Science.gov

Sample records for medical waste generation

  1. Medical and Biohazardous Waste Generator's Guide (Revision2)

    SciTech Connect

    Waste Management Group

    2006-11-29

    These guidelines describe procedures to comply with all Federal and State laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) policy applicable to State-regulated medical and unregulated, but biohazardous, waste (medical/biohazardous waste). These guidelines apply to all LBNL personnel who: (1) generate and/or store medical/biohazardous waste, (2) supervise personnel who generate medical/biohazardous waste, or (3) manage a medical/biohazardous waste pickup location. Personnel generating biohazardous waste at the Joint Genome Institute/Production Genomics Facility (JGI/PGF) are referred to the guidelines contained in Section 9. Section 9 is the only part of these guidelines that apply to JGI/PGF. Medical/biohazardous waste referred to in this Web site includes biohazardous, sharps, pathological and liquid waste. Procedures for proper storage and disposal are summarized in the Solid Medical/Biohazardous Waste Disposal Procedures Chart. Contact the Waste Management Group at 486-7663 if you have any questions regarding medical/biohazardous waste management.

  2. Medical and biohazardous waste generator`s guide: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    This Guide describes the procedures required to comply with all federal and state laws and regulations and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) policy applicable to medical and biohazardous waste. The members of the LBL Biological Safety Subcommittee participated in writing these policies and procedures. The procedures and policies in this Guide apply to LBL personnel who work with infectious agents or potentially infectious agents, publicly perceived infectious items or materials (e.g., medical gloves, culture dishes), and sharps (e.g., needles, syringes, razor blades). If medical or biohazardous waste is contaminated or mixed with a hazardous chemical or material, with a radioactive material, or with both, the waste will be handled in accordance with the applicable federal and State of California laws and regulations for hazardous, radioactive, or mixed waste.

  3. Quantitative assessment of medical waste generation in the capital city of Bangladesh

    SciTech Connect

    Patwary, Masum A. O'Hare, William Thomas Street, Graham Maudood Elahi, K. Hossain, Syed Shahadat Sarker, Mosharraf H.

    2009-08-15

    There is a concern that mismanagement of medical waste in developing countries may be a significant risk factor for disease transmission. Quantitative estimation of medical waste generation is needed to estimate the potential risk and as a basis for any waste management plan. Dhaka City, the capital of Bangladesh, is an example of a major city in a developing country where there has been no rigorous estimation of medical waste generation based upon a thorough scientific study. These estimates were obtained by stringent weighing of waste in a carefully chosen, representative, sample of HCEs, including non-residential diagnostic centres. This study used a statistically designed sampling of waste generation in a broad range of Health Care Establishments (HCEs) to indicate that the amount of waste produced in Dhaka can be estimated to be 37 {+-} 5 ton per day. The proportion of this waste that would be classified as hazardous waste by World Health Organisation (WHO) guidelines was found to be approximately 21%. The amount of waste, and the proportion of hazardous waste, was found to vary significantly with the size and type of HCE.

  4. Medical waste management plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, Todd W.; VanderNoot, Victoria A.

    2004-12-01

    This plan describes the process for managing research generated medical waste at Sandia National Laboratories/California. It applies to operations at the Chemical and Radiation Detection Laboratory (CRDL), Building 968, and other biosafety level 1 or 2 activities at the site. It addresses the accumulation, storage, treatment and disposal of medical waste and sharps waste. It also describes the procedures to comply with regulatory requirements and SNL policies applicable to medical waste.

  5. Hazardous medical waste generation rates of different categories of health-care facilities.

    PubMed

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Fouki, Anastassia; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-07-01

    Goal of this work was to calculate the hazardous medical waste unit generation rates (HMWUGR), in kg bed(-1)d(-1), using data from 132 health-care facilities in Greece. The calculations were based on the weights of the hazardous medical wastes that were regularly transferred to the sole medical waste incinerator in Athens over a 22-month period during years 2009 and 2010. The 132 health-care facilities were grouped into public and private ones, and, also, into seven sub-categories, namely: birth, cancer treatment, general, military, pediatric, psychiatric and university hospitals. Results showed that there is a large variability in the HMWUGR, even among hospitals of the same category. Average total HMWUGR varied from 0.012 kg bed(-1)d(-1), for the public psychiatric hospitals, to up to 0.72 kg bed(-1)d(-1), for the public university hospitals. Within the private hospitals, average HMWUGR ranged from 0.0012 kg bed(-1)d(-1), for the psychiatric clinics, to up to 0.49 kg bed(-1)d(-1), for the birth clinics. Based on non-parametric statistics, HMWUGR were statistically similar for the birth and general hospitals, in both the public and private sector. The private birth and general hospitals generated statistically more wastes compared to the corresponding public hospitals. The infectious/toxic and toxic medical wastes appear to be 10% and 50% of the total hazardous medical wastes generated by the public cancer treatment and university hospitals, respectively. PMID:22444895

  6. Forecasting medical waste generation using short and extra short datasets: Case study of Lithuania.

    PubMed

    Karpušenkaitė, Aistė; Ruzgas, Tomas; Denafas, Gintaras

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate the performance of various mathematical modelling methods, while forecasting medical waste generation using Lithuania's annual medical waste data. Only recently has a hazardous waste collection system that includes medical waste been created and therefore the study access to gain large sets of relevant data for its research has been somewhat limited. According to data that was managed to be obtained, it was decided to develop three short and extra short datasets with 20, 10 and 6 observations. Spearman's correlation calculation showed that the influence of independent variables, such as visits at hospitals and other medical institutions, number of children in the region, number of beds in hospital and other medical institutions, average life expectancy and doctor's visits in that region are the most consistent and common in all three datasets. Tests on the performance of artificial neural networks, multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and four non-parametric regression methods were conducted on the collected datasets. The best and most promising results were demonstrated by generalised additive (R(2) = 0.90455) in the regional data case, smoothing splines models (R(2) = 0.98584) in the long annual data case and multilayer feedforward artificial neural networks in the short annual data case (R(2) = 0.61103). PMID:26879908

  7. Hazardous medical waste generation rates of different categories of health-care facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Fouki, Anastassia; Papadopoulos, Dimitrios

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We calculated hazardous medical waste generation rates (HMWGR) from 132 hospitals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Based on a 22-month study period, HMWGR were highly skewed to the right. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The HMWGR varied from 0.00124 to 0.718 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A positive correlation existed between the HMWGR and the number of hospital beds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We used non-parametric statistics to compare rates among hospital categories. - Abstract: Goal of this work was to calculate the hazardous medical waste unit generation rates (HMWUGR), in kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, using data from 132 health-care facilities in Greece. The calculations were based on the weights of the hazardous medical wastes that were regularly transferred to the sole medical waste incinerator in Athens over a 22-month period during years 2009 and 2010. The 132 health-care facilities were grouped into public and private ones, and, also, into seven sub-categories, namely: birth, cancer treatment, general, military, pediatric, psychiatric and university hospitals. Results showed that there is a large variability in the HMWUGR, even among hospitals of the same category. Average total HMWUGR varied from 0.012 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the public psychiatric hospitals, to up to 0.72 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the public university hospitals. Within the private hospitals, average HMWUGR ranged from 0.0012 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the psychiatric clinics, to up to 0.49 kg bed{sup -1} d{sup -1}, for the birth clinics. Based on non-parametric statistics, HMWUGR were statistically similar for the birth and general hospitals, in both the public and private sector. The private birth and general hospitals generated statistically more wastes compared to the corresponding public hospitals. The infectious/toxic and toxic medical wastes appear to be 10% and 50% of the total hazardous medical wastes

  8. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► PAHs generation and distribution features of medical waste incineration are studied. ► More PAHs were found in fly ash than that in bottom ash. ► The highest proportion of PAHs consisted of the seven most carcinogenic ones. ► Increase of free oxygen molecule and burning temperature promote PAHs degradation. ► There is a moderate positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs. - Abstract: After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8 × 10{sup 3} times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between

  9. Diagnosis pending for medical waste

    SciTech Connect

    Calmbacher, C.W.

    1993-05-01

    Standards for the Tracking and Management of Medical waste, 40 CFR 259, define regulated medical wastes and establish a pilot tracking program, pre-transport requirements, generator standards, on-site incinerator requirements, transporter requirements, standards for treatment, destruction, and disposal facilities, and requirements for rail shipment of regulated medical wastes. After evaluating the success of pilot programs, a nationwide standard for the tracking and management of regulated medical wastes will be established.

  10. Generation and distribution of PAHs in the process of medical waste incineration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Zhao, Rongzhi; Xue, Jun; Li, Jinhui

    2013-05-01

    After the deadly earthquake on May 12, 2008 in Wenchuan county of China, several different incineration approaches were used for medical waste disposal. This paper investigates the generation properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during the incineration. Samples were collected from the bottom ash in an open burning slash site, surface soil at the open burning site, bottom ash from a simple incinerator, bottom ash generated from the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator used for medical waste disposal, and bottom ash and fly ash from an incinerator exclusively used for medical waste. The species of PAHs were analyzed, and the toxicity equivalency quantities (TEQs) of samples calculated. Analysis results indicate that the content of total PAHs in fly ash was 1.8×10(3) times higher than that in bottom ash, and that the strongly carcinogenic PAHs with four or more rings accumulated sensitively in fly ash. The test results of samples gathered from open burning site demonstrate that Acenaphthylene (ACY), Acenaphthene (ACE), Fluorene (FLU), Phenanthrene (PHE), Anthracene (ANT) and other PAHs were inclined to migrate into surrounding environment along air and surface watershed corridors, while 4- to 6-ring PAHs accumulated more likely in soil. Being consistent with other studies, it has also been confirmed that increases in both free oxygen molecules and combustion temperatures could promote the decomposition of polycyclic PAHs. In addition, without the influence of combustion conditions, there is a positive correlation between total PCDD/Fs and total PAHs, although no such relationship has been found for TEQ. PMID:23462270

  11. Reducing medical waste.

    PubMed

    Conrardy, Julie; Hillanbrand, Mary; Myers, Sandra; Nussbaum, George F

    2010-06-01

    Medical waste is a necessary by-product of any hospital environment; however, the majority of regulated medical waste is produced in the OR from the use of disposable surgical supplies (eg, drapes, gowns, basins, gloves, sponges). We conducted a concept comparison project in the ORs of two large medical centers in Bethesda, Maryland, and Washington, DC, to evaluate the effects of using reusable surgical basins, gowns, and table and Mayo stand covers in place of disposable products. Survey results indicated that surgeons and surgical technologists found the reusable products to be preferable to the disposable products currently in use. In addition, using reusable products provided a means to decrease regulated medical waste generated in the OR by an average of 65% as well as reduce the cost of waste disposal. AORN recommends evaluating the environmental effects of using reusable, reposable, and disposable products; our findings provide evidence that may be useful to surgical facilities that seek to adopt a "green" approach. PMID:20510944

  12. The use of artificial neural networks and multiple linear regression to predict rate of medical waste generation

    SciTech Connect

    Jahandideh, Sepideh Jahandideh, Samad; Asadabadi, Ebrahim Barzegari; Askarian, Mehrdad; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Hosseini, Somayyeh; Jahandideh, Mina

    2009-11-15

    Prediction of the amount of hospital waste production will be helpful in the storage, transportation and disposal of hospital waste management. Based on this fact, two predictor models including artificial neural networks (ANNs) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were applied to predict the rate of medical waste generation totally and in different types of sharp, infectious and general. In this study, a 5-fold cross-validation procedure on a database containing total of 50 hospitals of Fars province (Iran) were used to verify the performance of the models. Three performance measures including MAR, RMSE and R{sup 2} were used to evaluate performance of models. The MLR as a conventional model obtained poor prediction performance measure values. However, MLR distinguished hospital capacity and bed occupancy as more significant parameters. On the other hand, ANNs as a more powerful model, which has not been introduced in predicting rate of medical waste generation, showed high performance measure values, especially 0.99 value of R{sup 2} confirming the good fit of the data. Such satisfactory results could be attributed to the non-linear nature of ANNs in problem solving which provides the opportunity for relating independent variables to dependent ones non-linearly. In conclusion, the obtained results showed that our ANN-based model approach is very promising and may play a useful role in developing a better cost-effective strategy for waste management in future.

  13. Management of medical waste in Tanzanian hospitals.

    PubMed

    Manyele, S V; Anicetus, H

    2006-09-01

    A survey was conducted to study the existing medical waste management (MWM) systems in Tanzanian hospitals during a nationwide health-care waste management-training programme conducted from 2003 to 2005. The aim of the programme was to enable health workers to establish MWM systems in their health facilities aimed at improving infection prevention and control and occupational health aspects. During the training sessions, a questionnaire was prepared and circulated to collect information on the MWM practices existing in hospitals in eight regions of the Tanzania. The analysis showed that increased population and poor MWM systems as well as expanded use of disposables were the main reasons for increased medical wastes in hospitals. The main disposal methods comprised of open pit burning (50%) and burying (30%) of the waste. A large proportion (71%) of the hospitals used dust bins for transporting waste from generation points to incinerator without plastic bags. Most hospitals had low incineration capacity, with few of them having fire brick incinerators. Most of the respondents preferred on-site versus off-site waste incineration. Some hospitals were using untrained casual labourers in medical waste management and general cleanliness. The knowledge level in MWM issues was low among the health workers. It is concluded that hospital waste management in Tanzania is poor. There is need for proper training and management regarding awareness and practices of medical waste management to cover all carders of health workers in the country. PMID:18254511

  14. Medical Waste Management Implications for Small Medical Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrns, George; Burke, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the implications of the Medical Waste Management Act of 1988 for small medical facilities, public health, and the environment. Reviews health and environmental risks associated with medical waste, current regulatory approaches, and classifications. Concludes that the health risk of medical wastes has been overestimated; makes…

  15. Waste generator services implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  16. Medical waste to energy: experimental study

    PubMed Central

    ARCURI, C.; LUCIANI, F.; PIVA, P.; BARTULI, F.N.; OTTRIA, L.; MECHERI, B.; LICOCCIA, S.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objective. Although waste is traditionally assessed as a pollutant which needs to be reduced or lessened, its management is certainly necessary. Nowadays, biological fuel cells, through the direct conversion of organic matter to electricity using biocatalysts, represent a technology able to produce sustainable energy by means of waste treatment. This study aims to propose a mean to generate energy from blood and saliva, that are common risk-infectious medical waste. Materials and methods. Material employed (purchased by Sigma-Aldrich) were: Glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion perfluorinated resin solution at 5% in a mixture of lower aliphatic alcohols and water, Polyethylene oxide. Stock solutions of D (+) glucose were prepared in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer solution and stored at 4 °C for at least 24 h before use. Carbon cloth electrode ELAT HT 140 E-W with a platinum loading of 5 gm-2 was purchased by E-Tek. Electrospun Nafion fibers were obtained as follows. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the electrode morphologies. Results. In order to develop an effective immobilization strategy of GOx on the electrode surface, Nafion fibers (a fully fluorinated ion conducting polymer used as a membrane material in enzymatic fuel cells - EFC) were selected as immobilizing polymer matrix. In this work, exploiting the nafion fibers capability of being able to cathalize Gox activity, we have tried to produce an enzymatic fuel cell which could produce energy from the blood and the saliva within medical-dental waste. Conclusions. Medical waste refers to all those materials produced by the interaction among doctor and patient, such as blood and saliva. During our research we will try to complete an EFC prototype able to produce energy from blood and saliva inside the risk-infectious medical waste in order to contribute to the energy requirements of a consulting room. PMID:24971161

  17. Medical wastes management in the south of Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, C.E. da

    2005-07-01

    In developing countries, solid wastes have not received sufficient attention. In many countries, hazardous and medical wastes are still handled and disposed together with domestic wastes, thus creating a great health risk to municipal workers, the public and the environment. Medical waste management has been evaluated at the Vacacai river basin in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. A total of 91 healthcare facilities, including hospitals (21), health centers (48) and clinical laboratories (22) were surveyed to provide information about the management, segregation, generation, storage and disposal of medical wastes. The results about management aspects indicate that practices in most healthcare facilities do not comply with the principles stated in Brazilian legislation. All facilities demonstrated a priority on segregation of infectious-biological wastes. Average generation rates of total and infectious-biological wastes in the hospitals were estimated to be 3.245 and 0.570 kg/bed-day, respectively.

  18. Up from the beach: medical waste disposal rules!

    PubMed

    Francisco, C J

    1989-07-01

    The recent incidents of floating debris, garbage, wood, and medical waste on our nation's beaches have focused public attention on waste management problems. The handling and disposal of solid waste remains a major unresolved national dilemma. Increased use of disposables by all consumers, including the medical profession, and the increasing costs of solid waste disposal options have aggravated the solid waste situation. Medical waste found on beaches in the summer of 1988 could have been generated by a number of sources, including illegal dumping; sewer overflow; storm water runoff; illegal drug users; and inadequate handling of solid waste at landfills and coastal transfer facilities, which receive waste from doctors' offices, laboratories, and even legitimate home users of syringes. As officials from New Jersey have determined, the beach garbage is no mystery. It's coming from you and me. In response to the perceived medical waste disposal problem, various state and federal agencies have adopted rules to regulate and control the disposal of medical waste. This article outlines the more significant rules that apply to medical waste. PMID:2756492

  19. Waste acceptance criteria for closure generated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The PORTS Facility has been operating since 1954. The PORTS Facility is used to enrich uranium for nuclear navy applications and commercial nuclear reactors. The PORTS process uses molecular diffusion techniques to separate the U-235 isotope from the U-238 isotope. The PORTS Facility consists of a complex cascade of compressors and converters through which gaseous uranium hexafluoride feed is processed. The feed contains approximately 0.7 percent U-235 by weight while products contain from 4 to 97 percent U-235 by weight, depending on the final application. In general, the majority of the closure wastes generated at PORTS consists of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, soils, decontamination solutions, and construction related debris. These hazardous wastes will be predominately characterized on the basis of process knowledge. PORTS assumes its conservative waste characterizations that are based on process knowledge are correct unless and until further investigation and/or analysis proves the constituents are not present or are present at concentrations below characteristic regulatory thresholds. Waste Acceptance Criteria for wastes generated by the closure of active and inactive RCRA facilities at PORTS has been developed. The criteria presented in this document govern the activities that are performed during the closure and subsequent generation of waste and relocation from the closure locations to the storage unit. These criteria are intended to ensure the proper handling, classification, processing, and storage of wastes in order to prevent hazardous waste release that may pose a threat to human health or the environment. Any wastes currently stored at each of the facilities that are to be closed will be transferred to the X-326 or X-7725 Storage Units. The waste transfers will be accomplished in accordance with the Container Transfer Plan.

  20. Evaluation of medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Labib, Ossama A; Hussein, Ahmed H; El-Shall, Waffaa I; Zakaria, Adel; Mohamed, Mona G

    2005-01-01

    Medical establishments play important roles in different activities by using of modern technology to serve the humans and the environment through different departments in the establishment and its firms. Medical wastes are considered as a hazardous waste because they contain toxic materials, infectious, or non-infectious wastes and they are considered as a hazard to millions of patients, health care workers, and visitors. Treatment processes for medical wastes comprise autoclaving, microwaving, chemical disinfection, irradiation, plasma system, and incineration. Incineration is a thermal process, which destroys most of the waste including microorganisms. Combustion process must be under controlled conditions to convert wastes containing hazardous materials into mineral residues and gases. Hospital waste incinerators may emit a number of pollutants depending on the waste being incinerated. These pollutants include particulate matter, acid gases, toxic metals, and toxic organic compounds products of incomplete combustion, e.g., dioxins, furans, and carbon monoxide, as well as sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides. So, there should be a reduction of emissions of most of these pollutants by air pollution control devices. This study was conducted in 51 medical establishments (ME) in Alexandria. To evaluate its incinerators. It was found that only 31.4% of total ME have their own incinerators to treat their medical waste. Also, the incinerators conditions were poor with incomplete combustion. So, the study recommend handling of all medical wastes of ME in Alexandria by the company which is responsible now for management of domestic solid wastes of the city. PMID:16900615

  1. Reduced waste generation, FY 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    The United States Department of Energy is committed to the principles of minimizing the quantity and transuranic content of its transuranium (TRU) waste being generated at its nuclear facilities. The reasons are to reduce costs associated with waste handling and disposal, and also to reduce radiation exposure to workers and risk for radionuclide release to man and the environment. The purpose of this document is to provide the USDOE with a plan of research and development tasks for waste minimization, and is prepared so as to provide the maximum impact on volumes based on cost/benefit factors. The document is to be updated annually or as needed to reflect current and future tasks. The Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of activities with the principal goals of (1) preventing the generation of waste and (2) converting TRU waste into low-level wastes (LLW) by sorting or decontamination. Concepts for reducing the volume such as in incineration and compaction are considered within the discipline of Reduced Waste Generation, but are considered as somewhat developed technology with only a need for implementation. 33 refs.

  2. METAL BEHAVIOR DURING MEDICAL WASTE INCINERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Medical waste contains toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury. onsequently, the incineration of medical waste may result in the emissions of trace metals into the environment, if incinerators are not properly designed and operated. PA's Risk Reduction Engineering Laborat...

  3. Medical waste management in Ibadan, Nigeria: Obstacles and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, Akinwale Sangodoyin, Abimbola; Sridhar, Mynepalli; Booth, Colin; Olomolaiye, Paul; Hammond, Felix

    2009-02-15

    Quantification and characterization of medical waste generated in healthcare facilities (HCFs) in a developing African nation has been conducted to provide insights into existing waste collection and disposal approaches, so as to provide sustainable avenues for institutional policy improvement. The study, in Ibadan city, Nigeria, entailed a representative classification of nearly 400 healthcare facilities, from 11 local government areas (LGA) of Ibadan, into tertiary, secondary, primary, and diagnostic HCFs, of which, 52 HCFs were strategically selected. Primary data sources included field measurements, waste sampling and analysis and a questionnaire, while secondary information sources included public and private records from hospitals and government ministries. Results indicate secondary HCFs generate the greatest amounts of medical waste (mean of 10,238 kg/day per facility) followed by tertiary, primary and diagnostic HCFs, respectively. Characterised waste revealed that only {approx}3% was deemed infectious and highlights opportunities for composting, reuse and recycling. Furthermore, the management practices in most facilities expose patients, staff, waste handlers and the populace to unnecessary health risks. This study proffers recommendations to include (i) a need for sustained cooperation among all key actors (government, hospitals and waste managers) in implementing a safe and reliable medical waste management strategy, not only in legislation and policy formation but also particularly in its monitoring and enforcement and (ii) an obligation for each HCF to ensure a safe and hygienic system of medical waste handling, segregation, collection, storage, transportation, treatment and disposal, with minimal risk to handlers, public health and the environment.

  4. [Waste generated in Polish hospitals during the years 2005 - 2009].

    PubMed

    Kanclerski, Krzysztof; Röhm-Rodowald, Ewa; Jakimiak, Bozenna; Chojecka, Agnieszka; Jakubiec, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    The medical institutions generate mainly municipal and medical waste. The medical waste includes infectious waste, dangerous but not infectious waste (toxic) and medical not dangerous waste. They have to be correctly identified, properly sorted and suitably neutralized. Questionnaires investigations were conducted on the basis on the forms worked out at National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene. Information from above seven hundred seventy hospitals were collected. Inquiries indicated that during the period of years 2005-2009 over two hundred thousand beds per year were available. The degree of the use run from 52% to 100%, in average 72%. The largest fraction of the waste from all institutions were municipal waste run from 80% to 90%. Dangerous waste in following years were between 9.9% and 18.1%. The great part of dangerous waste were infections waste, which content ranged from 8.7 to 17.1%. Very low quantity of medical not dangerous waste was noted (1-1,7%). The majority of infectious medical waste were neutralized outside hospitals by the companies having suitable permissions. The thermal conversions (burning) was the most often used method. PMID:22390059

  5. [Problems in medical waste handling in penitentiaries].

    PubMed

    Kudasheva, L T; Shudegova, E V; Ponomarev, S B; Cherenkov, A A

    2010-01-01

    The urgency of the problems associated with epidemiologically hazardous waste resulting in the penitentiary system stems from that about half of the convicts seeking medical advice suffer from social diseases. In this connection the authors propose to combine Classes B and C medical waste and to consider them to be Class C (extremely hazardous substances) and to refer Class A waste to as Class B (hazardous substances). Classes A, B, and C waste results in the penitentiaries with patients with active tuberculosis should be regarded as Class C (extremely hazardous substances). PMID:20373710

  6. MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT: MEDICAL WASTE COMBUSTION PRACTICES AT MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report defines and characterizes types of medical waste, discusses the impacts of burning medical waste on combustor emissions, and outlines important handling and operating considerations. Facility-specific design, handling, and operating practiced are also discussed for mun...

  7. The findings of the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry Medical Waste Tracking Act report.

    PubMed Central

    Lichtveld, M Y; Rodenbeck, S E; Lybarger, J A

    1992-01-01

    The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) report "The Public Health Implications of Medical Waste: A Report to Congress" has been finalized and submitted to Congress. The report is a comprehensive review of all available data and information on the subject. Based on the data developed in the report, ATSDR concludes that the general public is not likely to be adversely affected by medical waste generated in the traditional health setting. However, the increase of in-home health care and other sources of nonregulated medical waste (e.g., intravenous drug users) provides opportunities for the general public to contact medical waste. In addition, ATSDR concludes that public health concerns exist for selected occupations involved with medical waste. These populations include janitorial and laundry workers, nurses, emergency medical personnel, and refuse workers. The ATSDR report also defines what material should be managed as medical waste and identifies research needs related to medical waste. PMID:1486856

  8. A Survey of Recent Literature on Medical Waste.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Ester L.

    1994-01-01

    Examines recent journal literature about medical wastes and examines definitions, risks, and methods of minimizing risks. The consensus in the recent articles on medical waste is that medical waste is no more dangerous than nonmedical waste. (Contains 23 references.) (Author/MDH)

  9. 49 CFR 173.197 - Regulated medical waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regulated medical waste. 173.197 Section 173.197... Regulated medical waste. (a) General provisions. Non-bulk packagings, Large Packagings, and non-specification bulk outer packagings used for the transportation of regulated medical waste or clinical waste...

