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1

Medicinal Plants.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

Phillipson, J. David

1997-01-01

2

Antileishmanial, toxicity, and phytochemical evaluation of medicinal plants collected from pakistan.  

PubMed

Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50 = 10.9 ± 1.1? ? g/mL) in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea "ethyl acetate fraction" was more active (IC50 = 5.3 ± 0.2? ? g/mL) against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0 ± 0.1? ? g/mL). All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 > 100) in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay. PMID:24995292

Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Nadhman, Akhtar

2014-01-01

3

Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50 = 10.9 ± 1.1??g/mL) in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50 = 5.3 ± 0.2??g/mL) against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0 ± 0.1??g/mL). All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 > 100) in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay.

Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Nadhman, Akhtar

2014-01-01

4

Plant part substitution – a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts

S Zschocke; T Rabe; J. L. S Taylor; A. K Jäger; J van Staden

2000-01-01

5

[On Mexican medicinal plants].  

PubMed

During the XVIII century, two Spanish scientific expeditions arrived here led, respectively, by the naturalist Martín Sessé and by the Italian mariner Alessandro Malaspina di Mulazzo, dependent from the Spanish Government. The members collected a rich scientific material, which was carried to Madrid in 1820. At the end of XVIII century, the Franciscan friar Juan Navarro depicted and described several Mexican medicinal plants in the fifth volume of his "American Garden". In the last years of the Colonial period, fundamental works of Humboldt and Bonpland, on the geographic distribution of the American plants, were published. At the end of the XIX century, the first researches on the Mexican medicinal botany were performed at the laboratory of the "Instituto Médico Nacional" under the leadership of doctor Fernando Altamirano, starting pharmacological studies in our country. During the first half of the XX century, trials of cardiovascular pharmacology were performed in the small laboratories of the cardiological unit at the General Hospital of Mexico, due to doctor Ignacio Chávez, initiative. Mexican botanical-pharmacological tradition remains alive and vigorous in the modern scientific institutes of the country. PMID:20361491

de Micheli, Alfredo; Izaguirre-Avila, Raúl

2009-12-01

6

[Chemical study of Indonesian medicinal plants].  

PubMed

A series of scientific expeditions in Indonesia for collecting informations and materials concerning locally used medicinal plants and Javanese traditional medicine "jamu" have been carried out by us since 1985. This article reviews pharmacochemical investigations of nine Indonesian medicinal plants: i.e. Pongamia pinnata (Papilionaceae), Fagara rhetza (Rutaceae), Calotropis gigantea (Asclepiadaceae), Beilschmiedia madang (Lauraceae), Caesalpinia major (Fabaceae), Peronema canescens (Verbenaceae), Taxus sumatrana (Taxaceae), Alyxia reinwardtii (Apocynaceae), and Merremia mammosa (Convolvulaceae), which were selected among plant materials collected in those surveys. PMID:8993230

Shibuya, H; Kitagawa, I

1996-12-01

7

Heavy metal bioaccumulation in selected medicinal plants collected from Khetri copper mines and comparison with those collected from fertile soil in Haridwar, India.  

PubMed

Heavy metal distribution in medicinal plants is gaining importance not only as an alternative medicine, but also for possible concern due to effects of metal toxicity. The present study has been focused on emphasizing the heavy metal status and bioaccumulation factors of V, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se (essential metals) and Cr, Ni, Cd, As and Pb (potentially toxic metals) in medicinal plants grown under two different environmental conditions e.g., near to Khetri copper mine and those in fertile soils of Haridwar, both in India, using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (relative method) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. The copper levels in the medicinal plants from Khetri were found to be 3-4 folds higher (31.6-76.5 mg kg(-1)) than those from Haridwar samples (7.40-15.3 mg kg(-1)), which is correlated with very high copper levels (763 mg kg(-1)) in Khetri soil. Among various heavy metals, Cr (2.60-5.92 mg kg(-1)), Cd (1.47-2.97 mg kg(-1)) and Pb (3.97-6.63 mg kg(-1)) are also higher in concentration in the medicinal plants from Khetri. The essential metals like Mn (36.4-69.3 mg kg(-1)), Fe (192-601 mg kg(-1)), Zn (24.9-49.9 mg kg(-1)) and Se (0.13-0.91 mg kg(-1)) and potentially toxic metals like Ni (3.09-9.01 mg kg(-1)) and As (0.41-2.09 mg kg(-1)) did not show much variations in concentration in the medicinal plants from both Khetri and Haridwar. The medicinal plants from Khetri, e.g., Ocimum sanctum, Cassia fistula, Withania somnifera and Azadirachta Indica were found rich in Ca and Mg contents while Aloe barbadensis showed moderately high Ca and Mg. Higher levels of Ca-Mg were found to correlate with Zn (except Azadirachta Indica). The bioaccumulation factors (BAFS) of the heavy metals were estimated to understand the soil-to-plant transfer pattern of the heavy metals. Significantly lower BAF values of Cu and Cr were found in the medicinal plants from Khetri, indicating majority fraction of these metals are precipitated and were immobilized species unsuitable for plant uptake. Overall, Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) showed very high metal bioaccumulation. PMID:20390948

Maharia, R S; Dutta, R K; Acharya, R; Reddy, A V R

2010-02-01

8

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

9

Drug discovery from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV\\/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether,

Marcy J. Balunas; A. Douglas Kinghorn

2005-01-01

10

Antidiabetic Agents from Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the

Mankil Jung; Hyun Chul Lee; Yoon-Ho Kang; Eun Seok Kang; Sang Ki Kim

2006-01-01

11

Antimalarial effects of eight African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Crude hot water extracts from eight medicinal plants collected in Togo, West Africa, were examined for antimalarial properties against Plasmodium falciparum using an in vitro test. The activity differed with the plant species with extracts of Cassia siamea, Jatropha gossypiifolia and Pavetta crassipes capable of 100% inhibition. PMID:2654489

Gbeassor, M; Kossou, Y; Amegbo, K; de Souza, C; Koumaglo, K; Denke, A

1989-02-01

12

Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

Bailey, D.

1977-01-01

13

Hypoglycemic activity of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypoglycemic activity of water extracts of fifty six medicinal plants were evaluated in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic\\u000a mice. Twelve medicinal plants have significantly antidiabetic activity; Mori Radicis Cortex, Kwang Fang Chi Radix, Paeoniae\\u000a Radix, Eugeniae Flos, Atractylodis Rhizoma, Ophiopogonis Tuber, Rosae multiflorae Fructus, Glycyrrhizae Radix, Tetrapanacis\\u000a Medulla, Bigno, Forsythiae Fructus and Sophorae Radix.

Chang-Johng Kim; Seung-Kil Cho; Myung-Su Shin; Hyun Cho; Dong-Suk Ro; Jong-Sei Park; Chang-Soo Yook

1990-01-01

14

Medicines and Drugs from Plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

Agosta, William C.

1997-07-01

15

Medicinal plants, conservation and livelihoods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many types of action can be taken in favour of the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants. Some of these are undertaken directly at the places where the plants are found, while others are less direct, such as some of those relating to commercial systems, ex situ conservation and bioprospecting. In the latter cases, actions taken will not lead

Alan C. Hamilton

2004-01-01

16

Medicinal plants in therapy*  

PubMed Central

One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy.

Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

1985-01-01

17

Drug discovery from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Current research in drug discovery from medicinal plants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinal plant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether, galantamine, nitisinone, and tiotropium, or are currently involved in late-phase clinical trials. As part of our National Cooperative Drug Discovery Group (NCDDG) research project, numerous compounds from tropical rainforest plant species with potential anticancer activity have been identified. Our group has also isolated several compounds, mainly from edible plant species or plants used as dietary supplements, that may act as chemopreventive agents. Although drug discovery from medicinal plants continues to provide an important source of new drug leads, numerous challenges are encountered including the procurement of plant materials, the selection and implementation of appropriate high-throughput screening bioassays, and the scale-up of active compounds. PMID:16198377

Balunas, Marcy J; Kinghorn, A Douglas

2005-12-22

18

Fertilization-Induced Changes in Growth Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Arab Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinal plants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinal plants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth

Hassan Azaizeh; Predrag Ljubuncic; Irina Portnaya; Omar Said; Uri Cogan

2005-01-01

19

Correlations between genetic, morphological, and chemical diversities in a germplasm collection of the medicinal plant Origanum vulgare L.  

PubMed

In total, 42 accessions of Origanum vulgare L., mostly originating from Europe, were evaluated, to detect molecular, quantitative morphological, and chemotype polymorphisms and to discover possible correlations between them. Twelve traits related to morphological characteristics were measured. The components in the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis, and the oil contents of 18 major compounds were determined. A total of 477 molecular polymorphisms including 214 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and 263 SAMPL (selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci) were used for genotyping. Euclidean distances of morphological and chemotypic data and genetic distances (1 - Dice's similarity) of molecular markers were compared by applying Mantel tests to ascertain the congruencies between them. A relatively high correlation between chemotypic patterns and genetic markers was identified, while a lower correlation was found between the morphological and genetic matrices. Pairwise analyses of correlation among all traits showed that the stem diameter was correlated to the essential-oil yield and the carvacrol content. Cluster analysis, population inference, and principal component analysis revealed a broad genetic and chemical variation among the accessions. The knowledge of these diversities, found in this study, will allow a plant improvement of Origanum vulgare related to pharmaceutical and spice uses. PMID:23255448

Azizi, Ali; Hadian, Javad; Gholami, Mansour; Friedt, Wolfgang; Honermeier, Bernd

2012-12-01

20

Medicinal plants and antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinal plants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. In the past few decades, the search for new anti-infection agents has occupied many research groups in the field of ethnopharmacology. When we reviewed the number

J. L. Ríos; M. C. Recio

2005-01-01

21

MEDICINAL PLANTS: AN APPROACH TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are gaining global owing to the fact that the herbal drugs are cost-effective, easily available and most importantly, with negligible side effects. The international market for the medicinal plants is around US $60 billion with an annual growth rate of 7%. Indian exports in medicinal plants are valued at US $4.63 billion annually. Currently, the raw material is

Moumita Das

22

Commercialization of wild medicinal plants from Southwest Puebla, Mexico  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the trade of dry medicinal plants in the southwestern area of the state of Puebla, Mexico. Gatherers\\u000a who collect medicinal plants represent the poorest economic link in the trade chain. The critical socioeconomic situation\\u000a of the human population is reflected in the state of the wild plants at the zone, as a result of an increase in

Paul Hersch-Martínez

1995-01-01

23

Fertilization-Induced Changes in Growth Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinal plants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinal plants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth

Hassan Azaizeh; Predrag Ljubuncic; Irina Portnaya; Omar Said; Uri Cogan; Arieh Bomzon; Ruth Rappaport

2005-01-01

24

Phytochemical constituents of some Nigerian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinal plants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinal plants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids

H. O. Edeoga; D. E. Okwu; B. O Mbaebie

25

A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India  

PubMed Central

Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people.

Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

2013-01-01

26

Medicinal plants of Sikkim in Ayurvedic practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rich flora of Sikkim has a number of raw drugs described in Ayurvedic texts. There are about 420 plants used by the tribal people for various diseases in Sikkim Himalayas region, out of which few are in utilized on commercial basis. Here thirty medicinal plants are presented which have high medicinal values in Ayurveda. Most of the drugs have

Ashok Kumar Panda

27

From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

2005-01-01

28

Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.  

PubMed

Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

Al-Qura'n, S

2009-05-01

29

[Introduction of traditional medicinal plants in Kyrgyzstan].  

PubMed

Kyrgyzstan is a mountainous country in the northeastern part of Central Asia which shares borders to the southeast with China. Due to their extreme environment and climate, there are a diverse range of species of plants. Many of the plants used in Kyrgyz folk medicine have not been studied using modern scientific techniques. This paper introduced the basic situation of medicinal herbs in Kyrgyzstan by comparing the differences traditional use between China and Kyrgyzstan, and looked for traditional medicinal plant research to provide basis for the development and cooperation of China and Kyrgyzstan. PMID:24946536

Wang, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Lu-Qi; Xie, Dong-Mei

2014-02-01

30

Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management of traditional therapies is urged, because the therapies are empirically and knowledge based, often culturally inherited and important to pharmacology and local livelihoods. However, traditional therapies are currently being eroded due to changing lifestyles, perceptions, social transformations, and acculturation.

2013-01-01

31

Antiplasmodial properties of some Malaysian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seven Malaysian medicinal plants were screened for their antiplasmodial activities in vitro. These plants were selected based on their traditional claims for treatment or to relieve fever. The plant extracts were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The antiplasmodial activities were carried out using the pLDH assay to Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) while the cytotoxic activities were

Noor Rain; S. Khozirah; Mohd Ridzuan; C. Rohaya; M. Rosilawati; Badrul Amin

2007-01-01

32

Antiplasmodial activity of four Kenyan medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary antiplasmodial and phytochemical screening of four Kenyan medicinal plants was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (K67) and chloroquine-resistant (ENT36) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Out of 16 extracts, 12 were active against ENT36 strain while seven were active against K67 strain, that is, IC50 ? 50 ?g\\/ml. The

E. Omulokoli; B. Khan; S. C. Chhabra

1997-01-01

33

Medicinal plants used in Kirklareli Province (Turkey).  

PubMed

In this paper, 126 traditional medicinal plants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791

Kültür, Sükran

2007-05-01

34

Medicinal plants used in Iranian traditional medicine to treat epilepsy.  

PubMed

Antiepileptic drugs used to treat epilepsy can cause severe, life threatening side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine, herbal remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. In this study, the five most important herbals in Iranian traditional medicine, namely Canon, al-Hawi, al-Abniah 'an Haqaeq al Adwia, Tuhfat al-Mu'minin, and Makhzan ul-Adwia, were searched for the term "sar-e", which means epilepsy, to identify the herbs used for treatment in ancient times. We also searched scientific literature for pharmacological evidence of their effectiveness. Twenty-five plants were identified as herbal remedies to treat epilepsy. Pharmacological data related to the antiepileptic activity of eleven of these plants exists. A large number of these plants which have not been investigated pharmacologically for antiepileptic activity would be good candidates for study in exploring new herbal anticonvulsant remedies. PMID:24525263

Sahranavard, Shamim; Ghafari, Saeedeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

2014-05-01

35

Medicinal Plants in the Atlantic Forest (Brazil): Knowledge, Use, and Conservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on knowledge of medicinal plants among the Caiçaras (rural inhabitants of the Atlantic Forest coast, Brazil). In particular, we examine the use of medicinal plants according to sex and age to reveal general patterns of Caiçara knowledge and use of plant resources. Data collected through 449 interviews at 12 Caiçara communities (Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo

Alpina Begossi; Natalia Hanazaki; Jorge Y. Tamashiro

2002-01-01

36

Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot

Emma Nelly Quiroga; Antonio Rodolfo Sampietro; Marta Amelia Vattuone

2001-01-01

37

Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Immunostimulant effects of the dietary intake of various medicinal plant extracts on fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were investigated. For this purpose fish were fed with diets containing aqueous extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album), nettle (Urtica dioica), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Food containing lyophilized extracts of these plants as 0.1 and 1% was used at a rate of 2% of

Süheyla Karata? Dügenci; Nazl? Arda; Ak?n Candan

2003-01-01

38

Supplement to Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This supplement provides the medicinal properties of some 1,000 plants. The plants have been arranged in alphabetical order according to their scientific names so readers can find any particular drug on which information is required. Many of the commonly ...

R. N. Chopra I. C. Chopra B. S. Varma

1969-01-01

39

Pressurized liquid extraction of medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinal plant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the

Björn Benthin; Henning Danz; Matthias Hamburger

1999-01-01

40

Cytotoxicity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

PubMed

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10? ? g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10? ? g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Wiench, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

41

Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10??g/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10??g/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors.

Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schroder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

42

Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?  

PubMed

Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

2000-07-01

43

Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant  

PubMed Central

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life.

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

44

Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

2014-01-01

45

Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p?medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development.

2014-01-01

46

[Requirements for quality of approved plant medicines].  

PubMed

Herbal medicinal products differ substantially from drugs with synthetic active ingredients. Whereas the active ingredients of synthetic drugs are chemically well defined and pure substances, those of phytopharmaceuticals are plants, parts of plants or extracts. Therefore starting material of high quality and a standardised manufacturing procedure are particularly important for phytopharmaceuticals. Thus the documentation of the quality of a herbal medicinal product is crucial. The quality criteria aim to guarantee a phytopharmaceutical of high and constant quality and as well as a successful and reproducible therapy. The new Swiss Federal Law on Medicinal Products and Medical Devices (Law on Therapeutic Products--LTP) came into effect on 1 January 2002. The Intercantonal Office for the Control of Medicines IOCM which previously was in charge of herbal medicinal products was closed down and together with the Therapeutic Products Section of the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health SFOPH merged to create Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products. Swissmedic is now responsible for affairs related to herbal medicinal products. The following article gives an overview of the current quality requirements of phytopharmaceuticals. These are now based on the LTP, but the essence remains largely unchanged. PMID:12125175

Allemann, C; Herren, D; Badertscher, K Mathys

2002-06-01

47

Antimalarial activity of Tanzanian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Tanzanian medicinal plants were extracted and tested for in vitro antimalarial activity, using the multidrug resistant K1 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. Of 49 plants investigated, extracts of three plants were found to have an IC50 between 5-10 micrograms/ml, extracts of 18 other plants showed an IC50 between 10 and 50 micrograms/ml, all others were less active. The three most active extracts were obtained from the tubers of Cyperus rotundus L. (Cyperaceae), the rootbark of Hoslundia opposita Vahl. (Labiatae), and the rootbark of Lantana camara L. (Verbenaceae). PMID:2236289

Weenen, H; Nkunya, M H; Bray, D H; Mwasumbi, L B; Kinabo, L S; Kilimali, V A

1990-08-01

48

Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method. PMID:16647234

Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

2006-07-19

49

Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants. PMID:24595608

Pant, Bijaya

2014-01-01

50

[States of nervousness. Useful medicinal plants].  

PubMed

The author analyzes the effects of diverse medicinal plants such as poppy (papaver somniferum), Hawthorn, hypericum, and hops on those moderate nervous states which provoke insomnia, anxiety, or excitement as a complementary method to aid a patient overcome those states. PMID:15125337

Alonso Osorio, M José

2004-03-01

51

Zulu medicinal plants with antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of 14 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine for treatment of ailments of an infectious nature were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of the activity detected was against Gram-positive bacteria. Tuber bark extracts of Dioscorea sylvatica had activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and extracts of Dioscorea dregeana, Cheilanthes viridis and Vernonia colorata were active

Jonathan E. Kelmanson; Anna K. Jäger; Johannes van Staden

2000-01-01

52

Antibacterial activity of East African medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinal plants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached

Werner Fabry; Paul O Okemo; Rainer Ansorg

1998-01-01

53

Antifungal potential of Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen Indian plants, selected based on their use in respiratory and other disorders in traditional systems of medicine, were analyzed for their potential activity against fungi. The antifungal activity was investigated by disc diffusion, microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition tests against pathogenic Aspergilli. Methanolic extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Datura metel inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, A.

Rajesh Dabur; H. Singh; A. K. Chhillar; M. Ali; G. L. Sharma

2004-01-01

54

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Zay people in Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the Zay people who live on islands as well as shore areas of Lake Ziway in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. A total of 33 medicinal plants were reported as being used locally for the treatment and\\/or control of human and livestock ailments. Results of

Mirutse Giday; Zemede Asfaw; Thomas Elmqvist; Zerihun Woldu

2003-01-01

55

Repertory of drugs and medicinal plants used in traditional medicine of Afghanistan.  

PubMed

The traditional uses of plants for medicine were studied in Afghanistan. To date, 215 medicinal plants have been identified and are presented in a table with the vernacular name (in Dari, Pashto and Kati), the geographical and ecological distribution, and the medicinal use. This study of traditional medicine demonstrates a close relationship between the kinds of medicinal plants used and pathology, and thus may serve as an indicator of the major health problems of the people. PMID:3682849

Younos, C; Fleurentin, J; Notter, D; Mazars, G; Mortier, F; Pelt, J M

1987-08-01

56

The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia.

2014-01-01

57

Antimicrobial activity of South African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the antimicrobial research undertaken on South African medicinal plants during the period 1997-2008. Antimicrobial methods (disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), bio-autography) are briefly discussed and an analysis of the publications reviewed indicates that the majority of papers use MIC assays for antimicrobial determination. Antimicrobial investigations on extracts are presented where the most active plants are identified from screening publications. A summary of some bioactive compounds are given with data restricted to papers reporting quantitative antimicrobial activity equivalent to or below 200 microg/ml. Antimicrobial activities on the essential oils of indigenous medicinal aromatic plants are also reviewed. An overview is given on what activities (extracts, compounds and oils) should be considered noteworthy for publication. Studies focusing on geographical ethnobotany, specific pathogenesis, formulation aspects and in vivo investigations are examined. Future recommendations to consider include pathogen selection, interactive studies and dosage administrations. PMID:18582553

van Vuuren, S F

2008-10-28

58

Screening antifungal activities of selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot causing Basidiomycetes. Extracts of Larrea divaricata, Zuccagnia punctata and Larrea cuneifolia displayed remarkable activity in the assays against the majority of the test fungi. In addition to the former plants, Prosopanche americana also inhibited yeast growth. PMID:11137353

Quiroga, E N; Sampietro, A R; Vattuone, M A

2001-01-01

59

Antimicrobial properties of Honduran medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Ninety-two plants used in the traditional pharmacopoeia of the Pech and neighboring Mestizo peoples of central Honduras are reported. The results of in vitro antimicrobial screens showed that 19 of the extracts from medicinal plants revealed signs of antifungal activity while 22 demonstrated a measurable inhibitory effect on one or more bacterial cultures. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Mikania micrantha, Neurolaena lobata and Piper aduncum produced weak to moderately active isolates. The broad spectrum of activity of the extracts helps to explain the widespread use of these plants for wound healing and other applications. PMID:10030730

Lentz, D L; Clark, A M; Hufford, C D; Meurer-Grimes, B; Passreiter, C M; Cordero, J; Ibrahimi, O; Okunade, A L

1998-12-01

60

Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).

Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

2006-01-01

61

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the Zay people in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinal plants by the Zay people who live on islands as well as shore areas of Lake Ziway in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. A total of 33 medicinal plants were reported as being used locally for the treatment and/or control of human and livestock ailments. Results of the survey showed that leaf materials form the major component of plant parts harvested. The majority of the remedies are prepared in the form of juice from freshly collected plant parts. Most of the remedies are prepared from a single species, and are mainly taken orally. Most of the medicinal plants are collected from the wild. Of the total claimed medicinal plants, 10 were reported scarce locally. Environmental degradation and intense deforestation have been reported as the main causes for the depletion of medicinal plants in the area. As the Zay people are still partly dependent on medicinal plants, loss of these plants will, to a certain extent, hamper the existing health care system in the area. Measures for conservation of medicinal plants of the Zay people are urgently needed. PMID:12576201

Giday, Mirutse; Asfaw, Zemede; Elmqvist, Thomas; Woldu, Zerihun

2003-03-01

62

PROSPECTS AND PERSPECTIVES OF NATURAL PLANTS PRODUCTS IN MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A vast majority of population particularly those living in villages depend largely on herbal medicines. Scientific data on a good number of medicinal plants investigated has been well documented. However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulary could not adopt even a dozen of plant medicines. For this reason, a special

S. S. GUPTA

63

Intellectual Property Rights for Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are those plants that provide medicines - to prevent disease, maintain health or cure sickness. In one or other form, these plants benefit virtually everyone on the Earth. These plants are also related to various other usages, such as for nutrition, toiletry, bodily care, incense and ritual healing. Aromatic plants are used for their aroma and flavour and

Satyabrata Maiti; Gutam Sridhar; K. A. Geetha

64

Insecticidal activity of certain medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The methanol extracts of eight species of medicinal plants were tested for insecticidal activity in third instar larvae of Egyptian cottonworm (Spodoptera littoralis). All extracts showed a certain degree of larval toxicity. The extracts of Ocimum basilicum, Origanum majorana and Salvia officinalis appeared to be highly toxic. The extracts significantly affected the growth indexes [relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD)]. PMID:15567255

Pavela, Roman

2004-12-01

65

Antibacterial activity of traditional Australian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six ethanolic extracts of various parts of 39 plants used in traditional Australian Aboriginal medicine were investigated for their antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial species. In a plate-hole diffusion assay, 12 extracts inhibited the growth of one or

Enzo A Palombo; Susan J Semple

2001-01-01

66

Antimicrobial activity of selected Peruvian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial activity of 36 ethanol extracts from 24 plants, all of them currently used in the Peruvian traditional medicine for the treatment of several infectious and inflammatory disorders, was tested by means of the agar-well diffusion assay against four bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and four fungi (Candida albicans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum gypseum and Sporothrix schenckii). Twenty-five (69%) extracts showed some degree of antimicrobial activity against at least one microorganism. The plants with the greatest antimicrobial activity were Cestrum auriculatum L. Heritier (Solanaceae), Iryanthera lancifolia Ducke Suesseng (Myristicaceae), Lepechinia meyenii (Walp.) Epling (Lamiaceae) and Ophryosporus peruvianus (Gmelin) King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae). PMID:12963143

Rojas, Rosario; Bustamante, Beatriz; Bauer, José; Fernández, Irma; Albán, Joaquina; Lock, Olga

2003-10-01

67

Solanaceae as medicinal plants in Israel.  

PubMed

In a recent survey, 106 local healers in Israel were interviewed concerning the use of Solanaceae as medicinal plants. The main findings reveal that: (a) only four species (Lycium europeaum, Solanum nigrum, Hyoscyamus aureus, Hyoscyamus albus) are extensively used today; (b) the use of some traditional plants has been almost abandoned (Datura spp., Mandragora autumnalis, Withania somnifera); (c) today all the plants are applied externally, they are rarely used as narcotics; (d) most use of these plants is local, only in a few cases is a uniform use found throughout the whole country, and in all ethnic groups; (e) the extensive distribution of modern, safe narcotics, sedatives and anaesthetics has reduced the use of the Solanaceae for these purposes. PMID:7990499

Dafni, A; Yaniv, Z

1994-08-01

68

Medicinal Plants--Old and New *  

PubMed Central

The historic role of plants in healing declined early in the twentieth century with the ascendency of synthetic drugs, even though a number of basic medical tools, such as opium, strychnine, and cocaine, are of botanical origin. In recent years, interest in natural products has been restored dramatically by the discovery of penicillin, plant-derived tranquilizers, and plant precursors of cortisone. Contrary to previous beliefs, botanical drugs are proving more economical than synthetics and hold forth encouraging prospects of inhibiting or destroying tumors without undue damage to healthy tissue. Extensive plant screening programs are being conducted by governmental agencies and pharmaceutical houses. Folk remedies, still common in many tropical areas, are being evaluated. As a result of such research by Canadian and American scientists, alkaloids extracted from the Madagascar periwinkle (Vinca rosea) are being effectively employed to achieve regression in childhood leukemia. Potentially more rewarding are investigations of compounds obtained from the Australian tree, Acronychia baueri and a Chinese species, Camptotheca acuminata. Universities are reestablishing medicinal plant gardens and placing more emphasis on pharmacognosy. Experimental work with narcotic plants in psychiatric treatment has given rise to popular fascination with and abuse of certain natural hallucinogens. Among scientists engaged in chemical studies, there is an active demand for information about plants, their properties and therapeutic uses. Even the general public is being made aware that plant drugs are not obsolete but offer new hope for conquering disease.

Morton, Julia F.

1968-01-01

69

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota

A Pieroni

2000-01-01

70

Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45?000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally

J. K. Grover; S. Yadav; V. Vats

2002-01-01

71

Medicinal plants: Traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of

Ameenah Gurib-Fakim

2006-01-01

72

Biotechnology and Pharmacological Evaluation of Medicinal Plants: An Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants contain a wide variety of active principles that have been exploited for the treatment of various ailments by a majority of the world's population. In recent years, many advanced biotechnological methods are employed to select, multiply, improve, and analyze medicinal plants for their application in traditional and modern medicinal preparations and drug discovery. The purpose of the present

Hrudayanath Thatoi; Jayanta Kumar Patra

2011-01-01

73

Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.  

PubMed

An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed. PMID:10837988

Pieroni, A

2000-06-01

74

Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. METHODS: Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district

Yadav Uprety; Hugo Asselin; Emmanuel K Boon; Saroj Yadav; Krishna K Shrestha

2010-01-01

75

Conservation threats to some important medicinal plants of the Sikkim Himalaya  

Microsoft Academic Search

There are records of about 400 plants of therapeutic value in the Sikkim Himalaya. Indiscriminate and non-systematic collection of medicinal plants has led to severe pressure on the availability of these plants, many of which are now rare, threatened or endangered. Six species, are taken as a case study, viz. Aconitum heterophyllum (Wall), Podophyllum hexandrum (Royle), Nardostachys jatamansi (DC), Picrorhiza

L. K Rai; Pankaj Prasad; E Sharma

2000-01-01

76

Cytotoxic effects of bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinal plants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC(50) 1.1-1.6?mg?mL(-1)). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC(50) > 2.5?mg?mL(-1)) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.2-2.3?mg?mL(-1)) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC(50) 0.01-0.08?mg?mL(-1)) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified. PMID:19706693

Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2011-01-01

77

Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.

2010-01-01

78

Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999

Kamal, Raka; Yadav, Sunita; Mathur, Manas; Katariya, Pawan

2012-01-01

79

Fertilization-Induced Changes in Growth Parameters and Antioxidant Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Traditional Arab Medicine  

PubMed Central

In response to increased popularity and greater demand for medicinal plants, a number of conservation groups are recommending that wild medicinal plants be brought into cultivation systems. We collected four medicinal herbs Cichorium pumilum, Eryngium creticum, Pistacia palaestina and Teucrium polium used in traditional Arab medicine for greenhouse cultivation to assess the effects of different fertilization regimes on their growth and antioxidant activity. Wild seedlings were collected and fertilized with either 100% Hoagland solution, 50% Hoagland solution, 20% Hoagland solution or irrigated with tap water. Plant height was measured and the number of green leaves and branches counted weekly. Thereafter, the aboveground parts of plants were harvested for preparing a water-soluble powder extracts of which antioxidant activity was measured by their ability to suppress the oxidation of ?-carotene. Of the fertilization regimes, we found either 20 or 50% Hoagland solution produced the most consistent response of the plant growth parameters. All powders prepared from the four wild growing plants inhibited oxidation of ?-carotene. Increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent increase in antioxidant activity of the cultivated T. polium compared with the wild type. In contrast, increasing the amount of fertilizer caused a significant concentration-dependent reduction in the antioxidant activity of powders prepared from the cultivated E. creticum when compared with wild plants. Our results showed that cultivation success should not rely solely on parameters of growth but should incorporate assessment related to indices of therapeutic potential.

2005-01-01

80

Turkish folk medicinal plants, part III: ?ile (Istanbul)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, forty-three folk medicinal plants from ?ile (Turkey) have been reported. Among them 35 species were wild and eight species were cultivated plants. The folk medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of eczema, stomach and kidney ailments, asthma, cough, diabetes, and wounds.

E. Tuzlac?; E. Tolon

2000-01-01

81

Screening of some Indian medicinal plants for their antimicrobial properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 82 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg\\/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity

Iqbal Ahmad; Zafar Mehmood; Faiz Mohammad

1998-01-01

82

Medicinal plants against hepatitis C virus.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global health concern which is responsible for most of the liver diseases. Currently, there is no vaccine available for prevention of HCV infection due to the high degree of strain variation. The current standard of care is a combination of pegylated interferon ? with ribavirin and boceprevir/telaprevir. This treatment was partially effective and had significant side effects. Hence, there is a need to develop new antiviral agents that interfere with different stages of the HCV life cycle. Recent advances in the understanding of both the cellular and molecular mechanisms of HCV replication have provided the basis for novel therapeutic strategies. Several hundred plant species and their phyto-constituents have been isolated for screening against HCV, and some have been shown to have great medicinal value in preventing and/or ameliorating viral diseases in pre-clinical and clinical trials. This review summarizes medicinal plants and their phytochemicals which inhibit different stages of HCV life cycle and discuss their potential use in HCV therapy. PMID:24659884

Ashfaq, Usman A; Idrees, Sobia

2014-03-21

83

MULTIELEMENTAL ANALYSIS OF SOME TRADITIONAL PLANT MEDICINES USED IN GHANA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The essential elements in six traditional Ghanaian plant medicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 E 11 ns cm. The plant medicines were: Ninga powder, Lippia tea, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken powder

Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie

2002-01-01

84

Some medicinal plants as immunostimulant for fish.  

