptual learning from the text were examined. Eye-tracking methodology was used to trace text and picture processing through indexes of first- and second-pass reading or…
Mason, Lucia; Pluchino, Patrik; Tornatora, Maria Caterina
/sound ffl images: education, art, medicine ffl higherÂd signals: scientific db (eg., meteorology indexing in expert database systems [SSH86] 8 #12; salary traditional data base age Cartographic data 20K 40K 60K 20 30 40 age Rule indexing CAD / VLSI design salary o o o o o o o o o o o feature 1 feature 2
, medicine higher-d signals: scienti c db (eg., meteorology, astrophysics), medicine, entertainment (video). Computer vision and robotics BB82] Rule indexing in expert database systems SSH86] 8 #12;salary traditional data base age Cartographic data 20K 40K 60K 20 30 40 age Rule indexingCAD / VLSI design salary o o o o
The index contains all issues of newsletters that were produced in 1973 with Sea Grant support and received by the National Sea Grant Depository (NSGD). Most of the articles in the newsletters are indexed. Some exceptions are those that merely list new pu...
We are addressing the problem of organizing and indexing one's personal media. Recent approaches of media indexing use events as media aggregators, but do not fully consider the context in which the media asset has been produced and do not take the personal perspective of the user into account. To this end, we propose a new paradigm for the automated
Javier Paniagua; Ivan Tankoyeu; Julian Stöttinger; Fausto Giunchiglia
In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as indexicals assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. Indexical words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…
Using interplanetary scintillation (IPS) data obtained from the Cambridge 81.5 MHz array, an activity index is developed in which it is possible to identify (1) discrete structures, most likely relating to transient density enhancements, and (2) periodic activity, relating to corotating interplanetary structure. Significant, yet weak correlations are found between the index and geomagnetic activity. Results suggest that the pursuit
R. A. Harrison; M. A. Hapgood; V. Moore; E. A. Lucek
Unscheduled Market Closures 12 Index Dissemination 13 Index Data 13 Tickers 13 S&P Contact Information 14 of the largest publicly traded stocks from around the world that represent the timber and forestry investment that reduces single stock concentration and gives greater weight to companies more purely exposed to the timber
Artificially engineered metamaterials are now demonstrating unprecedented electromagnetic properties that cannot be obtained with naturally occurring materials. In particular, they provide a route to creating materials that possess a negative refractive index and offer exciting new prospects for manipulating light. This review describes the recent progress made in creating nanostructured metamaterials with a negative index at optical wavelengths, and discusses
We propose here a method to select index words for the construction of a document vector from a corpus using the independent component analysis (ICA). It is useful to select index words of a document vector since its dimension is large. The ICA is one of the methods in analyzing the latent semantics of documents. It is reported the independent
The prognosis of follicular lymphomas (FL) is heterogeneous and numerous treatments may be proposed. A validated prognostic index (PI) would help in evalu- ating and choosing these treatments. Characteristics at diagnosis were col- lected from 4167 patients with FL diag- nosed between 1985 and 1992. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to propose a PI. This index was then tested
Philippe Solal-Celigny; Pascal Roy; Philippe Colombat; Josephine White; Jim O. Armitage; Reyes Arranz-Saez; Wing Y. Au; Monica Bellei; Pauline Brice; Dolores Caballero; Bertrand Coiffier; Eulogio Conde-Garcia; Chantal Doyen; Massimo Federico; Richard I. Fisher; Javier F. Garcia-Conde; Cesare Guglielmi; Michael LeBlanc; Andrew T. Lister; Armando Lopez-Guillermo; Peter McLaughlin; Noel Milpied; Nicolas Mounier; Stephen J. Proctor; Ama Rohatiner; Paul Smith; Umberto Vitolo; Pier-Luigi Zinzani; Emanuele Zucca; Emili Montserrat; J. Bernard; Hopital H. Mondor; M. D. Anderson; CHU L. Huriez
The Craniomandibular Index (CMI) was developed to provide a standardized measure of severity of problems in mandibular movement, TMJ noise, and muscle and joint tenderness for use in epidemiological and clinical outcome studies. The instrument was designed to have clearly defined objective criteria, simple clinical methods, and ease in scoring; it is divided into the Dysfunction Index and the Palpation
Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…
We consider wireless broadcasting of data as a way of disseminatinginformation to a massive number of users. Organizingand accessing information on wireless communicationchannels is different from the problem of organizing and accessingdata on the disk. We describe two methods, (1; m)Indexing and Distributed Indexing, for organizing and accessingbroadcast data. We demonstrate that the proposedalgorithms lead to significant improvement of battery
Tomasz Imielinski; S. Viswanathan; B. R. Badrinath
This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.
