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Sample records for medically important radionuclide

  1. Reactor-Produced Medical Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Mausner, Leonard; Garland, Marc A

    2011-01-01

    The therapeutic use of radionuclides in nuclear medicine, oncology and cardiology is the most rapidly growing use of medical radionuclides. Since most therapeutic radionuclides are neutron rich and decay by beta emission, they are reactor-produced. This chapter deals mainly with production approaches with neutrons. Neutron interactions with matter, neutron transmission and activation rates, and neutron spectra of nuclear reactors are discussed in some detail. Further, a short discussion of the neutron-energy dependence of cross sections, reaction rates in thermal reactors, cross section measurements and flux monitoring, and general equations governing the reactor production of radionuclides are presented. Finally, the chapter is concluded by providing a number of examples encompassing the various possible reaction routes for production of a number of medical radionuclides in a reactor.

  2. The medical management of unintentional radionuclide intakes.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, B D

    2003-01-01

    As a general medical problem, radionuclide intakes that may cause significant health effects are uncommon events. In preparing to manage a radionuclide accident, planning is the key. The medical aspects of such an accident are only one part of the management, and a professional team approach is required. Specific priorities and sequencing are necessary in medically managing a radionuclide intake. As soon as is reasonably practical, promptly remove the victim(s) from further radionuclide, radiation field, or chemical exposure. Life and limb-saving medical aid takes precedence over ionising radiation concerns in nearly all cases. Next are the prevention and/or minimisation of internal intake of radionuclides and evaluation and control of external radionuclide contamination, followed by institution of treatment to minimise the retained radionuclide. Communication with the accident victim, and his or her family, and public affairs/media issues are important. Finally, follow-up treatment for internal intakes that may cause delayed health effects is given. PMID:14527016

  3. 4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noßke, D.; Mattsson, S.; Johansson, L.

    This document is part of Subvolume A 'Fundamentals and Data in Radiobiology, Radiation Biophysics, Dosimetry and Medical Radiological Protection' of Volume 7 'Medical Radiological Physics' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII 'Advanced Materials and Technologies'. It contains the Section '4.4 Physical Properties of the Most Important Radionuclides' of the Chapter '4 Dosimetry in Nuclear Medicine Diagnosis and Therapy'.

  4. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  5. Selected radionuclides important to low-level radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide information to state representatives and developers of low level radioactive waste (LLW) management facilities about the radiological, chemical, and physical characteristics of selected radionuclides and their behavior in the environment. Extensive surveys of available literature provided information for this report. Certain radionuclides may contribute significantly to the dose estimated during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. Among these are the radionuclides listed in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 61.55, Tables 1 and 2 (including alpha emitting transuranics with half-lives greater than 5 years). This report discusses these radionuclides and other radionuclides that may be significant during a radiological performance assessment analysis of an LLW disposal facility. This report not only includes essential information on each radionuclide, but also incorporates waste and disposal information on the radionuclide, and behavior of the radionuclide in the environment and in the human body. Radionuclides addressed in this document include technetium-99, carbon-14, iodine-129, tritium, cesium-137, strontium-90, nickel-59, plutonium-241, nickel-63, niobium-94, cobalt-60, curium -42, americium-241, uranium-238, and neptunium-237.

  6. Hospital Contracts: Important Issues for Medical Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosolio, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with hospitals and outpatient medical facilities have always been an important part of the business model for private medical practices. As healthcare delivery to patients has evolved in the United States (much of it driven by the new government mandates, regulations, and the Affordable Care Act), the delivery of such services is becoming more and more centered on the hospital or institutional setting, thus making contractual relationships with hospitals even more important for medical practices. As a natural outgrowth of this relationship, attention to hospital contracts is becoming more important. PMID:27039636

  7. Developing role of short-lived radionuclides in nuclear medical practice. DOE symposium series; 56

    SciTech Connect

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the developing role and state-of-the-art development of short-lived radionuclides (SLR's) in current nuclear medical practice. Special emphasis was placed on radionuclides with general-purpose labeling capabilities. The need for high-purity labeling-grade iodine-123 was emphasized in the program. Papers have been separately abstracted for the data base. (ACR)

  8. MEDECOR--a medical decorporation tool to assist first responders, receivers, and medical reach-back personnel in triage, treatment, and risk assessment after internalization of radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Waller, Ed; Wilkinson, Diana

    2010-10-01

    After a radiological dispersal device (RDD) event, it is possible for radionuclides to enter the human body through inhalation, ingestion, and skin and wound absorption. From a health physics perspective, it is important to know the magnitude of the intake to perform dosimetric assessments. From a medical perspective, removal of radionuclides leading to dose aversion (hence risk reduction) is of high importance. The efficacy of medical decorporation strategies is extremely dependent upon the time of treatment delivery after intake. The "golden hour," or more realistically 3-4 h, is optimal when attempting to increase removal of radionuclides from extracellular fluids prior to cellular incorporation. To assist medical first response personnel in making timely decisions regarding appropriate treatment delivery modes, it is desirable to have a software tool that compiles existing radionuclide decorporation therapy data and allows a user to perform simple diagnosis leading to optimized decorporation treatment strategies. In its most simple application, the software is a large database of radionuclide decorporation strategies and treatments. The software can also be used in clinical interactive mode, in which the user inputs the radionuclide, estimated activity, route of intake and time since exposure. The software makes suggestions as to the urgency of treatment (i.e., triage) and the suggested therapy. Current developments include risk assessment which impacts the potential risk of delivered therapy and resource allocation of therapeutic agents. The software, developed for the Canadian Department of National Defence (DND), is titled MEDECOR (MEdical DECORporation). The MEDECOR tool was designed for use on both personal digital assistant and laptop computer environments. The tool was designed using HTML/Jscript, to allow for ease of portability amongst different computing platforms. This paper presents the features of MEDECOR, results of testing at a major NATO

  9. Quantitative modeling of Cerenkov light production efficiency from medical radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Bradley J; Thorek, Daniel L J; Schmidtlein, Charles R; Pentlow, Keith S; Humm, John L; Hielscher, Andreas H

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  10. Quantitative Modeling of Cerenkov Light Production Efficiency from Medical Radionuclides

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, Bradley J.; Thorek, Daniel L. J.; Schmidtlein, Charles R.; Pentlow, Keith S.; Humm, John L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2012-01-01

    There has been recent and growing interest in applying Cerenkov radiation (CR) for biological applications. Knowledge of the production efficiency and other characteristics of the CR produced by various radionuclides would help in accessing the feasibility of proposed applications and guide the choice of radionuclides. To generate this information we developed models of CR production efficiency based on the Frank-Tamm equation and models of CR distribution based on Monte-Carlo simulations of photon and β particle transport. All models were validated against direct measurements using multiple radionuclides and then applied to a number of radionuclides commonly used in biomedical applications. We show that two radionuclides, Ac-225 and In-111, which have been reported to produce CR in water, do not in fact produce CR directly. We also propose a simple means of using this information to calibrate high sensitivity luminescence imaging systems and show evidence suggesting that this calibration may be more accurate than methods in routine current use. PMID:22363636

  11. Virulence factors of medically important fungi.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, L H; Klein, B S; Levitz, S M

    1996-01-01

    Human fungal pathogens have become an increasingly important medical problem with the explosion in the number of immunocompromised patients as a result of cancer, steroid therapy, chemotherapy, and AIDS. Additionally, the globalization of travel and expansion of humankind into previously undisturbed habitats have led to the reemergence of old fungi and new exposure to previously undescribed fungi. Until recently, relatively little was known about virulence factors for the medically important fungi. With the advent of molecular genetics, rapid progress has now been made in understanding the basis of pathogenicity for organisms such as Aspergillus species and Cryptococcus neoformans. The twin technologies of genetic transformation and "knockout" deletion construction allowed for genetic tests of virulence factors in these organisms. Such knowledge will prove invaluable for the rational design of antifungal therapies. Putative virulence factors and attributes are reviewed for Aspergillus species, C. neoformans, the dimorphic fungal pathogens, and others, with a focus upon a molecular genetic approach. Candida species are excluded from coverage, having been the subject of numerous recent reviews. This growing body of knowledge about fungal pathogens and their virulence factors will significantly aid efforts to treat the serious diseases they cause. PMID:8894347

  12. Why Is It Important to Know My Family Medical History?

    MedlinePlus

    ... history? Why is it important to know my family medical history? A family medical history is a ... a healthcare professional regularly. For more information about family medical history: NIHSeniorHealth, a service of the National ...

  13. Production of medical radionuclides in Russia: status and future--a review.

    PubMed

    Zhuikov, B L

    2014-02-01

    We present a review of reactor and accelerator centers in Russia that produce medical isotopes, the majority of which are exported. In the near future, we anticipate increased isotope production for use in nuclear medicine in Russia. The existing linear accelerator at the Institute for Nuclear Research (Moscow-Troitsk) and several prospective installations are considered to be particularly capable of providing mass production of radionuclides that can substitute, to a certain extent, for the traditional medical isotopes. PMID:24315977

  14. Radionuclides in domestic and imported foods in the United States, 1987-1992.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, W C; Anderson, D L; Baratta, E J

    1994-01-01

    Findings from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's Radionuclides in Foods program are summarized for foods collected between October 1, 1986, and September 30, 1992. Concentrations of radionuclide activity in the Total Diet Study and reactor-survey foods were in Range 1 or low in Range II of the surveillance and control recommendations of the Federal Radiation Council; no control actions were suggested. Dietary intake of 90Sr continued the general decline observed since 1961. Approximately 2600 test portions of imported foods were analyzed for contamination associated with the Chernobyl nuclear accident. Concentrations of radionuclide activity were below limits of detection for the vast majority of the imported food test portions but were above the levels of concern for 23 portions. Since 1986, the fraction of imported food test portions having measurable amounts of contamination has steadily declined, as have the average concentrations of radionuclide activity; however, contamination is still occasionally found. Continued monitoring of both domestic and imported foods is planned. PMID:7819751

  15. Radionuclide contents in food products from domestic and imported sources in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Jibiri, N N; Okusanya, A A

    2008-09-01

    Samples of some domestic and imported food products of nutritive importance to both the child population and the adult population in Nigeria were collected and analysed in order to determine their radionuclide contents. The samples were collected from open markets in major commercial cities in the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was employed in the determination of the radionuclide contents in the products. The gamma-ray peaks observed with reliable regularity in all the samples analysed belong to naturally occurring radionuclides, namely (226)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K. The activity concentrations of these radionuclides in both the domestic and imported products were observed to be not significantly different. Essentially radioactive elements such as (137)Cs were not detected in any of the samples. The non-detection of (137)Cs in the imported products may be attributed to the suitably modified agricultural practices and countermeasures being employed to reduce caesium uptake by plants after the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. It seems unlikely that the elemental concentrations in the food products analysed will contribute significantly to public health risks in the country, as the cumulative ingestion effective dose values from (226)Ra and (228)Th were found to be low. Although (40)K has the highest activity concentrations in all the samples analysed, it is usually under homeostatic control in the body, and hence the concentrations are irrelevant to possible contamination in the food products analysed. PMID:18714136

  16. Radionuclides in domestic and imported foods in the United States, 1983-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, W.C.; Stroube, W.B. Jr.; Baratta, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    Findings in the Food and Drug Administration's Radionuclides in Foods program are summarized for samples collected between October 1, 1982, and September 30, 1986. All radionuclide findings for Total Diet and reactor samples were either in Action Range I or low in Range II of the surveillance and control recommendations given by the Federal Radiation Council. The only long-range trend noted was a continuation of the general decline in dietary intake of /sup 90/Sr since 1961. Imported food samples were analyzed for contamination after the Chernobyl nuclear accident. The findings for imported foods indicate that the surveillance efforts successfully targeted contaminated foods, and that contamination levels were below levels of concern for all but one oregano and 3 cheese samples.

  17. Vesicorectal fistula detected on direct radionuclide cystography--importance of fecal matter imaging.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Atena; Sadeghi, Ramin; Saeedi, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    We report an 11 year old male patient with the history of imperforate anus, which was repaired surgically 4 years ago. He has been complaining of intermittent passing of urine into the rectum recently. The vesicorectal fistula in this patient was proven by imaging of the fecal matter post direct radionuclide cystography study. Our case showed that nuclear medicine imaging can be extended to unanimated objects such as patients' excrements or fluids with important diagnostic yields. PMID:24610652

  18. [Aquatic animals of medical importance in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2003-01-01

    The injuries caused by venomous and poisonous aquatic animals may provoke important morbidity in the victim. The cnidarians (jellyfishes, especially cubomedusas and Portuguese-Man-of-War) caused nearly 25% of 236 accidents by marine animals, while sea urchins were responsible for about 50% and catfish, stingrays and scorpionfish nearly 25%). In freshwater, stingrays and catfish cause injuries with a very similar mechanism to the poisoning and the effects of the toxins of marine species. In a series of about 200 injuries observed among freshwater fishermen, nearly 40% were caused by freshwater catfish, 5% freshwater stingrays and 55% by traumatogenic fish, such as piranhas and traíras. The author presents the aquatic animals that cause injuries to humans in Brazil, the clinical aspects of the envenoming and the first measures for the control of the severe pain observed mainly in the accidents caused by cnidarians and venomous fishes. PMID:14576874

  19. The Importance of the Medical Record: A Critical Professional Responsibility.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Elizabeth; Patel, Nachiket; Chandrasekaran, Krishnaswamy; Tajik, A Jamil; Paterick, Timothy E

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive, detailed documentation in the medical record is critical to patient care and to a physician when allegations of negligence arise. Physicians, therefore, would be prudent to have a clear understanding of this documentation. It is important to understand who is responsible for documentation, what is important to document, when to document, and how to document. Additionally, it should be understood who owns the medical record, the significance of the transition to the electronic medical record, problems and pitfalls when using the electronic medical record, and how the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act affects healthcare providers and health information technology. PMID:27249883

  20. Analysis of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a radiopharmaceutical production facility based on a medical cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardina, M.; Tomarchio, E.; Greco, D.

    2015-11-01

    Positron emitting radionuclides are increasingly used in medical diagnostics and the number of radiopharmaceutical production facilities have been estimated to be growing worldwide. During the process of production and/or patient administration of radiopharmaceuticals, an amount of these radionuclides might become airborne and escape into the environment. Therefore, the analysis of radionuclide concentration in the air released to the stack is a very important issue to evaluate the dose to the population living around the plant. To this end, sampling and measurement of radionuclide concentration in air released through the stack of a Nuclear Medicine Center (NMC), provided with a cyclotron for radiopharmaceuticals production, must be routinely carried out with an automatic measurement system. In this work is presented the air monitoring system realized at "San Gaetano" NMC at Bagheria (Italy) besides the analysis of the recorded stack relesead air concentration data. Sampling of air was carried out continuously and gamma-ray spectrometric measurement are made on-line and for a short time by using a shielded Marinelli beaker filled with sampled air and a gamma detector. The use of this system allows to have 1440 values of air concentration per day from 2002, year of the start of operation with the cyclotron. Therefore, the concentration values are very many and an analysis software is needed to determine the dose to the population. A comparison with the results of a simulation code based on a Gaussian Plume air dispersion modelling allow us to confirm the no-radiological significance of the stack effluent releases in terms of dose to population and to evaluate possible improvements in the plant devices to reduce the air concentration at stack.

  1. Dangerous snakes, deadly snakes and medically important snakes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This correspondence argues that the dangerousness of a venomous snake species is not solely determined by the venom characteristics or the lethality of the snake, and recognizes that medical importance comprises a key variable as well. The medical importance of a snake is determined by several factors – including frequency of medical attention after a bite, local or systemic envenomation provoked by the bite, fatal bites, long term consequences, availability of antivenom therapy as well as the size of the population at risk – that may vary from one region to another. PMID:24099013

  2. A New Methodology for Characterization of Environmentally Important Radionuclide Species Via Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng; Bao, Li-Li; Mahurin, Shannon; Gu, Baohua

    2004-03-31

    Selective and sensitive detection and characterization of radionuclide contaminants in subsurface environments is essential to safely and to cost-effectively locate, treat, isolate or destroy contaminants encountered in DOE's environmental cleanup activity. Currently, techniques for monitoring and characterizing radionuclides rely primarily on liquid scintillation counting, ICP-MS and some limited use of the spectrofluorimetry based on fluorescence of radionuclide species under laser or UV excitation. These techniques require chemical handling, e.g., the use of complexing media, scintillation cocktails and phosphoric acids, in order to enhance signals. Furthermore, only fluorescent radionuclides (U22O+, Cm(III) and Am(III)) can be detected by the last technique. Many environmentally-important radionuclides such as plutonium, neptunium and technetium species have no strong fluorescence signals and, therefore, can not be characterized via fluorescence spectroscopy. The research presented serves to replace existing radionuclide-detection techniques through the development of a novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy to selectively and sensitively monitor and characterize the chemical speciation of radionuclides at trace levels. The SERS technique permits both of these measurements to be made simultaneously and results in significant improvement over current methods in reducing time of analysis, cost and sample manipulation.

  3. A Thin Layer Chromatography Laboratory Experiment of Medical Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Loretta; Desai, Ankur; Sharma, Ajit

    2006-01-01

    A thin layer chromatography experiment of medical importance is described. The experiment involves extraction of lipids from simulated amniotic fluid samples followed by separation, detection, and scanning of the lecithin and sphingomyelin bands on TLC plates. The lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio is calculated. The clinical significance of this…

  4. Comparison of Different Internal Dosimetry Systems for Selected Radionuclides Important to Nuclear Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Manger, Ryan P

    2013-08-01

    This report compares three different radiation dosimetry systems currently applied by various U.S. Federal agencies and dose estimates based on these three dosimetry systems for a set of radionuclides often identified in power reactor effluents. These dosimetry systems were developed and applied by the International Commission on Radiological Protection at different times over the past six decades. Two primary modes of intake of radionuclides are addressed: ingestion in drinking water and inhalation. Estimated doses to individual organs and to the whole body based on each dosimetry system are compared for each of four age groups: infant, child, teenager, and adult. Substantial differences between dosimetry systems in estimated dose per unit intake are found for some individual radionuclides, but differences in estimated dose per unit intake generally are modest for mixtures of radionuclides typically found in nuclear power plant effluents.

  5. Recovery of medically important microorganisms from Apollo astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1974-01-01

    Microbiological samples were obtained from the crewmembers of the Apollo 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17 spaceflights. These specimens were analyzed for the presence of medically important microorganisms with Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Tricophyton mentagrophytes, Tricophyton rubrum, and Candida albicans being discussed in detail. Preflight isolation of crewmembers was found to coincide with a complete absence of inflight disease events and is recommended for future spaceflights. No autoinfection response (microbial shock) occurred after any of the reported spaceflights.

  6. Medical Imaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, M. C. J.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses four main types of medical imaging (x-ray, radionuclide, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance) and considers their relative merits. Describes important recent and possible future developments in image processing. (Author/MKR)

  7. The Response of Radiation Portal Monitors to Medical Radionuclides at Border Crossings

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2006-05-01

    Radio-pharmaceuticals are found at detectable levels in about one in 2600 Americans. Such individuals are thus commonly found at border crossings where equipment exists for radiation detection, and the resulting alarms must be handled by cognizant officials. A total of approximately 14.4 million medical procedures using radionuclides were performed in the U.S. during 2001. Of this total number of procedures during 2001, approximately 14.2 million were diagnostic procedures and 0.2 million were therapeutic procedures. Although there were over 45 different commercially-available products used in over 75 different types of procedures, 17 isotopes comprise the complete set of active ingredients in the commercially available radiopharmaceuticals in the U.S. Of these, 12 are customarily administered to outpatients, and 9 of these produce energetic photons. At 91.5%, the isotope 99mTc is the one most likely administered by an overwhelming margin. This paper reports on various impacts of radiopharmaceuticals observed at border crossings. Calculations were performed to simulate the photon response of portal radiation monitors to these types of sources. It is shown that at any time, about one in 2600 Americans carries a detectable radiation burden. (PIET-43741-TM-326)

  8. DNA fingerprinting of medically important microorganisms by use of PCR.

    PubMed Central

    van Belkum, A

    1994-01-01

    Selected segments of any DNA molecule can be amplified exponentially by PCR. This technique provides a powerful tool to detect and identify minimal numbers of microorganisms. PCR is applicable both in diagnosis and in epidemiology. By amplification of hypervariable DNA domains, differences can be detected even among closely related strains. PCR fingerprinting is a valuable tool for medical microbiologists, epidemiologists, and microbial taxonomists. The current state of PCR-mediated genotyping is reviewed, and a comparison with conventional molecular typing methods is included. Because of its speed and versatility, PCR fingerprinting will play an important role in microbial genetics, epidemiology, and systematics. Images PMID:8055466

  9. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes: epidemiology and microbiology.

    PubMed Central

    McNeil, M M; Brown, J M

    1994-01-01

    The aerobic actinomycetes are soil-inhabiting microorganisms that occur worldwide. In 1888, Nocard first recognized the pathogenic potential of this group of microorganisms. Since then, several aerobic actinomycetes have been a major source of interest for the commercial drug industry and have proved to be extremely useful microorganisms for producing novel antimicrobial agents. They have also been well known as potential veterinary pathogens affecting many different animal species. The medically important aerobic actinomycetes may cause significant morbidity and mortality, in particular in highly susceptible severely immunocompromised patients, including transplant recipients and patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. However, the diagnosis of these infections may be difficult, and effective antimicrobial therapy may be complicated by antimicrobial resistance. The taxonomy of these microorganisms has been problematic. In recent revisions of their classification, new pathogenic species have been recognized. The development of additional and more reliable diagnostic tests and of a standardized method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and the application of molecular techniques for the diagnosis and subtyping of these microorganisms are needed to better diagnose and treat infected patients and to identify effective control measures for these unusual pathogens. We review the epidemiology and microbiology of the major medically important aerobic actinomycetes. Images PMID:7923055

  10. Medication Safety Systems and the Important Role of Pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Mansur, Jeannell M

    2016-03-01

    Preventable medication-related adverse events continue to occur in the healthcare setting. While the Institute of Medicine's To Err is Human, published in 2000, highlighted the prevalence of medical and medication-related errors in patient morbidity and mortality, there has not been significant documented progress in addressing system contributors to medication errors. The lack of progress may be related to the myriad of pharmaceutical options now available and the nuances of optimizing drug therapy to achieve desired outcomes and prevent undesirable outcomes. However, on a broader scale, there may be opportunities to focus on the design and performance of the many processes that are part of the medication system. Errors may occur in the storage, prescribing, transcription, preparation and dispensing, or administration and monitoring of medications. Each of these nodes of the medication system, with its many components, is prone to failure, resulting in harm to patients. The pharmacist is uniquely trained to be able to impact medication safety at the individual patient level through medication management skills that are part of the clinical pharmacist's role, but also to analyze the performance of medication processes and to lead redesign efforts to mitigate drug-related outcomes that may cause harm. One population that can benefit from a focus on medication safety through clinical pharmacy services and medication safety programs is the elderly, who are at risk for adverse drug events due to their many co-morbidities and the number of medications often used. This article describes the medication safety systems and provides a blueprint for creating a foundation for medication safety programs within healthcare organizations. The specific role of pharmacists and clinical pharmacy services in medication safety is also discussed here and in other articles in this Theme Issue. PMID:26932714

  11. Electrochemical separation is an attractive strategy for development of radionuclide generators for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Pillai, M R A

    2012-07-01

    Electrochemical separation techniques are not widely used in radionuclide generator technology and only a few studies have been reported [1-4]. Nevertheless, this strategy is useful when other parent-daughter separation techniques are not effective or not possible. Such situations are frequent when low specific activity (LSA) parent radionuclides are used for instance with adsorption chromatographic separations, which can result in lower concentration of the daughter radionuclide in the eluent. In addition, radiation instability of the column matrix in many cases can affect the performance of the generator when long lived parent radionuclides are used. Intricate knowledge of the chemistry involved in the electrochemical separation is crucial to develop a reproducible technology that ensures that the pure daughter radionuclide can be obtained in a reasonable time of operation. Crucial parameters to be critically optimized include the applied potential, choice of electrolyte, selection of electrodes, temperature of electrolyte bath and the time of electrolysis in order to ensure that the daughter radionuclide can be reproducibly recovered in high yields and high purity. The successful electrochemical generator technologies which have been developed and are discussed in this paper include the (90)Sr/(90)Y, (188)W/(188)Re and (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generators. Electrochemical separation not only acts as a separation technique but also is an effective concentration methodology which yields high radioactive concentrations of the daughter products. The lower consumption of reagents and minimal generation of radioactive wastes using such electrochemical techniques are compatible with 'green chemistry' principles. PMID:22642386

  12. Why decision support systems are important for medical education.

    PubMed

    Konstantinidis, Stathis Th; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    During the last decades, the inclusion of digital tools in health education has rapidly lead to a continuously enlarging digital era. All the online interactions between learners and tutors, the description, creation, reuse and sharing of educational digital resources and the interlinkage between them in conjunction with cheap storage technology has led to an enormous amount of educational data. Medical education is a unique type of education due to accuracy of information needed, continuous changing competences required and alternative methods of education used. Nowadays medical education standards provide the ground for organising the educational data and the paradata. Analysis of such education data through education data mining techniques is in its infancy, but decision support systems (DSSs) for medical education need further research. To the best of our knowledge, there is a gap and a clear need for identifying the challenges for DSSs in medical education in the era of medical education standards. Thus, in this Letter the role and the attributes of such a DSS for medical education are delineated and the challenges and vision for future actions are identified. PMID:27222734

  13. The Importance of Fostering Ownership During Medical Training.

    PubMed

    Dubov, Alex; Fraenkel, Liana; Seng, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    There is a need to consider the impact of the new resident-hours regulations on the variety of aspects of medical education and patient care. Most existing literature about this subject has focused on the role of fatigue in resident performance, education, and health care delivery. However, there are other possible consequences of these new regulations, including a negative impact on decision ownership. Our main assumption of is that increased shift work in medicine can decrease ownership of treatment decisions and impact negatively on quality of care. We review some potential components of decision ownership in treatment context and suggest possible ways in which the absence of decision ownership may decrease the quality of medical decision making. The article opens with the definition of decision ownership and the overview of some contextual factors that may contribute to the development of ownership in medical residency. The following section discusses decision ownership in medical care from the perspective of "diffusion of responsibility." We question the quality of choices made within narrow decisional frames. We also compare isolated and interrelated choices, assuming that residents make more isolated decisions during their shifts. Lastly, we discuss the consequences of decreased decision ownership impacting the delivery of health care. PMID:27471927