PubMed

Immunostimulant effects of the dietary intake of various medicinal plant extracts on fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were investigated. For this purpose fish were fed with diets containing aqueous extracts of mistletoe (Viscum album), nettle (Urtica dioica), and ginger (Zingiber officinale). Food containing lyophilized extracts of these plants as 0.1 and 1% was used at a rate of 2% of body weight per day for three weeks. At the end of the experimental period, various parameters of non-specific defence mechanisms, including extracellular and intracellular respiratory burst activities, phagocytosis in blood leukocytes and total plasma protein level were examined. Specific growth rates (SGRs) and condition factors (CFs) of the fish were also measured. Plant materials tested for immunostimulatory food additives caused an enhanced extracellular respiratory burst activity (P<0.001) compared to the control group. Especially the rainbow trout fed with a diet containing 1% aqueous extract of powdered ginger roots for three weeks exhibited a significant non-specific immune response. Phagocytosis and extracellular burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly higher in this group than those in the control group. All plant extracts added to fish diet increased the total protein level in plasma except 0.1% ginger. The highest level of plasma proteins was observed in the group fed with 1% ginger extract containing feed. PMID:12902058

Dügenci, Süheyla Karata?; Arda, Nazli; Candan, Akin

2003-09-01

85

In vitro anticancer screening of 24 locally used Nigerian medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinal plants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity. Methods The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human cancer cell lines. Results Results obtained from the plants screened indicate that 18 plant extracts of folk medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan was found to demonstrate potent anti-cancer activity in this study exhibiting IC50 = 0.2-1.3 ?g/ml. Conclusions Based on the significantly potent activity of some plants extracts reported here, further studies aimed at mechanism elucidation and bio-guided isolation of active anticancer compounds is currently underway.

2013-01-01

86

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from Ghana.  

PubMed

The results of a preliminary antimicrobial screening of the methanol extracts of Aframomum melegueta, Piper guineense, Xylopia aethiopica, Zingiber officinale, medicinal plants of Ghana, are reported. PMID:14693222

Konning, G H; Agyare, C; Ennison, B

2004-01-01

87

Medicinal plants of two Mayan Healers from San Andres, Peten, Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study records 81 species of medicinal plants used in San Andrés, Petén. The primary source of information was an elderly\\u000a Maya-speaking couple employed as traditional healers. Voucher specimens were collected, the majority from surrounding secondary\\u000a forest; local names, medicinal uses, growth form, and habitat were noted. The plant families providing most species were Asteraceae\\u000a and Rubiaceae. A lack of

Simon C. Comerford

1996-01-01

88

Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea  

PubMed Central

Background This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. Methods Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Results In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. Conclusion Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources.

2013-01-01

89

Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India  

PubMed Central

Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource.

2013-01-01

90

Antimicrobial activity of certain Indian medicinal plants used in folkloric medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty medicinal plants belonging to 26 families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among 50 plants tested, 72% showed antimicrobial activity. About 22 plant extracts from 15 families exhibited activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fourteen plants belonging to 11 families did not show activity against any of the bacteria tested. Only nine plant extracts showed antifungal activity. The

D. Srinivasan; Sangeetha Nathan; T. Suresh; P. Lakshmana Perumalsamy

2001-01-01

91

Antifungal potential of Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Fourteen Indian plants, selected based on their use in respiratory and other disorders in traditional systems of medicine, were analyzed for their potential activity against fungi. The antifungal activity was investigated by disc diffusion, microbroth dilution and percent spore germination inhibition tests against pathogenic Aspergilli. Methanolic extracts of Solanum xanthocarpum and Datura metel inhibited the growth of Aspergillus fumigatus, A. flavus and A. niger and their in vitro MICs were found to be 1.25-2.50 mg/ml by both microbroth dilution and percent spore germination assays. In disc diffusion assay, a concentration of 0.062 mg/disc of methanol extract of D. metel showed significant activity against Aspergilli. S. xanthocarpum exhibited similar activity at 0.125 mg/disc. PMID:15159003

Dabur, Rajesh; Singh, H; Chhillar, A K; Ali, M; Sharma, G L

2004-06-01

92

Medicinal Plants and Phytomedicines. Linking Plant Biochemistry and Physiology to Human Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

phytomedicinal compounds. Horticultural research on medicinal plants has focused on developing the capacity for optimal growth in cultivation. This has been especially pertinent as many medicinal plants are still harvested in the wild, and conditions for growth in cultivation have not been optimized. Wild harvesting of medicinal plants can be problematic in terms of biodiversity loss, potential variation in me-

Donald P. Briskin

2000-01-01

93

Natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants: a review.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are widely used as home remedies and raw materials for the pharmaceutical industries. Herbal remedies are used in the prevention, treatment and cure of disorders and diseases since ancient times. However, use of medicinal herbs may not meet the requirements of quality, safety and efficacy. During harvesting, handling, storage and distribution, medicinal plants are subjected to contamination by various fungi, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The increasing consumption of medicinal plants has made their use a public health problem due to the lack of effective surveillance of the use, efficacy, toxicity and quality of these natural products. The increase in use of medicinal plants may lead to an increase in the intake of mycotoxins therefore contamination of medicinal plants with mycotoxins can contribute to adverse human health problems and therefore represents a special hazard. Numerous natural occurrences of mycotoxins in medicinal plants and traditional herbal medicines have been reported from various countries including Spain, China, Germany, India, Turkey and from Middle East as well. This review discusses the important mycotoxins and their natural occurrences in medicinal plants and their products. PMID:24594211

Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Mubbashir; Ahmad, Bashir

2014-05-01

94

Antiplasmodial properties of some Malaysian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Seven Malaysian medicinal plants were screened for their antiplasmodial activities in vitro. These plants were selected based on their traditional claims for treatment or to relieve fever. The plant extracts were obtained from Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM). The antiplasmodial activities were carried out using the pLDH assay to Plasmodium falciparum D10 strain (sensitive strain) while the cytotoxic activities were carried out towards Madin- Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells using MTT assay. The concentration of extracts used for both screening assays were from the highest concentration 64 microg/ml, two fold dilution to the lowest concentration 0.03 microg/ml. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (stem extract) showed more than 60% growth inhibition while Goniothalamus scortechinii root and stem extract showed a 90% and more than 80% growth inhibition at the last concentration tested, 0.03 microg/ml. The G. scortechini (leaves extract) showed an IC50 (50% growth inhibition) at 8.53 microg/ml, Ardisia crispa (leaves extract) demonstrated an IC50 at 5.90 +/- 0.14 microg/ml while Croton argyratus (leaves extract) showed a percentage inhibition of more than 60% at the tested concentration. Blumea balsamifera root and stem showed an IC50 at 26.25 +/- 2.47 microg/ml and 7.75 +/- 0.35 microg/ ml respectively. Agathis borneensis (leaves extract) demonstrated a 50% growth inhibition at 11.00 +/- 1.41 microg/ml. The study gives preliminary scientific evidence of these plant extracts in line with their traditional claims. PMID:17568375

Noor Rain, A; Khozirah, S; Mohd Ridzuan, M A R; Ong, B K; Rohaya, C; Rosilawati, M; Hamdino, I; Badrul, Amin; Zakiah, I

2007-06-01

95

Medicinal Plants and Ethnomedicine in Peril: A Case Study from Nepal Himalaya  

PubMed Central

The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change.

Kunwar, Ripu M.; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi

2014-01-01

96

Medicinal plants and ethnomedicine in peril: a case study from Nepal himalaya.  

PubMed

The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change. PMID:24734114

Kunwar, Ripu M; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi; Bhandari, Ananta

2014-01-01

97

Moulds and mycotoxins in herb tea and medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The level of toxigenic moulds and mycotoxins were analyzed in 62 samples of medicinal plant material and 11 herbal tea samples. The most predominant fungi detected were: Aspergillus, Penicillium, Mucor, Rhizopus, Absidia, Alternaria, Cladosporium and Trichoderma. Aspergillus flavus, a known producer of the aflatoxin mycotoxin, was present in 11 or 18% of the 62 medicinal plant samples and in 1

M. Halt

1998-01-01

98

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for

Sudha P; Smita S Zinjarde; Shobha Y Bhargava; Ameeta R Kumar

2011-01-01

99

Ethnobotany in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique: Use of Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communities in Cabo Delgado have a long tradition of using medicinal plants. In Mozambique, rural populations in general are highly dependent on natural resources. One example is the use of surrounding vegetation by people from Cabo Delgado. They use plants for food, handicrafts, construction, as a primary energy source and even for medicine purposes. In this survey, we examined the

Joaquim Matavele; Mohamed Habib

2000-01-01

100

Bioactivity of Iranian medicinal plants against Yersinia enterocolitica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Plant materials continue to play a major role in primary health care as therapeutic remedies in many developing countries. Medicinal herbs contain physiologically active principles that over the years have been exploited in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments as they contain antimicrobial properties. This paper aims to determine the antibacterial activity of Iranian endemic plants.

Abdollah Ghasemi Pirbalouti; Arian Asadpoor; Behzad Hamedi; Ahmad Reza Golparvar

2010-01-01

101

Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and – for comparative purposes – Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct

Michael Heinrich; Anita Ankli; Barbara Frei; Claudia Weimann; Otto Sticher

1998-01-01

102

Medicinal plant ecology, knowledge and conservation in Kalimantan, Indonesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study documents the abundance, distribution and knowledge of medicinal plant species in a Ransa Dayak village and adjoining\\u000a forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over 250 medicinal plant species from 165 genera and 75 families are utilized by the\\u000a local healer. Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of locally-utilized medicinal\\u000a species and the greatest number

Izefri Caniago; F. Siebert Stephen

1998-01-01

103

An Overview on the Development in Regulation and Control of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in the Indian System of Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

India have well-recorded and well practiced knowledge of traditional herbal medicines under indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. On the other hand, with about 6000 plants representing about 75% of the medicinal needs of the third world countries India is a major worldwide exporter of raw medicinal and aromatic plants and processed plant-based drugs. Government of India

Pulok K. MUKHERJEE; M. VENKATESH; V. KUMAR

2007-01-01

104

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug.

2013-01-01

105

Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defence, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

Kováts, Nora; Ács, András; Gölöncsér, Flóra; Barabás, Anikó

2011-06-01

106

Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy  

PubMed Central

Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region.