  10. 49 CFR 173.197 - Regulated medical waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regulated medical waste. 173.197 Section 173.197... Regulated medical waste. (a) General provisions. Non-bulk packagings, Large Packagings, and non-specification bulk outer packagings used for the transportation of regulated medical waste or clinical waste...

  11. 49 CFR 173.197 - Regulated medical waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regulated medical waste. 173.197 Section 173.197... Regulated medical waste. (a) General provisions. Non-bulk packagings, Large Packagings, and non-specification bulk outer packagings used for the transportation of regulated medical waste or clinical waste...

  12. Infectious waste management in Japan: A revised regulation and a management process in medical institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, M. . E-mail: motonobu@cis.fukuoka-u.ac.jp; Une, H.

    2005-07-01

    In Japan, the waste management practice is carried out in accordance with the Waste Disposal Law of 1970. The first rule of infectious waste management was regulated in 1992, and infectious wastes are defined as the waste materials generated in medical institutions as a result of medical care or research which contain pathogens that have the potential to transmit infectious diseases. Revised criteria for infectious waste management were promulgated by the Ministry of Environment in 2004. Infectious waste materials are divided into three categories: the form of waste; the place of waste generation; the kind of infectious diseases. A reduction of infectious waste is expected. We introduce a summary of the revised regulation of infectious waste management in this article.

  13. Bio-medical waste management in the U.T., Chandigarh.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kamaljit; Arora, Shakti Kumar; Dhadwal, P J S; Singla, Ashwani; John, Siby

    2004-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to assess the generation and disposal of biomedical waste in the various medical establishments in the urban and rural areas of the U.T. Chandigarh. It was found that there were 474 medical establishments in the U.T., Chandigarh including Nursing Homes, Clinics, Dispensaries, Pathological labs., Hospitals, Veterinary Institutions and Animal houses. The total quantity of bio-medical waste generated in Chandigarh is 811.35 kg/day and the rate of generation of bio-medical waste varies from 0.06 kg/day/bed to 0.25 kg/day/bed. Though the major hospitals are equipped with incinerators, proper bio-medical waste management system is yet to be implemented. The medical establishments in the rural area and smaller ones in the urban area dispose off their bio-medical waste along with municipal solid waste and no waste management system exists. It is recommended that an integrated waste management plan using the three incinerators installed at the major hospitals can safely dispose off the total bio-medical waste generated in the city. PMID:16649593

  14. HOSPITAL GENERATED WASTE: A PLAN FOR ITS PROPER MANAGEMENT

    PubMed Central

    Aljabre, Salih H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Hospitals are important sites for the generation of hazardous waste. Each hospital has its own profile for the generation and transportion of waste according to its location. It is extremely important to manage hospital generated waste properly in order to avoid health and environmental risks. This article reports the plan designed and used by the hospital waste management committee in King Fahad Hospital of the University , Alhkobar, Saudi Arabia, for the safe management of hospital generated waste starting from the collection areas to the final disposal procedure. The plan was in four stages: background information, identification of problems, intervention and monitoring. The possible solutions for problems encountered are suggested. This plan which was efficient and cost effective can be used in other medical establishments. PMID:23008674

  15. Dry phase reactor for generating medical isotopes

    DOEpatents

    Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Heltemes, Thad Alexander

    2016-05-03

    An apparatus for generating medical isotopes provides for the irradiation of dry-phase, granular uranium compounds which are then dissolved in a solvent for separation of the medical isotope from the irradiated compound. Once the medical isotope is removed, the dissolved compound may be reconstituted in dry granular form for repeated irradiation.

  16. Waste heat generation: A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Yeşiller, Nazli; Hanson, James L; Yee, Emma H

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive review of heat generation in various types of wastes and of the thermal regime of waste containment facilities is provided in this paper. Municipal solid waste (MSW), MSW incineration ash, and mining wastes were included in the analysis. Spatial and temporal variations of waste temperatures, thermal gradients, thermal properties of wastes, average temperature differentials, and heat generation values are provided. Heat generation was influenced by climatic conditions, mean annual earth temperatures, waste temperatures at the time of placement, cover conditions, and inherent heat generation potential of the specific wastes. Time to onset of heat generation varied between months and years, whereas timelines for overall duration of heat generation varied between years and decades. For MSW, measured waste temperatures were as high as 60-90°C and as low as -6°C. MSW incinerator ash temperatures varied between 5 and 87°C. Mining waste temperatures were in the range of -25 to 65°C. In the wastes analyzed, upward heat flow toward the surface was more prominent than downward heat flow toward the subsurface. Thermal gradients generally were higher for MSW and incinerator ash and lower for mining waste. Based on thermal properties, MSW had insulative qualities (low thermal conductivity), while mining wastes typically were relatively conductive (high thermal conductivity) with ash having intermediate qualities. Heat generation values ranged from -8.6 to 83.1MJ/m(3) and from 0.6 to 72.6MJ/m(3) for MSW and mining waste, respectively and was 72.6MJ/m(3) for ash waste. Conductive thermal losses were determined to range from 13 to 1111MJ/m(3)yr. The data and analysis provided in this review paper can be used in the investigation of heat generation and thermal regime of a wide range of wastes and waste containment facilities located in different climatic regions. PMID:25962825

  17. Medical waste irradiation study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adler, R.J.; Stein, J.; Nygard, J.

    1998-07-25

    The North Star Research Corporation Medical Waste project is described in this report, with details of design, construction, operation, and results to date. The project began with preliminary design of the accelerator. The initial design was for a single accelerator chamber with a vacuum tube cavity driver built into the chamber itself, rather than using a commercial tube separate from the RF accelerator. The authors believed that this would provide more adjustability and permit better coupling to be obtained. They did not have sufficient success with that approach, and finally completed the project using a DC accelerator with a unique new scanning system to irradiate the waste.

  18. Methane generation from waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Samani, Zohrab A.; Hanson, Adrian T.; Macias-Corral, Maritza

    2010-03-23

    An organic solid waste digester for producing methane from solid waste, the digester comprising a reactor vessel for holding solid waste, a sprinkler system for distributing water, bacteria, and nutrients over and through the solid waste, and a drainage system for capturing leachate that is then recirculated through the sprinkler system.

  19. Disperse generation; use waste heat

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-09-01

    Utility manager and American Public Power Association (APPA) president William H. Corkran, Jr. answers questions about the Easton (Maryland) Utilities Commission, which currently has a capacity nearly double its peak load. Power sales through interconnections are made by day, and low-cost purchases are made by night from a variety of widespread sources using different fuels. Easton's fuel mix and conservation strategy is aimed at oil substitution and efficiency measures, such as waste-heat recovery from diesel engines. Wind, photovoltaics, solar water heating, cogeneration, and small nuclear units are also under study. Although he anticipates an OPEC move to discourage new technologies, dispersed technologies will still offer more potential for efficient and secure power generation and transmission. Utilities, he feels, should lead the decentralization more rather than resist it in order to expand their service capability into cable television. The APPA can help by motivating young people to pursue these opportunities. (DCK)

  20. Medical waste treatment and decontamination system

    DOEpatents

    Wicks, George G.; Schulz, Rebecca L.; Clark, David E.

    2001-01-01

    The invention discloses a tandem microwave system consisting of a primary chamber in which hybrid microwave energy is used for the controlled combustion of materials. A second chamber is used to further treat the off-gases from the primary chamber by passage through a susceptor matrix subjected to additional hybrid microwave energy. The direct microwave radiation and elevated temperatures provide for significant reductions in the qualitative and quantitative emissions of the treated off gases. The tandem microwave system can be utilized for disinfecting wastes, sterilizing materials, and/or modifying the form of wastes to solidify organic or inorganic materials. The simple design allows on-site treatment of waste by small volume waste generators.

  1. The medical waste audit. A framework for hospitals to appraise options and financial implications.

    PubMed

    Studnicki, J

    1992-03-01

    The generation, handling, and disposal of medical wastes involve virtually every department in the hospital. To enhance coordination, managers must comprehensively describe the total system and specify the roles of key functions and individuals. Hospitals produce about 77 percent of the approximately 500,000 tons of regulated medical waste produced annually in the United States. The amount produced by different hospitals varies, primarily because of differences in "waste-management practices." The Environmental Protection Agency is trying to develop a greater understanding of the types of medical wastes that are infectious, methods of transmission, and the likelihood of transmission in the handling and disposal of waste within the hospital environment. To ensure that medical waste is being handled and treated in the most cost-effective manner and with the least health risk to employees and the community, hospital administrators must undertake a comprehensive appraisal of the activities associated with the generation, handling, and disposal processes. A "medical waste audit" requires the following steps: Generation profile to identify origination points, categories or types of waste, and associated generation rates. Inventory of handling practices, including existing regulations, procedures and protocols, training programs, definitions regarding waste segregation, and documentation. Review of current disposal practices and existing and developing alternatives. Cost analysis PMID:10116509

  2. Methane generation from animal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, E.L.

    1980-06-01

    The conversion of manure to biogas via anaerobic digestion is described. The effluent resulting from the conversion retains fertilizer value and is environmentally acceptable. Discussion is presented under the headings: methane formation in the digester; the Tarleton State Poultry Waste to Methane production system; operating experience at Tarleton State; economics of biogas production from poultry waste; construction cost and biogas value; energy uses; feed and waste processing; and advantages of anaerobic digestion. (DMC)

  3. Medical waste management in Trachea region of Turkey: suggested remedial action.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Füsun; Tinmaz, Esra

    2004-10-01

    The main objective of this paper was to analyse the present status of medical waste management in the Trachea region of Turkey and subsequently to draw up a policy regarded with generation, collection, on-site handling, storage, processing, recycling, transportation and safe disposal of medical wastes. This paper also presents the results of study about awareness on how to handle expired drugs. Initially all health-care establishments in Tekirdağ, Edirne and Kýrklareli provinces in Trachea region were identified and the amounts of hospital wastes generated by each of them were determined. Current medical waste-management practices, including storage, collection, transportation and disposal, in surveyed establishments were identified. Finally, according to results, remedial measurements for medical waste management in these establishments were suggested. Unfortunately, medical wastes are not given proper attention and these wastes are disposed of together with municipal and industrial solid wastes. The current disposal method is both a public health and environmental hazard. When landfill sites are visited, many scavengers can be seen sorting for recyclable materials, a practice which is dangerous for the scavengers. In addition, it was found that some staff in health-care establishments are unaware of the hazard of medical wastes. It is concluded that a new management system, which consists of segregation, material substitution, minimization, sanitary landfilling and alternative medical waste treatment methods should be carried out. For the best appropriate medical waste management system, health-care establishment employers, managers and especially the members of house- keeping divisions should be involved in medical waste management practice. PMID:15560445

  4. Generating revenue from X-ray waste.

    PubMed

    Hundal, Simon

    2013-09-01

    According to Betts Envirometal, experts in precious metal recovery from waste streams, and a provider of 'total waste management' solutions, 'disposing of hospital wastes isn't usually a glamorous subject, unless, of course, you know how to make money from it'. As general manager, Simon Hundal, explains, the company is seeking to 'revolutionise' how the NHS treats certain waste streams, and, in doing so, to encourage NHS Trust directors and governance managers to check their compliance with patient data retention guidelines as far as medical X-ray film, in particular, is concerned. PMID:24138001

  5. Methodology for generating waste volume estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.Q.; Hale, T.; Miller, D.

    1991-09-01

    This document describes the methodology that will be used to calculate waste volume estimates for site characterization and remedial design/remedial action activities at each of the DOE Field Office, Oak Ridge (DOE-OR) facilities. This standardized methodology is designed to ensure consistency in waste estimating across the various sites and organizations that are involved in environmental restoration activities. The criteria and assumptions that are provided for generating these waste estimates will be implemented across all DOE-OR facilities and are subject to change based on comments received and actual waste volumes measured during future sampling and remediation activities. 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  6. Revolutionary advances in medical waste management. The Sanitec system.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Borel, Lise; Jensen, H Gordon; Winters, Kathryne L; Long, William B; Gubler, K Dean; Buschbacher, Ralph M; Becker, Daniel G; Chang, Dillon E; Korngold, Jonathan; Chitwood, W Randolph; Lin, Kant Y; Nichter, Larry S; Berenson, Susan; Britt, L D; Tafel, John A

    2006-01-01

    It is the purpose of this collective review to provide a detailed outline of a revolutionary medical waste disposal system that should be used in all medical centers in the world to prevent pollution of our planet from medical waste. The Sanitec medical waste disposal system consists of the following seven components: (1) an all-weather steel enclosure of the waste management system, allowing it to be used inside or outside of the hospital center; (2) an automatic mechanical lift-and-load system that protects the workers from devastating back injuries; (3) a sophisticated shredding system designed for medical waste; (4) a series of air filters including the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (5) microwave disinfection of the medical waste material; (6) a waste compactor or dumpster; and (7) an onboard microprocessor. It must be emphasized that this waste management system can be used either inside or outside the hospital. From start to finish, the Sanitec Microwave Disinfection system is designed to provide process and engineering controls that assure complete disinfection and destruction, while minimizing the operator's exposure to risk. There are numerous technologic benefits to the Sanitec systems, including environmental, operational, physical, and disinfection efficiency as well as waste residue disinfection. Wastes treated through the Sanitec system are thoroughly disinfected, unrecognizable, and reduced in volume by approximately 80% (saving valuable landfill space and reducing hauling requirements and costs). They are acceptable in any municipal solid waste program. Sanitec's Zero Pollution Advantage is augmented by a complete range of services, including installation, startup, testing, training, maintenance, and repair, over the life of this system. The Sanitec waste management system has essentially been designed to provide the best overall solution to the customer, when that customer actually looks at the total cost of dealing with the

  7. Retrospection-Simulation-Revision: Approach to the Analysis of the Composition and Characteristics of Medical Waste at a Disaster Relief Site.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Lihua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A large amount of medical waste is produced during disaster relief, posing a potential hazard to the habitat and the environment. A comprehensive understanding of the composition and characteristics of medical waste that requires management is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for medical waste management. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the characteristics of the medical waste that is generated at disaster relief sites. This paper discusses the analysis of the composition and characteristics of medical waste at a disaster relief site using the retrospection-simulation-revision method. For this study, we obtained 35 medical relief records of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, May 2008 from a field cabin hospital. We first present a retrospective analysis of the relief medical records, and then, we simulate the medical waste generated in the affected areas. We ultimately determine the composition and characteristics of medical waste in the affected areas using untreated medical waste to revise the composition of the simulated medical waste. The results from 35 cases showed that the medical waste generated from disaster relief consists of the following: plastic (43.2%), biomass (26.3%), synthetic fiber (15.3%), rubber (6.6%), liquid (6.6%), inorganic salts (0.3%) and metals (1.7%). The bulk density of medical relief waste is 249 kg/m3, and the moisture content is 44.75%. The data should be provided to assist the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, disposal and contamination control of medical waste in affected areas. In this paper, we wish to introduce this research method of restoring the medical waste generated in disaster relief to readers and researchers. In addition, we hope more disaster relief agencies will become aware of the significance of medical case recording and storing. This may be very important for the environmental evaluation of medical waste in disaster areas, as

  8. Retrospection-Simulation-Revision: Approach to the Analysis of the Composition and Characteristics of Medical Waste at a Disaster Relief Site

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Lihua; Tian, Feng; Wang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    A large amount of medical waste is produced during disaster relief, posing a potential hazard to the habitat and the environment. A comprehensive understanding of the composition and characteristics of medical waste that requires management is one of the most basic steps in the development of a plan for medical waste management. Unfortunately, limited reliable information is available in the open literature on the characteristics of the medical waste that is generated at disaster relief sites. This paper discusses the analysis of the composition and characteristics of medical waste at a disaster relief site using the retrospection-simulation-revision method. For this study, we obtained 35 medical relief records of the Wenchuan Earthquake, Sichuan, May 2008 from a field cabin hospital. We first present a retrospective analysis of the relief medical records, and then, we simulate the medical waste generated in the affected areas. We ultimately determine the composition and characteristics of medical waste in the affected areas using untreated medical waste to revise the composition of the simulated medical waste. The results from 35 cases showed that the medical waste generated from disaster relief consists of the following: plastic (43.2%), biomass (26.3%), synthetic fiber (15.3%), rubber (6.6%), liquid (6.6%), inorganic salts (0.3%) and metals (1.7%). The bulk density of medical relief waste is 249 kg/m3, and the moisture content is 44.75%. The data should be provided to assist the collection, segregation, storage, transportation, disposal and contamination control of medical waste in affected areas. In this paper, we wish to introduce this research method of restoring the medical waste generated in disaster relief to readers and researchers. In addition, we hope more disaster relief agencies will become aware of the significance of medical case recording and storing. This may be very important for the environmental evaluation of medical waste in disaster areas, as

  9. Hydrogen generation in tru waste transportation packages

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, B; Sheaffer, M K; Fischer, L E

    2000-03-27

    This document addresses hydrogen generation in TRU waste transportation packages. The potential sources of hydrogen generation are summarized with a special emphasis on radiolysis. After defining various TRU wastes according to groupings of material types, bounding radiolytic G-values are established for each waste type. Analytical methodologies are developed for prediction of hydrogen gas concentrations for various packaging configurations in which hydrogen generation is due to radiolysis. Representative examples are presented to illustrate how analytical procedures can be used to estimate the hydrogen concentration as a function of time. Methodologies and examples are also provided to show how the time to reach a flammable hydrogen concentration in the innermost confinement layer can be estimated. Finally, general guidelines for limiting the hydrogen generation in the payload and hydrogen accumulation in the innermost confinement layer are described.

  10. [Assessment of medical waste management in a Palestinian hospital].

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, I A; Khatib, R A

    2006-01-01

    We studied medical waste management in a Palestinian hospital in the West Bank and the role of municipality in this management. In general, "good management practices" were inadequate; there was insufficient separation between hazardous and non-hazardous wastes, an absence of necessary rules and regulations for the collection of wastes from the hospital wards and the on-site transport to a temporary storage location inside and outside the hospital and inadequate waste treatment and disposal of hospital wastes along with municipal garbage. Moreover, training of personnel was lacking and protective equipment and measures for staff were not available. No special landfills for hazardous wastes were found within the municipality. PMID:17037705

  11. Eliminating Medical Waste Liabilities Through Mobile Maceration and Disinfection

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Rankin; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Klingler; C. W. Lagle; L. L. Byers

    2006-02-01

    Commercial medical waste treatment technologies include incineration, melting, autoclaving, and chemical disinfection. Incineration disinfects, destroys the original nature of medical waste, and reduces the waste volume by converting organic waste content to carbon dioxide and water, leaving only residual inorganic ash. However, medical waste incinerator numbers have plummeted from almost 2,400 in 1995 to 115 in 2003 and to about 62 in 2005, due to negative public perception and escalating compliance costs associated with increasingly strict regulations. High-temperature electric melters have been designed and marketed as incinerator alternatives, but they are also costly and generally must comply with the same incinerator emissions regulations and permitting requirements. Autoclave processes disinfect medical waste at much lower operating temperatures than incinerators operate at, but are sometimes subject to limitations such as waste segregration requirements to be effective. Med-Shred, Inc. has developed a patented mobile shredding and chemical disinfecting process for on-site medical waste treatment. Medical waste is treated on-site at customer facilities by shredding and disinfecting the waste. The treated waste can then be transported in compliance with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) requirements to a landfill for disposal as solid municipal waste. A team of Idaho National Laboratory engineers evaluated the treatment process design. The process effectiveness has been demonstrated in mycobacterium tests performed by Analytical Services Incorporated. A process description and the technical and performance evaluation results are presented in the paper. A treatment demonstration and microbiological disinfecting tests show that the processor functions as it was intended.

  12. Developing models for the prediction of hospital healthcare waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Tesfahun, Esubalew; Kumie, Abera; Beyene, Abebe

    2016-01-01

    An increase in the number of health institutions, along with frequent use of disposable medical products, has contributed to the increase of healthcare waste generation rate. For proper handling of healthcare waste, it is crucial to predict the amount of waste generation beforehand. Predictive models can help to optimise healthcare waste management systems, set guidelines and evaluate the prevailing strategies for healthcare waste handling and disposal. However, there is no mathematical model developed for Ethiopian hospitals to predict healthcare waste generation rate. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop models for the prediction of a healthcare waste generation rate. A longitudinal study design was used to generate long-term data on solid healthcare waste composition, generation rate and develop predictive models. The results revealed that the healthcare waste generation rate has a strong linear correlation with the number of inpatients (R(2) = 0.965), and a weak one with the number of outpatients (R(2) = 0.424). Statistical analysis was carried out to develop models for the prediction of the quantity of waste generated at each hospital (public, teaching and private). In these models, the number of inpatients and outpatients were revealed to be significant factors on the quantity of waste generated. The influence of the number of inpatients and outpatients treated varies at different hospitals. Therefore, different models were developed based on the types of hospitals. PMID:26437681

  13. Second Generation Waste Package Design Study

    SciTech Connect

    Armijo, J.S.; Misra, M.; Kar, Piyush

    2007-06-28

    The following describes the objectives of Project Activity 023 “Second Generation Waste Package Design Study” under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC28-04RW12232. The objectives of this activity are: to review the current YMP baseline environment and establish corrosion testenvironments representative of the range of dry to intermittently wet conditions expected in the drifts as a function of time; to demonstrate the oxidation and corrosion resistance of A588 weathering steel and reference Alloy 22 samples in the representative dry to intermittently dry conditions; and to evaluate backfill and design features to improve the thermal performance analyses of the proposed second-generation waste packages using existing models developed at the University of Nevada, Reno(UNR). The work plan for this project activity consists of three major tasks: Task 1. Definition of expected worst-case environments (humidity, liquid composition and temperature) at waste package outer surfaces as a function of time, and comparison with environments defined in the YMP baseline; Task 2. Oxidation and corrosion tests of proposed second-generation outer container material; and Task 3. Second Generation waste package thermal analyses. Full funding was not provided for this project activity.

  14. Pattern of medical waste management: existing scenario in Dhaka City, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, M Manzurul; Ahmed, Shafiul Azam; Rahman, K Anisur; Biswas, Tarit Kanti

    2008-01-01

    Background Medical waste is infectious and hazardous. It poses serious threats to environmental health and requires specific treatment and management prior to its final disposal. The problem is growing with an ever-increasing number of hospitals, clinics, and diagnostic laboratories in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. However, research on this critical issue has been very limited, and there is a serious dearth of information for planning. This paper seeks to document the handling practice of waste (e.g. collection, storage, transportation and disposal) along with the types and amount of wastes generated by Health Care Establishments (HCE). A total of 60 out of the existing 68 HCE in the study areas provided us with relevant information. Methods The methodology for this paper includes empirical field observation and field-level data collection through inventory, questionnaire survey and formal and informal interviews. A structured questionnaire was designed to collect information addressing the generation of different medical wastes according to amount and sources from different HCE. A number of in-depth interviews were arranged to enhance our understanding of previous and existing management practice of medical wastes. A number of specific questions were asked of nurses, hospital managers, doctors, and cleaners to elicit their knowledge. The collected data with the questionnaire survey were analysed, mainly with simple descriptive statistics; while the qualitative mode of analysis is mainly in narrative form. Results The paper shows that the surveyed HCE generate a total of 5,562 kg/day of wastes, of which about 77.4 per cent are non-hazardous and about 22.6 per cent are hazardous. The average waste generation rate for the surveyed HCE is 1.9 kg/bed/day or 0.5 kg/patient/day. The study reveals that there is no proper, systematic management of medical waste except in a few private HCE that segregate their infectious wastes. Some cleaners were found to salvage used sharps

  15. The possibility of garbage, medical and other toxic waste treatment by plasma chemical method

    SciTech Connect

    Rutberg, P.G.; Safronov, A.A.; Bratsev, A.N.; Kuznetsov, V.E.

    1998-12-31

    This paper describes the creation of plasma facility for treatment of toxic waste. All industrialized countries are greatly interested in plasma chemical technology application for the destruction of different types of industrial, building, purification works toxic waste and waste of plants for garbage treatment. On the basis of three-phase plasma generators with power 0.1--1 MW intended for work in air a row of pilot facilities were created for carrying out of experiments on destruction of medical waste and fluorine-chlorine containing substances. The obtained results allow to design and create pilot-commercial plants with treatment productivity of 200 t/24 hours.

  16. Solid waste electrical generating feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The feasibility of recommissioning the existing 3 megawatt steam turbine driven electrical generator of the Municipal Utilities of Valley City, North Dakota, using steam generated in a new facility from the incineration of municipal solid waste generated in the area is examined. It is concluded that (1) there is sufficient municipal solid waste that can be obtained from Valley City, Moorhead and Jamestown (and/or West Fargo) to fuel the plant; (2) the seasonal fluctuation in the amounts of municipal solid waste indicates that a supplementary source of fuel for use during winter would increase plant efficiency; (3) the probable capital cost of the project will be $3,590,000.00; (4) the cost of production of electricity could range from 3.72 cents/kWh to 4.90 cents/kWh, depending on the construction costs, interest rate, lifetime of the project, availability for the plant and steam produced per ton of municipal solid waste; (5) there is no compelling reason why the tertiary cell of the sewage lagoon, cannot be used for cooling water; (6) the State Health Department is ambivalent toward the project; and (7) the public perception of the project is positive. 92 references.