  14. Industry Support of Medical Research: Important Opportunity or Treacherous Pitfall?

    PubMed

    Tierney, William M; Meslin, Eric M; Kroenke, Kurt

    2016-02-01

    Pharmaceutical and device manufacturers fund more than half of the medical research in the U.S. Research funding by for-profit companies has increased over the past 20 years, while federal funding has declined. Research funding from for-profit medical companies is seen as tainted by many academicians because of potential biases and prior misbehavior by both investigators and companies. Yet NIH is encouraging partnerships between the public and private sectors to enhance scientific discovery. There are instances, such as methods for improving drug adherence and post-marketing drug surveillance, where the interests of academician researchers and industry could be aligned. We provide examples of ethically performed industry-funded research and a set of principles and benchmarks for ethically credible academic-industry partnerships that could allow academic researchers, for-profit companies, and the public to benefit. PMID:26307387

  15. Importance and benefits of the doctoral thesis for medical graduates

    PubMed Central

    Giesler, Marianne; Boeker, Martin; Fabry, Götz; Biller, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The majority of medical graduates in Germany complete a doctorate, even though a doctoral degree is not necessary for the practice of medicine. So far, little is known about doctoral candidates’ view on the individual benefit a doctoral thesis has for them. Consequently, this is the subject of the present investigation. Method: Data from surveys with graduates of the five medical faculties of Baden-Württemberg from the graduation years 2007/2008 (N=514) and 2010/2011 (N=598) were analysed. Results: One and a half years after graduating 53% of those interviewed had completed their doctorate. When asked about their motivation for writing a doctoral thesis, participants answered most frequently “a doctorate is usual” (85%) and “improvement of job opportunities” (75%), 36% said that an academic career has been their primary motive. Less than 10% responded that they used their doctoral thesis as a means to apply for a job. The proportion of graduates working in health care is equally large among those who have completed a thesis and those who have not. Graduates who pursued a thesis due to scientific interest are also currently more interested in an academic career and recognise more opportunities for research. An implicit benefit of a medical thesis emerged with regard to the self-assessment of scientific competences as those who completed a doctorate rated their scientific competencies higher than those who have not. Discussion: Although for the majority of physicians research interest is not the primary motivation for completing a doctorate, they might nevertheless achieve some academic competencies. For graduates pursuing an academic career the benefit of completing a medical thesis is more obvious. PMID:26958656

  16. Older Patients' Perceptions of Medication Importance and Worth: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Denys T.; Briesacher, Becky; Mercaldo, Nathaniel D.; Halpern, Leslie; Osterberg, E. Charles; Jarzebowski, Mary; McKoy, June M.; Mazor, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Cost-related medication non-adherence may be influenced by patients' perceived importance of their medications. This exploratory study addresses three related but distinct questions: Do patients perceive different levels of importance among their medications? What factors influence perceptions of medication importance? Is perceived importance associated with medications' worth, and does expense impact that association? METHODS Study participants included individuals aged 60 and older who were taking three or more prescription drugs. Semi-structured, in-person interviews were conducted to measure how patients rated their medications in terms of importance, expense, and worth. Factors that influence medication importance were identified using qualitative analysis. Ordinal logistic regression analyses were employed to examine the association between perceived importance and worth of medications, and the impact of expense on that association. RESULTS Among 143 prescription drugs reported among 20 participants, the weighted mean rating of medication importance was 8.2 (SD=1.04) on a scale from 0 (not important at all) to 10 (most important). Of all medications, 38% were considered expensive. The weighted mean rating of worth was 8.4 (SD=1.46) on a scale from 0 (not worth it at all) to 10 (definitely worth it). Three major factors influenced medication importance: drug-related (characteristics, indications, effects, and alternatives); patient-related (knowledge, attitudes, and health); and external (the media, healthcare and family caregivers, and peers). Regression analyses showed an association between perceived importance and worth for inexpensive medications (OR=2.23; p=0.002) and an even greater association between perceived importance and worth for expensive medications (OR=4.29; p<0.001). DISCUSSION This study provides preliminary evidence that elderly patients perceive different levels of importance among their medications based on factors beyond

  17. Medically important arboviruses of the United States and Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Calisher, C H

    1994-01-01

    Of more than 500 arboviruses recognized worldwide, 5 were first isolated in Canada and 58 were first isolated in the United States. Six of these viruses are human pathogens: western equine encephalitis (WEE) and eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viruses (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) and Powassan (POW) viruses (Flaviviridae, Flavivirus), LaCrosse (LAC) virus (Bunyaviridae, Bunyavirus), and Colorado tick fever (CTF) virus (Reoviridae, Coltivirus). Their scientific histories, geographic distributions, virology, epidemiology, vectors, vertebrate hosts, transmission, pathogenesis, clinical and differential diagnoses, control, treatment, and laboratory diagnosis are reviewed. In addition, mention is made of the Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) complex viruses (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), which periodically cause human and equine disease in North America. WEE, EEE, and SLE viruses are transmitted by mosquitoes between birds; POW and CTF viruses, between wild mammals by ticks; LAC virus, between small mammals by mosquitoes; and VEE viruses, between small or large mammals by mosquitoes. Human infections are tangential to the natural cycle. Such infections range from rare to focal but are relatively frequent where they occur. Epidemics of WEE, EEE, VEE, and SLE viruses have been recorded at periodic intervals, but prevalence of infections with LAC and CTF viruses typically are constant, related to the degree of exposure to infected vectors. Infections with POW virus appear to be rare. Adequate diagnostic tools are available, but treatment is mainly supportive, and greater efforts at educating the public and the medical community are suggested if infections are to be prevented. PMID:8118792

  18. Identification of Medically Important Molds by an Oligonucleotide Array†

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chen Ren; Huang, Liyin; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Barton, Richard; Li, Hsin Chieh; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2005-01-01

    Infections caused by fungi have increased in recent years. Accurate and rapid identification of fungal pathogens is important for appropriate treatment with antifungal agents. On the basis of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS 1) and ITS 2 sequences of the rRNA genes, an oligonucleotide array was developed to identify 64 species (32 genera) of clinically important filamentous (or dimorphic) fungi. These 64 species included fungi causing superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous, and invasive infections. The method consisted of PCR amplification of the ITS regions using a pair of universal primers, followed by hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled PCR products to a panel of species- or group-specific oligonucleotides immobilized on a nylon membrane. Of 397 fungal strains (290 target and 107 nontarget strains) tested, the sensitivity and specificity of the array was 98.3% (285/290) and 98.1% (105/107), respectively. Misidentified strains were usually those belonging to the same genus of the target species or having partial homology with oligonucleotide probes on the membrane. The whole procedure can be finished within 24 h starting from isolated colonies; reproductive structures, which are essential for the conventional identification methods, are not needed. In conclusion, the present array is a powerful tool for identification of clinically important filamentous fungi and may have the potential to be continually extended by adding further oligonucleotides to the array without significantly increasing the cost or complexity. PMID:16081907

  19. Natural Radionuclide Activity Concentrations In Spas Of Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Gnoni, G.; Czerniczyniec, M.; Canoba, A.; Palacios, M.

    2008-08-07

    Geothermal waters have been used on a large scale for bathing, drinking and medical purposes. These waters can contain natural radionuclides that may increase the exposure to people. In this work the most important natural radionuclide activity concentrations in different thermal spas of Argentina were measured to characterize waters and to evaluate the exposure of workers and members of the public.

  20. 21 CFR 1301.26 - Exemptions from import or export requirements for personal medical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions from import or export requirements for personal medical use. 1301.26 Section 1301.26 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Registration and Fees § 1301.26 Exemptions from import or export requirements for personal medical use....

  1. 21 CFR 1301.26 - Exemptions from import or export requirements for personal medical use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Exemptions from import or export requirements for personal medical use. 1301.26 Section 1301.26 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Registration and Fees § 1301.26 Exemptions from import or export requirements for personal medical use....

  2. Assessing task importance and anxiety in medical school: an instrument development and initial validation study.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Henry L; Dong, Ting; Durning, Steven J; Artino, Anthony R

    2015-04-01

    Recent research in medical education suggests that students' motivational beliefs, such as their beliefs about the importance of a task, and their emotions are meaningful predictors of learning and performance. The primary purpose of this study was to develop a self-report measure of "task importance" and "anxiety" in relation to several medical education competencies and to collect validity evidence for the new measures. The secondary purpose was to evaluate differences in these measures by year of medical school. Exploratory factor analysis of scores from 368 medical school students suggested two task importance factors and three anxiety factors. The task importance and anxiety subscales were weakly related to each other and exhibited consistently negative and positive correlations, respectively, with three self-efficacy subscales. The task importance subscales were positively related to "metacognition," whereas "interpersonal skills anxiety" and "health knowledge anxiety" were positively related to "procrastination." All three anxiety factors were positively related to "avoidance of help seeking," whereas "interpersonal skills and professionalism importance" was negatively related to help avoidance behaviors. Finally, comparisons across the 4 years of medical school indicated that some aspects of task importance and anxiety varied significantly. Overall, findings from this study provide validity evidence for the psychometric quality of these scales, which capture task importance and anxiety in medical students. Limitations and implications for medical education research are discussed. PMID:25850124

  3. 77 FR 31388 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meridian Medical Technologies By Notice dated March 23, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on April 2, 2012, 77 FR 19716, Meridian Medical Technologies, 2555 Hermelin Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63144, made...

  4. 78 FR 30331 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration; Meridian Medical Technologies By Notice dated March 7, 2012, and published in the Federal Register on March 13, 2013, 78 FR 15974, Meridian Medical Technologies, 2555 Hermelin Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63144, made...

  5. 78 FR 15974 - Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...). As noted in a previous notice published in the Federal Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745-46... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances, Notice of Application; Meridian Medical..., 2013, Meridian Medical Technologies, 2555 Hermelin Drive, St. Louis, Missouri 63144, made...

  6. Virtual medical campus: the increasing importance of E-learning in medical education

    PubMed Central

    Smolle, Josef

    2010-01-01

    In 2002, along with the integration of a new, integrated curriculum in human medicine, the Virtual Medical Campus Graz was installed. It accompanies the whole curriculum with electronic materials tailored to the needs of the students and the forthcoming examinations. To date, more than 15,000 learning objects have been developed, and students download up to 200,000 learning objects per month. Particular emphasis is placed on Web-Based Training materials, but video and simulations are also included. In part, transfer of basic knowledge is mediated by electronic learning materials, replacing several hours of classroom attendance. Face-to-face education, in turn, is focusing increasingly on small-group clinical teaching. PMID:21818198

  7. Survey of the Importance of Professional Behaviors among Medical Students, Residents, and Attending Physicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Mary K.; Balon, Richard; Arfken, Cynthia L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors compared the importance of items related to professional behavior among medical students rotating through their psychiatry clerkship, psychiatry residents, and attending psychiatrists. Method: The authors sent an electronic survey with 43 items (rated on the scale 1: Not at All Important; to 5: Very Important) to medical…

  8. The attitudes of medical students in Europe toward the clinical importance of embryology.

    PubMed

    Moxham, Bernard John; Emmanouil-Nikoloussi, Elpida; Standley, Henrietta; Brenner, Erich; Plaisant, Odile; Brichova, Hana; Pais, Diogo; Stabile, Isobel; Borg, Jordy; Chirculescu, Andy

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been many studies reporting the attitudes of medical students to the clinical importance of gross anatomy, little is known about their opinions concerning the clinical importance of embryology. Using Thurstone and Chave methods to assess attitudes, nearly 1,600 medical students across Europe in the early stages of their training provided responses to a survey that tested the hypothesis that they do not regard embryology as highly clinically relevant. Indeed, we further proposed that student attitudes to gross anatomy are much more positive than those toward embryology. Our findings show that our hypotheses hold, regardless of the university and country surveyed and regardless of the teaching methods employed for embryology. Clearly, embryology has a significant part to play in medical education in terms of understanding prenatal life, of appreciating how the organization of the mature human body has developed, and of providing essential information for general medical practice, obstetrics and pediatrics, and teratology. However, while newly recruited medical students understand the importance of gross anatomy in the development of professional competence, understanding the importance of embryology requires teachers, medical educationalists, and devisors of medical curricula to pay special attention to informing students of the significant role played by embryology in attaining clinical competence and achieving the knowledge and understanding of the biomedical sciences that underpins becoming a learned member of a health care profession. PMID:26538399

  9. 77 FR 19716 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Meridian Medical Technologies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Register on September 23, 1975, 40 FR 43745-46, all applicants for registration to import a basic class of... Enforcement Administration Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application Meridian Medical.... Therefore, in accordance with 21 CFR 1301.34(a), this is notice that on January 4, 2012, Meridian...

  10. Evaluation of the Uni-Yeast-Tek kit for the identification of medically important yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, P I; Ahearn, D G

    1975-01-01

    The Uni-Yeast-Tek system, a commercially prepared kit and scheme for the rapid identification of medically important yeasts (Corning Medical), was evaluated in comparison with a conventional procedure in the identification of 623 yeasts. The system permitted the presumptive identification of 99.8% of 436 isolates representing 16 common species commonly isolated in the clinical laboratory. Correct biochemical and morphological analyses were obtained with 48 other species, but their specific identification required additional data. Images PMID:1102563

  11. [Medication errors: importance of notification in the management of patient safety].

    PubMed

    Bohomol, Elena; Ramos, Laís Helena

    2007-01-01

    Notifying medication errors is an important instrument in managing assistance quality and safety for the patient. The objective of this study was to verify with the nursing team their understanding that a medication error had been committed, and to observe how they notified responsible physicians of the event. To achieve this, researchers used a descriptive/exploratory survey with 89 professionals. The results demonstrate a lack of uniformity in understanding that medication errors had been committed, when these errors must be communicated to a physician, and when an event report must be filled out. The research shows the necessity to develop educational programs that shed light on exactly what constitutes a medication error, clarifying causes of the problem and providing solutions to solve it. PMID:17477164

  12. Name Changes in Medically Important Fungi and Their Implications for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Chaturvedi, Vishnu; Denning, David W.; Dyer, Paul S.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Geiser, David; Gräser, Yvonne; Guarro, Josep; Haase, Gerhard; Kwon-Chung, Kyung-Joo; Meyer, Wieland; Pitt, John I.; Samson, Robert A.; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Vitale, Roxana G.; Walsh, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent changes in the Fungal Code of Nomenclature and developments in molecular phylogeny are about to lead to dramatic changes in the naming of medically important molds and yeasts. In this article, we present a widely supported and simple proposal to prevent unnecessary nomenclatural instability. PMID:25297326

  13. Radionuclide Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalutsky, M. R.

    Radionuclide therapy utilizes unsealed sources of radionuclides as a treatment for cancer or other pathological conditions such as rheumatoid arthritis. Radionuclides that decay by the emission of β and α particles, as well as those that emit Auger electrons, have been used for this purpose. In this chapter, radiochemical aspects of radionuclide therapy, including criteria for radionuclide selection, radionuclide production, radiolabeling chemistry, and radiation dosimetry are discussed.

  14. Analysis of induced radionuclides in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron solely used for production of 18F for [18F]FDG.

    PubMed

    Mochizuki, S; Ishigure, N; Ogata, Y; Kobayashi, T

    2013-04-01

    Radioactivities produced in replacement parts and liquid wastes in a medical cyclotron used to produce (18)F for [(18)F]FDG with 10MeV protons were analyzed. Nineteen radionuclides were found in the replacement parts and liquid wastes. Among them, long-lived (56)Co in the Havar foils is critical in terms of radioactive waste management. The estimated dose level of exposure for the operating staff during the replacement of parts was around 310μSv/y, which is smaller than the recommended dose limit for workers. PMID:23419430

  15. In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field.

    PubMed

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Choi, Ki Choon; Srigopalram, Srisesharam

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in fermented food and in the gastro intestinal tract and is commonly used in the food industry as a potential starter probiotic. Recently, the consumption of food together with probiotics has tremendously increased. Among the lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum attracted many researchers because of its wide applications in the medical field with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro importance of L. plantarum toward medical applications. Moreover, this report short listed various reports related to the applications of this promising strain. In conclusion, this study would attract the researchers in commercializing this strain toward the welfare of humans related to medical needs. PMID:26858567

  16. In vitro importance of probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum related to medical field

    PubMed Central

    Arasu, Mariadhas Valan; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Ilavenil, Soundharrajan; Choi, Ki Choon; Srigopalram, Srisesharam

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a Gram positive lactic acid bacterium commonly found in fermented food and in the gastro intestinal tract and is commonly used in the food industry as a potential starter probiotic. Recently, the consumption of food together with probiotics has tremendously increased. Among the lactic acid bacteria, L. plantarum attracted many researchers because of its wide applications in the medical field with antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative, anti-obesity and antidiabetic properties. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro importance of L. plantarum toward medical applications. Moreover, this report short listed various reports related to the applications of this promising strain. In conclusion, this study would attract the researchers in commercializing this strain toward the welfare of humans related to medical needs. PMID:26858567

  17. Is culture important in the choice of role models? Experiences from a culturally diverse medical school.

    PubMed

    McLean, Michelle

    2004-03-01

    In a multicultural student population at a South African medical school, for over one-third of students (Years 1-5) undertaking a traditional curriculum, culture was an important consideration in their choice of a role model. This was particularly so for senior students, perhaps reflecting their relatively recent exposure to patients and their forthcoming internship. Some student comments might, however, be interpreted as reflecting a rigid perception of culture that could translate into a possible lack of respect for other cultures. It is therefore imperative that each institution provide appropriate early and continuous mainstream diversity training, as well as identify role models to match the student profile. With the increasing diversity of students globally, this issue of culture should assume even greater importance in medical education than it is currently afforded. PMID:15203523

  18. The importance of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education: current attitudes and issues

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Alexander; Rose, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Background Health advocacy is currently a key component of medical education in North America. In Canada, Health Advocate is one of the seven roles included in the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada’s CanMEDS competency framework. Method A literature search was undertaken to determine the current state of health advocacy in Canadian postgraduate medical education and to identify issues facing educators and learners with regards to health advocacy training. Results The literature revealed that the Health Advocate role is considered among the least relevant to clinical practice by educators and learners and among the most challenging to teach and assess. Furthermore learners feel their educational needs are not being met in this area. A number of key barriers affecting health advocacy education were identified including limited published material on the subject, lack of clarity within the role, insufficient explicit role modeling in practice, and lack of a gold standard for assessment. Health advocacy is defined and its importance to medical practice is highlighted, using pediatric emergency medicine as an example. Conclusions Increased published literature and awareness of the role, along with integration of the new 2015 CanMEDS framework, are important going forward to address concerns regarding the quality of postgraduate health advocacy education in Canada. PMID:27004077

  19. Clinical Prediction Models for Sleep Apnea: The Importance of Medical History over Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ustun, Berk; Westover, M. Brandon; Rudin, Cynthia; Bianchi, Matt T.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a treatable contributor to morbidity and mortality. However, most patients with OSA remain undiagnosed. We used a new machine learning method known as SLIM (Supersparse Linear Integer Models) to test the hypothesis that a diagnostic screening tool based on routinely available medical information would be superior to one based solely on patient-reported sleep-related symptoms. Methods: We analyzed polysomnography (PSG) and self-reported clinical information from 1,922 patients tested in our clinical sleep laboratory. We used SLIM and 7 state-of-the-art classification methods to produce predictive models for OSA screening using features from: (i) self-reported symptoms; (ii) self-reported medical information that could, in principle, be extracted from electronic health records (demographics, comorbidities), or (iii) both. Results: For diagnosing OSA, we found that model performance using only medical history features was superior to model performance using symptoms alone, and similar to model performance using all features. Performance was similar to that reported for other widely used tools: sensitivity 64.2% and specificity 77%. SLIM accuracy was similar to state-of-the-art classification models applied to this dataset, but with the benefit of full transparency, allowing for hands-on prediction using yes/no answers to a small number of clinical queries. Conclusion: To predict OSA, variables such as age, sex, BMI, and medical history are superior to the symptom variables we examined for predicting OSA. SLIM produces an actionable clinical tool that can be applied to data that is routinely available in modern electronic health records, which may facilitate automated, rather than manual, OSA screening. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 159. Citation: Ustun B, Westover MB, Rudin C, Bianchi MT. Clinical prediction models for sleep apnea: the importance of medical history over symptoms

  20. Retaining medical directors in community health centers. The importance of administrative relationships.

    PubMed

    Cochran, Christopher; Peltier, James W

    2003-01-01

    Physician retention has become a critical issue for maintaining the success of today's health care organizations. With many external factors--increasing malpractice premiums, lower reimbursement rates, and managed care controls--driving physicians out of the practice, it is imperative to understand how the internal functions of the organization can help maintain satisfaction in the workplace and prevent physicians from leaving (Reece, 2000; Taylor, 2002). This is especially important in Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs), federally supported health clinics providing care to low-income and uninsured patients in medically underserved communities and neighborhoods. In this study, we examine the medical directors' roles and responsibilities, their relationships with the C/MHC administrators, and whether these impact satisfaction and, ultimately retention in the centers. PMID:12856504

  1. Radionuclide trap

    DOEpatents

    McGuire, Joseph C.

    1978-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  2. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products alter the holobiome and development of a medically important mosquito.

    PubMed

    Pennington, Marcus J; Rivas, Nicholas G; Prager, Sean M; Walton, William E; Trumble, John T

    2015-08-01

    The increasing demand for fresh water has forced many countries to use reclaimed wastewater for agricultural purposes. This water contains pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) that remain biologically active following passage through wastewater treatment plants. Run-off from farms and contaminated water from treatment facilities exposes aquatic ecosystems to PPCPs. This study examined the effects of PPCPs on a lower trophic organism. Culex quinquefasciatus larvae were reared in water contaminated with environmentally relevant concentrations of common PPCPs. Acetaminophen alone and a mixture of contaminants were found to increase developmental time of larvae. Susceptibility to Bti increased in larvae exposed to antibiotics, acetaminophen, or a mixture of PPCPs. Antibiotics, hormones, and the mixture altered the mosquito bacterial microbiome. Overall, the results indicate that at environmentally relevant concentrations, PPCPs in reclaimed water can have biologically important effects on an ecologically and medically important lower trophic level insect. PMID:25913146

  3. A limiting factor for the progress of radionuclide-based cancer diagnostics and therapy--availability of suitable radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Tolmachev, Vladimir; Carlsson, Jörgen; Lundqvist, Hans

    2004-01-01

    Advances in diagnostics and targeted radionuclide therapy of haematological and neuroendocrine tumours have raised hope for improved radionuclide therapy of other forms of disseminated tumours. New molecular target structures are characterized and this stimulates the efforts to develop new radiolabelled targeting agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides. The choice is determined by physical, chemical, biological, and economic factors, such as a character of emitted radiation, physical half-life, labelling chemistry, chemical stability of the label, intracellular retention time, and fate of radiocatabolites and availability of the radionuclide. There is actually limited availability of suitable radionuclides and this is a limiting factor for further progress in the field and this is the focus in this article. The probably most promising therapeutic radionuclide, 211At, requires regional production and distribution centres with dedicated cyclotrons. Such centres are, with a few exceptions in the world, lacking today. They can be designed to also produce beta- and Augeremitters of therapeutic interest. Furthermore, emerging satellite PET scanners will in the near future demand long-lived positron emitters for diagnostics with macromolecular radiopharmaceuticals, and these can also be produced at such centres. To secure continued development and to meet the foreseen requirements for radionuclide availability from the medical community it is necessary to establish specialized cyclotron centres for radionuclide production. PMID:15244250

  4. The Importance of Organ Geometry and Boundary Constraints for Planning of Medical Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Misra, S.; Macura, K. J.; Ramesh, K. T.; Okamura, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Realistic modeling of medical interventions involving tool-tissue interactions has been considered to be a key requirement in the development of high-fidelity simulators and planners. Organ geometry, the soft-tissue constitutive laws, and boundary conditions imposed by the connective tissues surrounding the organ are some of the factors that govern the accuracy of medical intervention planning. In this study it is demonstrated that (for needle path planning) the organ geometry and boundary constraints surrounding the organ are the most important factors inuencing the deformation. As an example, the procedure of needle insertion into the prostate (e.g. for biopsy or brachytherapy) is considered. Image segmentation is used to extract the anatomical details from magnetic resonance images, while object-oriented finite element analysis (OOF) software is used to generate finite element (FE) meshes from the segmented images. Two-dimensional FE simulations that account for complex anatomical details along with relative motion between the prostate and its surrounding structure using cohesive zone models are compared with traditional simulation models having simple organ geometry and boundary constraints. Nodal displacements for these simpler models were observed to be up to 14 times larger than those obtained from the anatomically accurate models. PMID:18815068

  5. Activity of compound G2 isolated from alfalfa roots against medically important yeasts.

    PubMed Central

    Polacheck, I; Zehavi, U; Naim, M; Levy, M; Evron, R

    1986-01-01

    An antimycotic agent was isolated from roots of alfalfa and further purified to yield a nonhemolytic, homogeneous compound (G2). This compound contained considerable activity against 10 medically important yeasts. MICs obtained by both agar and broth dilution methods ranged from 3 to 15 micrograms/ml. Compound G2 was fungicidal at a relatively low concentration for nine different species of yeasts tested (minimum fungicidal concentrations ranged between 6 and 24 micrograms/ml). The considerable stability of compound G2 and its strong inhibitory and fungicidal activity against a broad range of yeasts suggest that after further development it might be useful as an active agent in the treatment of mycotic infections. PMID:3767342

  6. Investigation on American cockroaches medically important bacteria in Khorramshahr hospital, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kassiri, Hamid; Kassiri, Ali; Kazemi, Shahnaz

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate American cockroaches' infection to various bacteria in Khorramshahr Vali-e-Asr hospital, which was done in 2008. Methods In this descriptive cross-sectional study, 20 American cockroaches were caught via direct collection. Medically important bacteria were extracted from their outer surface of bodies by standard procedures. Results Culturing outer surface wash of cockroaches resulted in the separation of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus, Proteus and Streptococcus. The main common bacteria were Klebsiella (35%) and Pseudomonas (30%). Also, results of culture media showed that about 90% of cockroaches infected to at least one bacterium. Conclusions American cockroaches can transmit pathogenic and potential pathogenic bacteria, therefore their presence in hospitals may be a sanitation challenge. It is recommended to assess plans in purpose to combat these pests in the hospitals.