Johnson, Leslie Main

2006-01-01

107

Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities, a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies.

Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

108

Folk Medicinal Plants in the Sikkim Himalayas of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report deals with 64 species of plants belonging to 42 families and 57 genera. The plants discussed are all used as medicine among ethnic groups in Sikkim. Important ail- ments purportedly cured by these plants are epilepsy, leprosy, paralysis, asthma, typhoid, diabetes, hemorrhages during childbirth, cholera, as well as others. Some of these plants are also used as food

H. BIRKUMAR SINGH; P. PRASAD; L. K. RAI

109

Endophytic fungi assemblages from 10 Dendrobium medicinal plants (Orchidaceae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendrobium is the largest genus of tropical epiphytic orchid, some of which are traditional Chinese medicinal plants. The therapeutic\\u000a components varied significantly among species. Endophytic microbes (fungi) hidden in medicinal plants may play an important\\u000a effect on the overall quality of herb. Investigation of fungal composition in host plants is the first step toward elucidating\\u000a the relationship endophyte-therapeutic content of

Juan Chen; Ke-Xing Hu; Xiao-Qiang Hou; Shun-Xing Guo

2011-01-01

110

Identification of Ornamental Plant Functioned as Medicinal Plant Based on Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human has a duty to preserve the nature. One of the examples is preserving the ornamental plant. Huge economic value of plant trading, escalating esthetical value of one space and medicine efficacy that contained in a plant are some positive values from this plant. However, only few people know about its medicine efficacy. Considering the easiness to obtain and the

Hiroshi Okumura Indra Nugraha Abdullah Kohei Arai

2013-01-01

111

Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?  

PubMed

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122

Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

2013-01-01

112

Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?  

PubMed Central

Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems.

2013-01-01

113

MASS MULTIPLICATION OF THE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT Tylophora Indica (Burm.f.) Merr.  

PubMed

Tylophora indica (Burm.f) Merr. (ASCLEPIDACEAE) is an important Indian medicinal plant. It is called "ASTHMA KODI" OR "NANJARUPPAN" IN Tamil in the Siddha system of medicine. Tamil medical literature reveal that it is an ideal plant medicine for respiratory problems and is also a cardiac tonic. For medicinal purposes it is collected only from the wild. It has not yet been brought under cultivation. Its taxonomy, morphology, ecology and medicinal uses were studied. Since, tissue-culture is a costly technology and requiring a high-tech laboratory a low-cost mass- multiplication technique has been invented through water-culture experiments, in order to make its saplings available to the interested herbal farmers in a larger scale. The results are reported in this paper, which will be of immense help and use to the herbal farmers. PMID:22557081

Dhandapani, R; Balu, S

2002-10-01

114

MASS MULTIPLICATION OF THE INDIAN MEDICINAL PLANT Tylophora Indica (Burm.f.) Merr  

PubMed Central

Tylophora indica (Burm.f) Merr. (ASCLEPIDACEAE) is an important Indian medicinal plant. It is called “ASTHMA KODI” OR “NANJARUPPAN” IN Tamil in the Siddha system of medicine. Tamil medical literature reveal that it is an ideal plant medicine for respiratory problems and is also a cardiac tonic. For medicinal purposes it is collected only from the wild. It has not yet been brought under cultivation. Its taxonomy, morphology, ecology and medicinal uses were studied. Since, tissue-culture is a costly technology and requiring a high-tech laboratory a low-cost mass- multiplication technique has been invented through water-culture experiments, in order to make its saplings available to the interested herbal farmers in a larger scale. The results are reported in this paper, which will be of immense help and use to the herbal farmers.

Dhandapani, R.; Balu, S.

2002-01-01

115

Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity of Vietnamese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinal plants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229

Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi

2004-09-01

116

[Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].  

PubMed

Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

2013-09-01

117

The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.  

PubMed

Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

2013-01-01

118

Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies.

Sharma, Vivekanand

2013-01-01

119

[Medicinal plants in cancer patients: current practices and evaluation data].  

PubMed

Many complementary and alternatives medicines are offered to patients with cancer. Among them, herbal medicines have a substantial place. These plants are mainly used to reduce adverse effects of anticancer treatments and for specific anticancer properties. Our review shows that only few clinical data support medicinal plants effectiveness in cancer patients. Arguments rely mainly on usual indications and pharmacological data for minimization of treatments toxicity while for the anticancer properties, on epidemiological and preclinical data. To inform and counsel patients and people around, healthcare professionals need to evaluate benefit-risk balance on evidence-based information. Because the medical decision should be shared with the patient, his beliefs and preferences have to be considered. When no adverse effect or drug interaction is associated with herbal medicine, we state that their use is acceptable. This paper discuss of potential risk and benefit of the most used medicinal plants by cancer patients. PMID:23695160

Huet, Matthieu

2013-05-01

120

Variation in heavy metals and microelements in South African medicinal plants obtained from street markets.  

PubMed

South African medicinal plants are traditionally harvested from a wide range of undisclosed locations by plant gatherers. Thus, there is a risk that plant material may be exposed to a variety of pollutants. The variation in five heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and lead) and six essential elements (boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc) was determined in commonly used South African medicinal plants obtained from street markets. Elemental content was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry. The reliability of the procedure was ensured by analysing a certified reference material. Medicinal plant samples contained arsenic and cadmium at levels exceeding the World Health Organization limits of 1 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) respectively. Lead and nickel were detected in all samples. Elevated iron and manganese levels were recorded in certain plant species. Multiple metal contamination of parts of medicinal plants gives grounds for concern. This study emphasizes the unsafe consequences of the South African practice of collecting medicinal plants from undisclosed locations and making these readily available to the public. PMID:18608487

Street, R A; Kulkarni, M G; Stirk, W A; Southway, C; Van Staden, J

2008-08-01

121

Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored.

Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

2013-01-01

122

Traditional medicines in Africa: an appraisal of ten potent african medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

Mahomoodally, M Fawzi

2013-01-01

123

Screening of some Palestinian medicinal plants for antibacterial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinal plants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most

T Essawi; M Srour

2000-01-01

124

Critical review on medicinally potent plant species: Gloriosa superba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gloriosa superba L. is a perennial climber and is used as an ayurvedic medicinal herb to cure diseases in various parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The plant was under threatened category due to its imprudent harvesting from wild as it is extensively used by medicinal industries for its colchicine content. It also faces a low seed set problem, but

Sonali Jana; G. S. Shekhawat

2011-01-01

125

Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge  

PubMed Central

Background Medicinal plants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to organize a database of medicinal plants including their applications and associated procedures in Canhane village, district of Massingir, province of Gaza, Mozambique. Methods In order to gather information about indigenous medicinal plants and to maximize the collection of local knowledge, eleven informants were selected taking into account the dimension of the site and the fact that the vegetation presents a great homogeneity. The data were collected through intensive structured and semi-structured interviews performed during field research. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on field observations and herbarium collections. Results A total of 53 plant species have been reported, which were used to treat 50 different human health problems. More than half of the species were used for stomach and intestine related disturbances (including major diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery). Additionally, four species with therapeutic applications were reported for the first time, whose potential can further be exploited. The great majority of the identified species was also associated with beliefs and myths and/or used as food. In general, the community was conscientious and motivated about conservational issues and has adopted measures for the rational use of medicinal plants. Conclusions The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the Canhane village. The local community had a rich ethnobotanical knowledge and adopted sound management conservation practices. The data compiled in this study show the social importance of the surveyed plants being a contribution to the documentation of PGR at the national and regional level.

2010-01-01

126

Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.

Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

2013-01-01

127

Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.  

PubMed

High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

2013-01-01

128

Analysis of medicinal plant extracts by neutron activation method.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinal plant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,...

S. M. Vaz

1995-01-01

129

Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts. Volume 1, Number 6.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abstracts are provided of the world-wide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: Agronomy, botany, breeding and genetics, diseases and pests, physiology and biochemistry, pharmacognosy, clinic...

Y. R. Chadha

1979-01-01

130

Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plant use by traditional healers in Oshikoto region, Namibia  

PubMed Central

Background The objective of this study was to establish a regional profile of the indigenous knowledge system (IKS) for medicinal plant use and cultural practices associated with the healing process of these plants by traditional healers in the Oshikoto region, Namibia. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers during September and October 2008. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips in the ten constituencies of the Oshikoto region. A total of 47 respondents were interviewed with most of them aged 66 and above. Results The traditional healers in Oshikoto region use 61 medicinal plant species that belong to 25 families for the treatment of various diseases and disorders with the highest number of species being used for mental diseases followed by skin infection and external injuries. Trees (28 species) were found to be the most used plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (10 species) and climbers (4 species). The average of the informant consensus factor (FIC) value for all ailment categories was 0.75. High FIC values were obtained for Pergularia daemia, and Tragia okanyua, which were reported to treat weakness and dizziness problems, snake bite, swelling and cardiovascular problems indicating that these species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth examining for bioactive compounds. Conclusions The traditional healers in Oshikoto possess rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. This study allows for identifying many high value medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection of these medicinal plants.

2011-01-01

131

Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n?=?74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15 days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (? 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation.

2014-01-01

132

A potential antioxidant resource: Endophytic fungi from medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants and their endophytes are important resources for discovery of natural products. Several previous studies\\u000a have found a positive correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of many medicinal\\u000a plant extracts. However, no information is available on whether such a relationship also exists in their endophytic fungal\\u000a metabolites. We investigated the relationship between TAC and

Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Jie Xing; Harold Corke; Mei Sun

2007-01-01

133

Screening of medicinal plant extracts for antioxidant activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The methanol extracts of nine medicinal plants traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [Toxicol. Lett. 102 (1998) 5]. Most of the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. The extracts of Areca catechu var.

Si Eun Lee; Hyun Jin Hwang; Jung-Sun Ha; Han-Seung Jeong; Jeong Hee Kim

2003-01-01

134

Indigenous Medicine and Primary Health Care: The Importance of Lay Knowledge and Use of Medicinal Plants in Rural South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Indigenous medicine is important to rural livelihoods, but lay knowledge and use of medicinal plants has not been extensively studied. Research in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, showed that medicinal plants were frequently used by villagers and contributed to their ability to cope with health problems. Knowledge of plants and household remedies was extensive and varied in that households often held different

Annika C. Dahlberg; Sophie B. Trygger

2009-01-01

135

Ash?ninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Jun?n, Peru  

PubMed Central

Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of healing practices towards a source of income with mainly non-indigenous customers, are signs of acculturation. Future studies on quantification of the use of medicinal plants, dynamics of transmission of ethno-medicinal knowledge to the young generations and comparison with available pharmacological data on the most promising medicinal plants are suggested.

2010-01-01

136

Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested.

2011-01-01

137

Some medicinal plants with antiasthmatic potential: a current status  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.

Taur, Dnyaneshwar J; Patil, Ravindra Y

2011-01-01

138

Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants grown in Jordan.  