  17. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  18. Survey of medical waste incinerators and emissions control. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, R.G.; Hansell, D.W.; Furlong, D.; Hassell, G.R.; Lanier, W.S.

    1992-01-01

    The report contains two volumes. Volume I of the report assesses the state-of-the-art of medical waste thermal treatment. The program involved a survey of existing information on medical waste treatment. This information was combined with data from municipal and hazardous waste combustion to identify potential mechanisms responsible for toxic emissions. Manufacturers of combustion and flue gas cleaning equipment were contacted. Information on current design practice was obtained. Volume II was prepared to assist local air pollution management districts implement Section 93104, Title 17, of the California Code of Regulations. Section 93104 places restrictions on polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorodibenzofurans (PCDF) emission levels and medical waste incinerator operating parameters which may affect PCDD/PCDF emissions. Part I of Volume II provides direct guidance for implementing the regulations. Part II provides background information on the operation and capabilities of flue gas cleaning systems used to control particulate, acid gas, metals, and PCDD/PCDF emissions.

  19. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This fourth Annual Report presents and analyzes 1995 DOE complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 40 reporting sites in 25 States, and trends DOE waste generation from 1991 through 1995. DOE has established a 50% reduction goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, due by December 31, 1999. Routine operations waste generation decreased 37% from 1994 to 1995, and 43% overall from 1993--1995.

  20. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities.

    PubMed

    Cantrell, Keri B; Ducey, Thomas; Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G

    2008-11-01

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary objective of this work is to present established and emerging energy conversion opportunities that can transform the treatment of livestock waste from a liability to a profit center. While biological production of methanol and hydrogen are in early research stages, anaerobic digestion is an established method of generating between 0.1 to 1.3m3m(-3)d(-1) of methane-rich biogas. The TCC processes of pyrolysis, direct liquefaction, and gasification can convert waste into gaseous fuels, combustible oils, and charcoal. Integration of biological and thermal-based conversion technologies in a farm-scale hybrid design by combining an algal CO2-fixation treatment requiring less than 27,000m2 of treatment area with the energy recovery component of wet gasification can drastically reduce CO2 emissions and efficiently recycle nutrients. These designs have the potential to make future large scale confined animal feeding operations sustainable and environmentally benign while generating on-farm renewable energy. PMID:18485701

  1. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in Sao Paulo, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moreira, A.M.M.; Guenther, W.M.R.

    2013-01-15

    . Total waste generation increased 9.8%, but it was possible to reduce the volume of non-recyclable materials (11%) and increase the volume of recyclable materials (4%). It was also possible to segregate organic waste (7%), which was forwarded for production of compost. The rate of infectious waste generation in critical areas decreased from 0.021 to 0.018 kg/procedure. Many improvements have been observed, and now the PHC complies with most of legal requirements, offers periodic training and better biosafety conditions to workers, has reduced the volume of waste sent to sanitary landfills, and has introduced indicators for monitoring its own performance. This evaluation method might subsidize the creation and evaluation of medical waste management plans in similar heath institutions.

  2. Medication reviews are best for minimising waste.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Matt

    2016-06-22

    Most patients are responsible on an ongoing basis for ordering their own medicines, sometimes with help from family and carers. Ordering a 28-day supply is the norm in today's NHS - a practice that has been encouraged to ensure medicines are not wasted or over-ordered. PMID:27332590

  3. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    This sixth Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 36 reporting sites from 1993 through 1997. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December 31, 1999. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation increased three percent from 1996 to 1997, and decreased 61 percent overall from 1993 to 1997. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1997 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. However, it is important to note that increases in low-level radioactive and low-level mixed waste generation could reverse this achievement. From 1996 to 1997, low-level radioactive waste generation increased 10 percent, and low-level mixed waste generation increased slightly. It is critical that DOE sites continue to reduce routine operations waste generation for all waste types, to ensure that DOE`s Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals are achieved by December 31, 1999.

  4. Medication Waste Reduction in Pediatric Pharmacy Batch Processes

    PubMed Central

    Veltri, Michael A.; Hamrock, Eric; Mollenkopf, Nicole L.; Holt, Kristen; Levin, Scott

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform pediatric cart-fill batch scheduling for reductions in pharmaceutical waste using a case study and simulation analysis. METHODS: A pre and post intervention and simulation analysis was conducted during 3 months at a 205-bed children's center. An algorithm was developed to detect wasted medication based on time-stamped computerized provider order entry information. The algorithm was used to quantify pharmaceutical waste and associated costs for both preintervention (1 batch per day) and postintervention (3 batches per day) schedules. Further, simulation was used to systematically test 108 batch schedules outlining general characteristics that have an impact on the likelihood for waste. RESULTS: Switching from a 1-batch-per-day to a 3-batch-per-day schedule resulted in a 31.3% decrease in pharmaceutical waste (28.7% to 19.7%) and annual cost savings of $183,380. Simulation results demonstrate how increasing batch frequency facilitates a more just-in-time process that reduces waste. The most substantial gains are realized by shifting from a schedule of 1 batch per day to at least 2 batches per day. The simulation exhibits how waste reduction is also achievable by avoiding batch preparation during daily time periods where medication administration or medication discontinuations are frequent. Last, the simulation was used to show how reducing batch preparation time per batch provides some, albeit minimal, opportunity to decrease waste. CONCLUSIONS: The case study and simulation analysis demonstrate characteristics of batch scheduling that may support pediatric pharmacy managers in redesign toward minimizing pharmaceutical waste. PMID:25024671

  5. Impact of socioeconomic status on municipal solid waste generation rate.

    PubMed

    Khan, D; Kumar, A; Samadder, S R

    2016-03-01

    The solid waste generation rate was expected to vary in different socioeconomic groups due to many environmental and social factors. This paper reports the assessment of solid waste generation based on different socioeconomic parameters like education, occupation, income of the family, number of family members etc. A questionnaire survey was conducted in the study area to identify the different socioeconomic groups that may affect the solid waste generation rate and composition. The average waste generated in the municipality is 0.41 kg/capita/day in which the maximum waste was found to be generated by lower middle socioeconomic group (LMSEG) with average waste generation of 0.46 kg/capita/day. Waste characterization indicated that there was no much difference in the composition of wastes among different socioeconomic groups except ash residue and plastic. Ash residue is found to increase as we move lower down the socioeconomic groups with maximum (31%) in lower socioeconomic group (LSEG). The study area is a coal based city hence application of coal and wood as fuel for cooking in the lower socioeconomic group is the reason for high amount of ash content. Plastic waste is maximum (15%) in higher socioeconomic group (HSEG) and minimum (1%) in LSEG. Food waste is a major component of generated waste in almost every socioeconomic group with maximum (38%) in case of HSEG and minimum (28%) in LSEG. This study provides new insights on the role of various socioeconomic parameters on generation of household wastes. PMID:26831564

  6. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1999

    SciTech Connect

    2000-09-01

    This Annual Report summarizes and highlights waste generation, waste reduction, pollution prevention accomplishments, and cost avoidance for 44 U.S. Department of Energy reporting sites for Calendar Year 1999. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1999 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments.

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant hydrogen generation

    SciTech Connect

    King, R.B.; King, A.D. Jr.; Bhattacharyya, N.K.

    1996-02-01

    The most promising method for the disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes is a vitrification process in which the wastes are incorporated into borosilicate glass logs, the logs are sealed into welded stainless steel canisters, and the canisters are buried in suitably protected burial sites for disposal. The purpose of the research supported by the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) project of the Department of Energy through Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and summarized in this report was to gain a basic understanding of the hydrogen generation process and to predict the rate and amount of hydrogen generation during the treatment of HWVP feed simulants with formic acid. The objectives of the study were to determine the key feed components and process variables which enhance or inhibit the.production of hydrogen. Information on the kinetics and stoichiometry of relevant formic acid reactions were sought to provide a basis for viable mechanistic proposals. The chemical reactions were characterized through the production and consumption of the key gaseous products such as H{sub 2}. CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}0, NO, and NH{sub 3}. For this mason this research program relied heavily on analyses of the gases produced and consumed during reactions of the HWVP feed simulants with formic acid under various conditions. Such analyses, used gas chromatographic equipment and expertise at the University of Georgia for the separation and determination of H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and NO.

  8. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and Guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's (LBL) Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how a generator of wastes can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for hazardous chemical, radioactive, and mixed waste. 9 figs.

  9. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

    PubMed

    Ozonoff, D

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, (1) causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. (2) This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem. PMID:7165025

  10. Medical aspects of the hazardous waste problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ozonoff, D.

    1982-12-01

    Although no one knows exactly how much toxic material continues to be released into our environment, most observers believe the amount is substantial. In the last few years, in the state of Massachusetts alone, 22 communities have had their municipal water supplies seriously compromised by chemical contamination, causing alarm and dismay among water users. Nation-wide, public concern has reached the point that in some opinion polls, hazardous waste ranks second only behind inflation as a cause of serious worry. Despite widespread anxiety, shared by public health officials, few studies have shown conclusive evidence of health consequences from toxic materials in the environment. Even in the case of such gross contamination as in the Love Canal area of Niagara Falls, New York, health effects have been difficult to establish. This is partly due to intrusion of the adversary process in cases where liability is involved; it is also a result, however, of inherent technical problems that plague any determination of health hazard. This paper reviews some of these problems, considers some current risk assessment approaches, and touches on medicolegal and regulatory aspects of the hazardous waste problem.

  11. System dynamics model for hospital waste characterization and generation in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Eleyan, Derar; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Garfield, Joy

    2013-10-01

    Waste management policy makers always face the problem of how to predict the future amount and composition of medical solid waste, which, in turn, helps to determine the most appropriate treatment, recycling and disposal strategy. An accurate prediction can assist in both the planning and design of medical solid waste management systems. Insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity are the main reasons for the scarcity of medical solid waste quantities and components historical records, which are so important in long-term system planning and short-term expansion programs. This article presents a new technique, using System Dynamics modeling, to predict generated medical solid waste in a developing urban area, based on a set of limited samples from Jenin District hospitals, Palestine. The findings of the model present the trend of medical solid waste generation together with its different components and indicate that a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties when traditional statistical least-squared regression methods are unable to handle such issues. PMID:23743573

  12. 49 CFR 173.197 - Regulated medical waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regulated medical waste. 173.197 Section 173.197 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS...

  13. Hospitals and plastics. Dioxin prevention and medical waste incinerators.

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, J; McCally, M; Orris, P; Weinberg, J

    1996-01-01

    CHLORINATED DIOXINS and related compounds are extremely potent toxic substances, producing effects in humans and animals at extremely low doses. Because these compounds are persistent in the environment and accumulate in the food chain, they are now distributed globally, and every member of the human population is exposed to them, primarily through the food supply and mothers' milk. An emerging body of information suggests that dioxin contamination has reached a level that may pose a large-scale, long-term public health risk. Of particular concern are dioxin's effects on reproduction, development, immune system function, and carcinogenesis. Medical waste incineration is a major source of dioxins. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, as the dominant source of organically bound chlorine in the medical waste stream, is the primary cause of "iatrogenic" dioxin produced by the incineration of medical wastes. Health professionals have a responsibility to work to reduce dioxin exposure from medical sources. Health care institutions should implement policies to reduce the use of PVC plastics, thus achieving major reductions in medically related dioxin formation. Images p298-a p299-a p300-a p301-a p305-a p307-a p310-a PMID:8711095

  14. Hospitals and plastics. Dioxin prevention and medical waste incinerators.

    PubMed

    Thornton, J; McCally, M; Orris, P; Weinberg, J

    1996-01-01

    CHLORINATED DIOXINS and related compounds are extremely potent toxic substances, producing effects in humans and animals at extremely low doses. Because these compounds are persistent in the environment and accumulate in the food chain, they are now distributed globally, and every member of the human population is exposed to them, primarily through the food supply and mothers' milk. An emerging body of information suggests that dioxin contamination has reached a level that may pose a large-scale, long-term public health risk. Of particular concern are dioxin's effects on reproduction, development, immune system function, and carcinogenesis. Medical waste incineration is a major source of dioxins. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastic, as the dominant source of organically bound chlorine in the medical waste stream, is the primary cause of "iatrogenic" dioxin produced by the incineration of medical wastes. Health professionals have a responsibility to work to reduce dioxin exposure from medical sources. Health care institutions should implement policies to reduce the use of PVC plastics, thus achieving major reductions in medically related dioxin formation. PMID:8711095

  15. Oxygen generator for medical applications (USIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Staiger, C. L.

    2012-03-01

    The overall Project objective is to develop a portable, non-cryogenic oxygen generator capable of supplying medical grade oxygen at sufficient flow rates to allow the field application of the Topical Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (THOT{reg_sign}) developed by Numotech, Inc. This project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Global Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (GIPP) and is managed by collaboration between Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Numotech, Inc, and LLC SPE 'Spektr-Conversion.' The project had two phases, with the objective of Phase I being to develop, build and test a laboratory prototype of the membrane-pressure swing adsorber (PSA) system producing at 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum of 98% oxygen purity. Phase II objectives were to further refine and identify the pre-requisites needed for a commercial product and to determine the feasibility of producing 15 L/min of oxygen with a minimum oxygen purity of 99%. In Phase I, Spektr built up the necessary infrastructure to perform experimental work and proceeded to build and demonstrate a membrane-PSA laboratory prototype capable of producing 98% purity oxygen at a flow rate of 5 L/min. Spektr offered a plausible path to scale up the process for 15 L/min. Based on the success and experimental results obtained in Phase I, Spektr performed work in three areas for Phase II: construction of a 15 L/min PSA; investigation of compressor requirements for the front end of the membrane/PSA system; and performing modeling and simulation of assess the feasibility of producing oxygen with a purity greater than 99%. Spektr successfully completed all of the tasks under Phase II. A prototype 15 L/min PSA was constructed and operated. Spektr determined that no 'off the shelf' air compressors met all of the specifications required for the membrane-PSA, so a custom compressor will likely need to be built. Modeling and simulation concluded that production of oxygen with purities greater than 99% was possible

  16. AN INTRODUCTION TO ESSENTIALS OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTE MANAGEMENT.

    PubMed

    Singh, Z; Bhalwar, R; Jayaram, J; Tilak, V W

    2001-04-01

    The issue of biomedical waste management has assumed great significance in recent times particularly in view of the rapid upsurge of HIV infection. Government of India has made proper handling and disposal of this category of waste a statutory requirement with the publication of gazette notification no 460 dated 27 July 1998. The provisions are equally applicable to our service hospitals and hence there is a need for all the service medical, dental, nursing officers, other paramedical staff and safaiwalas to be well aware of the basic principles of handling, treatment and disposal of biomedical waste. The present article deals with such basic issues as definition, categories and principles of handling and disposal of biomedical waste. PMID:27407320

  17. Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

    2002-09-01

    This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

  18. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL's Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL's acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  19. [Biological, chemical, and radiation factors in the classification of medical waste].

    PubMed

    Rusakov, N V; Korotkova, G I; Orlov, A Iu; Kadyrov, D E

    2011-01-01

    The current classification of medical waste does not consider the sanitary-and-chemical hazard of epidemiologically dangerous and extremely dangerous medical waste (classes B and C). According to the results of the studies performed, the authors propose the improved classification of medical waste, which makes it possible to take into account not only infectious, radiation, and toxicological, but also sanitary-and-chemical hazards (toxicity, carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, and biological activity) of medical waste. PMID:21901883

  20. Medical Waste Co-Firing Comes of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Smith-Berntson, K.; Stuart, J.M.

    1996-12-18

    In early 1992 DONLEE Technologies, Inc., in cooperation with the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Program, completed pilot testing of simulated non-infectious waste combustion, co-fired with coal, at its test facility in York, Pennsylvania. The goal of this testing was to demonstrate the ability of fluidized bed combustion to completely destruct medical waste with minimized dioxin emissions. The test facility is a full scale circulating fluidized bed unit with a maximum heat input capability of ten million BTU per hour. The tests showed that the circulating fluidized bed system is ideally suited to meet the medical/infectious waste destruction needs of the health care industry. The dioxin emission levels proved to be significantly lower than those from presently operating MWIS. Based on the successful test results, a cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy Fossil Energy Power Systems, DONLEE Technologies, and the Veterans Administration was reached to design, construct, and test a demonstration unit at the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. Plant design and construction was started in 1993, with DONLEE Technologies functioning as both the technology supplier and the plant EPC contractor. After some delay the construction of the demonstration unit finally reached completion in the spring of 1996. The unit is currently undergoing initial shakedown and testing to verify the base operating parameters. The unit will first be fired with coal only, followed by the introduction of non-infectious waste and finally total waste, including the ``red bag`` material. The program calls for an extended testing period of up to one year. While the unit is being operated as part of the stream supply system at the VA Hospital, the hospital`s waste is destroyed via combustion in the Fluidized Bed Unit.

  1. MEDICAL AND INSTITUTIONAL WASTE INCINERATION: REGULATIONS, MANAGEMENT, TECHNOLOGY, EMISSIONS, AND OPERATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a series of seminars to assist those responsible for managing medical waste in understanding the applicable regulations; developing waste management plans; selecting appropriate waste management options, including incinerat...

  2. 78 FR 14773 - U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit-Medical Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... International Trade Administration U.S. Environmental Solutions Toolkit--Medical Waste AGENCY: International... of medical waste. The Department of Commerce continues to develop the web-based U.S. Environmental... address, contact information, and medical waste management category of interest from the following...

  3. Food waste from Danish households: Generation and composition.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, Claus; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2016-06-01

    Sustainable solutions for reducing food waste require a good understanding of food waste generation and composition, including avoidable and unavoidable food waste. We analysed 12tonnes of residual household waste collected from 1474 households, without source segregation of organic waste. Food waste was divided into six fractions according to avoidability, suitability for home-composting and whether or not it was cooked, prepared or had been served within the household. The results showed that the residual household waste generation rate was 434±18kg per household per year, of which 183±10kg per year was food waste. Unavoidable food waste amounted to 80±6kg per household per year, and avoidable food waste was 103±9kg per household per year. Food waste mass was influenced significantly by the number of occupants per household (household size) and the housing type. The results also indicated that avoidable food waste occurred in 97% of the households, suggesting that most Danish households could avoid or at least reduce how much they generate. Moreover, avoidable and unavoidable food waste was more likely to be found in houses containing more than one person than in households with only one occupant. PMID:27026492

  4. Repository disposal requirements for commercial transuranic wastes (generated without reprocessing)

    SciTech Connect

    Daling, P.M.; Ludwick, J.D.; Mellinger, G.B.; McKee, R.W.

    1986-06-01

    This report forms a preliminary planning basis for disposal of commercial transuranic (TRU) wastes in a geologic repository. Because of the unlikely prospects for commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing in the near-term, this report focuses on TRU wastes generated in a once-through nuclear fuel cycle. The four main objectives of this study were to: develop estimates of the current inventories, projected generation rates, and characteristics of commercial TRU wastes; develop proposed acceptance requirements for TRU wastes forms and waste canisters that ensure a safe and effective disposal system; develop certification procedures and processing requirements that ensure that TRU wastes delivered to a repository for disposal meet all applicable waste acceptance requirements; and identify alternative conceptual strategies for treatment and certification of commercial TRU first objective was accomplished through a survey of commercial producers of TRU wastes. The TRU waste acceptance and certification requirements that were developed were based on regulatory requirements, information in the literature, and from similar requirements already established for disposal of defense TRU wastes in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) which were adapted, where necessary, to disposal of commercial TRU wastes. The results of the TRU waste-producer survey indicated that there were a relatively large number of producers of small quantities of TRU wastes.

  5. Vehicle Radiation Monitoring Systems for Medical Waste Disposal - 12102

    SciTech Connect

    Kondrashov, Vladislav S.; Steranka, Steve A.

    2012-07-01

    Hospitals often declare their waste as being 'non-radioactive'; however this material often has excessive levels of radiation caused either by an accident or lack of control. To ensure the best possible protection against the accidental receipt of radioactive materials and as a safety precaution for their employees, waste-handling companies have installed large-scale radiation portal monitors at their weigh scales or entry gates of the incinerator plant, waste transfer station, and/or landfill. Large-volume plastic scintillator-based systems can be used to monitor radiation levels at entry points to companies handling medical waste. The recent and intensive field tests together with the thousands of accumulated hours of actual real-life vehicle scanning have proven that the plastic scintillation based system is an appropriate radiation control instrument for waste management companies. The Real-Time background compensation algorithm is flexible with automatic adjustable coefficients that will response to rapidly changing environmental and weather conditions maintaining the preset alarm threshold levels. The Dose Rate correction algorithms further enhance the system's ability to meet the stringent requirements of the waste industries need for Dose Rate measurements. (authors)

  6. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 1, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  7. Waste-to-energy generation increases

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, T.

    1995-06-01

    Accoding to a study by Government Advisory Associates Inc. (GAA), wse-to-energy (WTE) facilities located in the US have a generating capacity of 2,963 MW. Another 797 MW will soon be added to this capacity by facilities that are currently under construction or in the advanced planning stages. Capacity will increase by 435 MW if current conceptual sites pan out.Even though fewer WTE projects are being planned, there are more WTE facilities now open than at any time in US history. Electricity is the single energy product for almost half the WTE facilities that are now operating. Most of the facilities are owned by private companies, municipalities or counties. The main purpose of WTE facilities has been, and still is, to reduce the amount of wste that must be buried in landfills. The production of energy has simply reduced waste disposal costs. The sale of electricity involves considerably less financial risk to plant developers since the market for electricity is far more stable. It is still not yet proven that a commercial facility is economically competitive, but it is expected to be less than the cost of using natural gas.

  8. Health Care Waste generation rates and patterns: The case of Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Maamari, Olivia; Brandam, Cedric; Lteif, Roger; Salameh, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze Infectious Health Care Waste generation rates and patterns in Lebanon. Therefore, the quantities generated during five years by 57 hospitals from a total of 163 in the country have been analyzed. The seasonal evolution of Infectious Health Care Waste production and the evolution of the evaluation of the trends over years have been studied. Besides, the generation per capita have been estimated and compared to other countries. The variance between categories and the correlation between number of beds and Infectious Health Care Waste generation have been analyzed. The obtained results showed that the large private hospitals (over 200 beds) are characterized by their high generation rate: an average of 2.45kg per occupied bed(-1)day(-1), whereas the average generation rate for other categories is 0.94kg per occupied bed(-1)day(-1). The weighted mean is 1.14 per occupied kgbed(-1)day(-1). Small public hospitals (i.e. less than 100 beds) have the smallest standard deviation: 0.13, whereas large private hospitals (i.e. over than 200 beds) have the highest standard deviation: 0.40. Infectious Health Care Waste generation has been estimated to 1.42kg/capita/year. The correlation between the numbers of hospitals beds in hospitals and the generation rate per bed is weak. The correlation between Infectious Health Care Waste generation per day and beds number is stronger. The total quantity produced by hospitals has increased over the five past years. These results suggest that the quantities of medical waste are not well controlled, and that hospitals have a defective monitoring management system of their waste. Annual peaks are observed in June, July, and December. Thus, this study, for the first time in Lebanon, has provided information on the infectious waste generation, allowing benchmarking between hospitals and between countries. PMID:26049204

  9. Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda Benitez, Sara; Vega, Carolina Armijo de

    2008-07-01

    One of the challenges faced by waste management authorities is determining the amount of waste generated by households in order to establish waste management systems, as well as trying to charge rates compatible with the principle applied worldwide, and design a fair payment system for households according to the amount of residential solid waste (RSW) they generate. The goal of this research work was to establish mathematical models that correlate the generation of RSW per capita to the following variables: education, income per household, and number of residents. This work was based on data from a study on generation, quantification and composition of residential waste in a Mexican city in three stages. In order to define prediction models, five variables were identified and included in the model. For each waste sampling stage a different mathematical model was developed, in order to find the model that showed the best linear relation to predict residential solid waste generation. Later on, models to explore the combination of included variables and select those which showed a higher R{sup 2} were established. The tests applied were normality, multicolinearity and heteroskedasticity. Another model, formulated with four variables, was generated and the Durban-Watson test was applied to it. Finally, a general mathematical model is proposed to predict residential waste generation, which accounts for 51% of the total.

  10. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    SciTech Connect

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory`s (LANL`s) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form.

  11. Seasonal generation and composition of garden waste in Aarhus (Denmark).

    PubMed

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas H

    2010-04-01

    Garden waste generation and composition were studied in Aarhus, Denmark. The amount of garden waste generated varied seasonally, from 2.5kgperson(-1)month(-1) in winter to 19.4kgperson(-1)month(-1) in summer. Seasonal fractional composition and chemical characterization of garden waste were determined by sorting and sampling garden waste eight times during 1year. On a yearly basis, the major fraction of garden waste was "small stuff" (flowers, grass clippings, hedge cuttings and soil) making up more than 90% (wet waste distribution) during the summer. The woody fractions (branches, wood) are more significant during the winter. Seasonal trends in waste chemical composition were recorded and an average annual composition of garden waste was calculated, considering the varying monthly generation and material fraction composition: the wet garden waste contained 40% water, 30% organic matter (VS) and 30% ash. The ash content suggests that the garden waste contains a significant amount of soil. This is in particular the case during summer. Of nutrients, the garden waste contained in average on a dry matter basis 0.6% N, 0.1% P, and 1.0% K. However, the contents varied significantly among the fractions and during the year. The content of trace elements (Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) was low. PMID:20042325

  12. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 2, Generator dangerous waste report, radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on radioactive mixed wastes at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, waste designation, weight, and waste designation.