  7. The concept of intensive medicine. A systems approach of importance to medical engineers.

    PubMed

    Horisberger, B

    1976-07-20

    The paper demonstrates how planning, organizing, equipping, and running all Intensive Care Unit (ICU) should be carried out, using a systems approach, and by keeping in mind that quality and degree of overall performance is a function of effectiveness and efficiency. The interactions of the ICU with its "environment" are discussed; a method of estimating the size of the ICU is mentioned. Then, the elements determining performance are analyzed: personnel, pathophysiologic states of the patients, financial and material resources. Furthermore, the problem of goal-oriented systems synthesis is outlined and suggestions for more detailed studies on the structure of some of the "subsystems" are put forward. The paper summarizes some important consequences for medical engineering as applied to intensive medicine. PMID:995074

  8. From the stretcher to the pharmacy's shelf: drug leads from medically important brazilian venomous arachnid species.

    PubMed

    Rates, Breno; Verano-Braga, Thiago; Santos, Daniel Moreira; Nunes, Kênia Pedrosa; Pimenta, Adriano M C; De Lima, Maria Elena

    2011-10-01

    Accidents involving venomous animals have always caught the attention of mankind due to their lethality and other clinical implications. However, since the molecules obtained from animal venoms have been the product of millions of years of evolutionary process, toxins could be used to probe physiological mechanisms and could serve as leads for drug development. The present work reviews the state of the art pertaining to venom molecules from Brazilian medically important arachnid species bearing potential biotechnological applications. Special focus is given to toxins isolated from the scorpion Tityus serrulatus and the spiders Phoneutria nigriventer and Lycosa erythrognatha, whose venoms possess molecules acting as erectile function modulators and as antihypertensive, analgesic, neuroprotective and antimicrobial agents. PMID:21824079

  9. The attitudes of medical students toward the importance of understanding classical Greek and Latin in the development of an anatomical and medical vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Shiby; Moxham, Bernard John

    2016-09-01

    Students on entering medical school are faced with acquiring new, and voluminous, anatomical and medical terminologies. A reason why acquiring these terminologies may be problematic relates to the fact that many terms are derived from classical Greek and Latin; languages nowadays that are rarely taught at school. It might also be supposed that the often reported reduction in exposure to anatomy, and time spent in the dissection room, impairs the students' knowledge and understanding of anatomical relationships, and thus further complicates the acquisition of the terminologies. To date, there have been no studies that have quantified the attitudes of medical students toward the importance of understanding classical Greek and Latin during their medical training. In order to assess these attitudes, this study was undertaken for the newly-recruited (First Year) medical students and for the Final Year medical students at Cardiff University. They were provided with a brief questionnaire that was devised in accordance with Thurstone and Chave (1951) principles and with ethical approval. One hundred and eighty First Year students and one hundred and nineteen Final Year students responded. Our initial hypothesis was that students throughout the medical curriculum have an unfavorable attitude toward the importance of classical Greek and Latin. This hypothesis was supported by the attitudes of the Final Year students but not by the First Year medical students. While we would still advocate that First Year medical students should acquire some understanding of and have some formal or informal instruction in, classical Greek and Latin as they pertain to medical terminologies, we acknowledge that Final Year students are likely to have become reasonably well-versed in the origins of medical terminologies without formal instruction. Clin. Anat. 29:696-701, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26860743

  10. Activity and biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Mulla, M S; Su, T

    1999-06-01

    Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs. PMID:10412110

  11. Aboriginal new world epidemiolgy and medical care, and the impact of Old World disease imports.

    PubMed

    Newman, M T

    1976-11-01

    Various workers, including T. D. Stewart, claim that the aboriginal Americas were relatively disease-free because of the bering Strait cold-screen, eliminating many pathogens, and the paucity of zoonotic infections because of few domestic animals. Evidence of varying validity suggests that precontact Americns had their own strains of treponemic infections, bacillary and amoebic dysenteries, influenza and viral penumonia and other respiratory diseases, salmonellosis and perhaps other food poisoning, various arthritides, some endoparasites such as the ascarids, and several geographically circumscribed diseases such as the rickettsial verruca (Carrion's disease) and New World leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Questionably aboriginal are tuberculosis and typhus. Accordingly, virtually all the "crowd-type" ecopathogenic diseases such as smallpox, yellow fever, typhoid, malaria, measles, pertussis, polio, etc., appear to have been absent from the New World, and were only brought in by White conquerors and their Black slaves. My hypothesis is that native American medical care systems--especially in the more culturally advanced areas--were sufficiently sophisticated to deal with native disease entities with reasonable competence. But native medical systems could not cope with the "crowd-type" disease imports that struck Indian and Eskimos as "virgin-field" populations. Reanalysis of native population losses through a genocidal combination of diease, war, slavery and attendant cultural disruption by Dobyns, Cook and others strongly suggest that traditiona estimates underplayed the death toll by a factor of the general order of ten. This would make for an immediately pre-contact Indian population of some 90-111 million instead of the tradition 8-11 million. Evidence is growing that Indians may have been no more susceptible to new pathogens that are other "virgin soil" populations, and thus their immune systems need not be considered less effective than those in other people

  12. Single-cell force spectroscopy of the medically important Staphylococcus epidermidis-Candida albicans interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaussart, Audrey; Herman, Philippe; El-Kirat-Chatel, Sofiane; Lipke, Peter N.; Kucharíková, Soňa; van Dijck, Patrick; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-10-01

    Despite the clinical importance of bacterial-fungal interactions, their molecular details are poorly understood. A hallmark of such medically important interspecies associations is the interaction between the two nosocomial pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, which can lead to mixed biofilm-associated infections with enhanced antibiotic resistance. Here, we use single-cell force spectroscopy (SCFS) to quantify the forces engaged in bacterial-fungal co-adhesion, focusing on the poorly investigated S. epidermidis-C. albicans interaction. Force curves recorded between single bacterial and fungal germ tubes showed large adhesion forces (~5 nN) with extended rupture lengths (up to 500 nm). By contrast, bacteria poorly adhered to yeast cells, emphasizing the important role of the yeast-to-hyphae transition in mediating adhesion to bacterial cells. Analysis of mutant strains altered in cell wall composition allowed us to distinguish the main fungal components involved in adhesion, i.e. Als proteins and O-mannosylations. We suggest that the measured co-adhesion forces are involved in the formation of mixed biofilms, thus possibly as well in promoting polymicrobial infections. In the future, we anticipate that this SCFS platform will be used in nanomedicine to decipher the molecular mechanisms of a wide variety of pathogen-pathogen interactions and may help in designing novel anti-adhesion agents.

  13. New Technology Provides Urgent Medical Information and Protects Privacy: Providing Important Information in Medical Situations for the Developmentally Disabled

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seelig, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fernando Viesca has a 24-year-old son who suffers from Angelman Syndrome, a little known chromosomal disorder that has left him with significant functional deficiencies. When Nando lived at home, his father took care of him full time, thus alleviating any worries about medical care. However, now that Nando lives in a group home, his father is no…

  14. Rapid Identification of Medically Important Candida Isolates Using High Resolution Melting Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nemcova, Eva; Cernochova, Michaela; Ruzicka, Filip; Malisova, Barbora

    2015-01-01

    An increasing trend in non albicans infections and various susceptibility patterns to antifungal agents implies a requirement for the quick and reliable identification of a number of medically important Candida species. Real-time PCR followed by high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) was developed, tested on 25 reference Candida collection strains and validated on an additional 143 clinical isolates in this study. All reference strains and clinical isolates inconclusive when using phenotypic methods and/or HRMA were analysed using ITS2 sequencing. Considering reference and clinical strains together, 23 out of 27 Candida species could be clearly distinguished by HRMA, while the remaining 4 species were grouped in 2 pairs, when applying the mean Tm ± 3 SD values, the shape of the derivative melting curve (dMelt curve) and, in some cases, the normalized and temperature—shifted difference plot against C. krusei. HRMA as a simple, rapid and inexpensive tool was shown to be useful in identifying a wide spectrum of clinically important Candida species. It may complement the current clinical diagnostic approach based on commercially available biochemical kits. PMID:25689781

  15. AVPdb: a database of experimentally validated antiviral peptides targeting medically important viruses.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Abid; Thakur, Nishant; Tandon, Himani; Kumar, Manoj

    2014-01-01

    Antiviral peptides (AVPs) have exhibited huge potential in inhibiting viruses by targeting various stages of their life cycle. Therefore, we have developed AVPdb, available online at http://crdd.osdd.net/servers/avpdb, to provide a dedicated resource of experimentally verified AVPs targeting over 60 medically important viruses including Influenza, HCV, HSV, RSV, HBV, DENV, SARS, etc. However, we have separately provided HIV inhibiting peptides in 'HIPdb'. AVPdb contains detailed information of 2683 peptides, including 624 modified peptides experimentally tested for antiviral activity. In modified peptides a chemical moiety is attached for increasing their efficacy and stability. Detailed information include: peptide sequence, length, source, virus targeted, virus family, cell line used, efficacy (qualitative/quantitative), target step/protein, assay used in determining the efficacy and PubMed reference. The database also furnishes physicochemical properties and predicted structure for each peptide. We have provided user-friendly browsing and search facility along with other analysis tools to help the users. Entering of many synthetic peptide-based drugs in various stages of clinical trials reiterate the importance for the AVP resources. AVPdb is anticipated to cater to the needs of scientific community working for the development of antiviral therapeutics. PMID:24285301

  16. Periodontal-disease-associated biofilm: A reservoir for pathogens of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Vieira Colombo, Ana Paula; Magalhães, Clarissa Bichara; Hartenbach, Fátima Aparecida Rocha Resende; Martins do Souto, Renata; Maciel da Silva-Boghossian, Carina

    2016-05-01

    The ecological diversity of the periodontal microenvironment may provide suitable conditions for the colonization of species not usually considered members of the oral microbiota. In this investigation, we aimed to determine the prevalence and levels of pathogenic species of medical relevance in the microbiota of individuals with distinct periodontal clinical status. Subgingival biofilm was obtained from patients with periodontal health (H, n = 81), gingivitis (G, n = 55), generalized aggressive (AgP, n = 36) or chronic periodontitis (CP, n = 98), and analyzed for 39 microbial taxa using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. Microbial differences among groups, as well as associations between clinical and microbiological parameters were sought by non-parametric and univariate correlation tests. Neisseria spp., Peptostreptococus anaerobius, Candida albicans, enterobacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Eubacterium saphenum, Clostridium difficile and Olsenella uli were detected in high mean prevalence and counts in the subgingival microbiota of the study population. Species that were more related to periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction at the patient and site levels included enterobacteria, C. albicans, Neisseria spp., P. aeruginosa, O. uli, Hafnia alvei, Serratia marcescens and Filifactor alocis (p < 0.05). In contrast, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae were associated with periodontal health (p < 0.05). Pathogenic species of medical importance may be detected in high prevalence and levels in the periodontal microbiota. Regardless of their role in periodontal health or disease, the periodontal biofilm may be a source for dissemination and development of systemic infections by these pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:26416306

  17. Sleep timing is more important than sleep length or quality for medical school performance.

    PubMed

    Genzel, L; Ahrberg, K; Roselli, C; Niedermaier, S; Steiger, A; Dresler, M; Roenneberg, T

    2013-07-01

    Overwhelming evidence supports the importance of sleep for memory consolidation. Medical students are often deprived of sufficient sleep due to large amounts of clinical duties and university load, we therefore investigated how study and sleep habits influence university performance. We performed a questionnaire-based study with 31 medical students of the University of Munich (second and third clinical semesters; surgery and internal medicine). The students kept a diary (in 30-min bins) on their daily schedules (times when they studied by themselves, attended classes, slept, worked on their thesis, or worked to earn money). The project design involved three 2-wk periods (A: during the semester; B: directly before the exam period--pre-exam; C: during the subsequent semester break). Besides the diaries, students completed once questionnaires about their sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index [PSQI]), their chronotype (Munich Chronotype Questionnaire [MCTQ]), and their academic history (previous grades, including the previously achieved preclinical board exam [PBE]). Analysis revealed significant correlations between the actual sleep behavior during the semester (MS(diary); mid-sleep point averaged from the sleep diaries) during the pre-exam period and the achieved grade (p = 0.002) as well as between the grades of the currently taken exam and the PBE (p = 0.002). A regression analysis with MS(diary) pre-exam and PBE as predictors in a model explained 42.7% of the variance of the exam grade (effect size 0.745). Interestingly, MS(diary)--especially during the pre-exam period-was the strongest predictor for the currently achieved grade, along with the preclinical board exam as a covariate, whereas the chronotype did not significantly influence the exam grade. PMID:23750895

  18. Report of the CIRRPC Executive Committee regarding EPA NESHAP regulations on radionuclides for medical research institutions and radiopharmaceutical manufacturers

    SciTech Connect

    1990-06-01

    There appears to be no compelling public health protection reason for EPA`s promulgation of NESHAP regulations to control air emissions of radioactive materials from NRC-licensed facilities engaged in activities associated with the practice and development of nuclear medicine. The NRC`s existing regulations provide the necessary controls for protection and EPA`s regulations would only add burdensome reporting requirements at substantial cost to medical treatment and diagnosis. Availability of nuclear medicine practice could be impacted and advancements through research delayed.

  19. The medical importance of riceland mosquitoes and their control using alternatives to chemical insecticides.

    PubMed

    Lacey, L A; Lacey, C M

    1990-06-01

    The medical importance, ecology and control of riceland mosquitoes using alternative strategies is reviewed. Over 135 pest and vector anopheline and culicine mosquito species found in association with riceland habitats and their medical importance are presented. Malaria and Japanese encephalitis are the two most serious human diseases transmitted by riceland mosquitoes, but they have been incriminated as vectors of dozens of arboviruses and other parasites and pathogens including the causal agents of West Nile and Rift Valley Fevers and lymphatic filariasis. Control of vector and pest mosquitoes using chemical pesticides has generated several problems including: insecticide resistance, safety risks for humans and domestic animals, and other environmental concerns. These problems and the high cost and sustainability of programs based predominantly on conventional insecticides have stimulated increased interest in integrated control measures in ricelands. The integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for mosquito control, also known as integrated vector control (IVC), is an ecologically based approach that may involve several complementary interventions used in combination or singly. Environmental management, and chemical, biological and mechanical control, comprise the elements of IVC proposed for use in or near riceland habitats. Some of the elements of environmental management include the use of intermittent irrigation; flushing of fields; use of rice cultivars that require less water; shifting of planting schedules to avoid optimal mosquito breeding conditions; relocation of communities or use of dry belt farming around them; and zooprophylaxis and other personal protection methods, especially use of insecticide-impregnated bed nets. Biological control agents that have been used successfully in rice fields include several species of larvivorous fish, a mermithid nematode (Romanomermis culicivorax), a fungus (Lagenidium giganteum) and bacteria (Bacillus

  20. Role Modeling in Medical Education: The Importance of a Reflective Imitation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The medical literature almost uniformly addresses the positive aspects of role modeling. Still, some authors have questioned its educational value, a disagreement that is probably due to differing definitions of role modeling. If defined as demonstration of skills, provision of feedback, and emulation of specific professional behaviors, then role modeling is an important component of clinical training. However, if it is defined as a learner’s unselective imitation of role models and uncritical adoption of the messages of the learning environment, then the benefits of role modeling should be weighed against its unintended harm. In this Perspective, the author argues that imitation of role models may initially help students adapt to the clinical environment. However, if sustained, imitation may perpetuate undesirable practices, such as doctor-centered patient interviewing, and unintended institutional norms, such as discrimination between private and public patients. The author suggests that the value of role modeling can be advanced not only by targeting role models and improving faculty performance but also by enhancing students’ reflective assessment of their preceptors’ behaviors, especially so that they can better discern those that are worth imitating. This student-centered approach may be accomplished by first, warning students against uncritically imitating preceptors who are perceived as role models; second, showing students that their preceptors share their doubts and uncertainties; third, gaining an insight into possible undesirable messages of the learning environment; and finally, developing policies for faculty recruitment and promotion that consider whether a clinical preceptor is a role model. PMID:24556777

  1. Studies on the inactivation of medically important Candida species on agar surfaces using pulsed light.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Hugh; Garvey, Mary; Rowan, Neil

    2009-09-01

    Development of a pulsed-light (PL) approach to inanimate surface decontamination is timely, as the incidence of yeast-related infections in healthcare remains unacceptably high. Critical electrical and biological factors governing the efficacy of PL for the in vitro inactivation of medically important yeast were established in this study. Predetermined cell numbers of yeast were inoculated separately on agar plates and were flashed with < or =90 pulses of broad-spectrum light under varying operating conditions, and their inactivation was measured. Significant differences in inactivation among different yeasts occurred depending on the intensity of the applied lamp discharge energy and the amount of pulsing applied. Levels of yeast sensitivity also varied depending on the distance between the light source and the treatment surface used, and the population size, type and age of cultures treated. Yeast strains were shown to be significantly more resistant to PL irradiation compared with similarly treated bacterial control cultures. A clear relationship was observed between the concentration of eluted proteins from treated yeast and the severity of PL conditions, with scanning electron micrographs showing irreversible cellular damage. Therefore, the findings from this study will enable further development and optimization of PL as a method of decontaminating surfaces in healthcare setting. PMID:19624750

  2. Assessment of plant lectin antifungal potential against yeasts of major importance in medical mycology.

    PubMed

    Klafke, Gabriel Baracy; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmitt Garcia; Monte, Leonardo Garcia; Pereira, Juliano Lacava; Brandolt, Tchana Martinez; Xavier, Melissa Orzechowski; Santi-Gadelha, Tatiane; Dellagostin, Odir Antonio; Pinto, Luciano da Silva

    2013-02-01

    The search for new compounds with antifungal activity is accelerating due to rising yeast and fungal resistance to commonly prescribed drugs. Among the molecules being investigated, plant lectins can be highlighted. The present work shows the potential of six plant lectins which were tested in vitro against yeasts of medical importance, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis, Cryptococcus gattii, Cryptococcus neoformans, Malassezia pachydermatis, Rhodotorula sp. and Trichosporon sp. Broth microdilution susceptibility testing was performed in accordance with standard protocols to evaluate antifungal activity. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined at 80% yeast growth inhibition, whereas the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) was evaluated after making the subcultures of each dilution. Only C. parapsilosis growth was inhibited by the lectins tested. Abelmoschus esculentus lectin showed the highest MIC (0.97 μg ml(-1)). Lectins from Canavalia brasiliensis, Mucuna pruriens and Clitoria fairchildiana presented the highest MFC at (3.90 μg ml(-1)). These results encourage further studies with wider yeast strain selections, and open new perspectives for the development of pharmacological molecules. PMID:23161017

  3. Barriers to the implementation of medication-assisted treatment for substance use disorders: The importance of funding policies and medical infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Hannah K.; Abraham, Amanda J.; Oser, Carrie B.

    2011-01-01

    Despite growing interest in the use of evidence-based treatment practices, adoption of pharmacotherapies for treating substance use disorders (SUDs) remains modest. Using data from telephone interviews with 250 administrators of publicly funded SUD treatment programs, this study estimated a model of adoption of medication assisted treatment (MAT) for SUDs and examined the relative importance of regulatory, cultural, medical resource, patient-level, and funding barriers to MAT implementation. MAT-adopting programs had significantly greater medical resources, as measured by the employment of physicians and nurses, than non-adopting programs. Administrators of non-adopting programs were asked to rate the importance of 18 barriers to MAT implementation. The most strongly endorsed barriers were regulatory prohibitions due to the program’s lack of medical staff, funding barriers to implementing MAT, and lack of access to medical personnel with expertise in delivering MAT. Barriers related to insufficient information about MAT and unsupportive staff attitudes were not widely endorsed. These findings suggest that efforts to promote the implementation of MAT that are inattentive to funding barriers and weaknesses in medical infrastructure may achieve sub-optimal results. PMID:21371752

  4. Depot-medication compliance for patients with psychotic disorders: the importance of illness insight and treatment motivation

    PubMed Central

    Noordraven, Ernst L; Wierdsma, André I; Blanken, Peter; Bloemendaal, Anthony FT; Mulder, Cornelis L

    2016-01-01

    Background Noncompliance is a major problem for patients with a psychotic disorder. Two important risk factors for noncompliance that have a severe negative impact on treatment outcomes are impaired illness insight and lack of motivation. Our cross-sectional study explored how they are related to each other and their compliance with depot medication. Methods Interviews were conducted in 169 outpatients with a psychotic disorder taking depot medication. Four patient groups were defined based on low or high illness insight and on low or high motivation. The associations between depot-medication compliance, motivation, and insight were illustrated using generalized linear models. Results Generalized linear model showed a significant interaction effect between motivation and insight. Patients with poor insight and high motivation for treatment were more compliant (94%) (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.821, 3.489) with their depot medication than patients with poor insight and low motivation (61%) (95% CI: 0.288, 0.615). Patients with both insight and high motivation for treatment were less compliant (73%) (95% CI: 0.719, 1.315) than those with poor insight and high motivation. Conclusion Motivation for treatment was more strongly associated with depot-medication compliance than with illness insight. Being motivated to take medication, whether to get better or for other reasons, may be a more important factor than having illness insight in terms of improving depot-medication compliance. Possible implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:26893565

  5. The importance of surveillance for informing pretravel medical advice: imported malaria in New Zealand 1997-2009.

    PubMed

    Lau, Colleen; Weinstein, Philip; Slaney, David

    2014-02-01

    Malaria has never been endemic in New Zealand, and all cases have been diagnosed in international travelers. In this paper, we describe malaria cases reported from 1997 to 2009 and discuss epidemiological changes compared to a previous report from 1980 to 1992. From 1997 to 2009, 666 malaria infections were reported, with 410 cases (61.6%) in travelers aged 20-39 and 133 (20%) in military personnel. Infections were caused by Plasmodium vivax in 436 cases (72.7%) and Plasmodium falciparum in 163 (27.2%). In the 533 civilians, common countries of infection were Papua New Guinea (24.4%), India (18.6%), the Solomon Islands (8.8%), and Indonesia (6.1%). Most common regions of malaria acquisition for civilians were Papua New Guinea and Western Pacific (39.8%), Africa (24.7%), Indian subcontinent (19.5%), and Southeast Asia (13.6%). Compared to a previous report of malaria in New Zealand from 1980 to 1992, regions of malaria acquisition have changed significantly, with a lower percentage of cases acquired from Papua New Guinea and Western Pacific (from 59.2% to 39.3%), and a higher percentage from Africa (from 8.6% to 21.3%). The ethnic groups affected also differ significantly between the two surveillance periods, with a reduction in the percentage of cases reported in Caucasians (from 80.8 to 45.9%) and an increase in cases in Indians (from 7.0 to 15.7%), Papua New Guineans and Pacific Islanders (from 5.2 to 16.9%), other Asians (from 2.3 to 5.6%), and Africans (from 0 to 8.5%). Common locations of malaria infection have evolved over time and probably reflect changing travel patterns of New Zealanders and the origins of visitors and immigrants. Therefore, local surveillance is important for informing pretravel advice by identifying vulnerable groups and common destinations for malaria infection, so that special attention on malaria prevention can be focused on travelers who are at highest risk. Ongoing surveillance is also essential for monitoring the evolving

  6. Multicenter Study Evaluating the Vitek MS System for Identification of Medically Important Yeasts

    PubMed Central

    Westblade, Lars F.; Jennemann, Rebecca; Branda, John A.; Bythrow, Maureen; Ferraro, Mary Jane; Garner, Omai B.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Lewinski, Michael A.; Manji, Ryhana; Mochon, A. Brian; Procop, Gary W.; Richter, Sandra S.; Rychert, Jenna A.; Sercia, Linda

    2013-01-01

    The optimal management of fungal infections is correlated with timely organism identification. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is revolutionizing the identification of yeasts isolated from clinical specimens. We present a multicenter study assessing the performance of the Vitek MS system (bioMérieux) in identifying medically important yeasts. A collection of 852 isolates was tested, including 20 Candida species (626 isolates, including 58 C. albicans, 62 C. glabrata, and 53 C. krusei isolates), 35 Cryptococcus neoformans isolates, and 191 other clinically relevant yeast isolates; in total, 31 different species were evaluated. Isolates were directly applied to a target plate, followed by a formic acid overlay. Mass spectra were acquired using the Vitek MS system and were analyzed using the Vitek MS v2.0 database. The gold standard for identification was sequence analysis of the D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene. In total, 823 isolates (96.6%) were identified to the genus level and 819 isolates (96.1%) were identified to the species level. Twenty-four isolates (2.8%) were not identified, and five isolates (0.6%) were misidentified. Misidentified isolates included one isolate of C. albicans (n = 58) identified as Candida dubliniensis, one isolate of Candida parapsilosis (n = 73) identified as Candida pelliculosa, and three isolates of Geotrichum klebahnii (n = 6) identified as Geotrichum candidum. The identification of clinically relevant yeasts using MS is superior to the phenotypic identification systems currently employed in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:23658267

  7. Identification of Medically Important Yeast Species by Sequence Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer Regions

    PubMed Central

    Leaw, Shiang Ning; Chang, Hsien Chang; Sun, Hsiao Fang; Barton, Richard; Bouchara, Jean-Philippe; Chang, Tsung Chain

    2006-01-01

    Infections caused by yeasts have increased in previous decades due primarily to the increasing population of immunocompromised patients. In addition, infections caused by less common species such as Pichia, Rhodotorula, Trichosporon, and Saccharomyces spp. have been widely reported. This study extensively evaluated the feasibility of sequence analysis of the rRNA gene internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions for the identification of yeasts of clinical relevance. Both the ITS1 and ITS2 regions of 373 strains (86 species), including 299 reference strains and 74 clinical isolates, were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The sequences were compared to reference data available at the GenBank database by using BLAST (basic local alignment search tool) to determine if species identification was possible by ITS sequencing. Since the GenBank database currently lacks ITS sequence entries for some yeasts, the ITS sequences of type (or reference) strains of 15 species were submitted to GenBank to facilitate identification of these species. Strains producing discrepant identifications between the conventional methods and ITS sequence analysis were further analyzed by sequencing of the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for species clarification. The rates of correct identification by ITS1 and ITS2 sequence analysis were 96.8% (361/373) and 99.7% (372/373), respectively. Of the 373 strains tested, only 1 strain (Rhodotorula glutinis BCRC 20576) could not be identified by ITS2 sequence analysis. In conclusion, identification of medically important yeasts by ITS sequencing, especially using the ITS2 region, is reliable and can be used as an accurate alternative to conventional identification methods. PMID:16517841