PubMed

In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinal plant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinal plants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinal plants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195

Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan

2013-03-01

139

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government is addressing the potential loss of valuable species in this region.

2012-01-01

140

Pesticides and heavy metals levels in Egyptian leafy vegetables and some aromatic medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 835 samples of leafy vegetables and some aromatic medicinal plants were collected from five different areas of Egypt during 1999. Ninety-seven per cent of the leafy vegetables were contaminated with heavy metals with 39% exceeding the maximum limits for each element. Cadmium was detected in 78 of 116 samples of leafy vegetable, although without any exceeding the

S. M. Dogheim; El M. M. Ashraf; S. A. G. Alla; M. A. Khorshid; S. M. Fahmy

2004-01-01

141

Uses of medicinal plants by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. METHODS: Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian

Gabriele Volpato; Daimy Godínez; Angela Beyra; Adelaida Barreto

2009-01-01

142

Quantity estimation of some contaminants in commonly used medicinal plants in the Egyptian market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pesticide residues, heavy metal contents and aflatoxins were estimated in five medicinal plants frequently used by both infants and adults (peppermint, chamomile, anise, caraway and tilio). Samples were collected from different sources in the Egyptian market. Results showed that malathion, dimethoate and profenofos predominated in most of the analysed samples. On the other hand, the lowest mean levels were detected

A. A. K Abou-Arab; M Soliman Kawther; M. E El Tantawy; R. Ismail Badeaa; Naguib Khayria

1999-01-01

143

Cultivation of Medicinal Plants from the Wild Flora in Bulgaria-Possibilities and Prospects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on the preservation and conservation of wild, medicinal plants in natural habitats has been used to select species for collections (ex situ and in situ) and cultivation. After 2 years study, the species could be grouped as those selections being widely distributed with adequate population size and suitable for in situ conservation (such as Clinopodium vulgare, Origanum vulgare, and

Siya Angelova; Kana Varbanova; Ivanka Peeva; Yana Guteva; Dimitriya Dimitrova

1994-01-01

144

The importance of botellas and other plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine  

PubMed Central

Ethnopharmacological relevance Plant mixtures are understudied in ethnobotanical research Aim of the study To investigate the importance of plant mixtures (remedies consisting of at least two plants) in Dominican traditional medicine. Materials and Methods A Spanish language questionnaire was administered to 174 Dominicans living in New York City (NYC) and 145 Dominicans living in the Dominican Republic (DR), including lay persons (who self-medicate with plants) and specialists (traditional healers). Plants were identified through specimens purchased in NYC botánica shops and Latino grocery shops, and from voucher collections. Results The percentage of mixtures as compared to single plants in plant use reports varied between 32 to 41%, depending on the geographic location (NYC or DR) and participant status (lay person or specialist). Respiratory conditions, reproductive health and genitourinary conditions were the main categories for which Dominicans use plant mixtures. Lay persons reported significantly more mixtures prepared as teas, mainly used in NYC to treat respiratory conditions. Specialists mentioned significantly more botellas (bottled herbal mixtures), used most frequently in the DR to treat reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Cluster analysis demonstrated that different plant species are used to treat respiratory conditions as compared to reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Interview participants believed that combining plants in mixtures increases their potency and versatility as medicines. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the importance and complexity of plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine and the variation in its practices influenced by migration from the DR to NYC, shedding new light on the foundations of a particular ethnomedical system.

Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.; Ososki, Andreana; Kronenberg, Fredi; Yukes, Jolene; Wade, Christine; Jimenez, Francisco; Peguero, Brigido; Castillo, Daisy

2010-01-01

145

Contribution to the ethnobotanical, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of traditionally used medicinal plants in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea in Lomela area, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to collect ethnobotanical information about antidiarrhoeal plants, we performed inquiries among traditional healers, community leaders, and native people of Lomela villages in Congo. Six medicinal plants widely used in this region were designated as having antidysenteric and antidiarrhoeal properties. These six medicinal plants were screened for groups of phytochemical compounds with antibacterial and antiamoebic activities. They were found

A Longanga Otshudi; A Vercruysse; A Foriers

2000-01-01

146

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC AND ACETONE EXTRACT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS USED IN INDIAN FOLKLORE MEDICINE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Antibacterial study of methanolic and acetone extracts of crude and treated (with 50 % lead acetate) extracts of medicinal plants viz, Alstonia scholaris Linn. R.Br. (Stem bark, Apocynaceae), Achyranthus aspera Linn. (Whole plant, Acantheceae), Moringa oleifera Lam. (Leaves, Morinaceae), Tinospora cordifolia (Stem, Menispermaceae), and Enicostema hyssopifolium (Willd) (Stem, Gentianaceae) was carried out. Extractive values in methanol were found to be

J. P. Patel

2010-01-01

147

Selenium concentrations of selected medicinal and aromatic plants in Turkey.  

PubMed

Recent scientific studies have proven the importance of trace elements on human health. The main food supplies are plants and animals, which are significant sources of these minerals. Studies on determining mineral compositions of herbs, spices and some other crops have increased all over the world. Published works revealed that spices, herbs and medicinal plants should be consumed to obtain beneficial trace elements. Selenium (Se), one of the most vital trace elements, has a significant role in human diet acting as a preventative agent against some serious illnesses. Despite numerous scientific works on mineral compositions of medicinal and aromatic plants, investigations of selenium content in these foods could not be successfully studied until recently due to the lack of suitable analytical methods for selenium analysis. Thus, publications on selenium concentrations of foods are recent. In this regard, selenium contents of some medicinal and aromatic plants commonly used as spices, herbal teas and traditional medicines in Turkey were studied in the present research. Selenium contents of the most used parts of these plants were analyzed by ICP-OES (Varian Vista-Pro, Australia). Of the analyzed 26 medicinal and aromatic plants, the highest Se concentration (1133 microg kg-1) was found in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) and the lowest in sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) fruits (11 microg kg(-1)). PMID:22164785

Ozkutlu, Faruk; Sekeroglu, Nazim; Koca, Ufuk; Yazici, Gizem

2011-10-01

148

Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de C?rdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses  

PubMed Central

Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration). Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men) and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together with a vast repertoire of plant pharmacopoeia, the therapies also involve religious or ritualistic practices and other popular remedies that evidence the influence of traditional Hispanic-European knowledge. Although the traditional veterinary knowledge seems to be similar or else is inlcuded in the local human ethnomedicine, sharing a common group of plants, it has distinct traits originated by a constant assessment of new applications specifically destined to the treatment of animals. Conclusions Veterinary medicine is a fountain of relevant vernacular knowledge, a permanent source for testing new applications with valuable ethnobotanical interest. Knowledge on medicinal applications of native plants will allow future validations and tests for new homeopathic or phytotherapeutic preparations.

2011-01-01

149

Platelet anti-aggregant property of some Moroccan medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is known that blood platelets may present some dysfunction linked to cardiovascular pathologies such as arterial hypertension. The aim of this work is to examine the in vitro anti-aggregant effect of five medicinal plants among which three were reported as antihypertensive in oriental Morocco: Arbutus unedo (Ericaceae), Urtica dio??ca (Urticaceae), and Petroselinum crispum (Apiaceae). The two other plants were

Hassane Mekhfi; Mohammed El Haouari; Abdelkhaleq Legssyer; Mohammed Bnouham; Mohammed Aziz; Fouad Atmani; Adnane Remmal; Abderrahim Ziyyat

2004-01-01

150

Yucatec Mayan medicinal plants: evaluation based on indigenous uses  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of an ethnopharmacological field study 48 medicinal plants were evaluated using several biological assays with the goal to obtain information on the pharmacological effects of these plants, which may be of direct relevance to the indigenous uses. Three species used to treat gastrointestinal disorders showed remarkable activity against Helicobacter pylori. One of them showed activity against Giardia duodenalis.

Anita Ankli; Michael Heinrich; Peter Bork; Lutz Wolfram; Peter Bauerfeind; Reto Brun; Cécile Schmid; Claudia Weiss; Regina Bruggisser; Jürg Gertsch; Michael Wasescha; Otto Sticher

2002-01-01

151

Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic

Anna K. Jäger; Anne Hutchings; Johannes van Staden

1996-01-01

152

Mineral Compositions of Datura: A Traditional Tropical Medicinal Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral compositions of leaf, seed, and flower of Datura metel, a tropical medicinal plant, have been ascertained in detail. Datura metel leaves have been found to be minerally richer than its seeds or flowers. The studied datura variety has been found to be a cobalt- and nickel-tolerant plant and a probable phytomonitor for these elements in soil.

S. Bhattacharjee; S. Kar; S. Chakravarty

2004-01-01

153

Antimalarial activity in crude extracts of some Cameroonian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Fifteen crude extracts from the stem bark and seeds of four medicinal plants, viz: Entandrophragma angolense, Picralima nitida, Schumanniophyton magnificum and Thomandersia hensii were tested in vitro for their antimalarial activity against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum W2 strain. The results showed that the extracts of these plants possessed some antimalarial activity, the methanol extract of Picralima nitida demonstrating the highest activity in vitro. Further isolation and identification of some active compounds from these plants will justify their common use in traditional medicine for the treatment of malaria or fever in Cameroon. PMID:20162079

Bickii, Jean; Tchouya, Guy Raymond Feuya; Tchouankeu, Jean Claude; Tsamo, Etienne

2006-01-01

154

Critical review on medicinally potent plant species: Gloriosa superba.  

PubMed

Gloriosa superba L. is a perennial climber and is used as an ayurvedic medicinal herb to cure diseases in various parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The plant was under threatened category due to its imprudent harvesting from wild as it is extensively used by medicinal industries for its colchicine content. It also faces a low seed set problem, but due to its industrial demand it is now under cultivation. The plant is used to cure arthritis, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, ulcers, bleeding piles, skin diseases, leprosy, impotency, snakebites, etc. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant parts mainly tubers and seeds, viz colchicine, colchicoside (its semi-synthetic derivative - thiocolchicoside), superbine, gloriosine, lumicolchicine, 3-demethyl-N-deformyl-N-deacetylcolchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine, N-formyl deacetylcolchicine. In the present review, we have summarized the information concerning the occurrence, botanical description, ethanopharmacology, medicinal uses, biological activities and toxicological studies on this plant. PMID:21059382

Jana, Sonali; Shekhawat, G S

2011-04-01

155

An efficient micropropagation system for Tylophora indica : an endangered, medicinally important plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient protocol is described for the rapid in vitro multiplication of an endangered medicinal plant, Tylophora indica (Burm. f.) Merrill, via enhanced axillary bud proliferation from nodal explants collected from young shoots of a two-year-old\\u000a plant. The physiological effects of growth regulators [6-benzyladenine (BA), kinetin (Kin) thidiazuron (TDZ), indole-3-acetic\\u000a acid (IAA), indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) or ?-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA)],

Mohd. Faisal; Naseem Ahmad; Mohammad Anis

2007-01-01

156

Plants: A Rich Source of Herbal Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nearly 80% of the global population still depends upon the herbal drugs for their health care. Plant based therapy are marked due to its low cast, easy availability, based on generation to generation knowledge. At present time, plant based industries are rising at international level but unfortunately due to uncontrolled growth of population and unplanned, excess use\\/misuses of plant species

Sudhanshu Tiwari

157

The Swingle Plant Anatomy Reference Collection  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Born in 1871 in Pennsylvania, Walter Tennyson Swingle grew up with little formal schooling, but he ended up working for well over half a century in the fields of tropical botany and Chinese literature. Created by the University of Miami Libraries and Professor Barbara Whitlock, this digital archive brings together primary documents, slides, and other items taken from the Swingle archives. On the homepage, visitors can look through four primary sections, including the "Plant Anatomy Digital Archive" and "Plant Anatomy Animations". In the "Plant Anatomy Digital Archive", visitors can browse over 1700 images from more than 250 species collected from all over the world. Also, visitors can learn about the challenges involved with maintaining such a collection. Moving on, the "Plant Anatomy Animations" are utterly fascinating, as they consist of transforming images of consecutive microtome sections, providing "a new perspective on how plants are constructed in three dimensions." The site is rounded out with a section on Swingle himself, complete with a biography, articles about his work, and a link to some of his publications.