: This paper presents a text block extraction algorithm that takes as its input a set of text lines of a given document, and\\u000a partitions the text lines into a set of text blocks, where each text block is associated with a set of homogeneous formatting\\u000a attributes, e.g. text-alignment, indentation. The text block extraction algorithm described in this paper is probability
Jisheng Liang; Ihsin T. Phillips; Robert M. Haralick
. With this in mind, interprofessional education is another important aspect of medical education. We strive20132014 O.H.S.U. Medical Student Resource Guide #12;2013-2014 Medical Student Resource Guide 1 Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine - Medical Student Resource Guide Welcome
. With this in mind, interprofessional education is another important aspect of medical education. We strive20132014 O.H.S.U. Medical Student Procedure Guide #12;2013-2014 Medical Student Procedure Guide 1 Oregon Health & Science University School of Medicine - Medical Student Procedure Guide Welcome
Purpose – Healthcare risk epidemiology identifies medication error as the commonest cause of adverse effects on patients. Medication error can occur at any phase of the complex medication process so prevalence rates need to be estimated at each drug treatment phase: prescription, transcription and administration along with their clinical repercussions. This paper aims to investigate this issue. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Medication
Ana Belén Jiménez Muñoz; Antonio Muiño Miguez; María Paz Rodriguez Pérez; María Dolores Vigil Escribano; María Esther Durán Garcia; María Sanjurjo Saez
A collaborative initiative of The Royal Botanic Gardens (Kew), The Harvard University Herbaria, and the Australian National Herbarium, the International Plant Names Index (IPNI) is a comprehensive, literature-based database of the scientific names and associated basic bibliographical details of all vascular (seed) plants. A dynamic resource intended for use by all members of the botanical community, IPNI currently includes more than a million records from Index Kewensis, the Gray Index (originally the Gray Herbarium Card Index), and the Australian Plant Names Index; additional records are added periodically. IPNI is accessible in a searchable format: by Plant name (Family, Genus, Species), Author (forename, surname, country), Publication (title or abbreviation), or Collector (or Collector Team Name). Returns include full scientific name and primary source references for each matching case in the database.
In this study we present novel feature engineering techniques that leverage the biomedical domain knowledge encoded in the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to improve machine-learning based clinical text classification. Critical steps in clinical text classification include identification of features and passages relevant to the classification task, and representation of clinical text to enable discrimination between documents of different classes. We developed novel information-theoretic techniques that utilize the taxonomical structure of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) to improve feature ranking, and we developed a semantic similarity measure that projects clinical text into a feature space that improves classification. We evaluated these methods on the 2008 Integrating Informatics with Biology and the Bedside (I2B2) obesity challenge. The methods we developed improve upon the results of this challenge’s top machine-learning based system, and may improve the performance of other machine-learning based clinical text classification systems. We have released all tools developed as part of this study as open source, available at http://code.google.com/p/ytex PMID:22580178
An approach is outlined for the retrieval of natural language texts in response to available search requests and for the recognition of content similarities between text excerpts. The proposed retrieval process is based on flexible text matching procedures carried out in a number of different text environments and is applicable to large text collections covering unrestricted subject matter. For unrestricted
This Handbook sets forth in two parts the information for the guidance of users of the NASA Management Directives System. Complementary to this Handbook is the NASA Online Directives Information System (NODIS), an electronic computer text retrieval system. The first part contains the Master List of Management Directives in force as of 30 Sep. 1993. The second part contains an Index to NASA Management Directives in force as of 30 Sep. 1993.