  8. DNA barcoding and molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance.

    PubMed

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Vadivalagan, Chithravel; Karthika, Pushparaj; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Wei, Hui; Aziz, Al Thabiani; Alsalhi, Mohamad Saleh; Devanesan, Sandhanasamy; Nicoletti, Marcello; Paramasivan, Rajaiah; Parajulee, Megha N; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. The standard method of utilisation of morphological characters becomes challenging due to various factors such as phenotypical variations. We explored the complementary approach of CO1 gene-based identification, analysing ten species of mosquito vectors belonging to three genera, Aedes, Culex and Anopheles from India. Analysed nucleotide sequences were found without pseudo genes and indels; they match with high similarity in nucleotide Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLASTn) search. The partial CO1 sequence of Anopheles niligricus was the first time record submitted to National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Mean intra- and interspecies divergence was found to be 1.30 and 3.83 %, respectively. The congeneric divergence was three times higher than the conspecifics. Deep intraspecific divergence was noted in three of the species, and the reason could be explained more accurately in the future by improving the sample size across different locations. The transitional and transversional substitutions were tested individually. Ts and Tv substitutions in all the 1st, 2nd and 3rd codons were estimated to be (0.44, 99.51), (40.35, 59.66) and (59.16, 40.84), respectively. Saturation of the sequences was resolved, since both the Ts and Tv exhibited a linear relationship suggesting that the sequences were not saturated. NJ and ML tree analysis showed that the individuals of the same species clustered together based on the CO1 sequence similarity, regardless of their collection site and geographic location. Overall, this study adds basic knowledge to molecular evolution of mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance and may be useful to improve biotechnological tools employed in Culicidae control programmes. PMID:26358100

  9. The Importance of Medication Errors Reporting in Improving the Quality of Clinical Care Services

    PubMed Central

    Elden, Nesreen Mohamed Kamal; Ismail, Amira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medication errors have significant implications on patient safety. Error detection through an active management and effective reporting system discloses medication errors and encourages safe practices. Objectives: To improve patient safety through determining and reducing the major causes of medication errors (MEs), after applying tailored preventive strategies. Methodology: A pre-test, post-test study was conducted on all inpatients at a 177 bed hospital where all medication procedures in each ward were monitored by a clinical pharmacist. The patient files were reviewed, as well. Error reports were submitted to a hospital multidisciplinary committee to identify major causes of errors. Accordingly, corrective interventions that consisted of targeted training programs for nurses and physicians were conducted. Results: Medication errors were higher during ordering/prescription stage (38.1%), followed by administration phase (20.9%). About 45% of errors reached the patients: 43.5% were harmless and 1.4% harmful. 7.7% were potential errors and more than 47% could be prevented. After the intervention, error rates decreased from (6.7%) to (3.6%) (P≤0.001). Conclusion: The role of a ward based clinical pharmacist with a hospital multidisciplinary committee was effective in recognizing, designing and implementing tailored interventions for reduction of medication errors. A systematic approach is urgently needed to decrease organizational susceptibility to errors, through providing required resources to monitor, analyze and implement effective interventions. PMID:27045415

  10. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems ... damage. The amount of radiation used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  11. Importance of patient education on home medical care waste disposal in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Yukihiro

    2014-07-15

    Highlights: • Attached office nurses more recovered medical waste from patients’ homes. • Most nurses educated their patients on how to store home medical care waste in their homes and on how to separate them. • Around half of nurses educated their patients on where to dispose of their home medical care waste. - Abstract: To determine current practices in the disposal and handling of home medical care (HMC) waste, a questionnaire was mailed to 1965 offices nationwide. Of the office that responded, 1283 offices were analyzed. Offices were classified by management configuration: those attached to hospitals were classified as ”attached offices” and others as “independent offices”. More nurses from attached offices recovered medical waste from patients’ homes than those from independent offices. Most nurses educated their patients on how to store HMC waste in their homes (79.3% of total) and on how to separate HMC waste (76.5% of total). On the other hand, only around half of nurses (47.3% from attached offices and 53.2% from independent offices) educated their patients on where to dispose of their HMC waste. 66.0% of offices replied that patients had separated their waste appropriately. The need for patient education has emerged in recent years, with education for nurses under the diverse conditions of HMC being a key factor in patient education.

  12. National Dairy Council Award for Excellence in Medical/Dental Nutrition Education Lecture, 1995: medical-nutrition education--factors important for developing a successful program.

    PubMed

    Weinsier, R L

    1995-10-01

    Currently, there are no established guidelines which define the goals, the course content, or the approach to developing a successful medical-nutrition education program. The result has been great variability in the approach to teaching nutrition to medical students. A common concern among medical educators is how to teach all of the material currently known. The obvious outcome of trying to teach the constantly expanding body of facts is an increasing demand and competition for instructional time. In turn, nutrition educators have fallen into the trap of vying for more time and claiming success for their program on the basis of their acquired number of hours of instruction rather than on the demonstrated quality or effectiveness of their program. The purpose of this report is to recommend a set of goals for nutrition training of medical students and to highlight those factors which appear to be most (and least) important to achieving those goals. It is my belief that the primary goal of educating medical students should be to sensitize students to the relevance of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of disease. A secondary goal should be to impart important information about nutrition. Relative to these goals, and based on previous studies and on my experience at the University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, I believe that two factors are critical to the success of any medical-nutrition education program: 1) demonstrated relevance of the course material to the practice of medicine, and 2) positive role modeling.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7572717

  13. The Importance of "High Valence" Events in a Successful Program for Teaching Geriatrics to Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boling, Peter A.; Willett, Rita M.; Gentili, Angela; Abbey, Linda J.; Lawson, Sonya R.; Schlesinger, Jeanne B.; Meyers, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Virginia Commonwealth University developed an enhanced medical student geriattic curriculum that includes required home visits and nursing home visits for second year students (180 per year), an annual Forum on Aging for all first and second year students, and small group exercises. We added 30 hours of basic science material to pre-clinical…

  14. 77 FR 22328 - Guidance for Industry on the Judicious Use of Medically Important Antimicrobial Drugs in Food...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-13

    ... Register of June 29, 2010 (75 FR 37450), FDA published the notice of availability for a draft guidance... thinking on the use of medically important antimicrobial drugs in animal agriculture. DATES: Submit either... announcing: (1) The availability of a draft guidance entitled ``New Animal Drugs and New Animal...

  15. Field evaluations of residual pesticide applications and misting system on militarily relevant materials against medically important mosquitoes in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A key strategy to reduce insect-borne disease is to reduce contact between disease vectors and hosts. In the current study, residual pesticide application and misting system were applied on militarily relevant materials and evaluated against medically important mosquitoes. Field evaluations were car...

  16. Medically important mosquitoes in the rubber plantation belt of central Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jomon K V; Valamparampil T T

    2014-07-01

    Entomological surveys were carried out in the rubber plantation belt of Kerala to record mosquito fauna. Samples were collected from 23 randomly selected localities using standard methods for a period of three years, from Feb- ruary 2008 to January 2011. Thirty-two species belonging to nine genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Heizmannia, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites, and Uranotaenia were recorded. Many of the recorded species were medically im- portant as potential vectors of dengue fever, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, malaria and filariasis. PMID:25427346

  17. Medically important mosquitoes in the rubber plantation belt of central Kerala, India.

    PubMed

    Jomon K V; Valamparampil T T

    2014-07-01

    Entomological surveys were carried out in the rubber plantation belt of Kerala to record mosquito fauna. Samples were collected from 23 randomly selected localities using standard methods for a period of three years, from Feb- ruary 2008 to January 2011. Thirty-two species belonging to nine genera: Aedes, Anopheles, Armigeres, Coquillettidia, Culex, Heizmannia, Mansonia, Toxorhynchites, and Uranotaenia were recorded. Many of the recorded species were medically im- portant as potential vectors of dengue fever, chikungunya, Japanese encephalitis, malaria and filariasis. PMID:25507596

  18. The importance of job characteristics in determining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population, a longitudinal survey study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The working population is ageing, which will increase the number of workers with chronic health complaints, and, as a consequence, the number of workers seeking health care. It is very important to understand factors that influence medical care-seeking in order to control the costs. I will investigate which work characteristics independently attribute to later care-seeking in order to find possibilities to prevent unnecessary or inefficient care-seeking. Methods Data were collected in a longitudinal two-wave study (n = 2305 workers). The outcome measures were visits (yes/no and frequency) to a general practitioner (GP), a physical therapist, a medical specialist and/or a mental health professional. Multivariate regression analyses were carried out separately for men and women for workers with health complaints. Results In the Dutch working population, personal, health, and work characteristics, but not sickness absence, were associated with later care-seeking. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care-seeking but only for men and only for the frequency of visits to the GP. Women experience more health complaints and seek health care more often than men. For women, experiencing a work handicap (health complaints that impede work performance) was the only work characteristic associated with more care-seeking (GP). For men, work characteristics that led to less care-seeking were social support by colleagues (GP frequency), high levels of decision latitude (GP frequency) and high levels of social support by the supervisor (medical specialist). Other work characteristics led to more care-seeking: high levels of engagement (GP), full time work (GP frequency) and experiencing a work handicap (physical therapist). Conclusions We can conclude that personal and health characteristics are most important when explaining medical care-seeking in the Dutch working population. Work characteristics independently attributed to medical care

  19. Medics and Marine Mammals - An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity's Survival.

    PubMed

    Ponnampalam, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-03-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity. PMID:24876801

  20. Medics and Marine Mammals – An Unlikely but Important Connection for Humanity’s Survival

    PubMed Central

    PONNAMPALAM, Louisa Shobhini

    2014-01-01

    Marine mammals, as top predators in the marine food web, are sentinels of changes in the oceans and public health. Pollution in the sea and overfishing of seafood resources affects these organisms just as much as it affects human beings. Medics, especially doctors, have an influential reach to patients, and are in an ideal position to get better acquainted with ongoing marine environmental issues and subsequently disseminating such information to them. While seemingly an out-of-the-box approach, it is one that can help with environmental conservation and preservation for the future of humanity. PMID:24876801

  1. Clinical importance of achieving biochemical control with medical therapy in adult patients with acromegaly

    PubMed Central

    Christofides, Elena A

    2016-01-01

    In acromegaly, achieving biochemical control (growth hormone [GH] level <1.0 ng/mL and age- and sex-normalized levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1]) through timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment provides an opportunity to improve patient outcomes. Diagnosis of acromegaly is challenging because it is rooted in observing subtle clinical manifestations, and it is typical for acromegaly to evolve for up to 10 years before it is recognized. This results in chronic exposure to elevated levels of GH and IGF-1 and delay in patients receiving appropriate treatment, which consequently increases mortality risk. In this review, the clinical impact of elevated GH and IGF-1 levels, the effectiveness of current therapies, and the potential role of novel treatments for acromegaly will be discussed. Clinical burden of acromegaly and benefits associated with management of GH and IGF-1 levels will be reviewed. Major treatment paradigms in acromegaly include surgery, medical therapy, and radiotherapy. With medical therapies, such as somatostatin analogs, dopamine agonists, and GH receptor antagonists, a substantial proportion of patients achieve reduced GH and normalized IGF-1 levels. In addition, signs and symptoms, quality of life, and comorbidities have also been reported to improve to varying degrees in patients who achieve biochemical control. Currently, there are several innovative therapies in development to improve patient outcomes, patient use, and access. Timely biochemical control of acromegaly ensures that the patient can ultimately improve morbidity and mortality from this disease and its extensive consequences. PMID:27471378

  2. Tracking a Medically Important Spider: Climate Change, Ecological Niche Modeling, and the Brown Recluse (Loxosceles reclusa)

    PubMed Central

    Saupe, Erin E.; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  3. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes. PMID:26221822

  4. Wound emergencies: the importance of assessment, documentation, and early treatment using a wound electronic medical record.

    PubMed

    Golinko, Michael S; Clark, Sunday; Rennert, Robert; Flattau, Anna; Boulton, Andrew J M; Brem, Harold

    2009-05-01

    Chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers, venous ulcers, and pressure ulcers are a major source of morbidity and mortality. To describe wound characteristics associated with a wound emergency, the Wound Electronic Medical Records (WEMR) of 200 consecutive admissions (139 patients, average number of admissions 1.4) to a dedicated inpatient wound healing unit over a period of 5 months were retrospectively reviewed. Patient mean age was 62 +/- 16 years, 59% were men, 27% had a foot ulcer and diabetes mellitus, and 29% had venous ulcers. Presenting signs and symptoms included wound pain, cellulitis, nonpurulent drainage, and undermining, but few presented with classic local clinical signs of infection. Treatment consisted of sharp debridement with deep tissue culture and pathology from the wound base and/or systemic antibiotics. Twenty-percent (20%) of patients had pathology-confirmed and 38% had pathology- or radiology-confirmed osteomyelitis on admission, supporting that new or increasing wound pain, cellulitis, and/or nonpurulent drainage or presence of significant undermining may be indicative of an invasive infection and that patients presenting with these signs and symptoms require an immediate treatment plan and consideration of hospital admission. Use of an objective documentation system such as the WEMR may help alert clinicians to subtle wound changes that require aggressive treatment; thereby, avoiding emergency room visits and hospital admissions. Future research is needed utilizing the WEMR across multiple medical centers to further define criteria for a chronic wound emergency. PMID:19471049

  5. Tracking a medically important spider: climate change, ecological niche modeling, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles reclusa).

    PubMed

    Saupe, Erin E; Papes, Monica; Selden, Paul A; Vetter, Richard S

    2011-01-01

    Most spiders use venom to paralyze their prey and are commonly feared for their potential to cause injury to humans. In North America, one species in particular, Loxosceles reclusa (brown recluse spider, Sicariidae), causes the majority of necrotic wounds induced by the Araneae. However, its distributional limitations are poorly understood and, as a result, medical professionals routinely misdiagnose brown recluse bites outside endemic areas, confusing putative spider bites for other serious conditions. To address the issue of brown recluse distribution, we employ ecological niche modeling to investigate the present and future distributional potential of this species. We delineate range boundaries and demonstrate that under future climate change scenarios, the spider's distribution may expand northward, invading previously unaffected regions of the USA. At present, the spider's range is centered in the USA, from Kansas east to Kentucky and from southern Iowa south to Louisiana. Newly influenced areas may include parts of Nebraska, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, South Dakota, Ohio, and Pennsylvania. These results illustrate a potential negative consequence of climate change on humans and will aid medical professionals in proper bite identification/treatment, potentially reducing bite misdiagnoses. PMID:21464985

  6. Radionuclide cisternogram

    MedlinePlus

    A radionuclide cisternogram is a nuclear scan test. It is used to diagnose problems with the flow of spinal fluid. ... a lumbar puncture include pain at the injection site, bleeding, and ... used during the nuclear scan is very small. Almost all of the ...

  7. Experience with importation of electronic images into the medical record from physical media.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Bradley J

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a system we developed for importing images on compact discs (CDs) from external imaging departments into our clinical image viewing system, and to report on key metrics regarding veracity of information seen on the CDs. We recommend careful attention to the process of CD importation because of the error rate we have seen. We developed a system and process for importing images on CD into our EMR. The importation system scans the CD for digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) images, and collects all patient information seen. That information is presented to the patient for verification. Once validated, the image data is copied into our clinical viewing system. The importation system includes facilities for collecting instances of incorrect data. About 90% of images are now exchanged between our healthcare enterprise and other entities via CD. Data for the wrong patient (e.g., the wrong CD) is seen in about 0.1% of cases, and a similar number of CDs have data for more than one patient on the CD(s) the patient bring to our facility. Most data are now exchanged via DICOM files. DICOM images burned onto CD media are now commonly used for image exchange. However, applications to import DICOM images are not enough. One must implement a process to assure high confidence that the data imported belongs to the patient you are importing. PMID:21286776

  8. Short-term Fallout Radionuclide Ratios and Mass Balance Identify New Suspended Sediments of Channel Origin and Importance of Catchment Flowpath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karwan, Diana; Pizzuto, James; Aalto, Rolf; Marquard, Julia; Aufdenkampe, Anthony; Harpold, Adrian; Benthem, Adam; Skalak, Katherine; Levia, Delphis; Siegert, Courtney

    2016-04-01

    Fallout radionuclides and their ratios, such as beryllium-7 (7Be) and lead-210 (210Pb), are used to determine suspended sediment source and age in catchments. The ratio of beryllium-7 to lead-210 (7Be/210Pb) on suspended sediment has been used to estimate the fraction of "new" sediment in suspension. In the application of this model, "new" suspended sediment is often assumed to originate from recent landscape surface erosion that is delivered to the stream network. Fallout radionuclide deposition can vary across watersheds and on an event basis in a single watershed due to factors such as storm type, atmospheric height, and storm origin. In the White Clay Creek watershed within the mid-Atlantic USA, single-event deposition of 7Be varies from 15 - 177 Bq m-2 and 210Pb varies from 0 - 10 Bq m-2. 7Be/210Pb ratios vary from 7.9 to 17 within event precipitation and from 0.8 to 12.8 on suspended sediment. "New" sediment varies from 6 - 100% over the course of these events. 7Be mass balance during events shows that the majority of 7Be is retained within the catchment and not exported on suspended sediment. During summer thunderstorms, less than 1% of 7Be deposited on the watershed exits the stream channel. By comparing this flux with the direct channel interception of 7Be deposition in precipitation and throughfall we can determine the minimum amount of 7Be leaving the watershed that could occur in the absence of surface erosion. For example in summer thunderstorms, the entirety of the 7Be exiting the watershed on suspended sediment is less than the total activity deposited on the channel in direct precipitation. Channel-intercepted fallout radionuclides can exit the catchment by multiple mechanisms including the tagging of subaerial fluvial deposits with event precipitation; hence "new" suspended sediment originates from within the channel rather than from surface erosion. During extreme events, such as Hurricane Irene, less of the suspended sediment has been newly

  9. Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Gay, Carolina; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Pla, Davinia

    2015-01-01

    Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. The venom proteome of this medically relevant snake was unveiled using a venomic approach. It comprises toxins belonging to fourteen protein families, being dominated by PI- and PIII-SVMPs, PLA2 molecules, BPP-like peptides, L-amino acid oxidase and serine proteinases. This toxin profile largely explains the characteristic pathophysiological effects of bothropic snakebites observed in patients envenomed by B. diporus. Antivenomic analysis of the SAB antivenom (Instituto Vital Brazil) against the venom of B. diporus showed that this pentabothropic antivenom efficiently recognized all the venom proteins and exhibited poor affinity towards the small peptide (BPPs and tripeptide inhibitors of PIII-SVMPs) components of the venom. PMID:26712790

  10. Rapid Differentiation of Aspergillus Species from Other Medically Important Opportunistic Molds and Yeasts by PCR-Enzyme Immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    de Aguirre, Liliana; Hurst, Steven F.; Choi, Jong Soo; Shin, Jong Hee; Hinrikson, Hans Peter; Morrison, Christine J.

    2004-01-01

    We developed a PCR-based assay to differentiate medically important species of Aspergillus from one another and from other opportunistic molds and yeasts by employing universal, fungus-specific primers and DNA probes in an enzyme immunoassay format (PCR-EIA). Oligonucleotide probes, directed to the internal transcribed spacer 2 region of ribosomal DNA from Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus ustus, and Aspergillus versicolor, differentiated 41 isolates (3 to 9 each of the respective species; P < 0.001) in a PCR-EIA detection matrix and gave no false-positive reactions with 33 species of Acremonium, Exophiala, Candida, Fusarium, Mucor, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Rhizopus, Scedosporium, Sporothrix, or other aspergilli tested. A single DNA probe to detect all seven of the most medically important Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. nidulans, A. niger, A. terreus, A. ustus, and A. versicolor) was also designed. Identification of Aspergillus species was accomplished within a single day by the PCR-EIA, and as little as 0.5 pg of fungal DNA could be detected by this system. In addition, fungal DNA extracted from tissues of experimentally infected rabbits was successfully amplified and identified using the PCR-EIA system. This method is simple, rapid, and sensitive for the identification of medically important Aspergillus species and for their differentiation from other opportunistic fungi. PMID:15297489

  11. A review of important medical and surgical considerations for obese patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Prodromo, John; Rackley, Justin; Mulcahey, Mary K

    2016-09-01

    Obesity represents a unique challenge in orthopaedic surgery, the impact of which is seen through all phases of injury: in the development of disease, during the operative procedure, and throughout the rehabilitation period. Given the high prevalence of obesity in the United States and around the world, this patient population represents a substantial proportion of patients in need of orthopedic care. The effects of this disease constrain both medical and financial resources. For obese patients undergoing orthopedic procedures, adequate steps must be taken to minimize the risks that occur before, during, and after surgical intervention. This literature review discusses the impact of obesity on arthroscopic procedures, with a focus on procedures involving the shoulder, hip, and knee. The management of obese patients during the perioperative period should address the specific concerns relating to these patients. Obesity is a risk factor for numerous comorbidities, is associated with surgical complications, and is a predictor of poor functional outcomes following arthroscopy. Efforts to minimize the negative impact of obesity on arthroscopic procedures are crucial. PMID:27578242

  12. Multidrug-Resistance and Toxic Metal Tolerance of Medically Important Bacteria Isolated from an Aquaculture System

    PubMed Central

    Resende, Juliana Alves; Silva, Vânia L.; Fontes, Cláudia Oliveira; Souza-Filho, Job Alves; de Oliveira, Tamara Lopes Rocha; Coelho, Cíntia Marques; César, Dionéia Evangelista; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo

    2012-01-01

    The use of antimicrobials and toxic metals should be considered carefully in aquaculture and surrounding environments. We aimed to evaluate medically relevant bacteria in an aquaculture system and their susceptibility to antimicrobials and toxic metals. Selective cultures for enterobacteria (ENT), non-fermenting Gram-negative rods (NFR) and Gram-positive cocci (GPC) were obtained from water samples collected in two different year seasons. The isolated bacteria were biochemically identified and antimicrobial and toxic metal susceptibility patterns were determined. Overall, 407 representative strains were recovered. In general, bacteria isolated from fish ponds showed higher multiple antibiotic resistance indices when compared to those isolated from a water-fed canal. Resistance to penicillin and azithromycin was observed more frequently in the GPC group, whereas resistance to ampicillin and ampicillin/sulbactam or gentamicin was observed more frequently in the ENT and NFR groups, respectively. All the isolated bacteria were tolerant to nickel, zinc, chromium and copper at high levels (≥1,024 μg mL−1), whereas tolerance to cadmium and mercury varied among the isolated bacteria (2–1,024 μg mL−1). Multidrug-resistant bacteria were more frequent and diverse in fish ponds than in the water-fed canal. A positive correlation was observed between antimicrobial resistance and metal tolerance. The data point out the need for water treatment associated with the aquaculture system. PMID:22972388

  13. Authentic early experience in Medical Education: a socio-cultural analysis identifying important variables in learning interactions within workplaces.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-12-01

    This paper addresses the question 'what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?' AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually orientated to a socio-cultural perspective. Study participants were recruited from three groups at one UK medical school: students, workplace supervisors, and medical school faculty. A series of intersecting spectra identified in the data describe dyadic variables that make explicit the parameters within which social interactions are conducted in this setting. Four of the spectra describe social processes related to being in workplaces and developing the ability to manage interactions during authentic early experiences. These are: (1) legitimacy expressed through invited participation or exclusion; (2) finding a role-a spectrum from student identity to doctor mindset; (3) personal perspectives and discomfort in transition from lay to medical; and, (4) taking responsibility for 'risk'-moving from aversion to management through graded progression of responsibility. Four further spectra describe educational consequences of social interactions. These spectra identify how the reality of learning is shaped through social interactions and are (1) generic-specific objectives, (2) parallel-integrated-learning, (3) context specific-transferable learning and (4) performing or simulating-reality. Attention to these variables is important if educators are to maximise constructive learning from AEE. Application of each of the spectra could assist workplace supervisors to maximise the positive learning potential of specific workplaces. PMID:23212811

  14. Snakes of medical importance in India: is the concept of the "Big 4" still relevant and useful?

    PubMed

    Simpson, Ian D; Norris, Robert L

    2007-01-01

    Snakebites continue to be a major medical concern in India. However, there is very little hard evidence of a numerical nature to enable us to understand which species are responsible for mortality and morbidity. For many decades, the concept of the "Big 4" Snakes of Medical Importance has reflected the view that 4 species are responsible for Indian snakebite mortality--the Indian cobra (Naja naja), the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus), the Russell's viper (Daboia russelii) and the saw-scaled viper (Echis carinatus). However, a recent discovery that another species, the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale), is capable of causing lethal envenomation, and that this problem was being concealed by systematic misidentification of this species as the saw-scaled viper, has necessitated a review of the concept of the "Big 4." The concept of the "Big 4" snakes is reviewed to demonstrate its failure to include all currently known snakes of medical significance in India, and its negative effects related to clinical management of snakebite. The emergence of the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale) as a snake of medical significance has rendered the "Big 4" obsolete in terms of completeness. The concept of the "Big 4" is restricting sound epidemiological work and the development of effective snake antivenoms. It should be replaced by the model introduced in the 1980s by the World Health Organization, which has not received adequate circulation and implementation. PMID:17447706

  15. The Importance of Mathematics in Health and Human Judgment: Numeracy, Risk Communication, and Medical Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Brainerd, Charles J.

    2007-01-01

    Mathematics achievement is important in its own right, and is increasingly recognized as crucial to the nation's economy [National Mathematics Panel, 2006. "National Mathematics Advisory Panel: Strengthening Math Education Through Research." Accessed September 29, 2006 from http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/factsheet.html.; National…

  16. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  17. Insights into the development of Ixodes scapularis: a resource for research on a medically important tick species.