Whitlock, Barbara

158

The genetic manipulation of medicinal and aromatic plants.  

PubMed

Medicinal and aromatic plants have always been intimately linked with human health and culture. Plant-derived medicines constitute a substantial component of present day human healthcare systems in industrialized as well as developing countries. They are products of plant secondary metabolism and are involved in many other aspects of a plant's interaction with its immediate environment. The genetic manipulation of plants together with the establishment of in vitro plant regeneration systems facilitates efforts to engineer secondary product metabolic pathways. Advances in the cloning of genes involved in relevant pathways, the development of high throughput screening systems for chemical and biological activity, genomics tools and resources, and the recognition of a higher order of regulation of secondary plant metabolism operating at the whole plant level facilitate strategies for the effective manipulation of secondary products in plants. Here, we discuss advances in engineering metabolic pathways for specific classes of compounds in medicinal and aromatic plants and we identify remaining constraints and future prospects in the field. In particular we focus on indole, tropane, nicotine, isoquinoline alcaloids, monoterpenoids such as menthol and related compounds, diterpenoids such as taxol, sequiterpenoids such as artemisinin and aromatic amino acids. PMID:17609957

Gómez-Galera, Sonia; Pelacho, Ana M; Gené, Anna; Capell, Teresa; Christou, Paul

2007-10-01

159

Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico.  

PubMed

The use of medicinal plants by the patients at the outpatient clinics of five health-care centers in Puerto Rico was evaluated. Medication histories were obtained for 802 patients ranging in age from two months to 91 years. The most frequent medical diagnosis was cardiovascular disease (54% of the patients). Respiratory and digestive disorders were the least frequent conditions, identified in only 9% and 6% of the cases, respectively. Medicinal plants were used by 57% of the population. Patients 65 years or older tended to use herbal remedies more often. Seven of the 11 most commonly used plants were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Other medicinal uses given were for sedation, sleep disorders, elevated blood pressure, kidney disorders, and respiratory ailments. The most frequently used plant was Citrus aurantium L. (sour orange), which was used as a sedative by 39% of the patients and for gastrointestinal disorders by 17%. Two potentially toxic plants, Solanum americanum and Annona muricata, were among the most commonly used plants. Medicinal plants were used widely by the outpatient population studied. Most herbs were used to treat self-limiting conditions but some were used to treat potentially serious medical problems, such as hypertension. PMID:6496496

Hernández, L; Muñoz, R A; Miró, G; Martínez, M; Silva-Parra, J; Chávez, P I

1984-10-01

160

Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and - for comparative purposes - Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct comparison of the results possible. In these studies, the relative importance of a medicinal plant within a culture is documented using a quantitative method. For the analysis the uses were grouped into 9-10 categories of indigenous uses. This report compares these data and uses the concept of informant consensus originally developed by Trotter and Logan for analysis. This indicates how homogenous the ethnobotanical information is. Generally the factor is high for gastrointestinal illnesses and for culture bound syndromes. While the species used by the 3 indigenous groups vary, the data indicate that there exist well-defined criteria specific for each culture which lead to the selection of a plant as a medicine. A large number of species are used for gastrointestinal illnesses by two or more of the indigenous groups. At least in this case, the multiple transfer of species and their uses within Mexico seems to be an important reason for the widespread use of a species. Medicinal plants in other categories (e.g. skin diseases) are usually known only in one culture and seem to be part of its traditional knowledge. PMID:9877354

Heinrich, M; Ankli, A; Frei, B; Weimann, C; Sticher, O

1998-12-01

161

Culturable endophytes of medicinal plants and the genetic basis for their bioactivity.  

PubMed

The bioactive compounds of medicinal plants are products of the plant itself or of endophytes living inside the plant. Endophytes isolated from eight different anticancer plants collected in Yunnan, China, were characterized by diverse 16S and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies. A functional gene-based molecular screening strategy was used to target nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in endophytes. Bioinformatic analysis of these biosynthetic pathways facilitated inference of the potential bioactivity of endophyte natural products, suggesting that the isolated endophytes are capable of producing a plethora of secondary metabolites. All of the endophyte culture broth extracts demonstrated antiproliferative effects in at least one test assay, either cytotoxic, antibacterial or antifungal. From the perspective of natural product discovery, this study confirms the potential for endophytes from medicinal plants to produce anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal compounds. In addition, PKS and NRPS gene screening is a valuable method for screening isolates of biosynthetic potential. PMID:22430508

Miller, Kristin I; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Roufogalis, Basil D; Neilan, Brett A

2012-08-01

162

Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India  

PubMed Central

An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.

Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

2006-01-01

163

Medicinal plants of Paraguay: Underground organs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have identified underground organs belonging to 13 species in 9 families that are being sold as medicinal in the Market\\u000a #4 of Asunción currently known as “Pettirossi.” Eleven of those 13 species grow wild in Oriental Paraguay, one is naturalized,\\u000a and one is only cultivated. These organs are locally used to combat rheumatism, diabetes, hepatitis, syphilis, stomachache,\\u000a flatulence, arthrosis,

Isabel Basualdo; Elsa Zardini; Mirtha Ortiz

1991-01-01

164

Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in the centre east region of Burkina Faso.  

PubMed

The present research focused on the inventory and the use of plants in traditional medicine for the treatment of diseases in this area. The method was based on ethnobotanical surveys with semi-directing interview, conducted from November 2006 to December 2007 among a sample of 50 people aged between 40 and 80 years and very experienced in traditional medicine in the municipalities of Bissiga, Lalgaye and Tenkodogo. We identify 73 phytogenetic species and 175 therapeutic indications used to treat 52 diseases and the principal ones are the gastrointestinal diseases, the malaria, the various fevers, the jaundice, the skin diseases, the respiratory affections, the reproduction diseases, the hemorrhoids and the infantile diseases. In traditional veterinary pharmacopoeia, 18 phytogenetic species are used with 33 therapeutic indications to treat diseases including trypanosomiasis, tuberculosis, diarrheas and wounds. The interest of people of this area for medicinal plants, command a special attention to organize the actors and preserve the plant genetic resources. PMID:20387743

Ky, J M K; Zerbo, P; Gnoula, C; Simpore, J; Nikiema, J B; Millogo-Rasolodimby, J

2009-10-01

165

Toxicology of some important medicinal plants in southern Africa.  

PubMed

Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. These include important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care. PMID:24075916

Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Okem, Ambrose; Mulaudzi, Rofhiwa B; Van Staden, Johannes

2013-12-01

166

Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products  

PubMed Central

Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.

Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

2010-01-01

167

Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

2010-11-01

168

Combating of scorpion bite with Pakistani medicinal plants having ethno-botanical evidences as antidote.  

PubMed

Although the majority of serious cases in the world are concerned with snake bite envenomation, but those which are caused by scorpion stings are also famous for causing extreme pain. The present view is an attempt to enlist scientifically ignored medicinal plants of Pakistan exhibiting anti-scorpion venom activity. In this review data of 35 medicinal plants is collected with their families, parts used, distribution in Pakistan, and major constituents present in plant. Amaranthaceae, Astraceae and Euphorbiaceae represent 3 species. Anacardiaceae, Asclepidaceae and Liliaceae represent 2 species. Araceae, Capparidaceae, Ceasalpinaceae, Cyperaceae, Labiatae, Lamiaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Oleaceae, Oxalidaceae, Pinaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, Valerianaceae and Zingiberaceae represented single medicinal plant with anti scorpion potential. According to literature, all parts are used in anti scorpion envenomination. Leaves exhibit 30%, whole plant 9%, fruit, bark and seeds 8% anti scorpion activity. Bulb and stems show 5% contribution in this respect and twigs, resins, inflorescence, latex and flowers express 3% potential. This article may assist the researchers to bring innovation in natural product field for scorpion bite envenomation. However, these medicinal plants are still requiring pharmacological and phytochemical investigation in order to be claimed as effective in scorpion bite envenomation. PMID:23757928

Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Sajjad, Ashif; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Mumtaz, Amara; Farzana, Kalsoom; Rashid, Zarmina; Murtaza, Ghulam

2013-01-01

169

Antiplasmodial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants Used in Sudanese Folk-medicine  

PubMed Central

Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plant extracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ? 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of plant material ? 50 ?g/ml were obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa and the whole plant of Aristolochia bracteolata. The ten plants were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. The two most active plants showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids and tannins.

Ahmed, El-Hadi M.; Nour, Bakri Y.M.; Mohammed, Yousif G.; Khalid, Hassan S.

2010-01-01

170

Integrating Carbon-Halogen Bond Formation into Medicinal Plant Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Halogenation, once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways1. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants2. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products1, we rationalized that introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group– a halide– is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore appear to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts.

Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E.

2010-01-01

171

Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.  

PubMed

Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

2002-06-01

172

Anticandidal activity of certain South Indian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The anticandidal activity of 20 household South Indian medicinal plants and/or plant products was studied using 30 Candida albicans isolates obtained from vaginal candidiasis patients of Rajah Muthiah Medical College and Hospital and compared with the anticandidal activity of garlic. Water and ethanol extracts were prepared and their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFC) were determined. Water extracts of three plants did not show any anticandidal activity, while Murrya koenigii did not exhibit any anticandidal activity in either extract. Other plants exhibited more activity in ethanol extracts showing that their active principle is more soluble in a non-polar solvent. PMID:10815017

Vaijayanthimala, J; Anandi, C; Udhaya, V; Pugalendi, K V

2000-05-01

173

Medicinal plants for suppressing soil-borne plant diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most plants exhibit inhibitory and stimulatory biochemical interactions with other plants and microorganisms, referred to as “allelopathy.” Especially, through root exudates, higher plants are able to affect the microfiora in the rhizosphere. Production of biological active substances by higher plants that prevent phytopathogens (bacteria, fungi, and nema-todes) from infecting crops has been reported (Yoshihara et al. 1988; Schenk et al.