  13. Dioxins from medical waste incineration: Normal operation and transient conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Zhan, Ming-xiu; Yan, Mi; Fu, Jian-ying; Lu, Sheng-yong; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2015-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) are key pollutants in waste incineration. At present, incinerator managers and official supervisors focus only on emissions evolving during steady-state operation. Yet, these emissions may considerably be raised during periods of poor combustion, plant shutdown, and especially when starting-up from cold. Until now there were no data on transient emissions from medical (or hospital) waste incineration (MWI). However, MWI is reputed to engender higher emissions than those from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI). The emission levels in this study recorded for shutdown and start-up, however, were significantly higher: 483 ± 184 ng Nm(-3) (1.47 ± 0.17 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for shutdown and 735 ng Nm(-3) (7.73 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) for start-up conditions, respectively. Thus, the average (I-TEQ) concentration during shutdown is 2.6 (3.8) times higher than the average concentration during normal operation, and the average (I-TEQ) concentration during start-up is 4.0 (almost 20) times higher. So monitoring should cover the entire incineration cycle, including start-up, operation and shutdown, rather than optimised operation only. This suggestion is important for medical waste incinerators, as these facilities frequently start up and shut down, because of their small size, or of lacking waste supply. Forthcoming operation should shift towards much longer operating cycles, i.e., a single weekly start-up and shutdown. PMID:26159561

  14. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using artificial intelligence modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Maryam; El Hanandeh, Ali

    2016-10-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is a major concern to local governments to protect human health, the environment and to preserve natural resources. The design and operation of an effective MSW management system requires accurate estimation of future waste generation quantities. The main objective of this study was to develop a model for accurate forecasting of MSW generation that helps waste related organizations to better design and operate effective MSW management systems. Four intelligent system algorithms including support vector machine (SVM), adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS), artificial neural network (ANN) and k-nearest neighbours (kNN) were tested for their ability to predict monthly waste generation in the Logan City Council region in Queensland, Australia. Results showed artificial intelligence models have good prediction performance and could be successfully applied to establish municipal solid waste forecasting models. Using machine learning algorithms can reliably predict monthly MSW generation by training with waste generation time series. In addition, results suggest that ANFIS system produced the most accurate forecasts of the peaks while kNN was successful in predicting the monthly averages of waste quantities. Based on the results, the total annual MSW generated in Logan City will reach 9.4×10(7)kg by 2020 while the peak monthly waste will reach 9.37×10(6)kg. PMID:27297046

  15. Certification document for newly generated contact-handled transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Box, W.D.; Setaro, J.

    1984-01-01

    The US Department of Energy has requested that all national laboratories handling defense waste develop and augment a program whereby all newly generated contact-handled transuranic (TRU) waste be contained, stored, and then shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in accordance with the requirements set forth in WIPP-DOE-114. The program described in this report delineates how Oak Ridge National Laboratory intends to comply with these requirements and lists the procedures used by each generator to ensure that their TRU wastes are certifiable for shipment to WIPP.

  16. National profile on commercially generated low-level radioactive mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.A.; Mrochek, J.E.; Jolley, R.L.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.; Francis, A.A.; Wright, T.

    1992-12-01

    This report details the findings and conclusions drawn from a survey undertaken as part of a joint US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and US Environmental Protection Agency-sponsored project entitled ``National Profile on Commercially Generated Low-Level Radioactive Mixed Waste.`` The overall objective of the work was to compile a national profile on the volumes, characteristics, and treatability of commercially generated low-level mixed waste for 1990 by five major facility categories-academic, industrial, medical, and NRC-/Agreement State-licensed goverment facilities and nuclear utilities. Included in this report are descriptions of the methodology used to collect and collate the data, the procedures used to estimate the mixed waste generation rate for commercial facilities in the United States in 1990, and the identification of available treatment technologies to meet applicable EPA treatment standards (40 CFR Part 268) and, if possible, to render the hazardous component of specific mixed waste streams nonhazardous. The report also contains information on existing and potential commercial waste treatment facilities that may provide treatment for specific waste streams identified in the national survey. The report does not include any aspect of the Department of Energy`s (DOES) management of mixed waste and generally does not address wastes from remedial action activities.

  17. Automated medical problem list generation: towards a patient timeline.

    PubMed

    Bui, Alex A T; Taira, Ricky K; El-Saden, Suzie; Dordoni, Alicia; Aberle, Denise R

    2004-01-01

    The problem-oriented electronic medical record has been investigated as an alternative to source-oriented organization of patient data. At the core of a problem-oriented view is the medical problem list. Maintenance of the medical problem list is often manual, making it highly user dependent. We detail the beginnings of an automated medical problem list generator based on ICD-9: given a set of ICD-9 codes associated with a patient record, the system maps the codes (and related data) to an anatomy-centric hierarchy. 1 million patient encounters from an outpatient setting were reviewed to generate a unique set of 7,890 ICD-9 codes. Natural language processing of the ICD-9 string descriptions identified 1,981 anatomical terms, which were subsequently mapped to one of 21 anatomical categories. The output of the medical problem list generator was then used to create a problem-oriented, gestalt view of a patient's medical record. Preliminary evaluation of the generator revealed 100% recall, but only 60% precision. This initial work has highlighted several issues in defining a medical problem list, including questions of granularity and performance trade-offs. PMID:15360880

  18. Thermal treatment of medical waste in a rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bujak, J

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a study of an experimental system with thermal treatment (incineration) of medical waste conducted at a large complex of hospital facilities. The studies were conducted for a period of one month. The processing system was analysed in terms of the energy, environmental and economic aspects. A rotary combustion chamber was designed and built with the strictly assumed length to inner diameter ratio of 4:1. In terms of energy, the temperature distribution was tested in the rotary kiln, secondary combustion (afterburner) chamber and heat recovery system. Calorific value of medical waste was 25.0 MJ/kg and the thermal efficiency of the entire system equalled 66.8%. Next, measurements of the pollutant emissions into the atmosphere were performed. Due to the nature of the disposed waste, particular attention was paid to the one-minute average values of carbon oxide and volatile organic compounds as well as hydrochloride, hydrogen fluoride, sulphur dioxide and total dust. Maximum content of non-oxidized organic compounds in slag and bottom ash were also verified during the analyses. The best rotary speed for the combustion chamber was selected to obtain proper afterburning of the bottom slag. Total organic carbon content was 2.9%. The test results were used to determine the basic economic indicators of the test system for evaluating the profitability of its construction. Simple payback time (SPB) for capital expenditures on the implementation of the project was 4 years. PMID:26241929

  19. SITE GENERATED RADIOLOGICAL WASTE HANDLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. C. Khamankar

    2000-06-20

    The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System handles radioactive waste products that are generated at the geologic repository operations area. The waste is collected, treated if required, packaged for shipment, and shipped to a disposal site. Waste streams include low-level waste (LLW) in solid and liquid forms, as-well-as mixed waste that contains hazardous and radioactive constituents. Liquid LLW is segregated into two streams, non-recyclable and recyclable. The non-recyclable stream may contain detergents or other non-hazardous cleaning agents and is packaged for shipment. The recyclable stream is treated to recycle a large portion of the water while the remaining concentrated waste is packaged for shipment; this greatly reduces the volume of waste requiring disposal. There will be no liquid LLW discharge. Solid LLW consists of wet solids such as ion exchange resins and filter cartridges, as-well-as dry active waste such as tools, protective clothing, and poly bags. Solids will be sorted, volume reduced, and packaged for shipment. The generation of mixed waste at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) is not planned; however, if it does come into existence, it will be collected and packaged for disposal at its point of occurrence, temporarily staged, then shipped to government-approved off-site facilities for disposal. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System has equipment located in both the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) and in the Waste Handling Building (WHB). All types of liquid and solid LLW are processed in the WTB, while wet solid waste from the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is packaged where received in the WHB. There is no installed hardware for mixed waste. The Site Generated Radiological Waste Handling System receives waste from locations where water is used for decontamination functions. In most cases the water is piped back to the WTB for processing. The WTB and WHB provide staging areas for storing and shipping LLW

  20. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-01

    This seventh Annual Report presents and analyzes DOE Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention activities at 45 reporting sites from 1993 through 1998. This section summarizes Calendar Year 1998 Complex-wide waste generation and pollution prevention accomplishments. More detailed information follows this section in the body of the Report. In May 1996, the Secretary of Energy established a 50 percent Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goal (relative to the 1993 baseline) for routine operations radioactive, mixed, and hazardous waste generation, to be achieved by December31, 1999. DOE has achieved its Complex-Wide Waste Reduction Goals for routine operations based upon a comparison of 1998 waste generation to the 1993 baseline. Excluding sanitary waste, routine operations waste generation decreased 67 percent overall from 1993 to 1998. However, for the first time since 1994, the total amount of materials recycled by the Complex decreased from 109,600 metric tons in 1997 to 92,800 metric tons in 1998. This decrease is attributed to the fact that in 1997, several large ''one-time only'' recycling projects were conducted throughout the Complex. In order to demonstrate commitment to DOE's Complex-wide recycling goal, it is important for sites to identify all potential large-scale recycling/reuse opportunities.

  1. Fast onset medications through thermally generated aerosols.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Wensley, Martin; Lloyd, Peter; Myers, Daniel; Shen, William; Lu, Amy; Hodges, Craig; Hale, Ron; Mufson, Daniel; Zaffaroni, Alejandro

    2004-05-01

    Smoking involves heating a drug to form a mixture of drug vapor and gaseous degradation products. These gases subsequently cool and condense into aerosol particles that are inhaled. Here, we demonstrate rapid and reliable systemic delivery of pure pharmaceutical compounds without degradation products through a related process that also involves inhalation of thermally generated aerosol. Drug is coated as a thin film on a metallic substrate and vaporized by heating the metal. The thin nature of the drug coating minimizes the length of time during which the drug is exposed to elevated temperatures, thereby preventing its thermal decomposition. The vaporized, gas-phase drug rapidly condenses and coagulates into micrometer-sized aerosol particles. For the commonly prescribed antimigraine drug rizatriptan, inhalation of these particles results in nearly instantaneous systemic drug action. PMID:14752061

  2. Hanford Site annual dangerous waste report: Volume 1, Part 2, Generator dangerous waste report, dangerous waste

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This report contains information on hazardous materials at the Hanford Site. Information consists of shipment date, physical state, chemical nature, waste description, waste number, weight, and waste designation.

  3. Annual Report on Waste Generation and Waste Minimization Progress, 1991--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This report is DOE`s first annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress. Data presented in this report were collected from all DOE sites which met minimum threshold criteria established for this report. The fifty-seven site submittals contained herein represent data from over 100 reporting sites within 25 states. Radioactive, hazardous and sanitary waste quantities and the efforts to minimize these wastes are highlighted within the fifty-seven site submittals. In general, sites have made progress in moving beyond the planning phase of their waste minimization programs. This is evident by the overall 28 percent increase in the total amount of materials recycled from 1991 to 1992, as well as individual site initiatives. During 1991 and 1992, DOE generated a total of 279,000 cubic meters of radioactive waste and 243,000 metric tons of non-radioactive waste. These waste amounts include significant portions of process wastewater required to be reported to regulatory agencies in the state of Texas and the state of Tennessee. Specifically, the Pantex Plant in Texas treats an industrial wastewater that is considered by the Texas Water Commission to be a hazardous waste. In 1992, State regulated wastewater from the Pantex Plant represented 3,620 metric tons, 10 percent of the total hazardous waste generated by DOE. Similarly, mixed low-level wastewater from the TSCA Incinerator Facility at the Oak Ridge K-25 Site in Tennessee represented 55 percent of the total radioactive waste generated by DOE in 1992.

  4. Assessment of combustion products of medical waste incinerators in Alexandria.

    PubMed

    Zakaria, Adel M; Labib, Ossama A; Mohamed, Mona G; El-Shall, Waffaa I; Hussein, Ahmed H

    2005-01-01

    The emissions and ashes from medical waste incinerators might perform a threat to the environment and the public health. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the emissions and ashes of six medical wastes incinerators in six hospitals in Alexandria. Five air pollutants were sampled and analyzed in the emissions comprising smoke, lead, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide . Ash samples were analyzed for bacterial count, volatile substances, lead and cadmium. Shape and color of ash were observed visually. The results of the present study have revealed that all the average values of gases in the six incinerators were within the limits stated in Egyptian environmental law, where as carbonaceous particulate (smoke) averages of the six incinerators have exceeded the maximum allowable limit in the law. On the other hand, lead concentration in emissions were far below the maximum allowable limit in the law. Incinerator No 6 emissions have been significantly higher in CO, NO2, SO2 and smoke concentration than the other five incinerators P<0.001, P<0.0006, P<0.0001, and P<0.002 respectively. There was no significant variation in bacterial count of ash samples at 20 degrees C and 37 degrees C between the six studied incinerators. Volatile substance percentage of ash samples in the six incinerators were much higher than the recommended percentage. There was a highly significant variation between the six incinerators (p<0.005). Lead and cadmium concentrations in ash samples were much higher than those in developed countries, meanwhile, more or less as those in developing countries. It is recommended to state specific realistic emissions limits for medical waste incinerators and to substitute sporadic incinerators in hospitals by two central incinerators in proper places outside the city. PMID:16900616

  5. Quantity of RCRA Hazardous Waste Generated and Managed

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator describes the tonnage of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste generated and managed in the United States every two years between 2001 and 2009. It also describes the tonnage of hazardous waste disposed to land by disposal practice. This ...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF WASTE RAG GENERATION AT NAVAL STATION MAYPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents the results of an investigation examining pollution prevention alternatives for reducing the volume of waste rags generated at Naval Station Mayport, located near Jacksonville Beach, Florida. he report recommends five specific pollution prevention alternative...

  7. SECONDARY LOW-LEVEL WASTE GENERATION RATE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    D. LaRue

    1999-05-10

    The objective of this design analysis is -to update the assessment of estimated annual secondary low-level waste (LLW) generation rates resulting from the repackaging of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level waste (HLW) for disposal at the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). This analysis supports the preparation of documentation necessary for license application (LA) for the MGR. For the purposes of this analysis, secondary LLW is defined, in brief terms, as LLW generated as a direct result of processing SNF/HLW through the receiving and repackaging operations. The current Waste Handling Building (WHB) design is based on the predominant movement of fuel assemblies through the wet handling lines within the WHB. Dry handling lines are also included in the current WHB design to accommodate canistered waste (i.e., SNF and/or HLW packages). Major input changes to this analysis in comparison to previous analyses include: (1) changes in the SNF/HLW arrival schedules; (2) changes to the WHB and the Waste Treatment Building (WTB) dimensions; and (3) changes in operational staff sizes within the WHB and WTB. The rates generated in this analysis can be utilized to define necessary waste processes, waste flow rates, and equipment sizes for the processing of secondary LLW for proper disposal. This analysis is based on the present reference design, i.e., Viability Assessment (VA) design, and present projections on spent fuel delivery and processing. LLW generation rates, for both liquids and solids, are a direct function of square footages in radiological areas, and a direct function of spent fuel throughput. Future changes in the approved reference design or spent fuel throughput will directly impact the LLW generation rates defined in this analysis. Small amounts of wastes other than LLW may be generated on a non-routine basis. These wastes may include transuranic (TRU), hazardous, and mixed wastes. Although the objective of this analysis is to define LLW waste generation

  8. Annual report of waste generation and pollution prevention progress, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This Report summarizes the waste generation and pollution prevention activities of the major operational sites in the Department of Energy (DOE). We are witnessing progress in waste reduction from routine operations that are the focus of Department-wide reduction goals set by the Secretary on May 3,1996. The goals require that by the end of 1999, we reduce, recycle, reuse, and otherwise avoid waste generation to achieve a 50 percent reduction over 1993 levels. This Report provides the first measure of our progress in waste reduction and recycling against our 1993 waste generation baseline. While we see progress in reducing waste from our normal operations, we must begin to focus attention on waste generated by cleanup and facilities stabilization activities that are the major functions of the Office of Environmental Management. Reducing the generation of waste is one of the seven principles that I have established for the Office of Environmental Management Ten Year Plan. As part of our vision to complete a major portion of the environmental cleanup at DOE sites over the next ten years, we must utilize the potential of the pollution prevention program to reduce the cost of our cleanup program. We have included the Secretarial goals as part of the performance measures for the Ten Year Plan, and we are committed to implementing pollution prevention ideas. Through the efforts of both Federal and contractor employees, our pollution prevention program has reduced waste and the cost of our operations. I applaud their efforts and look forward to reporting further waste reduction progress in the next annual update of this Report.

  9. Differences in motives between Millennial and Generation X medical students.

    PubMed

    Borges, Nicole J; Manuel, R Stephen; Elam, Carol L; Jones, Bonnie J

    2010-06-01

    OBJECTIVES Three domains comprise the field of human assessment: ability, motive and personality. Differences in personality and cognitive abilities between generations have been documented, but differences in motive between generations have not been explored. This study explored generational differences in medical students regarding motives using the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT). METHODS Four hundred and twenty six students (97% response rate) at one medical school (Generation X = 229, Millennials = 197) who matriculated in 1995 & 1996 (Generation X) or in 2003 & 2004 (Millennials) wrote a story after being shown two TAT picture cards. Student stories for each TAT card were scored for different aspects of motives: Achievement, Affiliation, and Power. RESULTS A multiple analysis of variance (p < 0.05) showed significant differences between Millennials' and Generation X-ers' needs for Power on both TAT cards and needs for Achievement and Affiliation on one TAT card. The main effect for gender was significant for both TAT cards regarding Achievement. No main effect for ethnicity was noted. CONCLUSIONS Differences in needs for Achievement, Affiliation and Power exist between Millennial and Generation X medical students. Generation X-ers scored higher on the motive of Power, whereas Millennials scored higher on the motives of Achievement and Affiliation. PMID:20604853

  10. Livestock waste-to-bioenergy generation opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of biological and thermochemical conversion (TCC) technologies in livestock waste-to-bioenergy treatments can provide livestock operators with multiple value-added, renewable energy products. These products can meet heating and power needs or serve as transportation fuels. The primary object...

  11. Gas generation phenomena in radioactive waste transportation packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.

    1997-11-01

    The interaction of radiation from radioactive materials with the waste matrix can lead to the deterioration of the waste form resulting in the possible formation of gaseous species. Depending on the type and characteristics of the radiation source, the generation of hydrogen may predominate. Since the interaction of alpha particles with the waste form results in significant energy transfer, other gases such as carbon oxides, methane, nitrogen oxides, oxygen, water, and helium are possible. The type of gases produced from the waste forms is determined by the mechanisms involved in the waste degradation. For transuranic wastes, the identified degradation mechanisms are reported to be caused by radiolysis, thermal decomposition or dewatering, chemical corrosion, and bacterial action. While all these mechanisms may be responsible for the buildup of gases during the storage of wastes, radiolysis and thermal decomposition appear to be the main contributors during waste transport operations. In this paper, the authors provide a review of applicable gas generation data resulting from the degradation of various waste forms under conditions typical for transport. The effects of radiolytic and thermal degradation mechanisms will be discussed in the context of transportation safety.

  12. Radiolytic gas generation from cement-based waste hosts for DOE low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Dole, L.R.; Friedman, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using cement-based immobilization binders with simulated radioactive waste containing sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and fluoride anions, the gamma- and alpha-radiolytic gas generation factors (G/sub t/, molecules/100 eV) and gas compositions were measured on specimens of cured grouts. These tests studied the effects of; (1) waste composition; (2) the sample surface-to-volume ratio; (3) the waste slurry particle size; and (4) the water content of the waste host formula. The radiolysis test vessels were designed to minimize the ''dead'' volume and to simulate the configuration of waste packages.

  13. Optimal evaluation of infectious medical waste disposal companies using the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Chao Chung

    2011-07-15

    Ever since Taiwan's National Health Insurance implemented the diagnosis-related groups payment system in January 2010, hospital income has declined. Therefore, to meet their medical waste disposal needs, hospitals seek suppliers that provide high-quality services at a low cost. The enactment of the Waste Disposal Act in 1974 had facilitated some improvement in the management of waste disposal. However, since the implementation of the National Health Insurance program, the amount of medical waste from disposable medical products has been increasing. Further, of all the hazardous waste types, the amount of infectious medical waste has increased at the fastest rate. This is because of the increase in the number of items considered as infectious waste by the Environmental Protection Administration. The present study used two important findings from previous studies to determine the critical evaluation criteria for selecting infectious medical waste disposal firms. It employed the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to set the objective weights of the evaluation criteria and select the optimal infectious medical waste disposal firm through calculation and sorting. The aim was to propose a method of evaluation with which medical and health care institutions could objectively and systematically choose appropriate infectious medical waste disposal firms.

  14. Resolution of the mixed waste issue for EDTA-based steam generator chemical cleaning waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.D.; Schneidmiller, D.

    1996-12-31

    The valence state of chromium in an EDTA-based iron oxide removal solvent waste was determined under various storage conditions. The solvent is used to remove deposits from the secondary sides of nuclear power plant steam generators and was developed under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute and the Steam Generator Owners Group. Chromium is typically present in such waste at a level greater than 5 ppm, thus creating the possibility that the waste could be subject to regulatory control as a hazardous waste under RCRA. Additionally, the waste typically contains trace levels of radioactivity, and could potentially be classified as mixed waste. In the past, interim processing has been used to reduce the chromium concentration in the waste to allow storage for greater than 90 days without the waste being subject to regulatory control. Extended storage prior to final processing and disposal is routinely required. However, the results reported clearly show that any chromium in the waste is exclusively trivalent and will remain so indefinitely under any credible storage scenario. Thus, the waste qualifies for the trivalent chromium exclusion provided under RCRA. Further, the results show that the valence state of chromium in the waste cannot be changed without extraordinary effort.

  15. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: Quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Lebersorger, S.; Beigl, P.

    2011-09-15

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation).

  16. Municipal solid waste generation in municipalities: quantifying impacts of household structure, commercial waste and domestic fuel.

    PubMed

    Lebersorger, S; Beigl, P

    2011-01-01

    Waste management planning requires reliable data concerning waste generation, influencing factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. This paper aims at identifying and quantifying differences between different municipalities' municipal solid waste (MSW) collection quantities based on data from waste management and on socio-economic indicators. A large set of 116 indicators from 542 municipalities in the Province of Styria was investigated. The resulting regression model included municipal tax revenue per capita, household size and the percentage of buildings with solid fuel heating systems. The model explains 74.3% of the MSW variation and the model assumptions are met. Other factors such as tourism, home composting or age distribution of the population did not significantly improve the model. According to the model, 21% of MSW collected in Styria was commercial waste and 18% of the generated MSW was burned in domestic heating systems. While the percentage of commercial waste is consistent with literature data, practically no literature data are available for the quantity of MSW burned, which seems to be overestimated by the model. The resulting regression model was used as basis for a waste prognosis model (Beigl and Lebersorger, in preparation). PMID:21689921

  17. Waste container weighing data processing to create reliable information of household waste generation.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Pirjo; Kaila, Juha

    2015-05-01

    Household mixed waste container weighing data was processed by knowledge discovery and data mining techniques to create reliable information of household waste generation. The final data set included 27,865 weight measurements covering the whole year 2013 and it was selected from a database of Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Finland. The data set contains mixed household waste arising in 6m(3) containers and it was processed identifying missing values and inconsistently low and high values as errors. The share of missing values and errors in the data set was 0.6%. This provides evidence that the waste weighing data gives reliable information of mixed waste generation at collection point level. Characteristic of mixed household waste arising at the waste collection point level is a wide variation between pickups. The seasonal variation pattern as a result of collective similarities in behaviour of households was clearly detected by smoothed medians of waste weight time series. The evaluation of the collection time series against the defined distribution range of pickup weights on the waste collection point level shows that 65% of the pickups were from collection points with optimally dimensioned container capacity and the collection points with over- and under-dimensioned container capacities were noted in 9.5% and 3.4% of all pickups, respectively. Occasional extra waste in containers occurred in 21.2% of the pickups indicating the irregular behaviour of individual households. The results of this analysis show that processing waste weighing data using knowledge discovery and data mining techniques provides trustworthy information of household waste generation and its variations. PMID:25765610

  18. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  19. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  20. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  1. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  2. 40 CFR 194.8 - Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-CERTIFICATION OF THE WASTE ISOLATION PILOT PLANT'S COMPLIANCE WITH THE 40 CFR PART 191 DISPOSAL REGULATIONS General Provisions § 194.8 Approval process for waste shipment from waste generator sites for disposal at... from waste generator sites for disposal at the WIPP. 194.8 Section 194.8 Protection of...

  3. MCM generator: a Java-based tool for generating medical metadata.

    PubMed

    Munoz, F; Hersh, W

    1998-01-01

    In a previous paper we introduced the need to implement a mechanism to facilitate the discovery of relevant Web medical documents. We maintained that the use of META tags, specifically ones that define the medical subject and resource type of a document, help towards this goal. We have now developed a tool to facilitate the generation of these tags for the authors of medical documents. Written entirely in Java, this tool makes use of the SAPHIRE server, and helps the author identify the Medical Subject Heading terms that most appropriately describe the subject of the document. Furthermore, it allows the author to generate metadata tags for the 15 elements that the Dublin Core considers as core elements in the description of a document. This paper describes the use of this tool in the cataloguing of Web and non-Web medical documents, such as images, movie, and sound files. PMID:9929299

  4. MCM generator: a Java-based tool for generating medical metadata.

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, F.; Hersh, W.