    PubMed

    Kocan, Katherine M; de la Fuente, José; Coburn, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are arthropod ectoparasites dependent on a bloodmeal from a vertebrate host at each developmental stage for completion of their life cycle. This tick feeding cycle impacts animal health by causing damage to hides, secondary infections, immune reactions and diseases caused by transmission of pathogens. The genus Ixodes includes several medically important species that vector diseases, including granulocytic anaplasmosis and Lyme disease. I. scapularis, commonly called the black-legged or deer tick, is a medically-important tick species in North America and therefore was the first tick genome to be sequenced, thus serving as an important resource for tick research. This Primer focuses on the normal developmental cycle and laboratory rearing of I. scapularis. Definition of normal morphology, along with a consistent source of laboratory-reared I. scapularis, are fundamental for all aspects of future research, especially the effects of genetic manipulation and the evaluation of tick vaccine efficacy. Recent research important for the advancement of tick research, namely the development of tick cell culture systems for study of ticks and tick-borne pathogens, RNA interference for genetic manipulation of ticks and discovery of candidate antigens for development of tick vaccines, are briefly presented along with areas to target for future research. PMID:26576940

  18. Diapause in ticks of the medically important Ixodes ricinus species complex.

    PubMed

    Gray, Jeremy S; Kahl, Olaf; Lane, Robert S; Levin, Michael L; Tsao, Jean I

    2016-07-01

    Four members of the Ixodes ricinus species complex, Ixodes pacificus, Ixodes persulcatus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis, have, between them, a worldwide distribution within the northern hemisphere. They are responsible for the transmission of several animal and human pathogens, including the causal agents of Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human babesiosis. Despite the importance of these ticks as vectors, the knowledge and understanding of the role that diapause plays in their complex life cycles are confused and incomplete. In view of the continuing geographic spread of these tick species, as well as the effects of climate change on vector-borne diseases, it is timely to encourage research on diapause phenomena to improve understanding of their biology and of pathogen transmission dynamics. In our review we seek to clarify thinking on the topic and to address gaps in our knowledge that require the attention of researchers. PMID:27263092

  19. 21 CFR 892.5650 - Manual radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manual radionuclide applicator system. 892.5650... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5650 Manual radionuclide applicator system. (a) Identification. A manual radionuclide applicator system is a manually operated...

  20. Medication adherence may be more important than other behaviours for optimizing glycaemic control among low-income adults

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, C. Y.; Mayberry, L. S.; Kim, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY What is known Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are required to perform multiple self-care behaviours to achieve and maintain optimal glycaemic control (HbA1c), which prevents complications and premature mortality. Patients with T2DM and low socioeconomic status (SES) are more likely to have suboptimal HbA1c, often due to being less adherent to recommended self-care activities than their higher-SES counterparts. Objective Although studies support performing certain diabetes self-care behaviours for optimizing glycaemic control, there is limited research on the relative importance of each behaviour for this purpose. Identifying what behaviours are most important for HbA1c among low-SES patients with T2DM would be particularly useful for informing policy and intervention efforts for this high-risk group. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 314 adults with T2DM and low SES, we used the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities to assess self-care behaviours and multivariate models to test which behaviours were associated with lower HbA1c. Results and discussion Only medication adherence was significantly associated with lower HbA1c after adjusting for the other self-care behaviours (β = −0 14, P = 0 028) and further adjusting for demographic and diabetes characteristics (β = −0 16, P = 0 024). What is new Medication adherence may be the most important self-care behaviour for glycaemic control among adults with T2DM and low SES. Conclusion Focused efforts to improve medication adherence among low-SES patient populations may improve glycaemic control. PMID:26939721

  1. Medically important differences in snake venom composition are dictated by distinct postgenomic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Casewell, Nicholas R; Wagstaff, Simon C; Wüster, Wolfgang; Cook, Darren A N; Bolton, Fiona M S; King, Sarah I; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J; Harrison, Robert A

    2014-06-24

    Variation in venom composition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in snakes and occurs both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Venom variation can have severe outcomes for snakebite victims by rendering the specific antibodies found in antivenoms ineffective against heterologous toxins found in different venoms. The rapid evolutionary expansion of different toxin-encoding gene families in different snake lineages is widely perceived as the main cause of venom variation. However, this view is simplistic and disregards the understudied influence that processes acting on gene transcription and translation may have on the production of the venom proteome. Here, we assess the venom composition of six related viperid snakes and compare interspecific changes in the number of toxin genes, their transcription in the venom gland, and their translation into proteins secreted in venom. Our results reveal that multiple levels of regulation are responsible for generating variation in venom composition between related snake species. We demonstrate that differential levels of toxin transcription, translation, and their posttranslational modification have a substantial impact upon the resulting venom protein mixture. Notably, these processes act to varying extents on different toxin paralogs found in different snakes and are therefore likely to be as important as ancestral gene duplication events for generating compositionally distinct venom proteomes. Our results suggest that these processes may also contribute to altering the toxicity of snake venoms, and we demonstrate how this variability can undermine the treatment of a neglected tropical disease, snakebite. PMID:24927555

  2. The importance of assessing medication exposure to the definition of refractory disease in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, Laurent; Zahr, Noël; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie; Amoura, Zahir

    2011-09-01

    Treatment of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) who have active disease refractory to current therapeutic strategies continues to be a real challenge. Here, we propose that the classic definition of refractory SLE patients - failure to achieve adequate response to the standard of care - should be further refined to incorporate the dimension of adequate drug exposure. Inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability may induce insufficient exposure to many drugs used in SLE, leading to both apparent inefficacy of treatments and inappropriate therapeutic escalation. Among others, we have shown that individual assessment of exposure to mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) could be used to determine whether a given patient received adequate doses of MMF. We have also shown that measuring blood concentrations of hydroxychloroquine could be used as an efficient way to assess observance, which is a critical issue since a significant proportion of refractory SLE patients is likely to have poor observance as the primary source of treatment failure. Finally, we have underlined the importance of assessing drug interactions as SLE patients often require, in addition to immunosuppressants, several other drugs to prevent or treat associated conditions, which may result in decreased exposure to immunosuppressants. Considering these data, we believe that refractory SLE patients should not only be defined as the failure to achieve adequate therapeutic response to the standard of care, but should also incorporate the dimension of inadequate pharmacokinetic exposure and include drug blood level, interaction and observance monitoring. PMID:21575744

  3. IMPORTANCE OF A NATIONAL ARTHROPLASTY REGISTER FOR IDENTIFICATION BY MEDICAL EXAMINER

    PubMed Central

    Durão, Carlos Henrique; Pinto, Rui; Ribeiro, Costa; Vieira, Duarte

    2015-01-01

    Mass catastrophes are realities that come to pass with lamentable frequency. In such situations, one of the fundamental forensic problems is in relation to identifying the victims. All the elements that might be capable of contributing towards this identification process are essential, and among these are orthopedic prostheses, which frequently remain intact. These prostheses consist basically of polymers, ceramics or metals. Metal components, which are usually composed of titanium, chromium, cobalt or steel alloys, are resistant to violent trauma or high temperatures. Human identification is possible if the identity of the implant is established and if this can be correlated with the individual in whom it was implanted. The logo on the prosthesis establishes who the manufacturer was and the serial number can be compared with the clinical process or with a prosthesis register, as has been implemented in several countries. The information in the database should include the patient's name, the implant model and its serial number, for consultation only in cases of forensic identification, while obviously respecting ethical issues of privacy. This article highlights the importance of creating a national prosthesis register. PMID:27047880

  4. Medically important venomous animals: biology, prevention, first aid, and clinical management.

    PubMed

    Junghanss, Thomas; Bodio, Mauro

    2006-11-15

    Venomous animals are a significant health problem for rural populations in many parts of the world. Given the current level of the international mobility of individuals and the inquisitiveness of travelers, clinicians and travel clinics need to be able to give advice on the prevention, first aid, and clinical management of envenoming. Health professionals often feel overwhelmed by the taxonomy of venomous animals; however, venomous animals can be grouped, using a simple set of criteria, into cnidarians, venomous fish, sea snakes, scorpions, spiders, hymenoterans, and venomous terrestrial snakes. Geographic distribution, habitats, and circumstances of accidents further reduce the range of culprits that need to be considered in any single event. Clinical management of envenomed patients relies on supportive therapy and, if available, specific antivenoms. Supplies of life-saving antivenoms are scarce, and this scarcity particularly affects rural populations in resource-poor settings. Travel clinics and hospitals in highly industrialized areas predominantly see patients with injuries caused by accidents involving marine animals: in particular, stings by venomous fish and skin damage caused by jellyfish. However, globally, terrestrial venomous snakes are the most important group of venomous animals. PMID:17051499

  5. Medically important differences in snake venom composition are dictated by distinct postgenomic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Casewell, Nicholas R.; Wagstaff, Simon C.; Wüster, Wolfgang; Cook, Darren A. N.; Bolton, Fiona M. S.; King, Sarah I.; Pla, Davinia; Sanz, Libia; Calvete, Juan J.; Harrison, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Variation in venom composition is a ubiquitous phenomenon in snakes and occurs both interspecifically and intraspecifically. Venom variation can have severe outcomes for snakebite victims by rendering the specific antibodies found in antivenoms ineffective against heterologous toxins found in different venoms. The rapid evolutionary expansion of different toxin-encoding gene families in different snake lineages is widely perceived as the main cause of venom variation. However, this view is simplistic and disregards the understudied influence that processes acting on gene transcription and translation may have on the production of the venom proteome. Here, we assess the venom composition of six related viperid snakes and compare interspecific changes in the number of toxin genes, their transcription in the venom gland, and their translation into proteins secreted in venom. Our results reveal that multiple levels of regulation are responsible for generating variation in venom composition between related snake species. We demonstrate that differential levels of toxin transcription, translation, and their posttranslational modification have a substantial impact upon the resulting venom protein mixture. Notably, these processes act to varying extents on different toxin paralogs found in different snakes and are therefore likely to be as important as ancestral gene duplication events for generating compositionally distinct venom proteomes. Our results suggest that these processes may also contribute to altering the toxicity of snake venoms, and we demonstrate how this variability can undermine the treatment of a neglected tropical disease, snakebite. PMID:24927555

  6. The Evolving Medical and Veterinary Importance of the Gulf Coast tick (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Paddock, Christopher D; Goddard, Jerome

    2015-03-01

    Amblyomma maculatum Koch (the Gulf Coast tick) is a three-host, ixodid tick that is distributed throughout much of the southeastern and south-central United States, as well as several countries throughout Central and South America. A considerable amount of scientific literature followed the original description of A. maculatum in 1844; nonetheless, the Gulf Coast tick was not recognized as a vector of any known pathogen of animals or humans for >150 years. It is now identified as the principal vector of Hepatozoon americanum, the agent responsible for American canine hepatozoonosis, and Rickettsia parkeri, the cause of an emerging, eschar-associated spotted fever group rickettsiosis identified throughout much of the Western Hemisphere. Coincident with these discoveries has been recognition that the geographical distribution of A. maculatum in the United States is far more extensive than described 70 yr ago, supporting the idea that range and abundance of certain tick species, particularly those with diverse host preferences, are not fixed in time or space, and may change over relatively short intervals. Renewed interest in the Gulf Coast tick reinforces the notion that the perceived importance of a particular tick species to human or animal health can be relatively fluid, and may shift dramatically with changes in the distribution and abundance of the arthropod, its vertebrate hosts, or the microbial agents that transit among these organisms. PMID:26336308

  7. Barcode Identifiers as a Practical Tool for Reliable Species Assignment of Medically Important Black Yeast Species

    PubMed Central

    Heinrichs, Guido; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2012-01-01

    Herpotrichiellaceous black yeasts and relatives comprise severe pathogens flanked by nonpathogenic environmental siblings. Reliable identification by conventional methods is notoriously difficult. Molecular identification is hampered by the sequence variability in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) domain caused by difficult-to-sequence homopolymeric regions and by poor taxonomic attribution of sequences deposited in GenBank. Here, we present a potential solution using short barcode identifiers (27 to 50 bp) based on ITS2 ribosomal DNA (rDNA), which allows unambiguous definition of species-specific fragments. Starting from proven sequences of ex-type and authentic strains, we were able to describe 103 identifiers. Multiple BLAST searches of these proposed barcode identifiers in GenBank revealed uniqueness for 100 taxonomic entities, whereas the three remaining identifiers each matched with two entities, but the species of these identifiers could easily be discriminated by differences in the remaining ITS regions. Using the proposed barcode identifiers, a 4.1-fold increase of 100% matches in GenBank was achieved in comparison to the classical approach using the complete ITS sequences. The proposed barcode identifiers will be made accessible for the diagnostic laboratory in a permanently updated online database, thereby providing a highly practical, reliable, and cost-effective tool for identification of clinically important black yeasts and relatives. PMID:22785187

  8. The implications of cost-effectiveness analysis of medical technology. Background paper number 2: case studies of medical technologies. Case study number 13: cardiac radionuclide imaging and cost effectiveness

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Cardiac radionuclide imaging is a new and rapidly expanding diagnostic technology that promises to make significant contributions to the diagnosis and management of heart disease. Dynamic changes are occurring in the technology at the same time diffusion is taking place. The combination of diffusion and technological development creates an imperative for careful evaluation and prospective planning. Clinical applications of cardiac imaging include the diagnosis of coronary artery disease, evaluation of cardiac function abnormalities, verification of the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and monitoring of patients under treatment for establishing cardiac disease. The report describes the dimensions of the technology of cardiac radionuclide imaging. Information is summarized on the industry producing radionuclide imaging equipment, on clinical applications of technology, and on the costs and efficacies of the various techniques. Finally, formulation of some of the issues involved in the assessment of the technology's cost effectiveness is presented.

  9. Radionuclide bone imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bassett, L.W.; Gold, R.H.; Webber, M.M.

    1981-12-01

    Radionuclide bone imaging of the skeleton, now well established as the most important diagnostic procedure in detecting bone metastases, is also a reliable method for the evaluation of the progression or regression of metastatic bone disease. The article concentrates on the technetium-99m agents and the value of these agents in the widespread application of low-dose radioisotope scanning in such bone diseases as metastasis, osteomyelitis, trauma, osteonecrosis, and other abnormal skeletal conditions.

  10. Medical Management of Frontotemporal Dementias: The Importance of the Caregiver in Symptom Assessment and Guidance of Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    There are no currently Food and Drug Administration-approved or proven off-label treatments for the frontotemporal dementias (FTD). Clinicians, care-givers, and patients struggle regularly to find therapeutic regimens that can alleviate the problematic behavioral and cognitive symptoms associated with these devastating conditions. Success is “hit or miss” and the lessons learned are largely anecdotal to date. Drug discovery in this area has been largely hampered by the heterogeneous clinical presentations and pathological phenotypes of disease that represent significant obstacles to progress in this area. Biologically, plausible treatment strategies include the use of antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-specific reuptake inhibitor and monoamine oxidase inhibitors), acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonists, mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, stimulants, antihypertensives, and agents that may ameliorate the symptoms of parkinsonism, pseudobulbar affect, and motor neuron disease that can often coexist with FTD. These medications all carry potential risks as well as possible benefits for the person suffering from FTD, and a clear understanding of these factors is critical in selecting an appropriate therapeutic regimen to maximize cognition and daily functions, reduce behavioral symptoms, and alleviate caregiver burden in an individual patient. The role of the caregiver in tracking and reporting of symptoms and the effects of individual therapeutic interventions is pivotal in this process. This manuscript highlights the importance of establishing an effective therapeutic partnership between the physician and caregiver in the medical management of the person suffering from FTD. PMID:21647712

  11. Development of multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays for detecting eight medically important flaviviruses in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Chao, Day-Yu; Davis, Brent S; Chang, Gwong-Jen J

    2007-02-01

    A multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase PCR has been developed for the rapid detection and identification of eight medically important flaviviruses from laboratory-reared, virus-infected mosquito pools. The method used involves the gene-specific amplification of yellow fever virus (YFV), Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), and dengue virus (DENV) serotypes 1 to 4 (DENV-1 to DENV-4, respectively) by use of the flavivirus consensus amplimers located at the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain of nonstructural protein 5. Virus-specific amplicons were detected by four newly characterized TaqMan fluorogenic probes (probes specific for YFV, JEV, WNV, and SLEV) and four previously published probes specific for DENV-1 to -4 (L. J. Chien, T. L. Liao, P. Y. Shu, J. H. Huang, D. J. Gubler, and G. J. Chang, J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:1295-1304, 2006). This assay had a specificity of 100% and various sensitivities of at least 3.5 PFU/ml for YFV, 2.0 PFU/ml for JEV, 10.0 PFU/ml for WNV, and 10.0 PFU/ml for SLEV. Additionally, we have developed an in vitro transcription system to generate RNase-resistant RNA templates for each of these eight viruses. These templates can be incorporated into the assay as RNA copy number controls and/or as external controls for RNA-spiked mosquito pools for quality assurance purposes. Although further study with mosquitoes collected in the field is needed, the incorporation of this assay into mosquito surveillance could be used as an early-warning system for the detection of medically important flaviviruses, particularly when the cocirculation of multiple viruses in the same region is suspected. PMID:17108075

  12. Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined. PMID:26239801

  13. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career

    PubMed Central

    HERTZBERG, Tuva Kolstad; RØ, Karin Isaksson; VAGLUM, Per Jørgen Wiggen; MOUM, Torbjørn; RØVIK, Jan Ole; GUDE, Tore; EKEBERG, Øivind; TYSSEN, Reidar

    2015-01-01

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=−0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  14. [Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Pujol, Verónica; Diaz, Jendry; Rodríguez, Evelyn; Arias, María Laura

    2008-06-01

    Microbiological contamination and antimicrobial activity of cristalised cane sugar on some medically important microorganisms in Costa Rica. Unrefined cristalised cane sugar, obtained after the filtration and evaporation of sugar cane juice, is a nutritional product of traditional consumption in Costa Rica and other Neotropical countries. It has been used in the topic treatment of infected wounds, with satisfactory results even with some antibiotic-ressistant bacteria. We studied the microbiological quality of 50 commercial samples. The analyses included total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria plate count; aerobic and anaerobic spore count; mold and yeast count; total and fecal coliforms; and presence of Clostridium botulinum. The antimicrobial effect was tested for Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), S. epidermidis (UCR 2902), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Salmonella enteritidis (ATCC 13076), Listeria monocytogenes (ATCC 19116) and Aspergillus niger (Asni 06). Most of the samples (76%) presented counts lower than 100 CFU/g especially for sporulated forms (90% lower than 20 CFU/g), the mold and yeast count was higher (38% higher than 10(2) CFU/g), demonstrating the importance of these microorganisms in the spoilage of the product; 76% of the samples presented fecal contamination; C. botulinum was not isolated with the methodology employed. No inhibitory effect was observed for A. niger, but all samples han an inhibitory effect over the other species, especially for P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. PMID:19256417

  15. Work-home interface stress: an important predictor of emotional exhaustion 15 years into a medical career.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Tuva Kolstad; Rø, Karin Isaksson; Vaglum, Per Jørgen Wiggen; Moum, Torbjørn; Røvik, Jan Ole; Gude, Tore; Ekeberg, Øivind; Tyssen, Reidar

    2016-03-28

    The importance of work-home interface stress can vary throughout a medical career and between genders. We studied changes in work-home interface stress over 5 yr, and their prediction of emotional exhaustion (main dimension of burn-out), controlled for other variables. A nationwide doctor cohort (NORDOC; n=293) completed questionnaires at 10 and 15 yr after graduation. Changes over the period were examined and predictors of emotional exhaustion analyzed using linear regression. Levels of work-home interface stress declined, whereas emotional exhaustion stayed on the same level. Lack of reduction in work-home interface stress was an independent predictor of emotional exhaustion in year 15 (β=-0.21, p=0.001). Additional independent predictors were reduction in support from colleagues (β=0.11, p=0.04) and emotional exhaustion at baseline (β=0.62, p<0.001). Collegial support was a more important predictor for men than for women. In separate analyses, significant adjusted predictors were lack of reduction in work-home interface stress among women, and reduction of collegial support and lack of reduction in working hours among men. Thus, change in work-home interface stress is a key independent predictor of emotional exhaustion among doctors 15 yr after graduation. Some gender differences in predictors of emotional exhaustion were found. PMID:26538002

  16. Design of gas targets for the production of medically used radionuclides with the help of Monte-Carlo simulation of small angle multiple scattering of charged particles.

    PubMed

    Helmeke, H J; Hundeshagen, H

    1995-08-01

    Due to scattering of protons or deuterons in the target gas the radius of beams increases with increasing penetration depth of the particles. The increase depends on the kind of beam particle, the energy, the target gas and its temperature and pressure. A Monte-Carlo program was developed for stimulation of multiple scattering. The initial beam has a particle distribution of variable sinusoidal shape behind the entrance window and may be cut off by the simulation of a collimator. The beam distribution is calculated for up to 14 planes representing energy values of the particles due to a predefined range from one plane to the next. The energy loss is calculated with the help of an integrated Bethe-Bloch routine. The distribution of the particles within the plane may be rearranged into profiles and transferred to a spreadsheet for further manipulation and graphical printout. Simulations are carried out for radionuclide production routes, commonly used for position emission tomography (PET). PMID:7633390

  17. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  18. Modeling of spatial distribution for scorpions of medical importance in the São Paulo State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brites-Neto, José; Duarte, Keila Maria Roncato

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In this work, we aimed to develop maps of modeling geographic distribution correlating to environmental suitability for the two species of scorpions of medical importance at São Paulo State and to develop spatial configuration parameters for epidemiological surveillance of these species of venomous animals. Materials and Methods: In this study, 54 georeferenced points for Tityus serrulatus and 86 points for Tityus bahiensis and eight environmental indicators, were used to generate species distribution models in Maxent (maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions) version 3.3.3k using 70% of data for training (n=38 to T. serrulatus and n=60 to T. bahiensis) and 30% to test the models (n=16 for T. serrulatus and n=26 for T. bahiensis). The logistic threshold used to cut models in converting the continuous probability model into a binary model was the “maximum test sensitivity plus specificity,” provided by Maxent, with results of 0.4143 to T. serrulatus and of 0.3401 to T. bahiensis. The models were evaluated by the area under the curve (AUC), using the omission error and the binomial probability. With the data generated by Maxent, distribution maps were produced using the “ESRI® ArcGIS 10.2.2 for Desktop” software. Results: The models had high predictive success (AUC=0.7698±0.0533, omission error=0.2467 and p<0.001 for T. serrulatus and AUC=0.8205±0.0390, omission error=0.1917 and p<0.001 for T. bahiensis) and the resultant maps showed a high environmental suitability in the north, central, and southeast of the state, confirming the increasing spread of these species. The environmental variables that mostly contributed to the scorpions species distribution model were rain precipitation (28.9%) and tree cover (28.2%) for the T. serrulatus and temperature (45.8%) and thermal amplitude (12.6%) for the T. bahiensis. Conclusion: The distribution model of these species of medical importance scorpions in São Paulo State revealed a higher

  19. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  20. Medication reviews in primary care in Sweden: importance of clinical pharmacists' recommendations on drug-related problems.

    PubMed

    Modig, Sara; Holmdahl, Lydia; Bondesson, Åsa

    2016-02-01

    Background One way of preventing and solving drug-related problems in frail elderly is to perform team-based medication reviews. Objective To evaluate the quality of the clinical pharmacy service to primary care using structured medication reviews, focusing on the clinical significance of the recommendations made by clinical pharmacists. Setting A random sample of 150 patients (out of 1541) who received structured team based medication reviews. The patients lived at a geriatric nursing home or were ≥65 years and lived in ordinary housing with medication-related community help. Method Based on information on symptoms, kidney function, blood pressure, diagnoses and the medication list, a pharmacist identified possible drug-related problems and supplied recommendations for the general practitioner to act on. Two independent physicians retrospectively ranked the clinical significance of the recommendations according to Hatoum, with rankings ranging between 1 (adverse significance) and 6 (extremely significant). Main outcome measure The clinical significance of the recommendations. Results In total 349 drug-related problems were identified, leading to recommendations. The vast majority of the recommendations (96 %) were judged to have significance 3 or higher and more than the half were judged to have significance 4 or higher. Conclusion The high proportion of clinically significant recommendations provided by pharmacists when performing team-based medication reviews suggest that these clinical pharmacy services have potential to increase prescribing quality. As such, the medication reviews have the potential for contributing to a better and safer drug therapy for elderly patients. PMID:26582483

  1. Plant-mediated biosynthesis of nanoparticles as an emerging tool against mosquitoes of medical and veterinary importance: a review.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Mosquito young instars are usually targeted with organophosphates, insect growth regulators and microbial control agents. Indoors residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have strong negative effects on human health and the environment. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. In this review, I focus on characterization, effectiveness, and non-target effects of mosquitocidal nanoparticles synthesized using botanical products (mosquitocidal nanoparticles, MNP). The majority of plant-fabricated MNP are silver ones. The synthesis of MNP is usually confirmed by UV-visualization spectroscopy, followed by scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction studies. Interestingly, plant-synthesized metal nanoparticles have been reported as effective ovicides, larvicides, pupicides, adulticides, and oviposition deterrents against different mosquito species of medical and veterinary importance. Few parts per million of different MNP are highly toxic against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi, the dengue vector Aedes aegypti, and the filariasis mosquito Culex quiquefasciatus. However, despite the growing number of evidences about the effectiveness of MNP, moderate efforts have been carried out to shed light on their possible non-target effects against mosquito's natural enemies and other aquatic organisms. In the final section, particular attention was dedicated to this issue. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists and entomologists are highlighted. PMID:26541154

  2. Radionuclide injury to the lung.

    PubMed Central

    Dagle, G E; Sanders, C L

    1984-01-01

    Radionuclide injury to the lung has been studied in rats, hamsters, dogs, mice and baboons. Exposure of the lung to high dose levels of radionuclides produces a spectrum of progressively more severe functional and morphological changes, ranging from radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis to lung tumors. These changes are somewhat similar for different species. Their severity can be related to the absorbed radiation dose (measured in rads) produced by alpha, beta or gamma radiation emanating from various deposited radionuclides. The chemicophysical forms of radionuclides and spatial-temporal factors are also important variables. As with other forms of injury to the lung, repair attempts are highlighted by fibrosis and proliferation of pulmonary epithelium. Lung tumors are the principal late effect observed in experimental animals following pulmonary deposition of radionuclides at dose levels that do not result in early deaths from radiation pneumonitis or fibrosis. The predominant lung tumors described have been of epithelial origin and have been classified, in decreasing frequency of occurrence, as adenocarcinoma, bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, epidermoid carcinomas and combined epidermoid and adenocarcinoma. Mesothelioma and fibrosarcoma have been observed in rats, but less commonly in other species. Hemangiosarcomas were frequency observed in dogs exposed to beta-gamma emitters, and occasionally in rats exposed to alpha emitters. These morphologic changes in the lungs of experimental animals were reviewed and issues relevant to the prediction of human hazards discussed. PMID:6376095

  3. Radionuclide deposition control

    DOEpatents

    Brehm, William F.; McGuire, Joseph C.