Virology is a branch of biological science dealing with the study of viruses, and medical virology focuses on the study and\\u000a control of diseases due to viruses that is of medical importance. The development of medical virology in Malaysia has its\\u000a beginning in the Institute for Medical Research (IMR), following the establishment of the Division of Medical Zoology and\\u000a Virus
The purpose of this prospective descriptive study was to explore the patterns of intrasubject (between medication) adherence of two similarly timed, twice-daily medications using the Medication Event Management System® electronic monitoring cap. Medication adherence was measured for 6 months using electronic monitoring in 25 adult renal-transplant recipients. Data were available from 7,119 electronic medication events. Results indicated that two twice-daily
Cynthia L. Russell; Vicki S. Conn; Catherine Ashbaugh; Richard Madsen; Karen Hayes; Gilbert Ross
Although clinical texts contain many symbols, relatively little attention has been given to symbol resolution by medical natural language processing (NLP) researchers. Interpreting the meaning of symbols may be viewed as a special case of Word Sense Disambiguation (WSD). One thousand instances of four common non-alphanumeric symbols (‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’) were randomly extracted from a clinical document repository and annotated by experts. The symbols and their surrounding context, in addition to bag-of-Words (BoW), and heuristic rules were evaluated as features for the following classifiers: Naïve Bayes, Support Vector Machine, and Decision Tree, using 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracies for ‘+’, ‘–’, ‘/’, and ‘#’ were 80.11%, 80.22%, 90.44%, and 95.00% respectively, with Naïve Bayes. While symbol context contributed the most, BoW was also helpful for disambiguation of some symbols. Symbol disambiguation with supervised techniques can be implemented with reasonable accuracy as a module for medical NLP systems. PMID:22195157
Moon, SungRim; Pakhomov, Serguei; Ryan, James; Melton, Genevieve B.
Incremental Hierarchical Clustering of Text Documents by Nachiketa Sahoo Adviser: Jamie Callan May 5, 2006 Abstract Incremental hierarchical text document clustering algorithms are important, this is a relatively unexplored area in the text document clustering literature. Pop- ular incremental hierarchical
This study compares reading comprehension of three different texts: two mathematical texts and one historical text. The two\\u000a mathematical texts both present basic concepts of group theory, but one does it using mathematical symbols and the other only\\u000a uses natural language. A total of 95 upper secondary and university students read one of the mathematical texts and the historical\\u000a text.
In this lesson, students will identify the text features of non-fiction books and use several informational texts on meat-eating plants to answer text dependent questions. Students will become "text detectives" and learn how to use the text to find the evidence to prove that their answers to questions are right. The students will learn to use evidence from informational texts to write explanatory paragraphs.
Objective Automated syndrome classification aims to aid near real-time syndromic surveillance to serve as an early warning system for disease outbreaks, using Emergency Department (ED) data. We present a system that improves the automatic classification of an ED record with triage note into one or more syndrome categories using the vector space model coupled with a ‘learning’ module that employs a pseudo-relevance feedback mechanism. Materials and Methods: Terms from standard syndrome definitions are used to construct an initial reference dictionary for generating the syndrome and triage note vectors. Based on cosine similarity between the vectors, each record is classified into a syndrome category. We then take terms from the top-ranked records that belong to the syndrome of interest as feedback. These terms are added to the reference dictionary and the process is repeated to determine the final classification. The system was tested on two different datasets for each of three syndromes: Gastro-Intestinal (GI), Respiratory (Resp) and Fever-Rash (FR). Performance was measured in terms of sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp). Results: The use of relevance feedback produced high values of sensitivity and specificity for all three syndromes in both test sets: GI: 90% and 71%, Resp: 97% and 73%, FR: 100% and 87%, respectively, in test set 1, and GI: 88% and 69%, Resp: 87% and 61%, FR: 97% and 71%, respectively, in test set 2. Conclusions: The new system for pre-processing and syndromic classification of ED records with triage notes achieved improvements in Se and Sp. Our results also demonstrate that the system can be tuned to achieve different levels of performance based on user requirements. PMID:25379126
To go beyond the query-by-example paradigm in image retrieval, there is a need for semantic indexing of large image collections for intuitive text-based image search. Different models have been proposed to learn the dependencies between the visual content of an image set and the associated text captions, then allowing for the automatic creation of semantic indexes for unannotated images. The
We present a method for automated medical textbook and encyclopedia summarization. Using statistical sentence extraction and semantic relationships, we extract sentences from text returned as part of an existing textbook search (similar to a book index). Our system guides users to the information they desire by summarizing the content of each relevant chapter or section returned in the search. The summary is tailored to contain sentences that specifically address the user's search terms. Our clustering method selects sentences that contain concepts specifically addressing the context of the query term in each of the returned sections. Our method examines conceptual relationships from the UMLS and selects clusters of concepts using Expectation Maximization (EM). Sentences associated with the concept clusters are shown to the user. We evaluated whether our extracted summary provides a suitable answer to the user's question. PMID:16779153
This meta-index gathers links to Web, gopher, telnet, and ftp sites that contain the full text of state statutes, state constitutions, and other legislative resources. Of course, results of your searches depend on what each state has made available, and each state offers a different searching mechanism. Some entries have been annotated, particularly where instructions are necessary (as in the case of telnet sessions, or when a certain plug-in is required for viewing). There is also a supplementary page with links to resources related to state legislation, such as executive orders and administrative rules.