    1998-01-01

    In a previous paper we introduced the need to implement a mechanism to facilitate the discovery of relevant Web medical documents. We maintained that the use of META tags, specifically ones that define the medical subject and resource type of a document, help towards this goal. We have now developed a tool to facilitate the generation of these tags for the authors of medical documents. Written entirely in Java, this tool makes use of the SAPHIRE server, and helps the author identify the Medical Subject Heading terms that most appropriately describe the subject of the document. Furthermore, it allows the author to generate metadata tags for the 15 elements that the Dublin Core considers as core elements in the description of a document. This paper describes the use of this tool in the cataloguing of Web and non-Web medical documents, such as images, movie, and sound files. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9929299

  5. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government…

  6. TRU waste transportation -- The flammable gas generation problem

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has imposed a flammable gas (i.e., hydrogen) concentration limit of 5% by volume on transuranic (TRU) waste containers to be shipped using the TRUPACT-II transporter. This concentration is the lower explosive limit (LEL) in air. This was done to minimize the potential for loss of containment during a hypothetical 60 day period. The amount of transuranic radionuclide that is permissible for shipment in TRU waste containers has been tabulated in the TRUPACT-II Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP, 1) to conservatively prevent accumulation of hydrogen above this 5% limit. Based on the SARP limitations, approximately 35% of the TRU waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab (INEEL), Los Alamos National Lab (LANL), and Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) cannot be shipped in the TRUPACT-II. An even larger percentage of the TRU waste drums at the Savannah River Site (SRS) cannot be shipped because of the much higher wattage loadings of TRU waste drums in that site`s inventory. This paper presents an overview of an integrated, experimental program that has been initiated to increase the shippable portion of the Department of Energy (DOE) TRU waste inventory. In addition, the authors will estimate the anticipated expansion of the shippable portion of the inventory and associated cost savings. Such projection should provide the TRU waste generating sites a basis for developing their TRU waste workoff strategies within their Ten Year Plan budget horizons.

  7. [Use of a biotesting method to determine the toxicity of medical waste].

    PubMed

    Ignat'eva, L P; Potapova, M O; Korytchenkova, N V; Saksonov, M N; Balaian, A E

    2010-01-01

    Classes B and C medical waste is of particular concern since it is an epidemiological and toxicological hazard. Predisinfection of Class B medical waste with the chemicals that have different toxicity levels, as well as further burial in the urban landfill were a reason for defining its hazard classes by biotesting in order to establish the possibility of additional environmental pollution. Class B (epidemiologically hazardous) medical waste was ascertained to be little dangerous and indangerous to the environment. The findings show it necessary to develop an integral waste hazard index that would reflect the whole spectrum of its negative impact on the environment and human health. PMID:21381369

  8. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for bioelectricity generation from organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Moqsud, M Azizul; Omine, Kiyoshi; Yasufuku, Noriyuki; Hyodo, Masayuki; Nakata, Yukio

    2013-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have gained a lot of attention recently as a mode of converting organic matter into electricity. In this study, a compost-based microbial fuel cell that generates bioelectricity by biodegradation of organic matter is developed. Grass cuttings, along with leaf mold, rice bran, oil cake (from mustard plants) and chicken droppings (waste from chickens) were used as organic waste. The electric properties of the MFC under anaerobic fermentation condition were investigated along with the influence of different types of membranes, the mixing of fly ash, and different types of electrode materials. It is observed that the maximum voltage was increased by mixing fly ash. Cellophane showed the highest value of voltage (around 350mV). Bamboo charcoal is good for anode material; however carbon fiber is better for the cathode material in terms of optimization of power generated. This developed MFC is a simple cell to generate electricity from organic waste. PMID:23962448

  9. Executing Medical Guidelines on the Web: Towards Next Generation Healthcare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argüello, M.; Des, J.; Fernandez-Prieto, M. J.; Perez, R.; Paniagua, H.

    There is still a lack of full integration between current Electronic Health Records (EHRs) and medical guidelines that encapsulate evidence-based medicine. Thus, general practitioners (GPs) and specialised physicians still have to read document-based medical guidelines and decide among various options for managing common non-life-threatening conditions where the selection of the most appropriate therapeutic option for each individual patient can be a difficult task. This paper presents a simulation framework and computational test-bed, called V.A.F. Framework, for supporting simulations of clinical situations that boosted the integration between Health Level Seven (HL7) and Semantic Web technologies (OWL, SWRL, and OWL-S) to achieve content layer interoperability between online clinical cases and medical guidelines, and therefore, it proves that higher integration between EHRs and evidence-based medicine can be accomplished which could lead to a next generation of healthcare systems that provide more support to physicians and increase patients' safety.

  10. Solidification/stabilization of ash from medical waste incineration into geopolymers.

    PubMed

    Tzanakos, Konstantinos; Mimilidou, Aliki; Anastasiadou, Kalliopi; Stratakis, Antonis; Gidarakos, Evangelos

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, bottom and fly ash, generated from incinerated medical waste, was used as a raw material for the production of geopolymers. The stabilization (S/S) process studied in this paper has been evaluated by means of the leaching and mechanical properties of the S/S solids obtained. Hospital waste ash, sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate solution and metakaolin were mixed. Geopolymers were cured at 50°C for 24h. After a certain aging time of 7 and 28 days, the strength of the geopolymer specimens, the leachability of heavy metals and the mineralogical phase of the produced geopolymers were studied. The effects of the additions of fly ash and calcium compounds were also investigated. The results showed that hospital waste ash can be utilized as source material for the production of geopolymers. The addition of fly ash and calcium compounds considerably improves the strength of the geopolymer specimens (2-8 MPa). Finally, the solidified matrices indicated that geopolymerization process is able to reduce the amount of the heavy metals found in the leachate of the hospital waste ash. PMID:24785364

  11. Household hazardous waste and conditionally exempt small-quantity generators

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1993-02-01

    Each year, US consumers buy millions of pounds of paint, disinfectant, toilet bowl cleaner; furniture polish, drain cleaner, bleach and other products designed to beautify and clean their homes. Many do-it-yourselfers also buy automotive supplies, such as brake fluid, batteries, starting fluid, oil and antifreeze. Unused portions of these products often find their way into local landfills as household hazardous waste (HHW). Untreated, these wastes represent a possible threat to landfill employees, and a potential source of groundwater and surface water contamination. Recognizing the potential hazards posed by these materials, most states have established HHW management programs. California, Florida, Minnesota, Washington and New Jersey have well-established programs serving state residents and conditionally exempt small-quantity generators (CESQGs). CESQGs are commercial facilities that generate less than 100 kilograms (220 pounds) of hazardous waste per calendar month. RCRA established the statutory framework for identifying and managing hazardous wastes. However, household waste, including HHW, a specifically is excluded from regulation as a hazardous waste under 40 CFR 261.4(b)(1). Therefore, there are no current federal regulations governing HHW. Implementing and enforcing pollution legislation aimed at private citizens is a complex, if not impossible, task.

  12. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S.; Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

  13. Syngas Generation from Organic Waste with Plasma Steam Reforming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz, G.; Leal-Quiros, E.; Smith, R. A.; Elliott, J.; Unruh, D.

    2014-05-01

    A plasma steam reforming system to process waste is in the process of being set up at the University of California, Merced. The proposed concept will use two different plasma regimes, i.e. glow discharge and arc torches to process a percentage of the total liquid waste stream generated at the campus together with shredded local organic solid waste. One of the main advantages of the plasma technology to be utilized is that it uses graphite electrodes that can be fed to the reactor to achieve continuous operation, thus, electrode or nozzle life is not a concern. The waste to energy conversion process consists of two stages, one where a mixture of steam and hydrogen is generated from the liquid in a glow-discharge cell, and a second stage where the mixture of exhaust gases coming out of the first device are mixed with solid waste in a reactor operating in steam reforming mode interacting with a plasma torch to generate high-quality syngas. In this paper, the results of a thermodynamic model developed for the two stages are shown. The syngas composition obtained indicates that the fraction of CO2 present decreases with increasing temperature and the molar fractions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide become dominant. The fraction of water vapour present in the product gases coming out of the second stage needs to be condensed before the syngas can be utilized in a prime mover.

  14. Prediction of municipal solid waste generation using nonlinear autoregressive network.

    PubMed

    Younes, Mohammad K; Nopiah, Z M; Basri, N E Ahmad; Basri, H; Abushammala, Mohammed F M; Maulud, K N A

    2015-12-01

    Most of the developing countries have solid waste management problems. Solid waste strategic planning requires accurate prediction of the quality and quantity of the generated waste. In developing countries, such as Malaysia, the solid waste generation rate is increasing rapidly, due to population growth and new consumption trends that characterize society. This paper proposes an artificial neural network (ANN) approach using feedforward nonlinear autoregressive network with exogenous inputs (NARX) to predict annual solid waste generation in relation to demographic and economic variables like population number, gross domestic product, electricity demand per capita and employment and unemployment numbers. In addition, variable selection procedures are also developed to select a significant explanatory variable. The model evaluation was performed using coefficient of determination (R(2)) and mean square error (MSE). The optimum model that produced the lowest testing MSE (2.46) and the highest R(2) (0.97) had three inputs (gross domestic product, population and employment), eight neurons and one lag in the hidden layer, and used Fletcher-Powell's conjugate gradient as the training algorithm. PMID:26573690

  15. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S.; Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L.

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  16. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. ); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. )

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  17. A comparative study on per capita waste generation according to a waste collecting system in Korea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jung Hwan; Lee, Eui-Jong; Oh, Jeong Ik; Kim, Jong-Oh; Jang, Am

    2016-04-01

    As cities are becoming increasingly aware of problems related to conventional mobile collection systems, automated pipeline-based vacuum collection (AVAC) systems have been introduced in some densely populated urban areas. The reasons are that in addition to cost savings, AVAC systems can be efficient, hygienic, and environmentally friendly. Despite difficulties in making direct comparisons of municipal waste between a conventional mobile collection system and an AVAC system, it is meaningful to measure the quantities in each of these collection methods either in total or on a per capita generation of waste (PCGW, g/(day*capita)) basis. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the difference in per capita generation of household waste according to the different waste collection methods in Korea. Observations on household waste show that there were considerable differences according to waste collection methods. The value of per capita generation of food waste (PCGF) indicates that a person in a city using AVAC produces 60 % of PCGF (109.58 g/(day*capita)), on average, compared with that of a truck system (173.10 g/(day*capita)) as well as 23 %p less moisture component than that with trucks. The value of per capita generation of general waste (PCGG) in a city with an AVAC system showed 147.73 g/(day*capita), which is 20 % less than that with trucks delivered (185 g/(day*capita)). However, general waste sampled from AVAC showed a 35 %p increased moisture content versus truck delivery. PMID:26070737

  18. A Study on Optimal Operation of Power Generation by Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugahara, Hideo; Aoyagi, Yoshihiro; Kato, Masakazu

    This paper proposes the optimal operation of power generation by waste. Refuse is taken as a new energy resource of biomass. Although some fossil fuel origin refuse like plastic may be mixed in, CO2 emission is not counted up except for above fossil fuel origin refuse for the Kyoto Protocol. Incineration is indispensable for refuse disposal and power generation by waste is environment-friendly and power system-friendly using synchronous generators. Optimal planning is a key point to make much of this merit. The optimal plan includes refuse incinerator operation plan with refuse collection and maintenance scheduling of refuse incinerator plant. In this paper, it has been made clear that the former plan increases generation energy through numerical simulations. Concerning the latter plan, a method to determine the maintenance schedule using genetic algorithm has been established. In addition, taking environmental load of CO2 emission into account, this is expected larger merits from environment and energy resource points of view.

  19. Salt disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste.

    SciTech Connect

    Leigh, Christi D.; Hansen, Francis D.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the state of salt repository science, reviews many of the technical issues pertaining to disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in salt, and proposes several avenues for future science-based activities to further the technical basis for disposal in salt. There are extensive salt formations in the forty-eight contiguous states, and many of them may be worthy of consideration for nuclear waste disposal. The United States has extensive experience in salt repository sciences, including an operating facility for disposal of transuranic wastes. The scientific background for salt disposal including laboratory and field tests at ambient and elevated temperature, principles of salt behavior, potential for fracture damage and its mitigation, seal systems, chemical conditions, advanced modeling capabilities and near-future developments, performance assessment processes, and international collaboration are all discussed. The discussion of salt disposal issues is brought current, including a summary of recent international workshops dedicated to high-level waste disposal in salt. Lessons learned from Sandia National Laboratories' experience on the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and the Yucca Mountain Project as well as related salt experience with the Strategic Petroleum Reserve are applied in this assessment. Disposal of heat-generating nuclear waste in a suitable salt formation is attractive because the material is essentially impermeable, self-sealing, and thermally conductive. Conditions are chemically beneficial, and a significant experience base exists in understanding this environment. Within the period of institutional control, overburden pressure will seal fractures and provide a repository setting that limits radionuclide movement. A salt repository could potentially achieve total containment, with no releases to the environment in undisturbed scenarios for as long as the region is geologically stable. Much of the experience gained from United

  20. Waste-heat steam generation is economically viable in ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    McMann, F.C.; Marshall, R.W.

    1984-03-01

    Generation of electric power by turbine-driven generators serviced by waste heat boilers is not a blue sky dream. It is time-proven technology, employing time-proven equipment-equipment that is expected to run uninterrupted in fouryear cycles. This equipment and its control are made right here in the U.S. The equipment is very simple to operate and maintain. This article describes the applications of ceramics in this industry.

  1. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  2. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  3. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  4. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  5. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  6. QUANTIFICATION OF MUNICIPAL DISPOSAL METHODS FOR INDUSTRIALLY GENERATED HAZARDOUS WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Estimations of the amounts of industrial hazardous wastes being disposed of according to various methods of disposal were generated for significant portions of the five following SIC codes: 28, Chemical and Allied Products; 29, Petroleum Refining and Related Industries; 30, Rubbe...

  7. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF WASTES GENERATED BY GRAY IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty (30) wastes generated by 21 gray iron foundries in Pennsylvania and Michigan were sampled and analyzed. The samples were collected by Northrop Services, Inc., in accordance with strict chain-of-custody procedures, and sent to the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory...

  8. Hazardous Waste Management for the Small Quantity Generator. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This instructional package for teaching about the regulations imposed on small quantity generators by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Resource Conservation Recovery Act is organized around ll program objectives: students will be able to (l) determine a hazardous waste from lists or by identifying characteristics; (2) identify…

  9. Importance of patient education on home medical care waste disposal in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Attached office nurses more recovered medical waste from patients’ homes. • Most nurses educated their patients on how to store home medical care waste in their homes and on how to separate them. • Around half of nurses educated their patients on where to dispose of their home medical care waste. - Abstract: To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as ”attached offices” and others as “independent offices”. More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients’ homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls emission from a medical waste incinerator in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong; Yan, Jianhua; Jin, Yuqi

    2009-12-30

    Detailed polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congener patterns were determined in the flue gas from a medical waste incinerator (MWI) using high-resolution gas chromatograph coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometer (HRGC/HRMS). The total PCBs concentration of all homologues (mono- to deca-chlorinated homologues) in the flue gas ranged from 138.01 to 855.35 ng/Nm(3) and the WHO-TEQ value varied from 0.046 to 0.549 ng/Nm(3) under the different operating conditions. PCB-77 concentration was the highest among dioxin-like PCBs and PCB-126 contributed mostly to the WHO-TEQ. The ratios of dioxin-like PCBs in the total PCB concentrations in the flue gas varied between 11.7% and 26.0% (the average value is 18.7%). Three inhibitors, sulfur, urea, and ammonium sulfate were tested to investigate the capacity for preventing PCBs formation. The decomposition efficiency for total PCBs and PCBs TEQ ranged from 38% to 84% and 69% to 92% respectively. It was shown that urea mixed with ammonium sulfate and more activated carbon was proved to be the most effective inhibitor for PCBs formation. The removal efficiencies (REs) of the total PCBs concentration and PCBs TEQ by the bag filter under two conditions were 69% and 85%, and 86% and 94% respectively. PMID:19744782

  11. GERIREX - growing a second generation medical expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Kocur, J. Jr.; Suh, S.C.

    1996-12-31

    This article describes GERIREX, a medical expert system as the core module of an integrated system for total management of a medical practice. GERIREX is currently a first-generation consultant in the domain of prescribing for the geriatric patient with multiple ailments. Employing rule and objective probabilistic knowledge representations, the system performs at the near-expert level, correctly ranking single and multiple drug therapy for hypertension and/or congestive heart failure in the presence of between two and seven of 18 common accompanying or underlying conditions. GERIREX creates permanent consultation records and can access patient information from existing databases. System requirements are met by very modest PCs, yet power, speed, flexibility, and ease of use rival or exceed those of many other systems. GERIREX interfaces with a variety of configurations and applications, including text, spreadsheets, databases, and executables, to fit in with current plans to upgrade to a second generation system, providing a degree of self-maintenance through intelligent parsing of a drug data source such as the Physicians` Desk Reference (PDR - CDROM version). Another option under consideration is developing neural networks to both replace the current knowledge base, and to embody the rationale employed by the medical expert in evaluating drug data for treatment selection. In this version, the current drug database would be used as warning data for the network tasked with adding new drugs to the drug database, imitating the process whereby a physician determines their personal arsenal from among the wide range of available options.

  12. Power generation opportunities for emerging waste conversion technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Swanson, M.L.; Mann, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing quantities of wastes and more stringent disposal regulations combined with the public`s desire to see integrated waste management strategies have created an atmosphere of opportunity. A number of processes are being developed by the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) that offer solutions to the burgeoning waste problem. In the area of solid waste processing, municipal solid wastes have been carbonized and converted into a benign, high quality slurry fuel. Pelletizing and briquetting activities have produced high-quality solid fuels. Extensive efforts have been undertaken in market development for recycled materials, specializing in tertiary recycling of plastics. The issues facing systems for the conversion of opportunity fuels to energy have been addressed for both the combustion and gasification mode, using such diverse fuels as sewage sludge, wood chips, automotive shredder residue, and sunflower hulls. Conversion of biomass to direct-use fuels has also been an ongoing concern and a major focus of the EERC. The focus of this paper will be the identification of methods for converting wastes into valuable fuels or other ``products`` and how they can be used to enhance power generation options.

  13. Awareness and practices regarding bio-medical waste management among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital in Delhi.

    PubMed

    Bhagawati, G; Nandwani, S; Singhal, S

    2015-01-01

    Health care institutions are generating large amount of Bio-Medical Waste (BMW), which needs to be properly segregated and treated. With this concern, a questionnaire based cross-sectional study was done to determine the current status of awareness and practices regarding BMW Management (BMWM) and areas of deficit amongst the HCWs in a tertiary care teaching hospital in New Delhi, India. The correct responses were graded as satisfactory (more than 80%), intermediate (50-80%) and unsatisfactory (less than 50%). Some major areas of deficit found were about knowledge regarding number of BMW categories (17%), mercury waste disposal (37.56%) and definition of BMW (47%). PMID:26470969

  14. PRIST: a fourth-generation tool for medical information systems.

    PubMed

    Cristiani, P; Larizza, C

    1990-04-01

    PRIST is a fourth-generation software package purposely oriented to development and management of medical applications, running under MS/DOS IBM compatible personal computers. The tool has been developed on the top of DBIII Plus language utilizing the Clipper Compiler networking features for the integration in a LAN environment. Several routines written in C and BASIC Microsoft languages integrated this DBMS-kernel system providing I/O, graphics, statistics, retrieval utilities. To increase the interactivity of the system both menu-driven and windowing interfaces have been implemented. PRIST has been utilized to develop a wide variety of small medical applications ranging from research laboratories to intensive care units. The great majority of reactions from the use of these applications were positive, confirming that PRIST is able to assist in practice management and patient care as well as research purposes. PMID:2345045

  15. On-site or off-site treatment of medical waste: a challenge.

    PubMed

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mohammadyarei, Taher; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohamad; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Treating hazardous-infectious medical waste can be carried out on-site or off-site of health-care establishments. Nevertheless, the selection between on-site and off-site locations for treating medical waste sometimes is a controversial subject. Currently in Iran, due to policies of Health Ministry, the hospitals have selected on-site-treating method as the preferred treatment. The objectives of this study were to assess the current condition of on-site medical waste treatment facilities, compare on-site medical waste treatment facilities with off-site systems and find the best location of medical waste treatment. To assess the current on-site facilities, four provinces (and 40 active hospitals) were selected to participate in the survey. For comparison of on-site and off-site facilities (due to non availability of an installed off-site facility) Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was employed. The result indicated that most on-site medical waste treating systems have problems in financing, planning, determining capacity of installations, operation and maintenance. AHP synthesis (with inconsistency ratio of 0.01 < 0.1) revealed that, in total, the off-site treatment of medical waste was in much higher priority than the on-site treatment (64.1% versus 35.9%). According to the results of study it was concluded that the off-site central treatment can be considered as an alternative. An amendment could be made to Iran's current medical waste regulations to have infectious-hazardous waste sent to a central off-site installation for treatment. To begin and test this plan and also receive the official approval, a central off-site can be put into practice, at least as a pilot in one province. Next, if it was practically successful, it could be expanded to other provinces and cities. PMID:24739145

  16. Characterization of food waste generators: a Hawaii case study.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, W K; Turn, S Q; Flachsbart, P G

    2008-12-01

    Information on food waste disposal and on recycling methods and recycled amounts is reported. Data were obtained from a mail and phone survey of all licensed food establishments in Hawaii conducted in 2004 and 2005. Of 8253 licensed food establishments, 5033 completed surveys. It was found that relationships exist between food establishment size (measured by the number of meals served per day or the number of employees) and the amount of food an establishment recycled; establishment type and recycling behavior; and establishment type and amount recycled. The amount of food waste recycled in the state of Hawaii was estimated to be 264,000 L/day and annual food waste generation was estimated to be 336,000 tonnes. PMID:18375111

  17. Microbiological study of methane generation from poultry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Studies have been conducted to investigate the biological potential of methane generation from two types of poultry waste: broiler chicken litter and laying hen manure. Through the systematic study, thermophilic bacterial cultures were initiated and established to produce methane at their highest rates. It was found that different kinds of waste with different chemical compositions required different operational conditions to reach the individual maximal potential. The microbiology of the methane-producing bacteria in the poultry waste-based anaerobic digester was studied. An enriched thermophilic methane-producing culture was isolated. The methanogenic culture can use acetate, ethanol, methylamine, propionate, and H/sub 2/-CO/sub 2/, but not formate and methanol, for growth and methanogenesis. The methanogenic culture was found to be a mixed culture from which a thermophilic Methanococcus sp. and an unidentified rod-shaped microorganism were isolated. The two organisms produced methane symbiotically in the acetate medium.

  18. Effects of Heat Generation on Nuclear Waste Disposal in Salt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Disposal of nuclear waste in salt is an established technology, as evidenced by the successful operations of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) since 1999. The WIPP is located in bedded salt in southeastern New Mexico and is a deep underground facility for transuranic (TRU) nuclear waste disposal. There are many advantages for placing radioactive wastes in a geologic bedded-salt environment. One desirable mechanical characteristic of salt is that it flows plastically with time ("creeps"). The rate of salt creep is a strong function of temperature and stress differences. Higher temperatures and deviatoric stresses increase the creep rate. As the salt creeps, induced fractures may be closed and eventually healed, which then effectively seals the waste in place. With a backfill of crushed salt emplaced around the waste, the salt creep can cause the crushed salt to reconsolidate and heal to a state similar to intact salt, serving as an efficient seal. Experiments in the WIPP were conducted to investigate the effects of heat generation on the important phenomena and processes in and around the repository (Munson et al. 1987; 1990; 1992a; 1992b). Brine migration towards the heaters was induced from the thermal gradient, while salt creep rates showed an exponential dependence on temperature. The project "Backfill and Material Behavior in Underground Salt Repositories, Phase II" (BAMBUS II) studied the crushed salt backfill and material behavior with heat generation at the Asse mine located near Remlingen, Germany (Bechthold et al. 2004). Increased salt creep rates and significant reconsolidation of the crushed salt were observed at the termination of the experiment. Using the data provided from both projects, exploratory modeling of the thermal-mechanical response of salt has been conducted with varying thermal loading and waste spacing. Increased thermal loading and decreased waste spacing drive the system to higher temperatures, while both factors are desired to

  19. Using GEM-encoded guidelines to generate medical logic modules.

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, A.; Shiffman, R. N.

    2001-01-01

    Among the most effective strategies for changing the process and outcomes of clinical care are those that make use of computer-mediated decision support. A variety of representation models that facilitate computer-based implementation of medical knowledge have been published, including the Guideline Elements Model (GEM) and the Arden Syntax for Medical Logic Modules (MLMs). We describe an XML-based application that facilitates automated generation of partially populated MLMs from GEM-encoded guidelines. These MLMs can be further edited and shared among Arden-compliant information systems to provide decision support. Our work required three steps: (a) Knowledge extraction from published guideline documents using GEM, (b) Mapping GEM elements to the MLM slots, and (c) XSL transformation of the GEM-encoded guideline. Processing of a sample guideline generated 15 MLMs, each corresponding to a conditional or imperative element in the GEM structure. Mechanisms for linking various MLMs are necessary to represent the complexity of logic typical of a guideline. PMID:11825147

  20. Dual Torch Plasma Arc Furnace for Medical Waste Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Kikuchi, M.; Li, Heping; Iwao, T.; Inaba, T.

    2007-12-01

    In this paper, characteristics of a dual torch plasma arc used for hazardous waste treatment and operated at atmospheric pressure are studied, and also compared with those of the multi-torch plasma arc and the single torch plasma arc. The dual torch plasma arc is generated between the cathode and anode with argon as the working gas. The temperature distributions of the plasma arc are measured using a spectroscope and line pair method with the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) for the DC arc current I = 100 A and argon flow rate Q = 15 slpm. The measurements show that the temperatures of the dual torch arc plasma in the regions near the cathode, the anode and the center point are 10,000 K, 11,000 K and 9,000 K, respectively. And the high temperature region of the multi torch plasma arc is of double or much wider size than that of a conventional dual torch plasma arc and single plasma torch. Based on the preceding studies, a dual torch plasma arc furnace is developed in this study. The measured gas temperature at the center region of the argon arc is about 11,000 K for the case of I = 200 A and Q = 30 slpm operated in atmosphere.