    1980-01-01

    The deposition of radionuclides manganese-54, cobalt-58 and cobalt-60 from liquid sodium coolant is controlled by providing surfaces of nickel or high nickel alloys to extract the radionuclides from the liquid sodium, and by providing surfaces of tungsten, molybdenum or tantalum to prevent or retard radionuclide deposition.

  4. Young Adult Ecstasy Users Who Forego Necessary Medical Care: A Fairly Common Occurrence with Important Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Elifson, Kirk W.; Klein, Hugh; Sterk, Claire E.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the practice of foregoing necessary medical care in a population of young adult Ecstasy users. The objectives of the paper are to (1) investigate how the failure to receive needed medical care is related to drug-related outcomes, and (2) identify factors that are associated with receiving versus foregoing needed medical care. Face-to-face, computer-assisted, structured interviews were conducted with 283 active young adult Ecstasy users in Atlanta, Georgia between August 2002 and October 2007. Study participants were recruited using a targeted sampling approach. Results indicated that almost one-third of the young adult Ecstasy users interviewed did not receive the medical care that they needed during the preceding year. Foregoing such care was associated with a variety of adverse drug-related outcomes, including experiencing a greater number of negative effects from using Ecstasy, experiencing a larger number of drug dependency symptoms, a greater likelihood of ever having binged on Ecstasy, and a greater likelihood of being classified as a “high end” polydrug abuser. Several factors were found to be associated with a greater tendency not to receive the medical care they needed, including race (not being African American), educational attainment (having completed at least high school), self-identification as belonging to the lowest socioeconomic status grouping, low self-esteem, and having experienced sexual abuse during one’s formative years. PMID:20464807

  5. The Epidemiology of Imported Malaria in Taiwan between 2002–2013: The Importance of Sensitive Surveillance and Implications for Pre-Travel Medical Advice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shou-Chien; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of imported malaria in Taiwan between 2002 and 2013. We analyzed the national data recorded by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC). Malaria cases were diagnosed by blood films, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests. The risk of re-establishment of malarial transmission in Taiwan was assessed. A total of 229 malaria cases were included in our analysis. All of the cases were imported. One hundred and ninety-two cases (84%) were diagnosed within 13 days of the start of symptoms/signs; 43% of these cases were acquired in Africa and 44% were acquired in Asia. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for the majority (56%) of these cases. Travel to an endemic area was associated with the acquisition of malaria. The malaria importation rate was 2.36 per 1,000,000 travelers (range 1.20–5.74). The reproductive number under control (Rc) was 0. No endemic transmission of malaria in Taiwan was identified. This study suggests that a vigilant surveillance system, vector-control efforts, case management, and an educational approach focused on travelers and immigrants who visit malaria endemic countries are needed to prevent outbreaks and sustain the elimination of malaria in Taiwan. PMID:24871257

  6. Authentic Early Experience in Medical Education: A Socio-Cultural Analysis Identifying Important Variables in Learning Interactions within Workplaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yardley, Sarah; Brosnan, Caragh; Richardson, Jane; Hays, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the question "what are the variables influencing social interactions and learning during Authentic Early Experience (AEE)?" AEE is a complex educational intervention for new medical students. Following critique of the existing literature, multiple qualitative methods were used to create a study framework conceptually…

  7. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  8. 21 CFR 892.5750 - Radionuclide radiation therapy system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide radiation therapy system. 892.5750 Section 892.5750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5750 Radionuclide radiation...

  9. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  10. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  11. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  12. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  13. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  14. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  15. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  16. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  17. 21 CFR 892.5740 - Radionuclide teletherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide teletherapy source. 892.5740 Section 892.5740 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5740 Radionuclide teletherapy...

  18. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  19. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  20. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  1. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  2. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide brachytherapy source. 892.5730 Section 892.5730 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5730 Radionuclide...

  3. 21 CFR 892.1360 - Radionuclide dose calibrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Radionuclide dose calibrator. 892.1360 Section 892.1360 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1360 Radionuclide dose calibrator....

  4. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  5. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  6. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  7. 21 CFR 892.1420 - Radionuclide test pattern phantom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Radionuclide test pattern phantom. 892.1420 Section 892.1420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1420 Radionuclide test pattern...

  8. 21 CFR 892.1390 - Radionuclide rebreathing system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Radionuclide rebreathing system. 892.1390 Section 892.1390 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 892.1390 Radionuclide rebreathing...

  9. Medical physics in radiotherapy: The importance of preserving clinical responsibilities and expanding the profession's role in research, education, and quality control

    PubMed Central

    Malicki, Julian

    2015-01-01

    Medical physicists have long had an integral role in radiotherapy. In recent decades, medical physicists have slowly but surely stepped back from direct clinical responsibilities in planning radiotherapy treatments while medical dosimetrists have assumed more responsibility. In this article, I argue against this gradual withdrawal from routine therapy planning. It is essential that physicists be involved, at least to some extent, in treatment planning and clinical dosimetry for each and every patient; otherwise, physicists can no longer be considered clinical specialists. More importantly, this withdrawal could negatively impact treatment quality and patient safety. Medical physicists must have a sound understanding of human anatomy and physiology in order to be competent partners to radiation oncologists. In addition, they must possess a thorough knowledge of the physics of radiation as it interacts with body tissues, and also understand the limitations of the algorithms used in radiotherapy. Medical physicists should also take the lead in evaluating emerging challenges in quality and safety of radiotherapy. In this sense, the input of physicists in clinical audits and risk assessment is crucial. The way forward is to proactively take the necessary steps to maintain and advance our important role in clinical medicine. PMID:25949219

  10. 21 CFR 892.5730 - Radionuclide brachytherapy source.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... radionuclide which may be enclosed in a sealed container made of gold, titanium, stainless steel, or platinum and intended for medical purposes to be placed onto a body surface or into a body cavity or tissue...

  11. Reconsidering Current Decorporation Strategies after Incorporation of Radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Rump, A; Stricklin, D; Lamkowski, A; Eder, S; Abend, M; Port, M

    2016-08-01

    In the case of a nuclear accident or a terrorist attack by a "dirty bomb," there is a risk of external and internal contamination with radionuclides in addition to external irradiation. Internal irradiation as a consequence of radionuclide incorporation is associated with a higher risk of stochastic radiation effects (e.g., tumors). Decorporation treatment will enhance the elimination of radionuclides and reduce the committed effective dose as a metric of stochastic health effects. Although treatment efficacy is better when started early, beginning the therapy without knowing the committed effective dose may unnecessarily expose the patient to the side effects of the medication. The question is: Delay the therapy to wait for the results of internal dosimetry or start the therapy promptly on spec? To prove insight into this question, a selective review of the literature was conducted. The importance of the initiation time of treatment in the efficacy of decorporation treatment can be explained with pharmacokinetic laws and first order processes determining the disposition of xenobiotics in the organism. Nevertheless, there is no internationally accepted standard on when to start a decorporation therapy (exception: iodide). The "precautionary approach," emphasizing the importance of the committed effective dose for the indication of treatment, is competing with the "urgent approach" advocating the administration of medication "a priori" within several hours. A review of the literature actually indicates that the most important drugs used for decorporation are well tolerated with few adverse effects. In consideration of the higher efficacy and the low side-effects of a short-term treatment, initiating decorporation therapy as soon as possible after internal contamination, even before the committed effective dose has been assessed, appears to be a reasonable approach. The decision of continuation or discontinuation of the therapy should be taken after internal

  12. Extending the authority for sickness certification beyond the medical profession: the importance of ‘boundary work’

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The study aimed to explore the views of general practitioners (GPs), nurses and physiotherapists towards extending the role of sickness certification beyond the medical profession in primary care. Methods Fifteen GPs, seven nurses and six physiotherapists were selected to achieve varied respondent characteristics including sex, geographical location, service duration and post-graduate specialist training. Constant-comparative qualitative analysis of data from 28 semi-structured telephone interviews was undertaken. Results The majority of respondents supported the extended role concept; however members of each professional group also rejected the notion. Respondents employed four different legitimacy claims to justify their views and define their occupational boundaries in relation to sickness certification practice. Condition-specific legitimacy, the ability to adopt a holistic approach to sickness certification, system efficiency and control-related arguments were used to different degrees by each occupation. Practical suggestions for the extension of the sickness certification role beyond the medical profession are underpinned by the sociological theory of professional identity. Conclusions Extending the authority to certify sickness absence beyond the medical profession is not simply a matter of addressing practical and organisational obstacles. There is also a need to consider the impact on, and preferences of, the specific occupations and their respective boundary claims. This paper explores the implications of extending the sick certification role beyond general practice. We conclude that the main policy challenge of such a move is to a) persuade GPs to relinquish this role (or to share it with other professions), and b) to understand the ‘boundary work’ involved. PMID:24884678

  13. Radionuclide angiocardiography in the diagnosis of congenital heart disorders

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.H.; Austin, E.H.; Peter, C.A.; Sabiston, D.C. Jr.

    1981-06-01

    Radionuclide angiocardiography provides a noninvasive assessment of cardiac function and blood flow through the heart and lungs. During the past three years, this procedure has been used at the Duke University Medical Center for evaluation of 343 patients with congenital heart disorders. A review of this experience shows tat the resulting data were frequently useful in the surgical management of these patients. In patients with abnormal blood flow patterns, noninvasive imaging of blood flow was useful before and after operative correction. Radionuclide measurements of left-to-right intracardiac shunts were sufficiently accurate for use in the initial evaluation of patients with murmurs and to document the absence of shunt after operative closure of intracardiac septal defects. Moreover, measurements of right-to-left cardiac shunts were of benefit in the management of children with cyanotic heart disease. Measurements of left ventricular function obtained during rest and exercise were most useful in patients with origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery and in patients with congenital valvular insufficiency. This experience demonstrates that radionuclide angiocardiography provides important measurements of central hemodynamics and cardiac function which are useful in the management of patients with congenital heart disorders.

  14. Perceptions of UK medical graduates’ preparedness for practice: A multi-centre qualitative study reflecting the importance of learning on the job

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is evidence that graduates of different medical schools vary in their preparedness for their first post. In 2003 Goldacre et al. reported that over 40% of UK medical graduates did not feel prepared and found large differences between graduates of different schools. A follow-up survey showed that levels of preparedness had increased yet there was still wide variation. This study aimed to examine whether medical graduates from three diverse UK medical schools were prepared for practice. Methods This was a qualitative study using a constructivist grounded theory approach. Prospective and cross-sectional data were collected from the three medical schools. A sample of 60 medical graduates (20 from each school) was targeted. They were interviewed three times: at the end of medical school (n = 65) and after four (n = 55) and 12 months (n = 46) as a Year 1 Foundation Programme doctor. Triangulated data were collected from clinicians via interviews across the three sites (n = 92). In addition three focus groups were conducted with senior clinicians who assess learning portfolios. The focus was on identifying areas of preparedness for practice and any areas of lack of preparedness. Results Although selected for being diverse, we did not find substantial differences between the schools. The same themes were identified at each site. Junior doctors felt prepared in terms of communication skills, clinical and practical skills and team working. They felt less prepared for areas of practice that are based on experiential learning in clinical practice: ward work, being on call, management of acute clinical situations, prescribing, clinical prioritisation and time management and dealing with paperwork. Conclusions Our data highlighted the importance of students learning on the job, having a role in the team in supervised practice to enable them to learn about the duties and responsibilities of a new doctor in advance of starting work. PMID:23446055

  15. Radionuclide bone imaging and densitometry

    SciTech Connect

    Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 13 selections. Some of the titles are: Radionuclides and the Normal Bone Scan; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Malignant Disease; Pediatric Applications of Radionuclide Bone Imaging; The Radionuclide Bone Scan in Arthritis and Metabolic and Miscellaneous Disorders; and Soft Tissue Activity on the Radionuclide Bone Scan.

  16. Calibration of radionuclide calibrators in Canadian hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Santry, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The major user of radioactive isotopes in Canada is the medical profession. Because of this a program has been initiated at the National Research Council of Canada (NRCC) to assist the nuclear medicine community to determine more accurately, the rather large amounts of radioactive materials administered to patients either for therapeutic or medical diagnostics. Since radiation exposure to the human body has deleterious effects, it is important for the patient that the correct amount of radioactive material is administered to minimize the induction of a fatal cancer at a later time. Hospitals in many other countries have a legal requirement to have their instruments routinely calibrated and have previously entered into intercomparisons with other hospitals or their national standards laboratories. In Canada, hospitals and clinics can participate on a voluntary basis to have the proper operation of measuring devices (radionuclide calibrators in particular) examined through intercomparisons. The program looks primarily at laboratory performance. This includes not only the instrument's performance but the performance of the individual doing the procedure and the technical procedure or method employed. In an effort to provide personal assistance to those having problems, it is essential that the comparisons should be pertinent to the daily work of the laboratory and that the most capable technologist not be selected to carry out the assay.

  17. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    SciTech Connect

    Jo A. Ziegler

    2001-07-31

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.

  18. Differences by race/ethnicity in older adults' beliefs about the relative importance of dietary supplements vs prescription medications: results from the SURE Study.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Schembre, Susan M; Steffen, Alana D; Wilkens, Lynne R; Monroe, Kristine R; Yonemori, Kim M; Murphy, Suzanne P

    2012-08-01

    Dietary supplement use is widespread among adults across races/ethnicities, yet reasons for use can vary across these groups. The Supplement Reporting (SURE) study quantified dietary supplement use and reasons for taking supplements in a multiethnic sample of adults who took at least one supplement. This study explored sociodemographic differences, including by race/ethnicity, associated with specific reasons/motivations for taking dietary supplements, including perceived importance of taking supplements relative to prescription medications. The study time period was March 2005 to August 2006. Participants (n=397) were older adults (ages 52 to 88 years) recruited from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with equal representation of males and females from six ethnic groups (ie, white, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, African American, US-born Latino, and foreign-born Latino). Subgroups of participants were compared by χ(2) tests and logistic regression. The most common reasons for taking supplements were to maintain a healthy life, because they were recommended by a health professional, and to prevent a disease/medical problem. A majority (76%) of participants reported that their dietary supplements were as important as prescription medications, with foreign-born Latinos and Japanese Americans being most likely to state this belief. The relative importance of supplements was not associated with excessive use, but 27% of participants exceeded the upper limit for a nutrient. It is crucial for health professionals to better understand why individuals take supplements and the importance that they attach to their use. This information could lead to better monitoring and education efforts to prevent overuse of supplements and possible interactions with medications. PMID:22818730

  19. Radionuclides in haematology

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, S.M.; Bayly, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains the following chapters: Some prerequisites to the use of radionuclides in haematology; Instrumentation and counting techniques; In vitro techniques; Cell labelling; Protein labelling; Autoradiography; Imaging and quantitative scanning; Whole body counting; Absorption and excretion studies; Blood volume studies; Plasma clearance studies; and Radionuclide blood cell survival studies.

  20. A Kenyan newspaper analysis of the limitations of voluntary medical male circumcision and the importance of sustained condom use

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the completion of three clinical trials indicating that voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) is an effective method to reduce men’s chances of acquiring HIV, use of the procedure has been advocated in Kenya. Media messages shape popular understandings of the benefits and limitations of male circumcision. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate promotion messages in a popular online newspaper to determine how the limitations of male circumcision are represented, and whether condom use is still being promoted; and (2) gain insight into popular understandings of the limitations of this new procedure through newspaper reader comments. Methods A content analysis was conducted on 34 online media articles published by the Daily Nation between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2010. Information about condom promotion, partial immunity, limitations and complications of the procedure, as well as emergent themes, were analyzed. Results Results demonstrated an irregular and occasionally misleading presentation of these topics and a perceived lack of objective information about the risks and limitations of VMMC. Conclusions There is a need for governmental and non-governmental public health organizations to engage with the media to improve risk messaging. PMID:22720748

  1. Implementation of "social and communicative competencies" in medical education. The importance of curriculum, organisational and human resource development

    PubMed Central

    Pruskil, Susanne; Deis, Nicole; Druener, Susanne; Kiessling, Claudia; Philipp, Swetlana; Rockenbauch, Katrin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: With this article we want to support teachers and curriculum planners to be aware of and apply knowledge and recommendations of organisational (OD), curriculums (CD) and human resource development (HRD) ideas already in the planning phase of a project. Taking these into account can influence the process of change successfully and controlled during the introduction and establishment of curricula in the field of communication and social skills in medical education. Approach and Results: In the context of a multi-stage developmental process, a recommendation on CD for "Communicative and social competencies" was developed. The basis for it was made during two workshops of the GMA-committee "Communicative and social competencies" and supplemented by the available literature and the experience of communication experts. The "Undeloher Recommendation" (see attachment ) includes a compilation of recommendations and guiding questions, which is geared to the various phases of CD. Additionally, general approaches and recommendations of organisational and human resource development were integrated, which turned out to be particularly relevant in the process of CD. Thus, the "Undeloher recommendation" includes an orientation for each phase of the curriculum development process, the organisation and the staff in order to successfully implement a longitudinal curriculum. In addition to theoretical models the long-term discussion process and the personal experiences of a variety of curriculum planners and teachers have been integrated. Conclusion: The "Undeloher recommendation" can support the implementation processes of curricula in communication and social skills during development and realisation. Its application was reviewed in the context of workshops based on concrete examples. The participating teachers and curriculum planners assessed it to be very helpful. The recommendation goes beyond of what has been described in terms of content models in the CD so fare. In

  2. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy: Practical Applications and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Zukotynski, Katherine; Jadvar, Hossein; Capala, Jacek; Fahey, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a proliferation in the development of targeted radionuclide cancer therapy. It is now possible to use baseline clinical and imaging assessments to determine the most effective therapy and to tailor this therapy during the course of treatment based on radiation dosimetry and tumor response. Although this personalized approach to medicine has the advantage of maximizing therapeutic effect while limiting toxicity, it can be challenging to implement and expensive. Further, in order to use targeted radionuclide therapy effectively, there is a need for multidisciplinary awareness, education, and collaboration across the scientific, industrial, and medical communities. Even more important, there is a growing understanding that combining radiopharmaceuticals with conventional treatment such as chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy may limit patient morbidity while improving survival. Developments in radiopharmaceuticals as biomarkers capable of predicting therapeutic response and targeting disease are playing a central role in medical research. Adoption of a practical approach to manufacturing and delivering radiopharmaceuticals, assessing patient eligibility, optimizing post-therapy follow-up, and addressing reimbursement issues will be essential for their success. PMID:27226737

  3. Comparison of Radionuclide Ratios in Atmospheric Nuclear Explosions and Nuclear Releases from Chernobyl and Fukushima seen in Gamma Ray Spectormetry

    SciTech Connect

    Friese, Judah I.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Lucas, Dawn D.

    2013-05-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) has remote radionuclide monitoring followed by an On Site Inspection (OSI) to clarify the nature of a suspect event. An important aspect of radionuclide measurements on site is the discrimination of other potential sources of similar radionuclides such as reactor accidents or medical isotope production. The Chernobyl and Fukushima nuclear reactor disasters offer two different reactor source term environmental inputs that can be compared against historical measurements of nuclear explosions. The comparison of whole-sample gamma spectrometry measurements from these three events and the analysis of similarities and differences are presented. This analysis is a step toward confirming what is needed for measurements during an OSI under the auspices of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

  4. Radionuclides in US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Bisselle, C. A.; Brown, R. D.

    1984-03-01

    The current state of knowledge with respect to radionuclide concentrations in US coals is discussed. Emphasis is placed on the levels of uranium in coal (and lignite) which are considered to represent a concern resulting from coal combustion; areas of the US where such levels have been found; and possible origins of high radionuclide levels in coal. The report reviews relevant studies and presents new data derived from a computerized search of radionuclide content in about 4000 coal samples collected throughout the coterminous US. 103 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  5. Pupicidal and repellent activities of Pogostemon cablin essential oil chemical compounds against medically important human vector mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Gokulakrishnan, J; Kuppusamy, Elumalai; Shanmugam, Dhanasekaran; Appavu, Anandan; Kaliyamoorthi, Krishnappa

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the repellent and pupicidal activities of Pogostemon cablin (P. cablin) chemical compositions were assayed for their toxicity against selected important vector mosquitoes, viz., Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti), Anopheles stephensi (An. stephensi) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus) (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods The plants dry aerial parts were subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus. The composition of the essential oil was analyzed by Gas Chromatography (GC) and GC mass spectrophotometry. Evaluation was carried out in a net cage (45 cm×30 cm×45 cm) containing 100 blood starved female mosquitoes and were assayed in the laboratory condition by using the protocol of WHO 2010. The repellent activity of P. cablin chemical compositions at concentration of 2mg/cm2were applied on skin of fore arm in man and exposed against adult female mosquitoes. The pupicidal activity was determined against selected important vector mosquitoes to concentration of 100 mg/L and mortality of each pupa was recorded after 24 h of exposure to the compounds. Results Chemical constituents of 15 compounds were identified in the oil of P.cablin compounds representing to 98.96%. The major components in essential oil were â-patchoulene, á-guaiene, ã-patchoulene, á-bulnesene and patchouli alcohol. The repellent activity of patchouli alcohol compound was found to be most effective for repellent activity and 2 mg/cm2 concentration provided 100% protection up to 280 min against Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. Similarly, pupae exposed to 100 mg/L concentrations of P. cablin chemical compositions. Among five compounds tested patchouli alcoholwas found to be most effective for pupicidal activity provided 28.44, 26.28 and 25.36 against Ae.aegypti, An.stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively. The percent adult emergence was inversely proportional to the concentration of compounds and directly

  6. Radionuclides in Diagnosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, E. D.

    1989-01-01

    Discussed is a radionuclide imaging technique, including the gamma camera, image analysis computer, radiopharmaceuticals, and positron emission tomography. Several pictures showing the use of this technique are presented. (YP)

  7. Radionuclide Behavior in Containments.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2000-02-14

    MATADOR analyzes the transport and deposition of radionuclides as vapor or aerosol through Light Water Reactor (LWR) containments during severe accidents and calculates environmental release fractions of radionuclides as a function of time. It is intended for use in system risk studies. The principal output is information on the timing and magnitude of radionuclide releases to the environment as a result of severely degraded core accidents. MATADOR considers the transport of radionuclides through the containmentmore » and their removal by natural deposition and the operation of engineered safety systems such as sprays. Input data on the source term from the primary system, the containment geometry, and thermal-hydraulic conditions are required.« less

  8. Production of mycotoxins by Aspergillus lentulus and other medically important and closely related species in section Fumigati.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Thomas O; Smedsgaard, Jørn; Nielsen, Kristian F; Hansen, Michael A E; Samson, Robert A; Frisvad, Jens C

    2007-05-01

    The production of mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites have been studied by LC-DAD-MS from six species in Aspergillus section Fumigati. This includes the three new species Aspergillus lentulus, A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis as well as A. fumigatus, Neosartoria fisheri and N. pseudofisheri. A major finding was detection of gliotoxin from N. pseudofisheri, a species not previously reported to produce this mycotoxin. Gliotoxin was also detected from A. fumigatus together with fumagillin, fumigaclavine C, fumitremorgin C, fumiquinazolines, trypacidin, methyl-sulochrin, TR-2, verruculogen, helvolic acid and pyripyropenes. Major compounds from A. lentulus were cyclopiazonic acid, terrein, neosartorin, auranthine and pyripyropenes A, E and O. Thus in the present study A. fumigatus and A. lentulus did not produce any of the same metabolites except for pyripyropenes. The fact that A. lentulus apparently does not produce gliotoxin supports the idea that other compounds than gliotoxin might play an important role in the effective invasiveness of A. lentulus. An overall comparison of secondary metabolite production by strains of the six species was achieved by analysis of fungal extracts by direct injection mass spectrometry and cluster analysis. Separate groupings were seen for all the six species even though only one isolate was included in this study for the two species A. novofumigatus and A. fumigatiaffinis. PMID:17464844

  9. Development of multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays to detect medically important yeasts in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Kasahara, Kohei; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Sumie; Shimakawa, Yasuhisa; Watanabe, Koichi

    2014-08-01

    Rapid detection of yeast contamination is important in the food industry. We have developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays to detect the emerging opportunistic pathogenic yeasts: Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, the Candida parapsilosis group, Trichosporon asahii, and Trichosporon mucoides. These yeasts may cause deep-seated candidiasis or trichosporonosis. Four LAMP primer sets specific for Candida were designed to target the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region between the 5.8S and 26S rRNA genes, and two LAMP primer sets specific for Trichosporon were designed to target the intergenic spacer 1 (IGS1) region between the 26S and 5S rRNA genes. The LAMP assays could detect these yeasts in a range between 10(0) and 10(3)  cells mL(-1) in a contaminated dairy product within 1 h. We also developed multiplex LAMP assays to detect these Candida or Trichosporon species in a single reaction. Multiplex LAMP assays can detect contamination if at least one of the target species is present; they are more time- and cost-efficient than conventional methods and could detect target yeasts with sensitivity close to that of the LAMP assays. Multiplex LAMP assays established in this study can be used as a primary screening method for yeast contamination in food products. PMID:24965944

  10. The practice characterization model: the importance of organizational life cycles and targeted interventions in general medical practice.