Abstract-Feature selection is an important method for improving the efficiency and accuracy of text categorization algorithms by removing redundant and irrelevant terms from the Data warehouse. The semantic clustering and feature selection method is proposed to improve the clustering and feature selection mechanism with semantic relations of the text documents. Also a new text clustering algorithm TCFS, which stands for Text Clustering with Feature Selection is proposed. TCFS can incorporate CHIR, a new supervised feature selection method to identify relevant features (i.e., terms) iteratively, and the clustering becomes a learning process. The proposed system is designed to identify the semantic relations using the ontology. The ontology is used represent the term and concept relationship. The synonym, meronym and hypernym relationships are represented in the ontology. The concept weights are estimated with reference to the ontology. The concept weight is used for the clustering process. Statistical methods are used in the text clustering and feature selection algorithm. The cube size is very high and accuracy is low in the term based text clustering and feature selection method Index Terms: Text clustering, text mining feature Selection, ontology. 1
specification limits (noncentral targets). Boyles (1991) (12] asserts that the C? index presented by Chan, Cheng, and Spiring (CCS) is the same index Taguchi introduced, but he states that QQS exam- ined this indicator with the assumption that the process... mean coincided with the target value and that the examinations of the original Taguchi index required no such assumption. He shows that the C?estimated by CCS is based on a b&ased estimator of r that has a larger variance than the unbiased estimator...
While word processing is the most commonly used and most thoroughly investigated of all computerized writing aids, programs developed for analyzing texts and suggesting revisions in texts are growing in popularity. Collins (1989) notes that after word processing, text analysis programs are the second most commonly used computerized writing aid in composition classrooms.In this paper, computerized text analysis will be
Text clustering methods can be used to structure large sets of text or hypertext documents. The well-known methods of text clustering, however, do not really address the special problems of text clustering: very high dimensionality of the data, very large size of the databases and understandability of the cluster description. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach which uses
Summary Objective: Presented work highlights the development and initial validation of a medical embedded device for individualized care (MEDIC), which is based on a novel software architecture, enabling sensor management and disease prediction capabil- ities, and commercially available microelectronic components, sensors and conven- tional personal digital assistant (PDA) (or a cell phone). Methods and materials: In this paper, we present
Winston H. Wu; Alex A. T. Bui; Maxim A. Batalin; Lawrence K. Au; Jonathan D. Binney; William J. Kaiser
The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from latent semantic indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions that the existing algorithms, and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.
The authors develop new SVD-updating algorithms for three types of updating problems arising from Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) for information retrieval to deal with rapidly changing text document collections. They also provide theoretical justification for using a reduced-dimension representation of the original document collection in the updating process. Numerical experiments using several standard text document collections show that the new algorithms give higher (interpolated) average precisions than the existing algorithms and the retrieval accuracy is comparable to that obtained using the complete document collection.
Simon, H.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Zha, H. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering
Refractory waterborne organics resist biodegradation, accumulate in the environment and can inhibit life forms. This research develops laboratory techniques for, and interpretations of, a Refractory Index (R.I.) to quantitatively assess the persistency of refractory organics and ...
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the osprey (Pandion haliaetus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scale...