  1. Assessment of medical waste management at a primary health-care center in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moreira, A M M; Günther, W M R

    2013-01-01

    According to the Brazilian law, implementation of a Medical Waste Management Plan (MWMP) in health-care units is mandatory, but as far as we know evaluation of such implementation has not taken place yet. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the improvements deriving from the implementation of a MWMP in a Primary Health-care Center (PHC) located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The method proposed for evaluation compares the first situation prevailing at this PHC with the situation 1 year after implementation of the MWMP, thus allowing verification of the evolution of the PHC performance. For prior and post-diagnosis, the method was based on: (1) application of a tool (check list) which considered all legal requirements in force; (2) quantification of solid waste subdivided into three categories: infectious waste and sharp devices, recyclable materials and non-recyclable waste; and (3) identification of non-conformity practices. Lack of knowledge on the pertinent legislation by health workers has contributed to non-conformity instances. The legal requirements in force in Brazil today gave origin to a tool (check list) which was utilized in the management of medical waste at the health-care unit studied. This tool resulted into an adequate and simple instrument, required a low investment, allowed collecting data to feed indicators and also conquered the participation of the unit whole staff. Several non-conformities identified in the first diagnosis could be corrected by the instrument utilized. Total waste generation increased 9.8%, but it was possible to reduce the volume of non-recyclable materials (11%) and increase the volume of recyclable materials (4%). It was also possible to segregate organic waste (7%), which was forwarded for production of compost. The rate of infectious waste generation in critical areas decreased from 0.021 to 0.018 kg/procedure. Many improvements have been observed, and now the PHC complies with most of legal requirements

  2. Car companies look to generate power from waste heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirber, Michael

    2008-04-01

    You might think that the steam engine is an outdated technology that had its heyday centuries ago, but in fact steam is once again a hot topic with vehicle manufacturers. Indeed, the next generation of hybrid cars and trucks may incorporate some form of steam power. Honda, for example, has just released details of a new prototype hybrid car that recharges its battery using a steam engine that exploits waste heat from the exhaust pipe.

  3. Assessment of plastic waste generation and its potential recycling of household solid waste in Can Tho City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Thanh, Nguyen Phuc; Matsui, Yasuhiro; Fujiwara, Takeshi

    2011-04-01

    Plastic solid waste has become a serious problem when considering the disposal alternatives following the sequential hierarchy of sound solid waste management. This study was undertaken to assess the quantity and composition of household solid waste, especially plastic waste to identify opportunities for waste recycling. A 1-month survey of 130 households was carried out in Can Tho City, the capital city of the Mekong Delta region in southern Vietnam. Household solid waste was collected from each household and classified into ten physical categories; especially plastic waste was sorted into 22 subcategories. The average household solid waste generation rate was 281.27 g/cap/day. The compostable and recyclable shares respectively accounted for high percentage as 80.74% and 11%. Regarding plastic waste, the average plastic waste generation rate was 17.24 g/cap/day; plastic packaging and plastic containers dominated with the high percentage, 95.64% of plastic waste. Plastic shopping bags were especially identified as the major component, accounting for 45.72% of total plastic waste. Relevant factors such as household income and household size were found to have an existing correlation to plastic waste generation in detailed composition. The household habits and behaviors of plastic waste discharge and the aspects of environmental impacts and resource consumption for plastic waste disposal alternatives were also evaluated. PMID:20490914

  4. Characterization of dolochar wastes generated by the sponge iron industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwari, Ranjan Kumar; Rao, Danda Srinivas; Swar, Akhila Kumar; Reddy, Palli Sita Ram; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2012-11-01

    Solid wastes generated by the metallurgical industry contribute significantly towards the enhancement of environmental pollution. The handling, utilization, and safe disposal of these solid wastes are major concerns for the world. Dolochar is such a solid waste generated by the sponge iron industry. Investigations were carried out on the physical, mineralogical, and chemical characteristics for the efficient utilization of dolochar. The detailed studies on physico-chemical properties and petrography were carried out by optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Characterization studies revealed that the dolochar consists of quartz (free as well as locked), free lime, Fe particles, and Ca or Mg and/or Ca+Mg+Fe oxide phases. The washability data of -300 μm dolochar samples indicated that clean coal with 41wt% ash at 18% yield can be produced from dolochar with 78wt% ash. The studies further suggested that the liberation of the dolochar is hard to achieve for clear separation. The dolochar is observed to have high ash fusion temperature and the unburned carbon can be best utilized for power generation.

  5. 78 FR 75672 - New Jersey Regulations on Transportation of Regulated Medical Waste

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ...), ``Morrisville, PA Requirements for Transportation of `Dangerous Waste,' '' 66 FR 37260-61 (July 17, 2001... of regulated medical waste as a Division 6.2 hazardous material. PD-23(RF), 66 FR at 37260- 61; PD-29... inviting interested persons to comment on the Institute's application. 77 FR 39567. The only comment...

  6. Gas generation and migration studies involving recently generated /sup 238/Pu-contaminated waste for the TRU Waste Sampling Program

    SciTech Connect

    Zerwekh, A.; Warren, J.L.

    1986-07-01

    This study is part of the multicontractor TRU Waste Sampling Program. Radiolytically generated gases were vented through a filtering device to determine its effectiveness in maintaining hydrogen concentrations within acceptably safe levels. In the second part of the study measurements were made to determine the ability of these gases, particularly hydrogen, to migrate through a sealed rigid polyethylene drum liner. Void volumes in these drums were found to be generally in excess of 90%. The carbon composite filter was found to satisfactorily vent hydrogen up to moderately high levels of alpha activity in the waste substrate. The sealed 90-mil liner was found to inhibit, but not prevent, the migration of hydrogen and other radiolytically generated gases.

  7. Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

  8. 75 FR 79328 - Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste; Alternative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 262 Technical Corrections to the Standards Applicable to Generators of Hazardous Waste...: EPA is proposing six technical corrections to an alternative set of hazardous waste generator... requirements, but rather makes technical corrections to subpart K of the hazardous waste generator...

  9. Biological potential of methane generation from poultry wastes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, J.C.H.

    1981-06-20

    Anaerobic digestion of animal waste is an attractive process because it degrades organic matter for pollution control and simultaneously produces methane gas for an alternate energy source. The biological potentials of methane generation from the two major kinds of poultry wastes, the litter of broiler chickens and the manure of laying hens have been systematically investigated. Using these wastes to prepare media for bacterial growth, thermophilic anaerobic cultures were initiated by inoculations of bacteria from different natural environments. After a period of acclimation, they were then challenged with various combinations of operational variables such as retention times, volatile solid concentrations, temperatures, and pH values. The most efficient culture and conditions were selected based on the highest gas rate. The results have demonstrated that the broiler litter is a substrate of very low potential. This seems due to the high content of wood shavings resistant to bacterial degradation. On the other hand, the layer manure is a high-potential substrate, which supported both a high methane rate (3.5 1/1/day) and a high methane yield (250 1/kg VS) under the selected conditions. Compared with other types of animal wastes, the manure of laying hens is one of the best substrates for methane production. Based on the data obtained in the laboratory, an anaerobic digester is under construction on the University research farm. A large digester will help answer other questions such as energy balance, economic evaluation and engineering design.

  10. Generative-Discriminative Basis Learning for Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Batmanghelich, Nematollah K.; Taskar, Ben; Davatzikos, Christos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dimensionality reduction method for classification in medical imaging. The goal is to transform very high-dimensional input (typically, millions of voxels) to a low-dimensional representation (small number of constructed features) that preserves discriminative signal and is clinically interpretable. We formulate the task as a constrained optimization problem that combines generative and discriminative objectives and show how to extend it to the semi-supervised learning (SSL) setting. We propose a novel large-scale algorithm to solve the resulting optimization problem. In the fully supervised case, we demonstrate accuracy rates that are better than or comparable to state-of-the-art algorithms on several datasets while producing a representation of the group difference that is consistent with prior clinical reports. Effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for SSL is evaluated with both benchmark and medical imaging datasets. In the benchmark datasets, the results are better than or comparable to the state-of-the-art methods for SSL. For evaluation of the SSL setting in medical datasets, we use images of subjects with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is believed to be a precursor to Alzheimer's disease (AD), as unlabeled data. AD subjects and Normal Control (NC) subjects are used as labeled data, and we try to predict conversion from MCI to AD on follow-up. The semi-supervised extension of this method not only improves the generalization accuracy for the labeled data (AD/NC) slightly but is also able to predict subjects which are likely to converge to AD. PMID:21791408

  11. The global economic and regulatory determinants of household food waste generation: A cross-country analysis.

    PubMed

    Chalak, Ali; Abou-Daher, Chaza; Chaaban, Jad; Abiad, Mohamad G

    2016-02-01

    Food is generally wasted all along the supply chain, with an estimated loss of 35percent generated at the consumer level. Consequently, household food waste constitutes a sizable proportion of the total waste generated throughout the food supply chain. Yet such wastes vary drastically between developed and developing countries. Using data collected from 44 countries with various income levels, this paper investigates the impact of legislation and economic incentives on household food waste generation. The obtained results indicate that well-defined regulations, policies and strategies are more effective than fiscal measures in mitigating household food waste generation. PMID:26680687

  12. Materials Advances for Next-Generation Ingestible Electronic Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Bettinger, Christopher J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic medical implants have collectively transformed the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases, but have many inherent limitations. Electronic implants require invasive surgeries, operate in challenging microenvironments, and are susceptible to bacterial infection and persistent inflammation. Novel materials and nonconventional device fabrication strategies may revolutionize the way electronic devices are integrated with the body. Ingestible electronic devices offer many advantages compared with implantable counterparts that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of pathologies ranging from gastrointestinal infections to diabetes. This review summarizes current technologies and highlights recent materials advances. Specific focus is dedicated to next-generation materials for packaging, circuit design, and on-board power supplies that are benign, nontoxic, and even biodegradable. Future challenges and opportunities are also highlighted. PMID:26403162

  13. Thermoelectric Generation Using Waste Heat in Steel Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroki, Takashi; Kabeya, Kazuhisa; Makino, Kazuya; Kajihara, Takeshi; Kaibe, Hiromasa; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Matsuno, Hidetoshi; Fujibayashi, Akio

    2014-06-01

    The steelmaking industry in Japan has significantly reduced its energy use for the past several decades and has kept the highest energy efficiency in the world. However, the steelmaking industry is strongly required to develop new technologies for further energy conservation in view of energy security, high and volatile energy prices, and climate change. One of the key technologies to achieve the requirement is waste heat recovery. This paper describes the thermoelectric generation (TEG) system using the waste heat in the steelmaking process. In this system, the TEG unit, which consists of 16 thermoelectric modules made of Bi-Te thermoelectric materials, generates the electrical power directly by converting the radiant heat released from hot steel products. Each thermoelectric module, whose size is 50 mm × 50 mm × 4.2 mm, generates 18 W when the hot-side temperature is 523 K and the cold-side is 303 K. Therefore, the output of the TEG unit is over 250 W. The performance and the durability of the system have been investigated under various operating conditions in steel works. The results of the verification tests in the JFE steel Corporation's continuous casting line will be discussed.

  14. Waste management in Guangdong cities: the waste management literacy and waste reduction preferences of domestic waste generators.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shan-Shan; Lo, Carlos W H

    2004-05-01

    A questionnaire survey was conducted in 2002 on 1365 households in two prefectural-level cities in the Pearl River Delta, Jiangmen and Zhongshan. Three groups of issues are covered in this paper: 1) waste management literacy, concerns, and public participation; 2) waste recycling practices and the potential for waste avoidance; and 3) public environmental literacy. This study confirms findings from previous surveys and provides new information on important issues such as imposing monetary charges on waste and environmental activities, littering, source separation programs (SSPs), and public participation and expectations in local waste management. Saving up recyclable materials for redemption in waste depots is commonly practiced in mainland China regardless of the level of development of a city, although at the household level, high-income families tend to place less value on the revenues to be gained from redemption than lower income groups do. Data from the previous and the present studies indicate that such voluntary but largely economically driven waste recovery behavior diverts at least 10% of the household waste from the waste stream. Although uncompensated SSP is less appealing in the two cities than compensated SSP, it was found that when the median per capita income of a city reaches RMB2000 per month, a high participation rate for uncompensated waste recovery is more likely to occur. Education and income levels are the chief factors affecting littering behavior and the potential for waste avoidance. Contrary to general belief, the local Chinese community is active in microwaste management. The concern, however, is over the inability of the grassroots bureaucracy to deal with rising expectations for waste collection services and neighborhood cleanliness. PMID:15503387

  15. [Approaches of European and Russian legislation in the field of management of medical waste].

    PubMed

    Samutin, N M; Rusakov, N V; Butorina, N N; Kobzev, N S; Ustinov, A K

    2014-01-01

    A comparative analysis of Russian and European legislation concerning to the waste management has been performed. There were revealed principal differences in Russian and European legislation in methodology of the waste classification. In Europe, there is no methodology for breaking up waste into hazard classes, and for the denomination of the danger there are used hazard lists which fail to give information about the extent of their danger. Medical waste in the European legislation are not selected into the separate category as being included in terms of articles and lists in the annexes to the directives or other legal acts. There are considered requirements of the Russian and European legislation in the area of the landfill waste burial. In the frameworks of the proposals for the implementation of international experience in the waste management there was drafted the project of Sanitary rules on hygiene requirements to the arrangement and the contents of landfills for residential solid waste, which includes requirements concerning not only residential solid waste, but also medical waste. PMID:25950037

  16. Effects of Globally Waste Disturbing Activities on Gas Generation, Retention, and Release in Hanford Waste Tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, Charles W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Huckaby, James L.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Wells, Beric E.

    2005-08-02

    Various operations are authorized in Hanford single- and double-shell tanks that disturb all or a large fraction of the waste. These globally waste-disturbing activities have the potential to release a large fraction of the retained flammable gas and to affect future gas generation, retention, and release behavior. This report presents analyses of the expected flammable gas release mechanisms and the potential release rates and volumes resulting from these activities. The background of the flammable gas safety issue at Hanford is summarized, as is the current understanding of gas generation, retention, and release phenomena. Considerations for gas monitoring and assessment of the potential for changes in tank classification and steady-state flammability are given.

  17. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  18. Food waste generation and potential interventions at Rhodes University, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Painter, Kathleen; Thondhlana, Gladman; Kua, Harn Wei

    2016-10-01

    Estimation of food waste generation represents the first step when considering efforts to reduce waste generation and monitor food waste reduction against set targets. This study reports on an estimation of food waste generated in university dining halls at Rhodes University, South Africa. Daily food waste generation was estimated at about 555g per student or 2tonnes across all sample dining halls, translating to about 450tonnes per year. The results show that food waste is influenced by an array of contextual factors, including distance to dining hall, gender composition of hall and meal times and meal options. It is estimated that the university could save up to US$ 80000 annually for every 10% reduction in the current rate of food waste generation. Possible educational, technical and administrative interventions for food waste reduction are discussed. PMID:27450431

  19. Characterization of 618-11 solid waste burial ground, disposed waste, and description of the waste generating facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hladek, K.L.

    1997-10-07

    The 618-11 (Wye or 318-11) burial ground received transuranic (TRTJ) and mixed fission solid waste from March 9, 1962, through October 2, 1962. It was then closed for 11 months so additional burial facilities could be added. The burial ground was reopened on September 16, 1963, and continued operating until it was closed permanently on December 31, 1967. The burial ground received wastes from all of the 300 Area radioactive material handling facilities. The purpose of this document is to characterize the 618-11 solid waste burial ground by describing the site, burial practices, the disposed wastes, and the waste generating facilities. This document provides information showing that kilogram quantities of plutonium were disposed to the drum storage units and caissons, making them transuranic (TRU). Also, kilogram quantities of plutonium and other TRU wastes were disposed to the three trenches, which were previously thought to contain non-TRU wastes. The site burial facilities (trenches, caissons, and drum storage units) should be classified as TRU and the site plutonium inventory maintained at five kilograms. Other fissile wastes were also disposed to the site. Additionally, thousands of curies of mixed fission products were also disposed to the trenches, caissons, and drum storage units. Most of the fission products have decayed over several half-lives, and are at more tolerable levels. Of greater concern, because of their release potential, are TRU radionuclides, Pu-238, Pu-240, and Np-237. TRU radionuclides also included slightly enriched 0.95 and 1.25% U-231 from N-Reactor fuel, which add to the fissile content. The 618-11 burial ground is located approximately 100 meters due west of Washington Nuclear Plant No. 2. The burial ground consists of three trenches, approximately 900 feet long, 25 feet deep, and 50 feet wide, running east-west. The trenches constitute 75% of the site area. There are 50 drum storage units (five 55-gallon steel drums welded together

  20. Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center Newly Generated Liquid Waste Demonstration Project Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Herbst, A.K.

    2000-02-01

    A research, development, and demonstration project for the grouting of newly generated liquid waste (NGLW) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center is considered feasible. NGLW is expected from process equipment waste, decontamination waste, analytical laboratory waste, fuel storage basin waste water, and high-level liquid waste evaporator condensate. The potential grouted waste would be classed as mixed low-level waste, stabilized and immobilized to meet RCRA LDR disposal in a grouting process in the CPP-604 facility, and then transported to the state.

  1. Non-incineration microwave assisted sterilization of medical waste.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Paolo; Leonelli, Cristina; Moscato, Umberto; Cappi, Angelo; Figurelli, Ornella

    2007-01-01

    A non-incineration method for sterilizing hospital infectious wastes has been studied and realized. A small apparatus operating at 2.45 GHz and at a power of 3 kW was designed to optimize power transfer from the electromagnetic field to the infectious materials, which have been previously shredded and moisture-corrected. The high pressure reached in the reactor, 7 atm, was enough to ensure complete sterilization in just a few minutes for a batch of several hundred grams of waste. Sterilization efficacy during microwave irradiation was also optimized with a new procedure using thermal, microbiological and water vapour sensors in a single test. PMID:17847675

  2. SMALL-QUANTITY-GENERATOR HAZARDOUS-WASTE PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT IN FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data are presented on the production and management of hazardous waste by approximately 20,000 small-quantity hazardous-waste generators (SQ) in the state of Florida. RHWGs are generators that produce less than 1000 kg of hazardous waste in a calendar month. here were approximate...

  3. PIGMI: a design report for Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.

    1981-09-01

    PIGMI (Pion Generator for Medical Irradiations) is an integrated linear accelerator (linac) system developed under the auspices of the National Cancer Institute for specific application to cancer treatment in a hospital environment. In its full configuration, PIGMI is a proton linac that is far smaller, less expensive, and more reliable than previous machines that produce pions. Subsets of PIGMI technology can be used with equal advantage to generate beams of other particles (such as neutrons, protons, or heavy ions) that may be of interest for radiotherapy, radioisotope production, or other applications. The dramatic performance and cost advantages of this new breed of acceleraor result from a number of improvements. In the low-energy portion of the machine, a new type of low-energy linac (the radio-frequency quadrupole(RFQ)) produces an exceptionally good quality beam, and uses a very simple 30-kV injector. In the second part of the machine (the drift-tube linac (DTL)), high accelerating gradients are now achievable with consequent reductions in machine length. Another new structure (the disk and washer (DAW)) will be used in the third and final section of the accelerator; this portion will also be relatively short and require few power amplifiers. The entire machine is designed for ease of operation and high reliability. The pion-production machine, discussed in this report, accelerates a 100-..mu..A average proton-beam current to 650 MeV; use of an efficient pion-collection channel would result in an average pion flux of over 100 rad/min in a volume of about 1 l. Pion-channel design is not treated in this report. Accelerator construction cost is estimated at $10 million (1980 dollars); site preparation and treatment facility costs would bring the cost of a complete facility to an estimated $25 million.

  4. Weighted medical image registration with automatic mask generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Hanno; Franz, Astrid; Fischer, Bernd

    2006-03-01

    Registration of images is a crucial part of many medical imaging tasks. The problem is to find a transformation which aligns two given images. The resulting displacement fields may be for example described as a linear combination of pre-selected basis functions (parametric approach), or, as in our case, they may be computed as the solution of an associated partial differential equation (non-parametric approach). Here, the underlying functional consists of a smoothness term ensuring that the transformation is anatomically meaningful and a distance term describing the similarity between the two images. To be successful, the registration scheme has to be tuned for the problem under consideration. One way of incorporating user knowledge is the employment of weighting masks into the distance measure, and thereby enhancing or hiding dedicated image parts. In general, these masks are based on a given segmentation of both images. We present a method which generates a weighting mask for the second image, given the mask for the first image. The scheme is based on active contours and makes use of a gradient vector flow method. As an example application, we consider the registration of abdominal computer tomography (CT) images used for radiation therapy. The reference image is acquired well ahead of time and is used for setting up the radiation plan. The second image is taken just before the treatment and its processing is time-critical. We show that the proposed automatic mask generation scheme yields similar results as compared to the approach based on a pre-segmentation of both images. Hence for time-critical applications, as intra-surgery registration, we are able to significantly speed up the computation by avoiding a pre-segmentation of the second image.

  5. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation using prognostic tools and regression analysis.

    PubMed

    Ghinea, Cristina; Drăgoi, Elena Niculina; Comăniţă, Elena-Diana; Gavrilescu, Marius; Câmpean, Teofil; Curteanu, Silvia; Gavrilescu, Maria

    2016-11-01

    For an adequate planning of waste management systems the accurate forecast of waste generation is an essential step, since various factors can affect waste trends. The application of predictive and prognosis models are useful tools, as reliable support for decision making processes. In this paper some indicators such as: number of residents, population age, urban life expectancy, total municipal solid waste were used as input variables in prognostic models in order to predict the amount of solid waste fractions. We applied Waste Prognostic Tool, regression analysis and time series analysis to forecast municipal solid waste generation and composition by considering the Iasi Romania case study. Regression equations were determined for six solid waste fractions (paper, plastic, metal, glass, biodegradable and other waste). Accuracy Measures were calculated and the results showed that S-curve trend model is the most suitable for municipal solid waste (MSW) prediction. PMID:27454099

  6. [Low-temperature thermal treatment of dioxin in medical waste fly ash under unert atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Ji, Sha-Sha; Li, Xiao-Dong; Xu, Xu; Chen, Tong

    2012-11-01

    Two kinds of fly ash (AG and BG) from hazardous waste rotary kiln were investigated as the targets of thermal treatment. AG was sampled after fabric filter with activated carbon spray and BG was sampled in pipe before fabric filter. The effects of temperature and time on PCDD/Fs degradation rate in fly ash were investigated in quartz tubular. Under nitrogen atmosphere, low-temperature thermal treatment for dioxin degradation had obvious effect. For sample BG, the degradation rate of dioxin in solid phase was 82.8%-99.9%, and the degradation rate of I-TEQ was 77.3%-99.8%. For sample AG, the degradation rate was 66.8% - 99.8%, and the degradation rate of I-TEQ was 43.5% - 99.6%. Although dioxin in solid phase was reduced, it was generated in gas phase, and among all the different temperatures tested, dioxin was generated at highest amounts at 300 degrees C - 350 degrees C, and among all the toxic congeners, OCDD was detected as the most abundant in this experiment. The best conditions of thermal treatment were: heating time 60 min, temperature 400 degrees C, under nitrogen atmosphere. The results indicate that low-temperature thermal treatment under inert atmosphere has good effect on treating dioxin present in medical fly ash, it can be applied in practical projects in large scales. PMID:23323437

  7. The treatment of infectious waste arising from home health and medical care services: present situation in Japan.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Motonobu; Imatoh, Takuya; Une, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    The management of waste materials arising from home health and medical care services (HHMC wastes) in Japan is now receiving greater attention from governmental workers dealing with general household waste materials. In general, HHMC waste materials are collected in a mixed form, transported and disposed of along with municipal solid wastes. As a result, municipal workers are suffering needle stick accidents so that infections associated with HHMC waste materials may occur. The collection and transportation by patients and their families of HHMC waste materials with sharp-edges, such as injection needles, to medical-related facilities can prevent municipal workers from experiencing needle-prick accidents. One of the most important strategies for medical-related facilities is hence the education of patients and their families. Improved rules for handling HHMC waste materials are essential for the safe and effective management. PMID:16527476

  8. Municipal solid waste flow and waste generation characteristics in an urban--rural fringe area in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Hiramatsu, Ai; Hara, Yuji; Sekiyama, Makiko; Honda, Ryo; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2009-12-01

    In the urban-rural fringe of the Bangkok Metropolitan Region, rapid urbanization is creating a land-use mixture of agricultural fields and residential areas. To develop appropriate policies to enhance recycling of municipal solid waste (MSW), current MSW management was investigated in the oboto (local administrative district) of Bang Maenang in Nonthaburi Province, adjoining Bangkok. The authors conducted a structural interview survey with waste-related organizations and local residents, analysed household waste generation, and performed global positioning system (GPS) tracking of municipal garbage trucks. It was found that MSW was collected and treated by local government, private-sector entities, and the local community separately. Lack of integrated management of these entities complicated waste flow in the study area, and some residences were not served by MSW collection. Organic waste, such as kitchen garbage and yard waste, accounted for a large proportion of waste generation but was underutilized. Through GPS/GIS analysis, the waste collection rate of the generated waste amount was estimated to be 45.5- 51.1% of total generation. PMID:19423594

  9. Incineration of different types of medical wastes: emission factors for gaseous emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvim-Ferraz, M. C. M.; Afonso, S. A. V.