    PubMed

    Atkins, E M; Duffy, M C; Bain, D J

    2001-01-01

    In response to a climate of constant change and increasing demand for services, general practice in the UK has undergone significant modification over the last 10 years. It has become a multi-disciplinary organisation encouraged by funding bodies to plan for service delivery using a more structured team based approach. In Tayside in 1996, practices were charged with producing formal Practice Development Plans (PDPs) which would focus on priority areas aligned with the Health Boards own strategic plan--those were teamwork, information management and technology, and clinical service delivery. The University of Dundee's Department of General Practice successfully applied for funding to develop ways of facilitating practices so that they could a) identify their own development priorities, and b) plan and implement action and learning to see these priorities through. Using action research methodology, the project attempted to create a climate for change, provide support and training to see the changes implemented, and ensure commitment to the changes from all members of the practice team. The Facilitator adopted a flexible style varying her role between expert, guide and support. Analysis of progress made by different practices, coupled with the Facilitator's in depth knowledge of them, suggested the importance of certain key aspects of practice organisation and culture. A practice characterisation model identified practices which were stable, currently coping, proactive and ready to face the challenge of change as best placed to engage in a full scale development programme. Other profiles suggested a range of alternative interventions as more likely to be acceptable and productive. PMID:11499046

  11. Soil contamination with radionuclides and potential remediation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y G; Shaw, G

    2000-07-01

    Soils contaminated with radionuclides, particularly 137Cs and 90Sr, pose a long-term radiation hazard to human health through exposure via the foodchain and other pathways. Remediation of radionuclide-contaminated soils has become increasingly important. Removal of the contaminated surface soil (often up to 40 cm) or immobilization of radionuclides in soils by applying mineral and chemical amendments are physically difficult and not likely cost-effective in practicality. Reducing plant uptake of radionuclides, especially 137CS and 90Sr by competitive cations contained in chemical fertilizers has the general advantage in large scale, low-level contamination incidents on arable land, and has been widely practiced in central and Western Europe after the Chernobyl accident. Phytoextraction of radionuclides by specific plant species from contaminated sites has rapidly stimulated interest among industrialists as well as academics, and is considered to be a promising bio-remediation method. This paper examines the existing remediation approaches and discusses phytoextraction of radionuclides from contaminated soils in detail. PMID:10819188

  12. Method and apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Harp, Richard J.

    1990-01-01

    In an apparatus for separating radionuclides from non-radionuclides in a mixture of nuclear waste, a vessel is provided wherein the mixture is heated to a temperature greater than the temperature of vaporization for the non-radionuclides but less than the temperature of vaporization for the radionuclides. Consequently the non-radionuclides are vaporized while the non-radionuclides remain the solid or liquid state. The non-radionuclide vapors are withdrawn from the vessel and condensed to produce a flow of condensate. When this flow decreases the heat is reduced to prevent temperature spikes which might otherwise vaporize the radionuclides. The vessel is removed and capped with the radioactive components of the apparatus and multiple batches of the radionuclide residue disposed therein. Thus the vessel ultimately provides a burial vehicle for all of the radioactive components of the process.

  13. Radionuclide methods of identifying patients who may require coronary artery bypass surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Beller, G.A.; Gibson, R.S.; Watson, D.D.

    1985-12-01

    Myocardial thallium-201 (/sup 201/Tl) scintigraphy or radionuclide angiography performed in conjunction with exercise stress testing can provide clinically useful information regarding the functional significance of underlying coronary artery stenoses in patients with known or suspected coronary artery disease. Knowledge of type, location, and extent of myocardial /sup 201/Tl perfusion abnormalities or the severity of exercise-induced global and regional dysfunction has prognostic value. Risk stratification can be undertaken with either radionuclide technique by consideration of the magnitude of the ischemic response and may assist in the selection of patients for coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). In patients with coronary artery disease, delayed /sup 201/Tl redistribution observed on exercise or dipyridamole /sup 201/Tl scintigraphy, particularly when present in multiple vascular regions and associated with increased lung /sup 201/Tl uptake, has been shown to be predictive of an adverse outcome, whereas patients with chest pain and a normal exercise /sup 201/Tl scintigram have a good prognosis with medical treatment. Similarly, a marked fall in the radionuclide ejection fraction from rest to exercise has been found to correlate with high-risk anatomic disease. Another important application of radionuclide imaging in patients being considered for CABG (particularly those with a depressed resting left ventricular ejection fraction) is the determination of myocardial viability and potential for improved blood flow and enhanced regional function after revascularization. 69 references.

  14. Microbiological Transformations of Radionuclides in the Subsurface

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Matthew J.; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2010-01-04

    Microorganisms are ubiquitous in subsurface environments although their populations sizes and metabolic activities can vary considerably depending on energy and nutrient inputs. As a result of their metabolic activities and the chemical properties of their cell surfaces and the exopolymers they produce, microorganisms can directly or indirectly facilitate the biotransformation of radionuclides, thus altering their solubility and overall fate and transport in the environment. Although biosorption to cell surfaces and exopolymers can be an important factor modifying the solubility of some radionuclides under specific conditions, oxidation state is often considered the single most important factor controlling their speciation and, therefore, environmental behavior.

  15. Radioimmunotherapy with alpha-particle emitting radionuclides.

    PubMed

    Zalutsky, M R; Pozzi, O R

    2004-12-01

    An important consideration in the development of effective strategies for radioimmunotherapy is the nature of the radiation emitted by the radionuclide. Radionuclides decaying by the emission of alpha-particles offer the possibility of matching the cell specific reactivity of monoclonal antibodies with radiation with a range of only a few cell diameters. Furthermore, alpha-particles have important biological advantages compared with external beam radiation and beta-particles including a higher biological effectiveness, which is nearly independent of oxygen concentration, dose rate and cell cycle position. In this review, the clinical settings most likely to benefit from alpha-particle radioimmunotherapy will be discussed. The current status of preclinical and clinical research with antibodies labeled with 3 promising alpha-particle emitting radionuclides - (213)Bi, (225)Ac, and (211)At - also will be summarized. PMID:15640792

  16. Methods of increasing the performance of radionuclide generators used in nuclear medicine: daughter nuclide build-up optimisation, elution-purification-concentration integration, and effective control of radionuclidic purity.

    PubMed

    Le, Van So; Do, Zoe Phuc-Hien; Le, Minh Khoi; Le, Vicki; Le, Natalie Nha-Truc

    2014-01-01

    optimising decay/measurement time and product sample activity used for QC quality control. The optimisation ensures a certainty of measurement of the specific impure radionuclide and avoids wasting the useful amount of valuable purified/concentrated daughter nuclide product. This process is important for the spectrometric measurement of very low activity of impure radionuclide contamination in the radioisotope products of much higher activity used in medical imaging and targeted radiotherapy. PMID:24918542

  17. Health Economic Data in Reimbursement of New Medical Technologies: Importance of the Socio-Economic Burden as a Decision-Making Criterion

    PubMed Central

    Iskrov, Georgi; Dermendzhiev, Svetlan; Miteva-Katrandzhieva, Tsonka; Stefanov, Rumen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Assessment and appraisal of new medical technologies require a balance between the interests of different stakeholders. Final decision should take into account the societal value of new therapies. Objective: This perspective paper discusses the socio-economic burden of disease as a specific reimbursement decision-making criterion and calls for the inclusion of it as a counterbalance to the cost-effectiveness and budget impact criteria. Results/Conclusions: Socio-economic burden is a decision-making criterion, accounting for diseases, for which the assessed medical technology is indicated. This indicator is usually researched through cost-of-illness studies that systematically quantify the socio-economic burden of diseases on the individual and on the society. This is a very important consideration as it illustrates direct budgetary consequences of diseases in the health system and indirect costs associated with patient or carer productivity losses. By measuring and comparing the socio-economic burden of different diseases to society, health authorities and payers could benefit in optimizing priority setting and resource allocation. New medical technologies, especially innovative therapies, present an excellent case study for the inclusion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making. Assessment and appraisal have been greatly concentrated so far on cost-effectiveness and budget impact, marginalizing all other considerations. In this context, data on disease burden and inclusion of explicit criterion of socio-economic burden in reimbursement decision-making may be highly beneficial. Realizing the magnitude of the lost socio-economic contribution resulting from diseases in question could be a reasonable way for policy makers to accept a higher valuation of innovative therapies. PMID:27582707

  18. Importance of Self-Motivation and Social Support in Medication Adherence in HIV-Infected Adolescents in the United Kingdom and Ireland: A Multicentre HYPNet Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; McDonald, Susan; Kim, Samuel; Foster, Caroline; Fidler, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents are a vulnerable population, not only to the acquisition of HIV, but also to poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) associated with disease progression and a increased risk of onward viral transmission. The aim of the study was to examine the factors that aid or act as barriers to adherence in a UK population of adolescents and young adults receiving ART. A cross-sectional survey was completed of 138 adolescents (12-24 years) across 14 clinical and community sites in the UK and Ireland. Analysis of results was undertaken using Chi-square testing in SPSS. Of the 138 patients, 48% were female, and 52% were born outside of the UK. Fifty-two of the 138 (43%) reported being on ART for at least 8 years. More than a third of the patients have ever interrupted treatment since initiating ART. One hundred four of the 138 (75%) patients self-reported being >85% adherent to medication for 7 day recall. Self-motivation (e.g., having a routine, specific goal) was cited as being most helpful in medication compliance (33%), followed by reminders by friends and family (25%), with 20% identifing no specific factor. Only 15% chose interventions such as an adherence diary or mobile phone reminders as helpful factors, and 1% chose healthcare professional input such as home visits. This study highlights the importance of self-motivation and social support in medication adherence in an HIV-infected adolescent population, in preference to healthcare professional input. Education and motivational strategies may confer the biggest impact on sustained ART adherence amongst this vulnerable group. PMID:25825814

  19. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  20. Vector Potential of Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) for Medically Important Bacteria at Food Handling Establishments in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Fithamlak; Belayneh, Fanuel; Kibru, Gebre; Ali, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Cockroaches have been regarded as possible vectors of human enteropathogens. Their presence and crawl particularly in food handling establishments could be risky for human health. Therefore, this study was done to determine the vector potential of cockroach for medically important bacterial pathogens in restaurants and cafeterias. A cross-sectional study was conducted on cockroaches from restaurants and cafeterias in Jimma town from May to September 2014. Standard taxonomic keys and microbiological techniques were applied for species identification and isolation. Data was analyzed in SPSS version 16.0. All cockroaches trapped were the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae). Escherichia coli was the most frequently isolated followed by Salmonella species (serogroups B, D, E, C1, and NG), Bacillus cereus, and Shigella flexneri. Wide varieties of bacteria of medical relevance were also identified. Of which, Klebsiella spp. 49(40.8%), Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were predominant. Blattella germanica (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) could serve as a potential vector for the dissemination of foodborne pathogens such as Salmonella spp., Shigella flexneri, E. coli, S. aureus, and B. cereus and these bacteria could be a major threat to public health. Therefore, environmental sanitation and standard hygiene need to be applied in the food handling establishments in that locality. PMID:27294115

  1. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, H

    2005-07-12

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  2. Initial Radionuclide Inventories

    SciTech Connect

    H. Miller

    2004-09-19

    The purpose of this analysis is to provide an initial radionuclide inventory (in grams per waste package) and associated uncertainty distributions for use in the Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) in support of the license application for the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This document is intended for use in postclosure analysis only. Bounding waste stream information and data were collected that capture probable limits. For commercially generated waste, this analysis considers alternative waste stream projections to bound the characteristics of wastes likely to be encountered using arrival scenarios that potentially impact the commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF) waste stream. For TSPA-LA, this radionuclide inventory analysis considers U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) high-level radioactive waste (DHLW) glass and two types of spent nuclear fuel (SNF): CSNF and DOE-owned (DSNF). These wastes are placed in two groups of waste packages: the CSNF waste package and the codisposal waste package (CDSP), which are designated to contain DHLW glass and DSNF, or DHLW glass only. The radionuclide inventory for naval SNF is provided separately in the classified ''Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program Technical Support Document'' for the License Application. As noted previously, the radionuclide inventory data presented here is intended only for TSPA-LA postclosure calculations. It is not applicable to preclosure safety calculations. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these wastes require safety analyses to support the design and licensing of repository equipment and facilities. These analyses will require radionuclide inventories to represent the radioactive source term that must be accommodated during handling, storage and disposition of these wastes. This analysis uses the best available information to identify the radionuclide inventory that is expected at the last year of last emplacement, currently identified as

  3. Radionuclide studies in impotence

    SciTech Connect

    Hilson, A.J.; Lewis, C.A. )

    1991-04-01

    Impotence may be of physiological origin with causes including vascular or neurological pathology. Alternatively, it may be of psychogenic origin. Clinicians can distinguish between psychological and organic impotence by observing nocturnal penile tumescence. Non-radionuclide investigations for organic impotence include penile plethysmography or pulse Doppler analysis for arterial supply, cavernosometry for venous drainage, and biothesiometry or evoked potentials for neurological pathology. Radionuclide studies are primarily based on the use of technetium 99m-pertechnetate, 99mTc-red blood cells, or xenon 133 to study the blood flow, with or without pharmacological intervention, commonly papaverine. 26 references.

  4. The preferences of users of electronic medical records in hospitals: quantifying the relative importance of barriers and facilitators of an innovation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Currently electronic medical records (EMRs) are implemented in hospitals, because of expected benefits for quality and safety of care. However the implementation processes are not unproblematic and are slower than needed. Many of the barriers and facilitators of the adoption of EMRs are identified, but the relative importance of these factors is still undetermined. This paper quantifies the relative importance of known barriers and facilitators of EMR, experienced by the users (i.e., nurses and physicians in hospitals). Methods A discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among physicians and nurses. Participants answered ten choice sets containing two scenarios. Each scenario included attributes that were based on previously identified barriers in the literature: data entry hardware, technical support, attitude head of department, performance feedback, flexibility of interface, and decision support. Mixed Multinomial Logit analysis was used to determine the relative importance of the attributes. Results Data on 148 nurses and 150 physicians showed that high flexibility of the interface was the factor with highest relative importance in their preference to use an EMR. For nurses this attribute was followed by support from the head of department, presence of performance feedback from the EMR and presence of decisions support. While for physicians this ordering was different: presence of decision support was relatively more important than performance feedback and support from the head of department. Conclusion Considering the prominent wish of all the intended users for a flexible interface, currently used EMRs only partially comply with the needs of the users, indicating the need for closer incorporation of user needs during development stages of EMRs. The differences in priorities amongst nurses and physicians show that different users have different needs during the implementation of innovations. Hospital management may use this information to

  5. Relationships Between Health Literacy and Genomics-Related Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Perceived Importance, and Communication in a Medically Underserved Population.

    PubMed

    Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Blanchard, Melvin; Milam, Laurel; Pokharel, Manusheela; Elrick, Ashley; Goodman, Melody S

    2016-01-01

    The increasing importance of genomic information in clinical care heightens the need to examine how individuals understand, value, and communicate about this information. Based on a conceptual framework of genomics-related health literacy, we examined whether health literacy was related to knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived importance of genetics and family health history (FHH) and communication about FHH in a medically underserved population. The analytic sample was composed of 624 patients at a primary care clinic in a large urban hospital. About half of the participants (47%) had limited health literacy; 55% had no education beyond high school, and 58% were Black. In multivariable models, limited health literacy was associated with lower genetic knowledge (β = -0.55, SE = 0.10, p < .0001), lower awareness of FHH (odds ratio [OR] = 0.50, 95% confidence interval [CI; 0.28, 0.90], p = .020), and greater perceived importance of genetic information (OR = 1.95, 95% CI [1.27, 3.00], p = .0022) but lower perceived importance of FHH information (OR = 0.47, 95% CI [0.26, 0.86], p = .013) and more frequent communication with a doctor about FHH (OR = 2.02, 95% CI [1.27, 3.23], p = .0032). The findings highlight the importance of considering domains of genomics-related health literacy (e.g., knowledge, oral literacy) in developing educational strategies for genomic information. Health literacy research is essential to avoid increasing disparities in information and health outcomes as genomic information reaches more patients. PMID:27043759

  6. Transuranic radionuclides dispersed into the aquatic environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Noshkin, V.E.; Stoker, A.C.; Wong, Kai M.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions (i.e., site specific) in terrestrial, aquatic and atmospheric environments An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is a unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides.

  7. Transuranic radionuclides from resuspension in the environment, a bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Stoker, A.C.; Shinn, J.H.; Noshkin, V.E.

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to compile a bibliography of references containing environmental transuranic radionuclide data. Our intent was to identify those parameters affecting transuranic radionuclide transport that may be generic and those that may be dependent on chemical form and/or environmental conditions. An understanding of the unique characteristics and similarities between source terms and environmental conditions relative to transuranic radionuclide transport and cycling will provide the ability to assess and predict the long term impact on man and the environment. An additional goal of our literature review, was to extract the ranges of environmental transuranic radionuclide data from the identified references for inclusion in a data base. Related to source term, these ranges of data can be used to calculate the dose to man from the radionuclides, and to perform uncertainty analyses on these dose assessments. On the basis of our reviews, we have arbitrarily outlined five general source terms. These are fallout, fuel cycle waste, accidents, disposal sites and resuspension. Resuspension of the transuranic radionuclides is an unique source term, in that the radionuclides can originate from any of the other source terms. If these transuranic radionuclides become resuspended into the air, they then become important as a source of inhaled radionuclides. This bibliography is a compilation of the references containing studies of plutonium and americium in the environment as a result of resuspension.

  8. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  9. Radionuclide concentrations in white sturgeon from the Columbia River

    SciTech Connect

    Dauble, D.D.; Price, K.R.; Poston, T.M.

    1992-09-01

    Although radioactive releases from the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site have been monitored in the environment since the reactors began operating in 1945, recent information regarding historical releases of radionuclides has led to renewed interest in estimating human exposure to radionuclides at Hanford. Knowledge of the fate of radionuclides in some fish species may be important because of the potential for food-chain transfer to humans. White sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) were selected for study because they are long-lived, reside year-round in the Hanford Reach, are benthic, and are an important commercial and sport species in the Columbia River. They also have a greater potential for accumulating persistent radionuclides than shorter-lived species with pelagic and/or anadromous life histories. The purpose of our study was to summarize data on historical concentrations of industrial radionuclides in white sturgeon and to collect additional data on current body burdens in the Columbia River.

  10. Gallbladder radionuclide scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... please enable JavaScript. Gallbladder radionuclide scan is a test that uses radioactive material to check gallbladder function. It is also used to look for bile duct blockage or leak. How the Test is Performed The health care provider will inject ...

  11. Method for preparing radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes

    DOEpatents

    Meares, Claude F.; Li, Min; DeNardo, Sally J.

    1999-01-01

    Radionuclide-labeled chelating agent-ligand complexes that are useful in medical diagnosis or therapy are prepared by reacting a radionuclide, such as .sup.90 Y or .sup.111 In, with a polyfunctional chelating agent to form a radionuclide chelate that is electrically neutral; purifying the chelate by anion exchange chromatography; and reacting the purified chelate with a targeting molecule, such as a monoclonal antibody, to form the complex.

  12. Production cross-sections of long-lived radionuclides in deuteron-induced reactions on natural zinc up to 23 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Haba, Hiromitsu; Murakami, Masashi; Otuka, Naohiko

    2015-03-01

    Production cross-sections of long-lived radionuclides 66,67Ga, 64,67Cu, 65,69mZn, and 58m+gCo via a deuteron irradiation on a natural zinc target were measured up to 23 MeV using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with HPGe γ-ray spectrometry. The present results showed partial agreements with the earlier experimental cross-sections and also with the theoretical data extracted from the TENDL-2013 library. Physical thick target yields of the investigated radionuclides were deduced using the measured cross-sections, and they found agreements with the directly measured ones in the literatures except for those reported by Dmitriev et al. for 65Zn. Optimal production pathways of the medically important 67Ga radionuclide using a low energy cyclotron are discussed.

  13. Phylogenetic analyses of RPB1 and RPB2 support a middle Cretaceous origin for a clade comprising all agriculturally and medically important fusaria.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Rooney, Alejandro P; Proctor, Robert H; Brown, Daren W; McCormick, Susan P; Ward, Todd J; Frandsen, Rasmus J N; Lysøe, Erik; Rehner, Stephen A; Aoki, Takayuki; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Kang, Seogchan; Geiser, David M

    2013-03-01

    Fusarium (Hypocreales, Nectriaceae) is one of the most economically important and systematically challenging groups of mycotoxigenic phytopathogens and emergent human pathogens. We conducted maximum likelihood (ML), maximum parsimony (MP) and Bayesian (B) analyses on partial DNA-directed RNA polymerase II largest (RPB1) and second largest subunit (RPB2) nucleotide sequences of 93 fusaria to infer the first comprehensive and well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis of evolutionary relationships within the genus and 20 of its near relatives. Our analyses revealed that Cylindrocarpon formed a basal monophyletic sister to a 'terminal Fusarium clade' (TFC) comprising 20 strongly supported species complexes and nine monotypic lineages, which we provisionally recognize as Fusarium (hypothesis F1). The basal-most divergences within the TFC were only significantly supported by Bayesian posterior probabilities (B-PP 0.99-1). An internode of the remaining TFC, however, was strongly supported by MP and ML bootstrapping and B-PP (hypothesis F2). Analysis of seven Fusarium genome sequences and Southern analysis of fusaria elucidated the distribution of genes required for synthesis of 26 families of secondary metabolites within the phylogenetic framework. Diversification time estimates date the origin of the TFC to the middle Cretaceous 91.3 million years ago. We also dated the origin of several agriculturally important secondary metabolites as well as the lineage responsible for Fusarium head blight of cereals. Dating of several plant-associated species complexes suggests their evolution may have been driven by angiosperm diversification during the Miocene. Our results support two competing hypotheses for the circumscription of Fusarium and provide a framework for future comparative phylogenetic and genomic analyses of this agronomically and medically important genus. PMID:23357352

  14. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  15. The role of electromagnetic separators in the production of radiotracers for bio-medical research and nuclear medical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Gerd J.; Ruth, Thomas J.

    2003-05-01

    With the growing complexity of positron emission tomography/single photon emission computed tomography imaging and the new developments in systemic radionuclide therapy there is a growing need for radioisotope preparations with higher radiochemical and radionuclidic purity that has not been achievable before. Especially important for the new applications is the specific activity of the radiotracer. Conventional methods in medical isotope production have reached their technical limitations. The role of isotope separators is discussed with examples of typical production and characterization experiments conducted at the ISOLDE and TRIUMF facilities. These preliminary experiments indicate that isotope separators have a definite role to play in the future for the production of radioisotopes for biomedical research and medical application.

  16. Osteoid osteoma: radionuclide diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Helms, C.A.; Hattner, R.S.; Vogler, J.B. III

    1984-06-01

    The double-density sign, seen on radionuclide bone scans, is described for diagnosing osteoid osteomas and for localizing the nidus. Its use in differentiating the nidus of an osteoid osteoma from osteomyelitis is also described. The utility of computed tomography in localization of the nidus is also illustrated. The double-density sign was helpful in diagnosing seven cases of surgically confirmed osteoid osteoma.

  17. High-precision gamma-ray spectroscopy of 82Rb and 72As, two important medical isotopes used in positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nino, Michael; McCutchan, E.; Smith, S.; Sonzogni, A.; Muench, L.; Greene, J.; Carpenter, M.; Zhu, S.; Lister, C.

    2015-10-01

    Both 82Rb and 72As are very important medical isotopes used in imaging procedures, yet their full decay schemes were last studied decades ago using low-sensitivity detection systems; high quality decay data is necessary to determine the total dose received by the patient, the background in imaging technologies, and shielding requirements in production facilities. To improve the decay data of these two isotopes, sources were produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP) and then the Gammasphere array, consisting of 89 Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors, at Argonne National Laboratory was used to analyze the gamma-ray emissions from the daughter nuclei 82 Kr and 72 Ge. Gamma-ray singles and coincidence information were recorded and analyzed using Radware Gf3m software. Significant revisions were made to the level schemes including the observation of many new transitions and levels as well as a reduction in uncertainty on measured γ-ray intensities and deduced β-feedings. The new decay schemes as well as their impact on dose calculations will be presented. DOE Isotope Program is acknowledged for funding ST5001030. Work supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant No. DE-FG02-94ER40848 and Contract Nos. DE-AC02-98CH10946 and DE-AC02-06CH11357 and by the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internships Program (SULI).

  18. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation. PMID:27103821

  19. Development of Candida-Specific Real-Time PCR Assays for the Detection and Identification of Eight Medically Important Candida Species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Hung, Guo-Chiuan; Nagamine, Kenjiro; Li, Bingjie; Tsai, Shien; Lo, Shyh-Ching

    2016-01-01

    Culture-based identification methods have been the gold standard for the diagnosis of fungal infection. Currently, molecular technologies such as real-time PCR assays with short turnaround time can provide desirable alternatives for the rapid detection of Candida microbes. However, most of the published PCR primer sets are not Candida specific and likely to amplify DNA from common environmental contaminants, such as Aspergillus microbes. In this study, we designed pan-Candida primer sets based on the ribosomal DNA-coding regions conserved within Candida but distinct from those of Aspergillus and Penicillium. We demonstrate that the final two selected pan-Candida primer sets would not amplify Aspergillus DNA and could be used to differentiate eight medically important Candida pathogens in real-time PCR assays based on their melting profiles, with a sensitivity of detection as low as 10 fg of Candida genomic DNA. Moreover, we further evaluated and selected species-specific primer sets covering Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida dubliniensis and show that they had high sensitivity and specificity. These real-time PCR primer sets could potentially be assembled into a single PCR array for the rapid detection of Candida species in various clinical settings, such as corneal transplantation. PMID:27103821

  20. Mobility of chelated radionuclides in engineered concrete barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Dicke, C.A.; Smith, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Concrete is a major component in many low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The use of concrete is widespread because of its physical and structural properties and because it provides geochemical control on metal and radionuclide releases. Organic compounds are often disposed with radionuclides in LLW disposal facilities. Interactions between radionuclides and chelating agents must be evaluated to estimate mobility of radionuclides in concrete vaults. This paper quantifies the effects of two common organic components [citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)] on radionuclide mobility in concrete barriers by using equilibrium geochemical calculations. Equilibrium speciation calculations indicate that some radionuclides are chelated in groundwater (pH 7) but are destabilized in the highly alkaline (pH 13) concrete pore fluids. Radionuclides complexed by by EDTA and citrate are replaced by calcium in the concrete pore fluids. In addition, the citrate nuclide complex reacts to form uncomplexed citrate in concrete pore fluids. The chemical performance of concrete LLW disposal facilities should not be compromised by small amounts of chelating agents disposed with some radionuclides. However, EDTA may form significant nickel and cobalt complexes above the pH important in the long-term service life of concrete barriers.

  1. [Contemporary legislation and importance of psychophysiologic examination in system of medical support for workers engaged into production with radiation and nuclear danger].

    PubMed

    Torubarov, F S; Isaeva, N A; Zvereva, Z F; Denisova, E A; Metliaeva, N A

    2012-01-01

    In accordance with contemporary legislation, the article covers materials on specification and approbation of concept model for psychophysiologic examination in medical establishments during medical examination of workers engaged into production with raidation and nuclear danger. The authors defined methodology, examination methods and designed an order of psychophysiologic examination. The psychophysiologic examination and purpose-oriented rehabilitation appeared efficient. PMID:23210182

  2. 21 CFR 892.5700 - Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Remote controlled radionuclide applicator system. 892.5700 Section 892.5700 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES RADIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 892.5700 Remote...

  3. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, L.A.; Ryan, J.L.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the {sup 229}Th or {sup 227}Ac ``cow`` radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium, lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column. 8 figs.