Medical spas are different. We are not just selling medical and dermatology services; we are offering clients viable new solutions to their skin care, body care, and hair care challenges. Traditional medical marketing becomes blurred today, as the expansion and acceptance of medical spas helps you to effectively compete with traditional skin care clinics, salons, and spas, while offering more therapeutic treatments from professionally licensed doctors, nurses, aestheticians, massage therapists, spa professionals, and medical practitioners. We recommend that you make the choice to successfully and competitively become a market-driven medical spa with an annual strategic plan, rather than an operationally driven business. PMID:18555955
A method of medical training includes presenting a user with a medical scenario within a medical simulation in which the user plays a physician. The medical scenario includes an interaction between the user and a patient. Performance data corresponding to the user is identified. The identified performance data is based at least in part on an action of the user during the interaction between the user and the patient. The user is evaluated based at least in part on the identified performance data to determine whether the user has achieved a training goal within the medical simulation. The training goal is intended to improve a medical skill of the user.
A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.
Transparency International has put together the Bribe Payers Perceptions Index (BPI), which ranks the leading nineteen exporting countries "in terms of the degree to which their corporations are perceived to be paying bribes abroad." According to the Bribe Payers Index (BPI), Sweden ranks the highest, followed by Australia and Canada, tying for second place. The United States comes in at seventh. This site links to the press release, background information, and framework document as well as the actual data.
Standard 10 of the Common Core State Standards attends to students' capacity with complex text. This standard distinguishes the Common Core State Standards from previous standards documents. This article describes a process--the Text Complexity Multi-Index (TCMI)--that supports teachers in studying texts to support their students in…
Approaches for adaptive database reduction for Text-To-Speech synthesis Aleksandra Krul 1,2 , G This paper raises the issue of speech database reduction adapted to a specific domain for Text-To-Speech (TTS measures. Index Terms: text-to-speech synthesis, corpus reduction, database adaptation, KL divergence 1
High level semantics embodied in scene texts are both rich and clear and thus can serve as important cues for a wide range of vision applications, for instance, image understanding, image indexing, video search, geolocation, and automatic navigation. In this paper, we present a unified framework for text detection and recognition in natural images. The contributions of this paper are threefold: 1) text detection and recognition are accomplished concurrently using exactly the same features and classification scheme; 2) in contrast to methods in the literature, which mainly focus on horizontal or near-horizontal texts, the proposed system is capable of localizing and reading texts of varying orientations; and 3) a new dictionary search method is proposed, to correct the recognition errors usually caused by confusions among similar yet different characters. As an additional contribution, a novel image database with texts of different scales, colors, fonts, and orientations in diverse real-world scenarios, is generated and released. Extensive experiments on standard benchmarks as well as the proposed database demonstrate that the proposed system achieves highly competitive performance, especially on multioriented texts. PMID:25203989
Provided by Dr. Michael W. King of the Terre Haute Center for Medical Education, this stellar resource offers a wealth of biochemistry information, from the basic chemistry of biomolecules to Glycosaminoglycans and mucopolysaccharides. Designed with the undergraduate in mind, each section contains full-text descriptions of a particular subject with accompanying illustrations, tables, figures, and references. Users looking for further information on any topic can use the MedHunt search engine from the front page here to search multiple online medical sources. For any student of biochemistry, this resource will be a valuable asset.
A free Decision Support System(DST) has been constructed for health care professional that allows the analysis of complex medical cases and the creation of diagnostic list of potential diseases for clinical evaluation.The system uses a PC-based text management system specifically designed for desktop operation. The texts employed in the decision support package include the Merck Manual (published by Merck Sharpe & Dohme) and Control of Communicable Diseas in Man (published by the American Public Health Association). The background and design of the database are discussed along with a structured analysis procedure for handling free text DSS system. A case study is presented to show the application of this technology and conclusions are drawn in the summary that point to expanded areas of professional intention and new frontiers yet to be explored in this rapidly progressing field.
Grams, Ralph R.; Buchanan, Paul; Massey, James K.; Jin, Ming
Supplementary Text and Figures FlyMAD: Rapid thermogenetic control of neuronal activity Campus, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Ashburn, U.S.A. 3 Automation and Control Supplementary Figure 1. Photograph of FlyMAD apparatus. (Photo by Matt Staley
The Text and Graphics System (TAGS) is a high-resolution facsimile system that scans text or graphics material and converts the analog SCAN data into serial digital data. This video shows the TAGS in operation.
Though Sanskrit has a huge repository of texts as well as well discussed grammar formalism, we still neither have a full fledged\\u000a parser for Sanskrit based on this formalism nor do we have any annotated text.