    Previous research works showed that to protect public health, the hospital incinerators should be provided with air pollution control devices. As most hospital incinerators do not possess such equipment, efficient methodologies should be developed to evaluate the safety of incineration procedure. Emission factors (EF) can be used for an easy estimation of legal parameters. Nevertheless, the actual knowledge is yet very scarce, mainly because EF previously published do not include enough information about the incinerated waste composition, besides considering many different waste classifications. This paper reports the first EF estimated for CO, SO 2, NO x and HCl, associated to the incineration of medical waste, segregated in different types according to the classification of the Portuguese legislation. The results showed that those EF are strongly influenced by incinerated waste composition, directly affected by incinerated waste type, waste classification, segregation practice and management methodology. The correspondence between different waste classifications was analysed comparing the estimated EF with the sole results previously published for specific waste types, being observed that the correspondence is not always possible. The legal limit for pollutant concentrations could be obeyed for NO x, but concentrations were higher than the limit for CO (11-24 times), SO 2 (2-5 times), and HCl (9-200 times), confirming that air pollution control devices must be used to protect human health. The small heating value of medical wastes with compulsory incineration implied the requirement of a bigger amount of auxiliary fuel for their incineration, which affects the emitted amounts of CO, NO x and SO 2 (28, 20 and practically 100% of the respective values were related with fuel combustion). Nevertheless, the incineration of those wastes lead to the smallest amount of emitted pollutants, the emitted amount of SO 2 and NO x reducing to 93% and the emitted amount of CO

  10. 40 CFR 262.216 - Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... generator requirements of 40 CFR part 262, with respect to that hazardous waste; or (b) Remains subject to... generated at an eligible academic entity. 262.216 Section 262.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.216 Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at...

  11. 40 CFR 262.216 - Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at an eligible academic entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... generator requirements of 40 CFR part 262, with respect to that hazardous waste; or (b) Remains subject to... generated at an eligible academic entity. 262.216 Section 262.216 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Laboratories Owned by Eligible Academic Entities § 262.216 Non-laboratory hazardous waste generated at...

  12. Detoxification and generation of useful products from coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-21

    Electric utilities are on the brink of a new era in waste disposal problems. This research project addresses the issue of how to effectively dispose of flyash, bottom ash, desulfurization sludge through the generation of chemically-hardened material that could potentially be used as a cement or as a synthetic aggregate. The specific goals of this study were: (1) to study the hardness of mixtures of flyash, bottom ash, and DSG treated with lime and other hardening agents; (2) to determine the optimum solids content, setting time, moisture content, and post setting treatments that will yield the greatest strength and hardness out of these mixtures; and (3) to determine the leachability of the synthetic material as a measure of its ability to retain absorbed and/or entrained toxic metals. 50 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Mercury leaching characteristics of waste treatment residues generated from various sources in Korea.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jae Han; Eom, Yujin; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Hong, Ji-Hyung; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2013-07-01

    In this study, mercury (Hg) leaching characteristics of the waste treatment residues (fly ash, bottom ash, sludge, and phosphor powder) generated from various sources (municipal, industrial, medical waste incinerators, sewage sludge incinerator, oil refinery, coal-fired power plant, steel manufacturing plant, fluorescent lamp recycler, and cement kiln) in Korea were investigated. First, both Hg content analysis and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing was conducted for 31 collected residue samples. The Hg content analysis showed that fly ash from waste incinerators contained more Hg than the other residue samples. However, the TCLP values of fly ash samples with similar Hg content varied widely based on the residue type. Fly ash samples with low and high Hg leaching ratios (RL) were further analyzed to identify the major factors that influence the Hg leaching potential. Buffering capacity of the low-RL fly ash was higher than that of the high-RL fly ash. The Hg speciation results suggest that the low-RL fly ashes consisted primarily of low-solubility Hg compounds (Hg2Cl2, Hg(0) or HgS), whereas the high-RL fly ashes contain more than 20% high-solubility Hg compounds (HgCl2 or HgSO4). PMID:23680269

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF CURRENTLY GENERATED TRANUSRANIC WASTE AT THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY'S PLUTONIUM PRODUCTION FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, Robert L.; Montoya, Andy M.

    2003-02-27

    By the time the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) completes its Disposal Phase in FY 2034, the Department of Energy (DOE) will have disposed of approximately 109,378 cubic meters (m3) of Transuranic (TRU) waste in WIPP (1). If DOE adheres to its 2005 Pollution Prevention Goal of generating less than 141m3/yr of TRU waste, approximately 5000 m3 (4%) of that TRU waste will be newly generated (2). Because of the overwhelming majority (96%) of TRU waste destined for disposal at WIPP is legacy waste, the characterization and certification requirements were developed to resolve those issues related to legacy waste. Like many other DOE facilities Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a large volume (9,010m3) of legacy Transuranic Waste in storage (3). Unlike most DOE facilities LANL will generate approximately 140m3 of newly generated TRU waste each year3. LANL's certification program was established to meet the WIPP requirements for legacy waste and does not take advantage of the fundamental differences in waste knowledge between newly generated and legacy TRU waste.

  15. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites.

    PubMed

    González Pericot, N; Villoria Sáez, P; Del Río Merino, M; Liébana Carrasco, O

    2014-11-01

    The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites. PMID:25081852

  16. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-01

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  17. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan

    2014-09-12

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  18. Thirty-year solid waste generation forecast for facilities at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The information supplied by this 30-year solid waste forecast has been compiled as a source document to the Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (WMEIS). The WMEIS will help to select a sitewide strategic approach to managing present and future Savannah River Site (SRS) waste generated from ongoing operations, environmental restoration (ER) activities, transition from nuclear production to other missions, and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) programs. The EIS will support project-level decisions on the operation of specific treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within the near term (10 years or less). In addition, the EIS will provide a baseline for analysis of future waste management activities and a basis for the evaluation of the specific waste management alternatives. This 30-year solid waste forecast will be used as the initial basis for the EIS decision-making process. The Site generates and manages many types and categories of waste. With a few exceptions, waste types are divided into two broad groups-high-level waste and solid waste. High-level waste consists primarily of liquid radioactive waste, which is addressed in a separate forecast and is not discussed further in this document. The waste types discussed in this solid waste forecast are sanitary waste, hazardous waste, low-level mixed waste, low-level radioactive waste, and transuranic waste. As activities at SRS change from primarily production to primarily decontamination and decommissioning and environmental restoration, the volume of each waste s being managed will change significantly. This report acknowledges the changes in Site Missions when developing the 30-year solid waste forecast.

  19. Guidelines for generators of hazardous chemical waste at LBL and guidelines for generators of radioactive and mixed waste at LBL. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    In part one of this document the Governing Documents and Definitions sections provide general guidelines and regulations applying to the handling of hazardous chemical wastes. The remaining sections provide details on how you can prepare your waste properly for transport and disposal. They are correlated with the steps you must take to properly prepare your waste for pickup. The purpose of the second part of this document is to provide the acceptance criteria for the transfer of radioactive and mixed waste to LBL`s Hazardous Waste Handling Facility (HWHF). These guidelines describe how you, as a generator of radioactive or mixed waste, can meet LBL`s acceptance criteria for radioactive and mixed waste.

  20. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    SciTech Connect

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  1. 78 FR 54766 - Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 60 and 62 RIN 2060-AR-11 and RIN 2060-A004 Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed On or Before December 1, 2008, and Standards...

  2. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. t the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated i...

  3. WASTE MINIMIZATION OPPORTUNITY ASSESSMENT: OPTICAL FABRICATION LABORATORY - FITZSIMMONS ARMY MEDICAL CENTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Under the Waste Reduction Evaluations at Federal Sites (WREAFS) program, RREL has taken the initiative to merge the experience and resources of the EPA with other Federal agencies. At the Fitzsimmons Army Medical Center (FAMC) in Aurora, Colorado, the Army and the EPA cooperated ...

  4. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM

  5. [Measures for the disposal of non-regulated alternative medical wastes--prion protein-polluted medical waste].

    PubMed

    Haishima, Y

    2000-05-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE), sometimes known as prion diseases, are fatal degenerative brain diseases. From epidemiological evidence and many investigations of data, the risk that TSE agents will be transmitted from TSE patients to other humans, is very low, but TSE agents comprise one of the very severe bio-medical hazards. Although government agencies, world organization and other institutions have distributed some guidances for safe working and prevention of infection, these guidances are not compulsory and no globally harmonized guidelines is present to date. Therefore, medical staff particularly in hospitals individually take countermeasures for safety against TSE agents by using these guidelines, and both the level and method differ in each hospital. In this chapter, transmission of TSE and related parts of guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens and Spongiform Encephalopathy Advisory Committee in the United Kingdom recommending relatively strict standards are described. PMID:10901051

  6. A Multistep Chaotic Model for Municipal Solid Waste Generation Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jingwei; He, Jiaying

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In this study, a univariate local chaotic model is proposed to make one-step and multistep forecasts for daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Seattle, Washington. For MSW generation prediction with long history data, this forecasting model was created based on a nonlinear dynamic method called phase-space reconstruction. Compared with other nonlinear predictive models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least square–support vector machine (PLS-SVM), and a commonly used linear seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (sARIMA) model, this method has demonstrated better prediction accuracy from 1-step ahead prediction to 14-step ahead prediction assessed by both mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Max error, MAPE, and RMSE show that chaotic models were more reliable than the other three models. As chaotic models do not involve random walk, their performance does not vary while ANN and PLS-SVM make different forecasts in each trial. Moreover, this chaotic model was less time consuming than ANN and PLS-SVM models. PMID:25125942

  7. A Multistep Chaotic Model for Municipal Solid Waste Generation Prediction.

    PubMed

    Song, Jingwei; He, Jiaying

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a univariate local chaotic model is proposed to make one-step and multistep forecasts for daily municipal solid waste (MSW) generation in Seattle, Washington. For MSW generation prediction with long history data, this forecasting model was created based on a nonlinear dynamic method called phase-space reconstruction. Compared with other nonlinear predictive models, such as artificial neural network (ANN) and partial least square-support vector machine (PLS-SVM), and a commonly used linear seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (sARIMA) model, this method has demonstrated better prediction accuracy from 1-step ahead prediction to 14-step ahead prediction assessed by both mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and root mean square error (RMSE). Max error, MAPE, and RMSE show that chaotic models were more reliable than the other three models. As chaotic models do not involve random walk, their performance does not vary while ANN and PLS-SVM make different forecasts in each trial. Moreover, this chaotic model was less time consuming than ANN and PLS-SVM models. PMID:25125942

  8. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  9. 1994 Annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress as required by DOE Order 5400.1, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition. A few of the successful projects are: T-Plant helps facilities reuse equipment by offering decontamination services for items such as gas cylinders, trucks, and railcars, thus saving disposal and equipment replacement costs. Custodial Services reviewed its use of 168 hazardous cleaning products, and, through a variety of measures, replaced them with 38 safer substitutes, one for each task. Scrap steel contaminated with low level radioactivity from the interim stabilization of 107-K and 107-C was decontaminated and sold to a vendor for recycling. Site-wide programs include the following: the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P2OA) program at the Hanford site was launched during 1994, including a training class, a guidance document, technical assistance, and goals; control over hazardous materials purchased was achieved by reviewing all purchase requisitions of a chemical nature; the Office Supply Reuse Program was established to redeploy unused or unwanted office supply items. In 1994, pollution prevention activities reduced approximately 274,000 kilograms of hazardous waste, 2,100 cubic meters of radioactive and mixed waste, 14,500,000 kilograms of sanitary waste, and 215,000 cubic meters off liquid waste and waste water. Pollution Prevention activities also saved almost $4.2 million in disposal, product, and labor costs. Overall waste generation increased in 1994 due to increased work and activity typical for a site with an environmental restoration mission. However, without any Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention activities, solid radioactive waste generation at Hanford would have been 25% higher, solid hazardous waste generation would have been 30% higher, and solid sanitary waste generation would have been 60% higher.

  10. WASTE AND WATER MANAGEMENT FOR CONVENTIONAL COAL COMBUSTION ASSESSMENT REPORT-1979. VOLUME III. GENERATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FGC (FLUE GAS CLEANING) WASTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report, the third of five volumes, focuses on trends in generation of coal ash and FGD wastes (together comprising FGC wastes) and the characteristics of these wastes. With increasing use of coal, the generation of FGC wastes is expected to increased dramatically: to about 11...

  11. Assessment of vessel-generated waste quantities on the inland waterways of the Republic of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Presburger Ulnikovic, Vladanka; Vukic, Marija; Nikolic, Radosav

    2012-04-30

    To establish the quantity and structure of waste generated during inland vessel exploitation, it is necessary to determine the amount of traffic on the waterways, the number of vessel dockings that generate and deliver waste materials to ports, and the types of inland navigation vessels. Criteria must also be established for the calculation of estimated average waste quantities. This paper presents a methodology for the assessment of waste material quantities that was developed as part of the Technological Development Project TR 21037 of the Republic of Serbia. Required information on the amount of traffic, vessel types and numbers as well as the number of dockings was extracted from questionnaires and interviews with watermen and researchers. A set of criteria was defined in order to determine the number of passengers and crewmembers and to establish and classify quantities of vessel-generated waste (sanitary and fecal wastewater, bilge wastewater, waste oils, and solid waste). These data allowed for the Preliminary analysis of the national waterway traffic and transport infrastructure to be carried out. Results presented in this paper have triggered a number of recommendations for the construction of terminals and other facilities for the reception and management of waste streams, from the vessel where the waste is generated to the final destinations for waste processing and deposition. This is particularly applicable to countries who have not yet tackled the problem of vessel-generated waste. PMID:22325587

  12. Conceptual framework for the study of food waste generation and prevention in the hospitality sector.

    PubMed

    Papargyropoulou, Effie; Wright, Nigel; Lozano, Rodrigo; Steinberger, Julia; Padfield, Rory; Ujang, Zaini

    2016-03-01

    Food waste has significant detrimental economic, environmental and social impacts. The magnitude and complexity of the global food waste problem has brought it to the forefront of the environmental agenda; however, there has been little research on the patterns and drivers of food waste generation, especially outside the household. This is partially due to weaknesses in the methodological approaches used to understand such a complex problem. This paper proposes a novel conceptual framework to identify and explain the patterns and drivers of food waste generation in the hospitality sector, with the aim of identifying food waste prevention measures. This conceptual framework integrates data collection and analysis methods from ethnography and grounded theory, complemented with concepts and tools from industrial ecology for the analysis of quantitative data. A case study of food waste generation at a hotel restaurant in Malaysia is used as an example to illustrate how this conceptual framework can be applied. The conceptual framework links the biophysical and economic flows of food provisioning and waste generation, with the social and cultural practices associated with food preparation and consumption. The case study demonstrates that food waste is intrinsically linked to the way we provision and consume food, the material and socio-cultural context of food consumption and food waste generation. Food provisioning, food consumption and food waste generation should be studied together in order to fully understand how, where and most importantly why food waste is generated. This understanding will then enable to draw detailed, case specific food waste prevention plans addressing the material and socio-economic aspects of food waste generation. PMID:26803473

  13. Benzene Generation Testing for Tank 48H Waste Disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T

    2005-05-13

    In support for the Aggregation option1, researchers performed a series of tests using actual Tank 48H slurries. The tests were designed to examine potential benzene generation issues if the Tank 48H slurry is disposed to Saltstone. Personnel used the archived Tank 48H sample (HTF-E-03-127, collected September 17, 2003) for the experiments. The tests included a series of three experiments (Tests A, B, and F) performed in duplicate, giving a total of six experiments. Test A used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}20:1 with Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H. Test B used Tank 48H slurry mixed with {approx}2.7:1 with DWPF Recycle from Tanks 21H and 22H, while Test F used Tank 48H slurry as-is. Tests A and B occurred at 45 C, while Test F occurred at 55 C. Over a period of 8 weeks, personnel collected samples for analysis, once per week. Each sample was tested with the in-cell gamma counter. The researchers noted a decline in the cesium activity in solution which is attributed to temperature dependence of the complex slurry equilibrium. Selected samples were sent to ADS for potassium, boron, and cesium analysis. The benzene generation rate was inferred from the TPB destruction which is indirectly measured by the in-growth of cesium, potassium or boron. The results of all the analyses reveal no discernible in-growth of radiocesium, potassium or boron, indicating no significant tetraphenylborate (TPB) decomposition in any of the experiments. From boron measurements, the inferred rate of TPB destruction remained less than 0.332 mg/(L-h) implying a maximum benzene generation rate of <0.325 mg/(L-h).

  14. The determination of waste generation and composition as an essential tool to improve the waste management plan of a university.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Edo-Alcón, N; Carlos, M; Renau, M

    2016-07-01

    When many people work in organized institutions or enterprises, those institutions or enterprises become big meeting places that also have energy, water and resources necessities. One of these necessities is the correct management of the waste that is daily produced by these communities. Universities are a good example of institution where every day a great amount of people go to work or to study. But independently of their task, they use the different services at the University such as cafeterias, canteens, and photocopy and as a result of their activity a cleaning service is also needed. All these activities generate an environmental impact. Nowadays, many Universities have accepted the challenge to minimize this impact applying several measures. One of the impacts to be reduced is the waste generation. The first step to implement measures to implement a waste management plan at a University is to know the composition, the amount and the distribution of the waste generated in its facilities. As the waste composition and generation depend among other things on the climate, these variables should be analysed over one year. This research work estimates the waste generation and composition of a Spanish University, the Universitat Jaume I, during a school year. To achieve this challenge, all the waste streams generated at the University have been identified and quantified emphasizing on those which are not controlled. Furthermore, several statistical analyses have been carried out to know if the season of the year or the day of the week affect waste generation and composition. All this information will allow the University authorities to propose a set of minimization measures to enhance the current management. PMID:27107706

  15. Characterisation and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Sangamner City, District Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Thitame, Sunil Namdeo; Pondhe, G M; Meshram, D C

    2010-11-01

    This paper deals with the characteristics and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Sangamner city. The composition of solid waste was studied by segregating it into different component, i.e., kitchen waste, paper, earth and fine material, slaughter house waste, leaves, metals, etc. These components were categorised into organic waste and inorganic waste. It was observed that Sangamner city produces around 61% organic waste, and the rest is inorganic waste. The characteristics of organic solid waste, i.e., pH, electrical conductivity, moisture content, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were evaluated. The analysis of organic content of MSW indicates that it is good source of nutrients for the agriculture sector whereas inorganic material can be used for landfill. PMID:19890729

  16. Operation and maintenance of hospital medical-waste incinerators. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neulicht, R.M.; Turner, M.B.; Chaput, L.S.; Wallace, D.D.; Smith, S.G.

    1989-03-01

    This document identifies the operation and maintenance (O M) procedures that should be practiced on hospital medical-waste incinerators and associated air pollution control equipment to minimize air emissions. Proper O M, in addition to reducing air emissions, improves equipment reliability and performance, prolongs equipment life, and helps to ensure proper ash burnout. The document provides general guidance on proper O M procedures with the intention of identifying good operating practices. The document is intended as a technical guide for use by federal, state, and local agency personnel, hospital waste management personnel, and hospital-incinerator operators. The document presents background information on hospital medical-waste incineration systems including a summary of combustion principles and descriptions of the types of incinerators typically used for hospital medical wastes. Background information on add-on air pollution-control systems is presented. Key operating parameters and good operating practices for the incineration and air pollution systems are identified and discussed. General guidance on maintenance of the systems is provided.

  17. Current and projected liquid low-level waste generation at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, S.M.; West, G.D.

    1996-04-01

    Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This waste is collected in bottles, by trucks, or in underground collection tanks; it is then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and reduced in volume at the ORNL LLLW evaporator. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and the characterization of LLLW, both prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

  18. Liquid low-level waste generation projections for ORNL in 1993

    SciTech Connect

    DePaoli, S.M.

    1994-04-01

    Liquid low-level waste (LLLW) is generated by various programs and projects throughout Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These wastes are collected in underground collection tanks, bottles, and trucks; they are then neutralized with sodium hydroxide and treated for volume reduction at the ORNL evaporator facility. This report presents historical and projected data concerning the volume and characterization of LLLW, prior to and after evaporation. Storage space for projected waste generation is also discussed.

  19. Large-scale purification of 90Sr from nuclear waste materials for production of 90Y, a therapeutic medical radioisotope.

    PubMed

    Wester, Dennis W; Steele, Richard T; Rinehart, Donald E; DesChane, Jaquetta R; Carson, Katharine J; Rapko, Brian M; Tenforde, Thomas S

    2003-07-01

    A major limitation on the supply of the short-lived medical isotope 90Y (t1/2 = 64 h) is the available quantity of highly purified 90Sr generator material. A radiochemical production campaign was therefore undertaken to purify 1,500 Ci of 90Sr that had been isolated from fission waste materials. A series of alkaline precipitation steps removed all detectable traces of 137Cs, alpha emitters, and uranium and transuranic elements. Technical obstacles such as the buildup of gas pressure generated upon mixing large quantities of acid with solid 90Sr carbonate were overcome through safety features incorporated into the custom-built equipment used for 90Sr purification. Methods are described for analyzing the chemical and radiochemical purity of the final product and for accurately determining by gravimetry the quantities of 90Sr immobilized on stainless steel filters for future use. PMID:12878120

  20. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator for Electrical Power Generation from Automotive Waste Heat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meisner, Gregory

    2012-02-01

    Filled skutterudites are state-of-the- art thermoelectric (TE) materials for electrical power generation from waste heat. They have suitable intrinsic transport properties as measured by the thermoelectric figure of merit ZT = S^2σT/κ (S = Seebeck coefficient, σ = electrical conductivity, T = temperature, and κ = thermal conductivity) and good mechanical strength for operation at vehicle exhaust gas temperatures of >550 C. We have demonstrated TE electrical power generation on a production test vehicle equipped with a fully functional prototype TE generator (TEG). It was assembled with TE modules fabricated from filled skutterudites synthesized at GM. Our results and analysis show that improvement in total power generated can be achieved by enhanced thermal and electrical interfaces and contacts. A substantial T decrease along the exhaust gas flow results in a large variation of voltage, current, and power output for each TE module depending on its position in the module array. Total TEG output power depends directly on the position-dependent T profile via the temperature dependence of both ZT and Carnot efficiency. Total TEG power output also depends on how the modules are connected in parallel or series combinations because mismatch in output voltage and/or internal resistance among the modules degrades the performance of the entire array. Uniform T profiles and consistent TE module internal resistances improve overall TEG performance.

  1. Standard data report. 1997 annual report on waste generation and waste minimization progress

    SciTech Connect

    Wilburn, D.

    1998-04-07

    The Laboratory`s central mission of Reducing the Global Nuclear Danger supports core competencies that enable the Laboratory to contribute to defense, civilian, and industrial needs. In turn, the intellectual challenges of civilian and industrial problems strengthen and help support the core competencies required for the national security mission. The ability to do great science underpins all of the applied work. There are five core competencies which support this mission: (1) Stockpile Stewardship ensures the US has safe, secure and reliable nuclear weapons; (2) Stockpile Management provides capabilities ranging from dismantling to remanufacturing of the enduring stockpile; (3) Nuclear Materials Management ensures the availability and safe disposition of plutonium, highly enriched uranium, and tritium; (4) Nonproliferation and Counterproliferation help to deter, detect, and respond to the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction; and (5) Environmental Stewardship provides for the remediation and reduction of wastes from the nuclear weapons complex. This report contains data on volumes of waste generated as part of routine and cleanup/stabilization activities of the lab.

  2. Parametric Optimization of Thermoelectric Generators for Waste Heat Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shouyuan; Xu, Xianfan

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a methodology for design optimization of thermoelectric-based waste heat recovery systems called thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The aim is to maximize the power output from thermoelectrics which are used as add-on modules to an existing gas-phase heat exchanger, without negative impacts, e.g., maintaining a minimum heat dissipation rate from the hot side. A numerical model is proposed for TEG coupled heat transfer and electrical power output. This finite-volume-based model simulates different types of heat exchangers, i.e., counter-flow and cross-flow, for TEGs. Multiple-filled skutterudites and bismuth-telluride-based thermoelectric modules (TEMs) are applied, respectively, in higher and lower temperature regions. The response surface methodology is implemented to determine the optimized TEG size along and across the flow direction and the height of thermoelectric couple legs, and to analyze their covariance and relative sensitivity. A genetic algorithm is employed to verify the globality of the optimum. The presented method will be generally useful for optimizing heat-exchanger-based TEG performance.

  3. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman Baez, Ana de; Garcia Navarro, Justo

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two equations for C and D waste estimation in railway construction works are developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mixed C and D waste is the most generated category during railway construction works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tunnel construction is essential to quantify the waste generated during the works. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer There is a relationship between C and D waste generated and railway functional units. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The methodology proposed can be used to obtain new constants for other areas. - Abstract: In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C and D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47 million tons of C and D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C and D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C and D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C and D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C and D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C and D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C and D waste generated for the entire project.

  4. Thermal and Radiolytic Gas Generation in Hanford High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, Samuel A.; Pederson, Larry R.; King, C. M.