  4. Method of separating short half-life radionuclides from a mixture of radionuclides

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A.; Ryan, Jack L.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of removing an impurity of plutonium, lead or a combination thereof from a mixture of radionuclides that contains the impurity and at least one parent radionuclide. The method has the steps of (a) insuring that the mixture is a hydrochloric acid mixture; (b) oxidizing the acidic mixture and specifically oxidizing the impurity to its highest oxidation state; and (c) passing the oxidized mixture through a chloride form anion exchange column whereupon the oxidized impurity absorbs to the chloride form anion exchange column and the 22.sup.9 Th or 2.sup.27 Ac "cow" radionuclide passes through the chloride form anion exchange column. The plutonium is removed for the purpose of obtaining other alpha emitting radionuclides in a highly purified form suitable for medical therapy. In addition to plutonium; lead, iron, cobalt, copper, uranium, and other metallic cations that form chloride anionic complexes that may be present in the mixture; are removed from the mixture on the chloride form anion exchange column.

  5. A Case of Intractable Left Forearm Congenital Arteriovenous Fistula Ending with Amputation: Importance of New Medical Information Obtained via the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiajia; Shimada, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to consider the importance of medical information obtained via the Internet for difficult cases in hospitals, especially in those located in rural areas. We report here a case of congenital arteriovenous fistula (AVF) in the upper extremities. Patient: A 30-year-old lady was transported to our hospital by ambulance due to massive bleeding in her left hand. She was seen by our current cardiovascular surgery team for the first time, although she had been diagnosed with congenital AVF of the left arm 9 years previously. Because it was asymptomatic, she was followed up by observation. During 5 years of observation, symptoms such as cyanosis, pain, and refractory ulcers gradually developed. When she was 26 years old, she was referred to a university hospital in Akita, but surgery had already been judged to be impossible. When she was 30 years old, traumatic bleeding in her left hand and hemorrhagic shock led her to be taken to our hospital by ambulance. Using the Internet, we found an institution that had treated a large number of cases of AVF. After controlling the bleeding, we referred her to that institution. However, she could not be treated without an above-elbow amputation. Conclusion: Congenital AVF in the upper extremities is a rare vascular anomaly and has been generally accepted to be an extremely difficult disease to treat. Treatment should be started as early as possible before the presence of any symptoms. When a specialist is not available near the hospital, precise information must be found using the Internet and the patient should be referred without any delay. PMID:25650050

  6. Automated Identification of Medically Important Bacteria by 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Using a Novel Comprehensive Database, 16SpathDB▿

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Teng, Jade L. L.; Yeung, Juilian M. Y.; Tse, Herman; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2011-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing, interpretation of 16S rRNA gene sequence results is one of the most difficult problems faced by clinical microbiologists and technicians. To overcome the problems we encountered in the existing databases during 16S rRNA gene sequence interpretation, we built a comprehensive database, 16SpathDB (http://147.8.74.24/16SpathDB) based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of all medically important bacteria listed in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology and evaluated its use for automated identification of these bacteria. Among 91 nonduplicated bacterial isolates collected in our clinical microbiology laboratory, 71 (78%) were reported by 16SpathDB as a single bacterial species having >98.0% nucleotide identity with the query sequence, 19 (20.9%) were reported as more than one bacterial species having >98.0% nucleotide identity with the query sequence, and 1 (1.1%) was reported as no match. For the 71 bacterial isolates reported as a single bacterial species, all results were identical to their true identities as determined by a polyphasic approach. For the 19 bacterial isolates reported as more than one bacterial species, all results contained their true identities as determined by a polyphasic approach and all of them had their true identities as the “best match in 16SpathDB.” For the isolate (Gordonibacter pamelaeae) reported as no match, the bacterium has never been reported to be associated with human disease and was not included in the Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 16SpathDB is an automated, user-friendly, efficient, accurate, and regularly updated database for 16S rRNA gene sequence interpretation in clinical microbiology laboratories. PMID:21389154

  7. Radionuclides in an underground environment

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.L.

    1996-08-01

    In the 100 years since Becquerel recognized radioactivity, mankind has been very successful in producing large amounts of radioactive materials. We have been less successful in reaching a consensus on how to dispose of the billions of curies of fission products and transuranics resulting from nuclear weapons testing, electrical power generation, medical research, and a variety of other human endeavors. Many countries, including the United States, favor underground burial as a means of disposing of radioactive wastes. There are, however, serious questions about how such buried wastes may behave in the underground environment and particularly how they might eventually contaminate water, air and soil resources on which we are dependent. This paper describes research done in the United States in the state of Nevada on the behavior of radioactive materials placed underground. During the last thirty years, a series of ``experiments`` conducted for other purposes (testing of nuclear weapons) have resulted in a wide variety of fission products and actinides being injected in rock strata both above and below the water table. Variables which seem to control the movement of these radionuclides include the physical form (occlusion versus surface deposition), the chemical oxidation state, sorption by mineral phases of the host rock, and the hydrologic properties of the medium. The information gained from these studies should be relevant to planning for remediation of nuclear facilities elsewhere in the world and for long-term storage of nuclear wastes.

  8. Understanding Radionuclide Interactions with Layered Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Layered materials play an important role in nuclear waste management and environmental cleanup. Better understanding of radionuclide interactions with those materials is critical for engineering high-performance materials for various applications. This presentation will provide an overview on radionuclide interactions with two general categories of layered materials - cationic clays and anionic clays - from a perspective of nanopore confinement. Nanopores are widely present in layered materials, either as the interlayers or as inter-particle space. Nanopore confinement can significantly modify chemical reactions in those materials. This effect may cause the preferential enrichment of radionuclides in nanopores and therefore directly impact the mobility of the radionuclides. This effect also implies that conventional sorption measurements using disaggregated samples may not represent chemical conditions in actual systems. The control of material structures on ion exchange, surface complexation, and diffusion in layered materials will be systematically examined, and the related modeling approaches will be discussed. This work was performed at Sandia National Laboratories, which is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the DOE under contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  9. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  10. Radionuclide transport coupled with bentonite extrusion in a saturated fracture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrelli, Robert Angelo

    The study in this dissertation focuses on the characterization of radionuclide migration in a water saturated fracture. The near field of a high level radioactive waste repository contains the engineered barrier system, which provides manufactured components designed to limit radionuclide releases to the environment. A major component in this system involves the utilization of bentonite as a buffer to protect the degraded waste package and limit release of radionuclides into intersecting fractures that pose possible pathways for transport to the environment. A model is derived for radionuclide migration through this fracture. The model incorporates the features of bentonite: extrusion into the fracture, sorption, and the effect of bentonite swelling on groundwater flow. The resulting derivation of this model is a coupled system of differential equations. The differential equation describing the mass conservation of radionuclides is coupled to the equation system for bentonite extrusion. The models are coupled through the parameters in the radionuclide transport model, which are dependent on the spatial distribution of solid material in the domain. Numerical evaluations of the solution to this radionuclide transport model were conducted for neptunium, a weakly sorbing radionuclide and americium, a strongly sorbing radionuclide. Results were presented in terms normalized spatial distribution of radionuclide concentration in the fluid phase and normalized radionuclide release rate in the fluid phase. Major findings of the study conducted for this dissertation are provided. (1) Bentonite extrusion affects fluid phase advection resulting in groundwater flow countercurrent to the direction of extrusion to the direction of radionuclide migration. (2) The sorption distribution coefficient is the most important parameter affecting radionuclide behavior in this system for this model. (3) Simulations of the model for americium, a highly sorbing radionuclide, indicate that

  11. Radionuclide Sensors for Water Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Grate, Jay W.; Egorov, Oleg B.; DeVol, Timothy A.

    2005-09-01

    Radionuclide contamination in the soil and groundwater at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites is a severe problem that requires monitoring and remediation. Radionuclide measurement techniques are needed to monitor surface waters, groundwater, and process waters. Typically, water samples are collected and transported to an analytical laboratory, where costly radiochemical analyses are performed. To date, there has been very little development of selective radionuclide sensors for alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides such as 90Sr, 99Tc, and various actinides of interest.

  12. Mass Spectrometric Radionuclide Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, John F.; Eiden, Greg C.; Lehn, Scott A.

    2006-02-01

    Measurement of ionized atoms by mass spectrometry is an alternative to radiation detection for measuring radioactive isotopes. These systems are large and complex; they require trained operators and extensive maintenance. They began as research systems but have been developed commercially for measuring amounts of radioactive isotopes and their atom ratios to other isotopes. Several types of mass spectrometer systems are in use. This chapter covers the basics of mass spectrometry and surveys the application of these instruments for radionuclide detection and discusses the circumstances under which use of mass spectrometers is advantageous, the type of mass spectrometer used for each purpose, and the conditions of sample preparation, introduction and analysis.

  13. Radionuclide transfer to fruit in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision.

    PubMed

    Carini, Franca

    2009-09-01

    Information on the transfer of radionuclides to fruits was almost absent in the former TRS 364 "Handbook of parameter values for the prediction of radionuclide transfer in temperate environments". The revision of the Handbook, carried out under the IAEA Programme on Environmental Modelling for RAdiation Safety (EMRAS), takes into account the information generated in the years following the Chernobyl accident and the knowledge produced under the IAEA BIOMASS (Biosphere Modelling and Assessment) Programme in the years 1997-2000. This paper describes the most important processes concerning the behaviour of radionuclides in fruits reported in the IAEA TRS 364 Revision and provides recommendations for research and modelling. PMID:19027202

  14. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent

  15. Monitoring release of disposable radionuclides in the Kara sea: Bioaccumulation of long-lived radionuclides in echinoderms and molluscs

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, N.S.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the present proposal is to continue and extend our research on the trophic transfer of important radionuclides in benthic fauna of the Kara Sea. This project is assessing the extent to which select species of seastars, brittle stars, and clams typical of the Kara Sea concentrate and retain a variety of long-lived radionuclides known to be (or suspected to be) present in the disposed wastes in the Russian Arctic. The rates and routes of uptake and depuration of isotopes in the same or in closely related species are being quantified so that endemic benthic organisms can be assessed as potential bioindicators of released radionuclides in Arctic waters.

  16. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Steinhäusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-01

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  17. Illicit Trafficking of Natural Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Friedrich, Steinhaeusler; Lyudmila, Zaitseva

    2008-08-07

    Natural radionuclides have been subject to trafficking worldwide, involving natural uranium ore (U 238), processed uranium (yellow cake), low enriched uranium (<20% U 235) or highly enriched uranium (>20% U 235), radium (Ra 226), polonium (Po 210), and natural thorium ore (Th 232). An important prerequisite to successful illicit trafficking activities is access to a suitable logistical infrastructure enabling an undercover shipment of radioactive materials and, in case of trafficking natural uranium or thorium ore, capable of transporting large volumes of material. Covert en route diversion of an authorised uranium transport, together with covert diversion of uranium concentrate from an operating or closed uranium mines or mills, are subject of case studies. Such cases, involving Israel, Iran, Pakistan and Libya, have been analyzed in terms of international actors involved and methods deployed. Using international incident data contained in the Database on Nuclear Smuggling, Theft and Orphan Radiation Sources (DSTO) and international experience gained from the fight against drug trafficking, a generic Trafficking Pathway Model (TPM) is developed for trafficking of natural radionuclides. The TPM covers the complete trafficking cycle, ranging from material diversion, covert material transport, material concealment, and all associated operational procedures. The model subdivides the trafficking cycle into five phases: (1) Material diversion by insider(s) or initiation by outsider(s); (2) Covert transport; (3) Material brokerage; (4) Material sale; (5) Material delivery. An Action Plan is recommended, addressing the strengthening of the national infrastructure for material protection and accounting, development of higher standards of good governance, and needs for improving the control system deployed by customs, border guards and security forces.

  18. Radionuclides in nephrology

    SciTech Connect

    Lausanne, A.B.D.

    1987-01-01

    In 47 expert contributions, this volume provides a summary of the latest research on radionuclides in nephro-urology together with current and new clinical applications especially in renovascular hypertension, kidney transplantation, and metabolic and urological diseases. In addition, attention is given to aspects of basic renal physiology and function and possible applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy in nephro-urology. New testing procedures which promise to improve diagnosis, and new radiopharmaceuticals are described. The reports are divided into eight sections, the first of which features studies on the renin-angiotensin system, cisplatin, atrial natriuretic factor and determining plasma oxalate. Four papers describe a number of new radiopharmaceuticals which have the potential to replace hippuran. In the third section, radionuclide methods for the measurement of renal function parameters are discussed. The book then focuses on the potential role of captopril in the improved diagnosis of renovascular hypertension. Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy are demonstrated in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis, kidney assessment after lithotripsy, kidney evaluation prior to transplantation, and in monitoring renal ischemia during hypotension.

  19. Labeling of monoclonal antibodies with radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, K.K.; Acharya, S.A. )

    1989-07-01

    Antibodies, specifically monoclonal antibodies, are potentially very useful and powerful carriers of therapeutic agents to target tissues and diagnostic agents. The loading or charging of antibodies with agents, especially radiotracers, is reviewed here. The choice of radioisotope for immunodetection and/or immunotherapy is based on its availability, half-life, nature of the radiation emitted, and the metabolic pathways of the radionuclide in the body. Most important of all are the derivatization techniques available for labeling the antibody with the given radionuclide. Isotopes of iodine and divalent metal ions are the most commonly used radionuclides. Antibodies labeled with iodine at tyrosine residues are metabolized rapidly in vivo. This leads to the incorporation of metabolized radioactive iodine into various tissues, mainly the thyroid gland and stomach, and to the accumulation of high levels of circulating iodine in the blood, which masks tumor uptake considerably. To overcome these limitations, the use of iodohippurate as an iodine-anchoring molecule to the protein should be considered. When divalent or multivalent metal ions are used as the preferred radionuclide, bifunctional chelating reagents such as EDTA or DTPA are first coupled to the protein or antibody. These chelating molecules are attached to the protein by formation of an isopeptide linkage between the carboxylate of the chelating reagent and the amino group of the protein. Several procedures are available to generate the isopeptide linkage. When the anchoring of the chelating agent through isopeptide linkage results in the inactivation of the antibody, periodate oxidation of the carbohydrate moiety of the antibody, followed by reductive coupling of chelator, could be considered as an alternative. There is still a need for better, simpler, and more direct methods for labeling antibodies with radionuclides. 78 references.

  20. Targeted radionuclide therapy--an overview.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ashutosh; Knapp, F F Russ; Pillai, M R A

    2013-09-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) based on the concept of delivering cytotoxic levels of radiation to disease sites is one of the rapidly growing fields of nuclear medicine. Unlike conventional external beam therapy, RNT targets diseases at the cellular level rather than on a gross anatomical level. This concept is a blend of a tracer moiety that mediates a site specific accumulation followed by induction of cytotoxicity with the short-range biological effectiveness of particulate radiations. Knowledge of the biochemical reactions taking place at cellular levels has stimulated the development of sophisticated molecular carriers, catalyzing a shift towards using more specific targeting radiolabelled agents. There is also improved understanding of factors of importance for choice of appropriate radionuclides based on availability, the types of emissions, linear energy transfer (LET), and physical half-life. This article discusses the applications of radionuclide therapy for treatment of cancer as well as other diseases. The primary objective of this review is to provide an overview on the role of radionuclide therapy in the treatment of different diseases such as polycythaemia, thyroid malignancies, metastatic bone pain, radiation synovectomy, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and others. In addition, recent developments on the systematic approach in designing treatment regimens as well as recent progress, challenges and future perspectives are discussed. An examination of the progress of radionuclide therapy indicates that although a rapid stride has been made for treating hematological tumors, the development for treating solid tumors has, so far, been limited. However, the emergence of novel tumor-specific targeting agents coupled with successful characterization of new target structures would be expected to pave the way for future treatment for such tumors. PMID:24059327

  1. Radionuclide-labeled nanostructures for In Vivo imaging of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Kim, Minho; Hartman, Kevin L.; Kang, Keon Wook; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2015-05-01

    Molecular imaging plays an important role in the non-invasive diagnosis and the guiding or monitoring of disease treatment. Different imaging modalities have been developed, and each method possesses unique strengths. While a variety of molecules have been used previously in nuclear imaging, the exceptional properties of nanostructures in recent research enable the deployment of accurate and efficient diagnostic agents using radionuclide-nanostructures. This review focuses on the radionuclide labeling strategies of various nanostructures and their applications for multimodality tumor imaging.

  2. Snake venomics and antivenomics of Bothrops colombiensis, a medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela: Contributing to its taxonomy and snakebite management.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Juan J; Borges, Adolfo; Segura, Alvaro; Flores-Díaz, Marietta; Alape-Girón, Alberto; Gutiérrez, José María; Diez, Nardy; De Sousa, Leonardo; Kiriakos, Demetrio; Sánchez, Eladio; Faks, José G; Escolano, José; Sanz, Libia

    2009-03-01

    The taxonomic status of the medically important pitviper of the Bothrops atrox-asper complex endemic to Venezuela, which has been classified as Bothrops colombiensis, remains incertae cedis. To help resolving this question, the venom proteome of B. colombiensis was characterized by reverse-phase HPLC fractionation followed by analysis of each chromatographic fraction by SDS-PAGE, N-terminal sequencing, MALDI-TOF mass fingerprinting, and collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides. The venom contained proteins belonging to 8 types of families. PI Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases and K49 PLA(2) molecules comprise over 65% of the venom proteins. Other venom protein families comprised PIII Zn(2+)-metalloproteinases (11.3%), D49 PLA(2)s (10.2%), l-amino acid oxidase (5.7%), the medium-sized disintegrin colombistatin (5.6%), serine proteinases (1%), bradykinin-potentiating peptides (0.8%), a DC-fragment (0.5%), and a CRISP protein (0.1%). A comparison of the venom proteomes of B. colombiensis and B. atrox did not support the suggested synonymy between these two species. The closest homologues to B. colombiensis venom proteins appeared to be toxins from B. asper. A rough estimation of the similarity between the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper indicated that these species share approximately 65-70% of their venom proteomes. The close kinship of B. colombiensis and B. asper points at the ancestor of B. colombiensis as the founding Central American B. asper ancestor. This finding may be relevant for reconstructing the natural history and cladogenesis of Bothrops. Further, the virtually indistinguishable immunological crossreactivity of a Venezuelan ABC antiserum (raised against a mixture of B. colombiensis and Crotalus durissus cumanensis venoms) and the Costa Rican ICP polyvalent antivenom (generated against a mixture of B. asper, Crotalus simus, and Lachesis stenophrys venoms) towards the venoms of B. colombiensis and B. asper, supports this

  3. Decision-Making after Prenatal Diagnosis of a Syndrome Predisposing to Intellectual Disability: What Prospective Parents Need to Know and the Importance of Non-Medical Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyard, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently researchers have suggested that non-medical information may impact the decision to continue or terminate a pregnancy after a prenatal diagnosis. This study is an investigation of what type of information prospective parents need for this decision-making in the case of a condition predisposing to intellectual disability.…

  4. Dynamics and transformations of radionuclides in soils and ecosystem health

    SciTech Connect

    Fellows, Robert J. ); Ainsworth, Calvin C. ); Driver, Crystal J. ); Cataldo, Dominic A. )

    1998-12-01

    The chemical behavior of radionuclides can vary widely in soil and sediment environments. Equally important, for a given radionuclide the physico-chemical properties of the solids and aqueous phase can greatly influence a radionuclides behavior. Radionuclides can conceivably occur in soils as soluble-free, inorganic-soluble-complexed, organic-soluble, complexed, adsorbed, precipitated, coprecipitated, or solid structural species. While it is clear that an assessment of a radionuclide?s soil chemistry and potential shifts in speciation will yield a considerable understanding of its behavior in the natural environment, it does not directly translate to bioavailability or its impact on ecosystems health. The soil chemical factors have to be linked to food chain considerations and other ecological parameters that directly tie to an analysis of ecosystem health. In general, the movement of radionuclides from lower to higher trophic levels diminishes with each trophic level in both aqua tic and terrestrial systems. In some cases, transfer is limited because of low absorption/assimilation by successive trophic organisms (Pu, U); for other radionuclides (Tc, H) assimilation may be high but rapid metabolic turnover and low retention greatly reduce tissue concentrations available to predator species. Still others are chemical analogs of essential elements whose concentrations are maintained under strict metabolic control in tissues (Cs) or are stored in tissues seldom consumed by other organisms (Sr storage in exoskeleton, shells, and bone). Therefore, the organisms that receive the greatest ingestion exposures are those in lower trophic positions or are in higher trophic levels but within simple, short food chains. Food source, behavior, and habitat influence the accumulation of radionuclides in animals.

  5. Radionuclides in the evaluation of urinary obstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, S.C.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1982-07-01

    Radionuclide renography and renal scanning techniques are ideally suited to the initial and follow-up evaluation of patients with obstructive uropathy. While other modalities are superior in their ability to provide anatomic information, the radionuclide study yields functional information for each kidney without the necessity to resort to invasive studies. In addition, the Nuclear Medicine study is well suited to the evaluation of obstruction where serial studies often are required because of a lower radiation burden compared to urography. This lower radiation dose is especially important in obstruction because of the recurrent nature of several kinds of obstructive uropathy and because of the high incidence in the pediatric age group. The ability to control urine flow rate during the procedure through dehydration or administration of diuretics is an additional benefit. Increasing availability of computerization of nuclear medicine procedures as well as interest in studies employing physiologic intervention (including the diuresis renogram) have assured an important place for radionuclide studies in the evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction.

  6. Radionuclide transport and retardation in tuff

    SciTech Connect

    Vine, E.N.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; DeVilliers, S.J.; Erdal, B.R.; Lawrence, F.O.; Wolfsberg, K.

    1980-12-31

    Batch measurements provide an understanding of which experimental variables are important. For example, sorption ratios vary little with particle size (and surface area); however, groundwater composition and rock composition are quite important. A general correlation has been identified between mineralogy (major phases) and degree of sorption for strontium, cesium, and barium. Although these are approximate, a more detailed analysis may be possible as more samples are studied and the data base increased. Data from crushed tuff columns indicate that, except in simple cases where sorption coefficients are relatively low, and ion-exchange equilibria not only exist but are the dominant mechanism for removal of radioisotopes from solution, the simple relation between the sorption ratio R/sub d/ (or K/sub d/) and the relative velocity of radionuclides with respect to groundwater velocity may be insufficient to permit accurate modeling of the retardation of radionuclides. Additional work on whole core columns and larger blocks of intact material is required to better understand radionuclide sorption and transport through rock.

  7. Radionuclide synovectomy – essentials for rheumatologists

    PubMed Central

    Felis-Giemza, Anna; Kobylecka, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Radionuclide synovectomy is a minimally invasive method of treating persistent joint inflammation. It involves intra-articular injection of radioactive colloids which induce necrosis and fibrosis of hypertrophic synovial membrane. The most common indication for radiosynovectomy is rheumatoid arthritis, although patients with seronegative spondyloarthropathies, unclassified arthritis, haemophilic arthropathy and other less common arthropathies can also benefit from this method. Radiosynovectomy is safe, well tolerated and efficacious. About 70–80% of patients respond well to the therapy. However, the therapeutic effects are considerably worse in patients with co-existent osteoarthritis and advanced joint degeneration. Despite its advantages, radionuclide synovectomy is not performed as often as it could be, so greater knowledge and understanding of this method are needed. The authors present the most important facts about radiosynovectomy that may help rheumatologists in their daily clinical practice. PMID:27504020

  8. Radionuclide Imaging Applications in Cardiomyopathies and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Harinstein, Matthew E; Soman, Prem

    2016-03-01

    Multiple epidemiological factors including population aging and improved survival after acute coronary syndromes have contributed to a heart failure (HF) prevalence in the USA in epidemic proportions. In the absence of transplantation, HF remains a progressive disease with poor prognosis. The structural and functional abnormalities of the myocardium in HF can be assessed by various radionuclide imaging techniques. Radionuclide imaging may be uniquely suited to address several important clinical questions in HF such as identifying etiology and guiding the selection of patients for coronary revascularization. Newer approaches such as autonomic innervation imaging, phase analysis for synchrony assessment, and other molecular imaging techniques continue to expand the applications of radionuclide imaging in HF. In this manuscript, we review established and evolving applications of radionuclide imaging for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of HF. PMID:26841785

  9. Gas: A Neglected Phase in Remediation of Metals and Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Denham, Miles E.; Looney, Brian B

    2005-09-28

    The gas phase is generally ignored in remediation of metals and radionuclides because it is assumed that there is no efficient way to exploit it. In the literal sense, all remediations involve the gas phase because this phase is linked to the liquid and solid phases by vapor pressure and thermodynamic relationships. Remediation methods that specifically use the gas phase as a central feature have primarily targeted volatile organic contaminants, not metals and radionuclides. Unlike many organic contaminants, the vapor pressure and Henry's Law constants of metals and radionuclides are not generally conducive to direct air stripping of dissolved contaminants. Nevertheless, the gas phase can play an important role in remediation of inorganic contaminants and provide opportunities for efficient, cost effective remediation. The objective here is to explore ways in which manipulation of the gas phase can be used to facilitate remediation of metals and radionuclides.

  10. Investigation of the generation of several long-lived radionuclides of importance in fusion reactor technology: Report on a Coordinated Research Program sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Pashchenko, A.B.

    1994-05-01

    The IAEA initiated a Coordinated Research Program (CRP) in 1988 to obtain reliable information for 16 long-lived activation reactions of special importance to fusion reactor technology: {sup 27}Al (n, 2n){sup 26}Al, {sup 63}Cu(n,p){sup 63}Ni, {sup 94}Mo(n,p) {sup 94}Nb, {sup 109}Ag(n,2n){sup 108m}Ag, {sup 179}Hf(n,2n) {sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 182}W(n,n{sup `}a){sup 178m2}Hf, {sup 151}Eu(n,2n) {sup 150}gEu, {sup 153}Eu(n,2n){sup 152+m2}Eu, {sup 159}Tb(n, 2n){sup 158}Tb, {sup 158}Dy(n,p){sup 158}Tb, {sup 193}Ir(n,2n) {sup 192m2}Ir, {sup 187}Re(n,2n){sup 186m}Re, {sup 62}Ni(n{gamma}) {sup 63}Ni, {sup 98}Mo(n,{gamma}){sup 99}Mo({beta}-){sup 99}Tc, {sup 165}Ho(n,{gamma}) {sup 166m}Ho and {sup 191}Ir(n,{gamma}){sup 192m2}Ir. this paper documents progress achieved from the start of the program through mid- 1993.