This activity helps students learn how computers "compress" text by identifying repeating patterns of letters, words, and phrases. Students use poems or nursery rhymes as their source text, draw boxes around repeating parts, and use arrows to point to earlier parts of the text that can be used to "uncompress" the text. The boxes and arrows are then related to the numbers that computers use in compression. An extension has students try compressing a much longer story, "The Three Little Pigs."
Bell, Tim; Witten, Ian; Fellows, Mike; Adams, Robyn; Mckenzie, Jane
Defining droughts based on a single variable/index (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, or runoff) may not be sufficient for reliable risk assessment and decision-making. In this paper, a multivariate, multi-index drought-modeling approach is proposed using the concept of copulas. The proposed model, named Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI), probabilistically combines the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and the Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) for drought characterization. In other words, MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions for overall characterization of drought. In this study, the proposed MSDI is utilized to characterize the drought conditions over several Climate Divisions in California and North Carolina. The MSDI-based drought analyses are then compared with SPI and SSI. The results reveal that MSDI indicates the drought onset and termination based on the combination of SPI and SSI, with onset being dominated by SPI and drought persistence being more similar to SSI behavior. Overall, the proposed MSDI is shown to be a reasonable model for combining multiple indices probabilistically.
This paper presents a survey of text steganography methods used for hid- ing secret information inside some covertext. Widely known hiding techniques (such as translation based steganography, text generating and syntactic embed- ding) and detection are considered. It is shown that statistical analysis has an important role in text steganalysis.
Many studies have reported the results of how students constructed texts, yet the cognitive process of how texts were constructed by sentences and how the constructive process was formulated and reformulated have rarely been addressed. This study aims to develop a computer-aided text construction system which supports 83 English as a Foreign…
This paper proposes a framework for reading mathematics texts as narratives. Building from a narrative framework of Meike Bal, a reader's experience with the mathematical content as it unfolds in the text (the "mathematical story") is distinguished from his or her logical reconstruction of the content beyond the text (the…
This paper explores text-setting in English and Spanish folk songs, arguing that the constraints which regulate the articulation of rhythm in a specific language (in this case, English and Spanish) coincide with those at work in the process of text-to-tune alignment. Two case studies are analysed using Optimality Theory text-setting constraints.
EpistemeLinks.com: Philosophy Resources on the Internet has updated their collection of links to electronic texts in Philosophy available on the Web. The database supplies "over 800 links to electronic texts by famous philosophers throughout history." Currently, users can search only by author, but "in the future the texts will also be categorized and searchable by subject area and time period."
Text mining refers to the discovery of previously unknown knowledge that can be found in text collections. In recent years, the text mining field has received great attention due to the abundance of textual data. A researcher in this area is requested to cope with issues originating from the natural language particularities. This survey discusses such semantic issues along with
Anna Stavrianou; Periklis Andritsos; Nicolas Nicoloyannis
Automatically segmenting unstructured text strings into structured records is necessary for importing the information contained in legacy sources and text collections into a data warehouse for subsequent querying, analysis, mining and integration. In this paper, we mine tables present in data warehouses and relational databases to develop an automatic segmentation system. Thus, we overcome limitations of existing supervised text segmentation
Documents the reasons for embargoes of academic journals in full text databases (i.e., publisher-imposed delays on the availability of full text content) and provides insight regarding common misconceptions. Tables present data on selected journals covering a cross-section of subjects and publishers and comparing two full text business databases.…
This paper describes an approach to text planning, one of the distinct tasks identifiedin Ehud Reiter's "consensus" architecture for Natural Language Generation(Reiter 1994, Reiter and Dale 1997). This consists a "pipeline" of distinct tasks:Text Planning - deciding the content of a message, and organising the componentpropositions into a text tree;
Research has revealed how students draw upon other texts when writing their own texts. This article explores how the writing of Alyssa, a 10-year-old Grade 5 student, was influenced by her engagement with literature with Radical Change characteristics, as well as by her knowledge of and experience with other texts. Dresang's Radical Change…
Text messaging has gained widespread popularity in higher education as a communication tool and as a means of engaging students in the learning process. In this study we report on the use of text messaging in a large, year-one introductory chemistry module where students were encouraged to send questions and queries to a dedicated text number both…