    2000-01-31

    The Hanford Site has 177 underground storage tanks containing radioactive wastes that are complex mixes of radioactive and chemical products. Some of these wastes are known to generate and retain large quantities of flammable gases consisting of hydrogen, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Because these gases are flammable and have the potential for rapid release, the gas generation rate for each tank must be determined to establish the flammability hazard (Johnson et al. 1997). An understanding of gas generation is important to operation of the waste tanks for several reasons. First, knowledge of the overall rate of generation is needed to verify that any given tank has sufficient ventilation to ensure that flammable gases are maintained at a safe level within the dome space. Understanding the mechanisms for production of the various gases is important so that future waste operations do not create conditions that promote the production of hydrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide. Studying the generation of gases also provides important data for the composition of the gas mixture, which in turn is needed to assess the flammability characteristics. Finally, information about generation of gases, including the influence of various chemical constituents, temperature, and dose, would aid in assessing the future behavior of the waste during interim storage, implementation of controls, and final waste treatment. This paper summarizes the current knowledge of gas generation pathways and discusses models used in predicting gas generation rates from actual Hanford radioactive wastes. A comparison is made between measured gas generation rates and rates by the predictive models.

  5. Hazardous waste management system; standards applicable to generators of hazardous waste; state program requirements. Environmental Protection Agency. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1982-01-11

    On February 26, 1980 and May 19, 1980, under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published regulations establishing a system to manage hazardous waste. Those regulations allowed hazardous waste generators to accumulate hazardous waste on-site without obtaining a permit or meeting financial responsibility requirements if they shipped the waste off-site within 90 days. On November 19, 1980, the Agency published an interim final rule which expanded the scope of the provision to include generators who treat, store or dispose of hazardous waste on-site. The final rule published today retains this change. As a result of public comments, the Agency is making several changes to the interim final rule. These changes (1) Clarify that the provision is applicable to all generators, including those who accumulate hazardous waste for the purpose of use, reuse, recycling and reclamation, (2) remove the requirement for use of DOT containers, (3) revise the labelling and marking requirements for wastes accumulated in containers and tanks; and (4) allow an extension to the 90-day accumulation limit in certain circumstances. PMID:10253707

  6. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weisheng; Yuan, Hongping; Li, Jingru; Hao, Jane J L; Mi, Xuming; Ding, Zhikun

    2011-04-01

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C&D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m(2) and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C&D waste management in China. PMID:21208794

  7. Mapping out the solid waste generation and collection models: The case of Kampala City.

    PubMed

    Kinobe, Joel R; Niwagaba, Charles B; Gebresenbet, Girma; Komakech, Allan J; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-02-01

    This paper presents a mapping of the waste collection systems in Kampala city, using geographical information system (GIS) ArcGIS mapping software. It discusses the existing models of waste collection to the final disposal destinations. It was found that food and yard wastes constitute 92.7% of the waste generated in Kampala. Recyclables and other special wastes constitute only 7.3% of the total waste, mainly because of the increased level of reuse and recycling activities. The generation rate of solid wastes was on average, 582, 169, 105, and 90 tons/day from poor areas, upscale wealthier areas, business centers, and market areas respectively. This tonnage of waste was collected, transported, and disposed of at the city landfill. The study found that in total, residential areas of poor people generate more waste than other categories stated earlier, mainly because of their large populations. In total, there were 133 unofficial temporary storage sites acknowledged by Kampala Capital City Authority (KCCA) but not formally designated, 59 illegal dump sites, and 35 officially recognized temporary waste storage locations. This paper presents large-scale data that can help with understanding the collection models and their influence on solid waste management in Kampala city, which could be used for similar cities in developing countries. PMID:25947055

  8. An empirical investigation of construction and demolition waste generation rates in Shenzhen city, South China

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Weisheng; Yuan Hongping; Li Jingru; Hao, Jane J.L.; Mi Xuming; Ding Zhikun

    2011-04-15

    The construction and demolition waste generation rates (C and D WGRs) is an important factor in decision-making and management of material waste in any construction site. The present study investigated WGRs by conducting on-site waste sorting and weighing in four ongoing construction projects in Shenzhen city of South China. The results revealed that WGRs ranged from 3.275 to 8.791 kg/m{sup 2} and miscellaneous waste, timber for formwork and falsework, and concrete were the three largest components amongst the generated waste. Based on the WGRs derived from the research, the paper also discussed the main causes of waste in the construction industry and attempted to connect waste generation with specific construction practices. It was recommended that measures mainly including performing waste sorting at source, employing skilful workers, uploading and storing materials properly, promoting waste management capacity, replacing current timber formwork with metal formwork and launching an incentive reward program to encourage waste reduction could be potential solutions to reducing current WGRs in Shenzhen. Although these results were derived from a relatively small sample and so cannot justifiably be generalized, they do however add to the body of knowledge that is currently available for understanding the status of the art of C and D waste management in China.

  9. Evaluating the methane generation rate constant (k value) of low-organic waste at Danish landfills.

    PubMed

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The methane (CH4) generation rate constant (k value, yr(-1)) is an essential parameter when using first-order decay (FOD) landfill gas (LFG) generation models to estimate CH4 generation from landfills. Four categories of waste (street cleansing, mixed bulky, shredder, and sludge waste) with a low-organic content, as well as temporarily stored combustible waste, were sampled from four Danish landfills. Anaerobic degradation experiments were set up in duplicate for all waste samples and incubated for 405 days, while the cumulative CH4 generation was continuously monitored. Applying FOD equations to the experimental results, half-life time values (t½, yr) and k values of various waste categories were determined. In general, similar waste categories obtained from different Danish landfills showed similar results. Sludge waste had the highest k values, which were in the range 0.156-0.189 yr(-1). The combustible and street cleansing waste showed k values of 0.023-0.027 yr(-1) and 0.073-0.083 yr(-1), respectively. The lowest k values were obtained for mixed bulky and shredder wastes ranging from 0.013 to 0.017 yr(-1). Most low-organic waste samples showed lower k values in comparison to the default numeric values in current FOD models (e.g., IPCC, LandGEM, and Afvalzorg). Compared with the k values reported in the literature, this research determined low-organic waste for the first time via reliable large-scale and long-term experiments. The degradation parameters provided in this study are valuable when using FOD LFG generation models to estimate CH4 generation from modern landfills that receive only low-organic waste. PMID:25453319

  10. Waste generated in high-rise buildings construction: a quantification model based on statistical multiple regression.

    PubMed

    Parisi Kern, Andrea; Ferreira Dias, Michele; Piva Kulakowski, Marlova; Paulo Gomes, Luciana

    2015-05-01

    Reducing construction waste is becoming a key environmental issue in the construction industry. The quantification of waste generation rates in the construction sector is an invaluable management tool in supporting mitigation actions. However, the quantification of waste can be a difficult process because of the specific characteristics and the wide range of materials used in different construction projects. Large variations are observed in the methods used to predict the amount of waste generated because of the range of variables involved in construction processes and the different contexts in which these methods are employed. This paper proposes a statistical model to determine the amount of waste generated in the construction of high-rise buildings by assessing the influence of design process and production system, often mentioned as the major culprits behind the generation of waste in construction. Multiple regression was used to conduct a case study based on multiple sources of data of eighteen residential buildings. The resulting statistical model produced dependent (i.e. amount of waste generated) and independent variables associated with the design and the production system used. The best regression model obtained from the sample data resulted in an adjusted R(2) value of 0.694, which means that it predicts approximately 69% of the factors involved in the generation of waste in similar constructions. Most independent variables showed a low determination coefficient when assessed in isolation, which emphasizes the importance of assessing their joint influence on the response (dependent) variable. PMID:25704604

  11. Slurry growth, gas retention, and flammable gas generation by Hanford radioactive waste tanks: Synthetic waste studies, FY 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.; Ryan, J.L.; Scheele, R.D.; Tingey, J.M.

    1992-08-01

    Of 177 high-level waste storage tanks on the Hanford Site, 23 have been placed on a safety watch list because they are suspected of producing flammable gases in flammable or explosive concentrate. One tankin particular, Tank 241-SY-101 (Tank 101-SY), has exhibited slow increases in waste volume followed by a rapid decrease accompanied by venting of large quantities of gases. The purpose of this study is to help determine the processes by which flammable gases are produced, retained, and eventually released from Tank 101-SY. Waste composition data for single- and double-shell waste tanks on the flammable gas watch listare critically reviewed. The results of laboratory studies using synthetic double-shell wastes are summarized, including physical and chemical properties of crusts that are formed, the stoichiometry and rate ofgas generation, and mechanisms responsible for formation of a floating crust.

  12. Medical Waste Disposal Method Selection Based on a Hierarchical Decision Model with Intuitionistic Fuzzy Relations.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wuyong; Wang, Zhou-Jing; Li, Kevin W

    2016-01-01

    Although medical waste usually accounts for a small fraction of urban municipal waste, its proper disposal has been a challenging issue as it often contains infectious, radioactive, or hazardous waste. This article proposes a two-level hierarchical multicriteria decision model to address medical waste disposal method selection (MWDMS), where disposal methods are assessed against different criteria as intuitionistic fuzzy preference relations and criteria weights are furnished as real values. This paper first introduces new operations for a special class of intuitionistic fuzzy values, whose membership and non-membership information is cross ratio based ]0, 1[-values. New score and accuracy functions are defined in order to develop a comparison approach for ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. A weighted geometric operator is then put forward to aggregate a collection of ]0, 1[-valued intuitionistic fuzzy values. Similar to Saaty's 1-9 scale, this paper proposes a cross-ratio-based bipolar 0.1-0.9 scale to characterize pairwise comparison results. Subsequently, a two-level hierarchical structure is formulated to handle multicriteria decision problems with intuitionistic preference relations. Finally, the proposed decision framework is applied to MWDMS to illustrate its feasibility and effectiveness. PMID:27618082

  13. Immobilized High Level Waste (HLW) Interim Storage Alternative Generation and analysis and Decision Report 2nd Generation Implementing Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-09-14

    Two alternative approaches were previously identified to provide second-generation interim storage of Immobilized High-Level Waste (IHLW). One approach was retrofit modification of the Fuel and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) to accommodate IHLW. The results of the evaluation of the FMEF as the second-generation IHLW interim storage facility and subsequent decision process are provided in this document.

  14. 1995 Annual report on waste generation and waste mainization progress as required by DOE order 5400.1, Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Betsch, M.D.

    1996-09-24

    While waste generation numbers are important, the true measure of success is waste minimized. Many Waste Minimization/Pollution Prevention (WMin/P2) successes at the Hanford Site occur every day without formal recognition as pollution prevention, as they have become part of a culture of best management practices. As an example, the success of the excess and reuse program, both informal and formal, documents the Wmin/P2 culture that exists in the pollution prevention representatives and employees at the facilities.

  15. Next Generation Phenotyping Using the Unified Medical Language System

    PubMed Central

    Shimoyama, Naoki; Shimoyama, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Background Structured information within patient medical records represents a largely untapped treasure trove of research data. In the United States, privacy issues notwithstanding, this has recently become more accessible thanks to the increasing adoption of electronic health records (EHR) and health care data standards fueled by the Meaningful Use legislation. The other side of the coin is that it is now becoming increasingly more difficult to navigate the profusion of many disparate clinical terminology standards, which often span millions of concepts. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a methodology for integrating large amounts of structured clinical information that is both terminology agnostic and able to capture heterogeneous clinical phenotypes including problems, procedures, medications, and clinical results (such as laboratory tests and clinical observations). In this context, we define phenotyping as the extraction of all clinically relevant features contained in the EHR. Methods The scope of the project was framed by the Common Meaningful Use (MU) Dataset terminology standards; the Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms (SNOMED CT), RxNorm, the Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes (LOINC), the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT), the Health care Common Procedure Coding System (HCPCS), the International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), and the International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM). The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) was used as a mapping layer among the MU ontologies. An extract, load, and transform approach separated original annotations in the EHR from the mapping process and allowed for continuous updates as the terminologies were updated. Additionally, we integrated all terminologies into a single UMLS derived ontology and further optimized it to make the relatively large concept graph manageable. Results

  16. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna Walery, Maria

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  17. Generation rates and chemical compositions of waste streams in a typical crewed space habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, Theodore; Golub, Morton A.

    1990-01-01

    A judicious compilation of generation rates and chemical compositions of potential waste feed streams in a typical crewed space habitat was made in connection with the waste-management aspect of NASA's Physical/Chemical Closed-Loop Life Support Program. Waste composition definitions are needed for the design of waste-processing technologies involved in closing major life support functions in future long-duration human space missions. Tables of data for the constituents and chemical formulas of the following waste streams are presented and discussed: human urine, feces, hygiene (laundry and shower) water, cleansing agents, trash, humidity condensate, dried sweat, and trace contaminants. Tables of data on dust generation and pH values of the different waste streams are also presented and discussed.

  18. Household hazardous wastes as a potential source of pollution: a generation study.

    PubMed

    Ojeda-Benítez, Sara; Aguilar-Virgen, Quetzalli; Taboada-González, Paul; Cruz-Sotelo, Samantha E

    2013-12-01

    Certain domestic wastes exhibit characteristics that render them dangerous, such as explosiveness, flammability, spontaneous combustion, reactivity, toxicity and corrosiveness. The lack of information about their generation and composition hinders the creation of special programs for their collection and treatment, making these wastes a potential threat to human health and the environment. We attempted to quantify the levels of hazardous household waste (HHW) generated in Mexicali, Mexico. The analysis considered three socioeconomic strata and eight categories. The sampling was undertaken on a house-by-house basis, and hypothesis testing was based on differences between two proportions for each of the eight categories. In this study, HHW comprised 3.49% of the total generated waste, which exceeded that reported in previous studies in Mexico. The greatest quantity of HHW was generated by the middle stratum; in the upper stratum, most packages were discarded with their contents remaining. Cleaning products represent 45.86% of the HHW generated. Statistical differences were not observed for only two categories among the three social strata. The scarcity of studies on HHW generation limits direct comparisons. Any decrease in waste generation within the middle social stratum will have a large effect on the total amount of waste generated, and decrease their impact on environmental and human health. PMID:24293231

  19. Solid waste generation from oil and gas industries in United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Elshorbagy, Walid; Alkamali, Abdulqader

    2005-04-11

    Solid wastes generated from oil and gas industrial activities are very diverse in their characteristics, large in their amounts and many of which are hazardous in nature. Thus, quantifying and characterizing the generated amounts in association with their types, classes, sources, industrial activities, and their chemical and biological characteristics is an obvious mandate when evaluating the possible management practices. This paper discusses the types, amounts, generation units, and the factors related to solid waste generation from a major oil and gas field in the United Arab Emirates (Asab Field). The generated amounts are calculated based on a 1-year data collection survey and using a database software specially developed and customized for the current study. The average annual amount of total solid waste generated in the studied field is estimated at 4061 t. Such amount is found equivalent to 650 kg/capita, 0.37 kg/barrel oil, and 1.6 kg/m3 of extracted gas. The average annual amount of hazardous solid waste is estimated at 55 t and most of which (73%) is found to be generated from gas extraction-related activities. The majority of other industrial non-hazardous solid waste is generated from oil production-related activities (41%), The present analysis does also provide the estimated generation amounts per waste type and class, amounts of combustible, recyclable, and compostable wastes, and the amounts dumped in uncontrolled way as well as disposed into special hazardous landfill facilities. The results should help the decision makers in evaluating the best alternatives available to manage the solid wastes generated from the oil and gas industries. PMID:15811669

  20. Estimating maquiladora hazardous waste generation on the U.S./Mexico border

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Mace M.; Kontuly, Thomas; Hepner, George F.

    1995-03-01

    Maquiladoras, manufacturing plants that primarily assemble foreign components for reexport, are located in concentrations along the northern frontier of the US/Mexico border. These plants process a wide variety of materials using modern industrial technologies within the context of developing world institutions and infrastructure. Hazardous waste generation by maquiladoras represents a critical environmental management issue because of the spatial concentration of these plants in border municipalities where the infrastructure for waste management is nonexistent or poor. These border municipalities contain rapidly increasing populations, which further stress their waste handling infrastructure capacities while exposing their populations to greater contaminant risks. Limited empirical knowledge exists concerning hazardous waste types and generation rates from maquiladorsas. There is no standard reporting method for waste generation or methodology for estimating generation rates at this time. This paper presents a method that can be used for the rapid assessment of hazardous waste generation. A first approximation of hazardous waste generation is produced for maquiladoras in the three municipalities of Nogales, Sonora, Mexicali, Baja California, and Cd. Juarez, Chihuahua, using the INVENT model developed by the World Bank. In addition, our intent is to evaluate the potential of the INVENT model for adaptation to the US/Mexico border industrial situation. The press of border industrial development, especially with the recent adoption of the NAFTA, make such assessments necessary as a basis for the environmental policy formulation and management needed in the immediate future.

  1. The nutrient load from food waste generated onboard ships in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Wilewska-Bien, Magda; Granhag, Lena; Andersson, Karin

    2016-04-15

    The combination of the sensitive characteristics of the Baltic Sea and the intense maritime traffic makes the marine environment vulnerable to anthropogenic influences. The theoretical scenario calculated in this study shows that the annually generated food waste onboard ships in traffic in the Baltic Sea contains about 182tonnes of nitrogen and 34tonnes of phosphorus. Today, all food waste generated onboard can be legally discharged into the marine environment at a distance of 12NM from the nearest land. The annual load of nitrogen contained in the food waste corresponds to 52% of load of nitrogen from the ship-generated sewage. Future regulations for sewage discharge in the Baltic Sea will require significant reduction of total nitrogen and phosphorus released. The contribution of nutrients from food waste compared to sewage will therefore be relatively larger in the future, if food waste still can be legally discharged. PMID:26992746

  2. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores by alkaline hydrolysis applied to medical waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Sílvia C; Nunes, Olga C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Almeida, Manuel F

    2015-09-15

    Although alkaline hydrolysis treatment emerges as an alternative disinfection/sterilization method for medical waste, information on its effects on the inactivation of biological indicators is scarce. The effects of alkaline treatment on the resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were investigated and the influence of temperature (80 °C, 100 °C and 110 °C) and NaOH concentration was evaluated. In addition, spore inactivation in the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, used as surrogate of medical waste, was also assessed. The effectiveness of the alkaline treatment was carried out by determination of survival curves and D-values. No significant differences were seen in D-values obtained at 80 °C and 100 °C for NaOH concentrations of 0.5 M and 0.75 M. The D-values obtained at 110 °C (2.3-0.5 min) were approximately 3 times lower than those at 100 °C (8.8-1.6 min). Independent of the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, 6 log10 reduction times varied between 66 and 5 min at 100 °C-0.1 M NaOH and 110 °C-1 M NaOH, respectively. The alkaline treatment may be used in future as a disinfection or sterilization alternative method for contaminated waste. PMID:26150372

  3. Methodology for quantification of waste generated in Spanish railway construction works.

    PubMed

    de Guzmán Báez, Ana; Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; García Navarro, Justo

    2012-05-01

    In the last years, the European Union (EU) has been focused on the reduction of construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Specifically, in 2006, Spain generated roughly 47million tons of C&D waste, of which only 13.6% was recycled. This situation has lead to the drawing up of many regulations on C&D waste during the past years forcing EU countries to include new measures for waste prevention and recycling. Among these measures, the mandatory obligation to quantify the C&D waste expected to be originated during a construction project is mandated. However, limited data is available on civil engineering projects. Therefore, the aim of this research study is to improve C&D waste management in railway projects, by developing a model for C&D waste quantification. For this purpose, we develop two equations which estimate in advance the amount, both in weight and volume, of the C&D waste likely to be generated in railway construction projects, including the category of C&D waste generated for the entire project. PMID:22321896

  4. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C viruses among medical waste handlers at Gondar town Health institutions, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver due to viral infections and there are groups of viruses that affects the liver of which hepatitis B and C viruses are the causative agents of sever form of liver disease with high rate of mortality. Medical waste handlers who undergo collection, transportation, and disposal of medical wastes in the health institutions are at risk of exposure to acquire those infections which transmit mainly as a result of contaminated blood and other body fluids including injury with sharp instruments, splash to the eye or mucous membrane. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of hepatitis B and/or C viruses and associated risk factors among medical waste handlers. Results A cross-sectional study was conducted from April, 2011 to June, 2011 in government health institutions at Gondar town. Socio-demographic and possible risk factors data from medical waste handlers were collected using pre-tested and well structured questionnaires. Venous bloods were collected and the serums were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C antibody using rapid Immunochromatography assay. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSS software package (version16). Chi-square and Fisher exact tests were used to assess risk of association. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistical significance. A total of 100 medical waste handlers and 100 non-clinical waste handlers were examined for HBV and HCV viruses. HBV was detected in 6 (6.0%) and 1 (1.0%) and HCV in 1 (1.0%) and 0 (0.0%) of medical waste handlers and non-clinical waste handlers, respectively. Significant differences were observed in the detection rates of HBV (OR = 6.3; X2 = 4.1; P = 0.04) and overall infection rate (HBV + HCV) (OR = 7.5; X2 = 5.2; P: 0.02) in medical waste handlers when compared with non-clinical waste handlers. It was found that none of the observed risk factors significantly associated with rate of hepatitis infection compared to others

  5. Comparative assessment of the environmental impact of wastes from electricity generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, C. [Instituto de Medio Ambiente Smith, G.M.; Linsley, G.; Hossain, S.

    1994-12-31

    The paper describes an outline methodology for assessing and comparing the environmental impact arising from management of the wastes from nuclear and other electricity generation systems. The assessment framework is applicable to wastes from all generation systems, including nuclear, fossil and renewable fuel systems, and can also be applied to the management of mixed hazardous waste. The major energy technologies in terms of waste production can be classified according to three major categories of fuels: fossil, nuclear and renewable. The emphasis in this description is on nuclear utility low-level and mixed wastes and waste streams. The methodology may be used to support the project on Data Bases and Methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources for Electricity Generation (DECADES project, (2)) which is being developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency in collaboration with other international agencies. The DECADES project has the overall objective to improve the abilities for comparative assessment of energy chains for electricity generation. The objective of a methodology such as that described here is to ensure that waste management aspects are included effectively in comparative assessments of energy systems. This paper discusses the waste strams arising from nuclear power plants.

  6. Next generation of weight management medications: implications for diabetes and CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Wharton, S; Serodio, K J

    2015-05-01

    Since the 1980s, the prevalence of obesity has almost doubled worldwide. Treatments for obesity include lifestyle modification, medications and surgery. Newer anti-obesity medications have been shown to be effective at inducing initial weight management in addition to successful long-term weight maintenance. Historically, weight management medications have been associated with public safety concerns that have resulted in the majority being withdrawn from the market or never receiving medicinal authorization. Recently, several countries have approved some newer generation weight management medications which may be beneficial to combat obesity. These medications have varying effects on cardiometabolic parameters, both positive and potentially negative. This review will outline the mechanisms of action of these medications and their implications for both diabetes and cardiovascular risks. PMID:25894803

  7. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  8. Program for certification of waste from contained firing facility: Establishment of waste as non-reactive and discussion of potential waste generation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Green, L.; Garza, R.; Maienschein, J.; Pruneda, C.

    1997-09-30

    Debris from explosives testing in a shot tank that contains 4 weight percent or less of explosive is shown to be non-reactive under the specified testing protocol in the Code of Federal Regulations. This debris can then be regarded as a non-hazardous waste on the basis of reactivity, when collected and packaged in a specified manner. If it is contaminated with radioactive components (e.g. depleted uranium), it can therefore be disposed of as radioactive waste or mixed waste, as appropriate (note that debris may contain other materials that render it hazardous, such as beryllium). We also discuss potential waste generation issues in contained firing operations that are applicable to the planned new Contained Firing Facility (CFF). The goal of this program is to develop and document conditions under which shot debris from the planned Contained Firing Facility (CFF) can be handled, shipped, and accepted for waste disposal as non-reactive radioactive or mixed waste. This report fulfills the following requirements as established at the outset of the program: 1. Establish through testing the maximum level of explosive that can be in a waste and still have it certified as non-reactive. 2. Develop the procedure to confirm the acceptability of radioactive-contaminated debris as non-reactive waste at radioactive waste disposal sites. 3. Outline potential disposal protocols for different CFF scenarios (e.g. misfires with scattered explosive).

  9. The S-curve for forecasting waste generation in construction projects.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weisheng; Peng, Yi; Chen, Xi; Skitmore, Martin; Zhang, Xiaoling

    2016-10-01

    Forecasting construction waste generation is the yardstick of any effort by policy-makers, researchers, practitioners and the like to manage construction and demolition (C&D) waste. This paper develops and tests an S-curve model to indicate accumulative waste generation as a project progresses. Using 37,148 disposal records generated from 138 building projects in Hong Kong in four consecutive years from January 2011 to June 2015, a wide range of potential S-curve models are examined, and as a result, the formula that best fits the historical data set is found. The S-curve model is then further linked to project characteristics using artificial neural networks (ANNs) so that it can be used to forecast waste generation in future construction projects. It was found that, among the S-curve models, cumulative logistic distribution is the best formula to fit the historical data. Meanwhile, contract sum, location, public-private nature, and duration can be used to forecast construction waste generation. The study provides contractors with not only an S-curve model to forecast overall waste generation before a project commences, but also with a detailed baseline to benchmark and manage waste during the course of construction. The major contribution of this paper is to the body of knowledge in the field of construction waste generation forecasting. By examining it with an S-curve model, the study elevates construction waste management to a level equivalent to project cost management where the model has already been readily accepted as a standard tool. PMID:27485070

  10. A new generation of medical cyclotrons for the 90`s

    SciTech Connect

    Milton, B.F.

    1995-08-01

    Cyclotrons continue to be efficient accelerators for use in radio-isotope production. In recent years, developments in accelerator technology have greatly increased the practical beam current in these machines while also improving the overall system reliability. These developments combined with the development of new isotopes for medicine and industry, and a retiring of older machines indicates a strong future for commercial cyclotrons. In this paper the authors will survey recent developments in the areas of cyclotron technology as they relate to the new generation of commercial cyclotrons. Existing and potential markets for these cyclotrons will be presented. They will also discuss the possibility of systems capable of extracted energies up to 150 MeV and extracted beam currents of up to 2.0 mA.