Jun Ushiki; Yoshihiko Hayakawa; Toshiaki Tadano

1996-01-01

174

Studies of the in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant potentials of selected Yemeni medicinal plants from the island Soqotra  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinal plants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island) for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant

Ramzi A Mothana; Ulrike Lindequist; Renate Gruenert; Patrick J Bednarski

2009-01-01

175

Cultivation and breeding of Chinese medicinal plants in Germany.  

PubMed

Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) is increasingly used in Germany and Europe. Due to the need for herbal drugs of consistent quality and reliable supply, methods for commercial field cultivation and post-harvest processing under south German conditions have been developed for selected plant species used in CHM since 1999. The project used an interdisciplinary approach covering all aspects from seed sourcing to medicinal application. This paper describes the outcome of the agricultural seed and field experiments, breeding program, botanical and chemical characterization of the experimental material, comparison of experimental and imported herbal material with respect to their pharmaceutical quality, transfer of production methods and plant material to specialized farmers, medicinal application and, finally, information for users along the chain of distribution about the benefits of the locally produced herbal material. PMID:21077027

Heuberger, Heidi; Bauer, Rudolf; Friedl, Fritz; Heubl, Günther; Hummelsberger, Josef; Nögel, Rainer; Seidenberger, Rebecca; Torres-Londoño, Paula

2010-12-01

176

Current Status of Doubled Haploids in Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although herbs, spices, medicinal, and nutraceutical plants have been used in human health for millennia, there has been renewed\\u000a interest over the past number of years. In the past, people have relied on landraces or “wild” plants as there has been very\\u000a little breeding or genetics done on these species. This is changing as consumers are demanding scientific evidence for

A. M. R. Ferrie

177

Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit’s duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200mgkg?1 dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal

Attia H Atta; Samar M Mouneir

2004-01-01

178

Manufacture of Standardized Dried Extracts from Medicinal Brazilian Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents a brief review of the research conducted at Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Processes of the Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Ribeirão Preto\\/São Paulo University, aiming to obtain standardized dried extracts from medicinal Brazilian plants. The spray and spouted-bed dryer performance and physicochemical product properties during the drying of hydro-alcoholic extracts of three plants used in the Brazilian traditional

Wanderley P. Oliveira; Rubiana F. Bott; Claudia R. F. Souza

2006-01-01

179

Screening of selected medicinal plants of Nepal for antimicrobial activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ethnopharmacological screening of selected medicinal plants used in Nepal, methanol extracts from 21 plant species were assayed for activity against 8 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. All 21 of the extracts showed activity against at least 2

R. S. Taylor; N. P. Manandhar; G. H. N. Towers

1995-01-01

180

Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC<100 ?g\\/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia

L. Tona; K. Kambu; N. Ngimbi; K. Cimanga; A. J. Vlietinck

1998-01-01

181

Medicinal plants popularly used in the Xing? region - a semi-arid location in Northeastern Brazil  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI) of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinal plant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species) were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark.

Almeida, Cecilia de Fatima CBR; de Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Maia, Maria Bernadete S

2006-01-01

182

A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

2012-01-01

183

A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.

Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

2012-01-01

184

Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants of the Cerrado, Brazil.  

PubMed

In order to determine the potential of Cerrado plants as sources of antimicrobial activity, the phytochemical screening of ethanol extracts from Virola surinamensis, Qualea grandiflora, Alchornea castaneifolia, Hancornia speciosa and Curatella americana traditionally used in folk medicine are reported. PMID:18350520

Costa, E S; Hiruma-Lima, C A; Lima, E O; Sucupira, G C; Bertolin, A O; Lolis, S F; Andrade, F D P; Vilegas, W; Souza-Brito, A R M

2008-05-01

185

PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

2010-06-01

186

New strategy may save the medicinal plant, Goldenseal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Three research posters have recently been placed online at the Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC) Website. This one, by A. Sinclair and P.M. Catling, proposes a recovery method for the native medicinal plant Goldenseal, threatened in Canada. All three posters are available in .pdf format.

Catling, P. M.; Sinclair, A.

187

Screening of some Cuban medicinal plants for antimicrobial activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine

M. J. Martínez; J. Betancourt; N. Alonso-González; A. Jauregui

1996-01-01

188

Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

PubMed

This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 µg per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. PMID:21297345

Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun

2011-01-01

189

Investigations toward new lead compounds from medicinally important plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive phytochemical investigations on 30 Piper species growing in India and other medicinal plants have revealed the presence of a large number of novel compounds be- longing to different classes. The antiviral activity of several lignans and neolignans belong- ing to different structural types has been evaluated against six different viral strains. Further, the effects of ethanol, chloroform, and hexane

Ashok K. Prasad; Vineet Kumar; Pragya Arya; Sarvesh Kumar; Rajesh Dabur; Naresh Singh; Anil K. Chhillar; Gainda L. Sharma; Balaram Ghosh; Jesper Wengel; Carl E. Olsen; Virinder S. Parmar

2005-01-01

190

Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)  

PubMed Central

Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60 years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families.

2013-01-01

191

Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer's disease: a review  

PubMed Central

Alzheimer's disease is an age-associated, irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by severe memory loss, unusual behavior, personality changes, and a decline in cognitive function. No cure for Alzheimer's exists, and the drugs currently available to treat the disease have limited effectiveness. It is believed that therapeutic intervention that could postpone the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease would dramatically reduce the number of cases in the next 50 years. Ayurvedic medicinal plants have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs, and over a hundred new products are already in clinical development. Indeed, several scientific studies have described the use of various Ayurvedic medicinal plants and their constituents for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact mechanism of their action is still not clear, phytochemical studies of the different parts of the plants have shown the presence of many valuable compounds, such as lignans, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols, and alkaloids, that show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-cholinesterase, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. This review gathers research on various medicinal plants that have shown promise in reversing the Alzheimer's disease pathology. The report summarizes information concerning the phytochemistry, biological, and cellular activities and clinical applications of these various plants in order to provide sufficient baseline information that could be used in drug discovery campaigns and development process, thereby providing new functional leads for Alzheimer's disease.

2012-01-01

192

Antiviral activities of Nepalese medicinal plants.  

PubMed

In a screening of plants used traditionally in Nepal to treat diseases that could be caused by viruses, methanol extracts from 21 species were assayed for activity against three mammalian viruses: herpes simplex virus, Sindbis virus and poliovirus. Assays were performed in UV-A or visible light, as well as dark. Individual species of Hypericum, Lygodium, and Maesa exhibited impressive antiviral activities, although their selective effects on the three viruses suggested that the antiviral ingredients were different in each extract. In addition, many of the other extracts showed partial inactivation of one or more test viruses. PMID:8771457

Taylor, R S; Manandhar, N P; Hudson, J B; Towers, G H

1996-07-01

193

Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities  

PubMed Central

Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations.

Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

2011-01-01

194

Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities.  

PubMed

Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 µg/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

2011-01-01

195

Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases  

PubMed Central

Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described.

2013-01-01

196

Search for antiinflammatory activity in Argentine Medicinal Plants.  

PubMed

Extracts of different polarity from four Argentine medicinal plants used in folk medicine as antiinflammatory remedies were tested for bioactivity using carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats and TPA-induced ear edema in mice. A dichloromethane extract from Pluchea sagittalis showed good antiinflammatory activity in both tests. Flavonoids present in this extract may be responsible for the activity. Ipomoea fistulosa dichloromethane extract showed significant activity in the ear edema test while a dichloromethane extract from Eupatorium inulaefolium and aqueous extract of Polygonum punctatum exhibited antiinflammatory activity in the carrageenan-induced edema test. PMID:23194967

Gorzalczany, S; Acevedo, C; Muschietti, L; Martino, V; Ferraro, G

1996-09-01

197

An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

Patel, Dk; Prasad, Sk; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

2012-04-01

198

An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property  

PubMed Central

Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles.

Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

2012-01-01

199

Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development  

PubMed Central

Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range ofantioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology.

Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Daniel Jones, A.; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Nikolau, Basil J.

2012-01-01

200

Screening for Endophytic Fungi with Antitumour and Antifungal Activities from Chinese Medicinal Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  One hundred and thirty endophytic fungi isolated from 12 Chinese traditional medicinal plants collected at Yuanmou county\\u000a and Dawei Mountain, Yunnan province, southwest China, were tested for antitumour and antifungal activities by MTT assay on\\u000a human gastric tumour cell line BGC-823 and the growth inhibition test against 7 phytopathogenic fungi. The results showed\\u000a that fermentation broths from 9.2% of the

Haiyan Li; Chen Qing; Yanli Zhang; Zhiwei Zhao

2005-01-01

201

Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture  

PubMed Central

This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.

Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

2006-01-01

202

Influence of Brazilian herbal regulations on the use and conservation of native medicinal plants.  

PubMed

For decades, several native medicinal species have been used by the pharmaceutical industry in Brazil to create commercial products. In 1995, the Ministry of Health, following the recommendations of the World Health Organization, established herbal regulations (RDC 17) in order to improve the quality of such products. In fact, only plant species with conclusive results from pharmacological and toxicological studies can be used for creating medicines. In this study, we evaluated the consequences of RDC 17 on the use and conservation of native medicinal plants by comparing the plant material used by six companies in 1995/1996 and 10 years later (2005/2006). Eighty-three different species were used in 1995/1996, 50 of them native (60.2%), 16 exotic (19.3%), and 17 imported (20.5%). In 2005/2006, 44 species were used by the companies and only 19 (43.2%) were native. The category of plant material that saw the largest decrease in use was roots, and in 2005/2006 leaves were more used. The study shows a strong reduction in the collection of native species signalizing the importance of herbal regulations on their conservation. It also points to the need for pharmacological and toxicological studies of the Brazilian native medicinal flora, as well as studies on their ecology and conservation. PMID:19353281

Brandão, Maria G L; Cosenza, Gustavo P; Stanislau, Acácia M; Fernandes, Geraldo W

2010-05-01

203

Pesticides and heavy metals levels in Egyptian leafy vegetables and some aromatic medicinal plants.  

PubMed

A total of 835 samples of leafy vegetables and some aromatic medicinal plants were collected from five different areas of Egypt during 1999. Ninety-seven per cent of the leafy vegetables were contaminated with heavy metals with 39% exceeding the maximum limits for each element. Cadmium was detected in 78 of 116 samples of leafy vegetable, although without any exceeding the maximum limits. However, lead was detected in 99 samples, of which 39 exceeded the maximum limits (0.3 mg kg(-1)) and 56 medicinal plant samples of 70 had lead levels above 0.5 mg kg(-1). Copper was detected in 69 medicinal plant samples, of which 58 samples contained levels higher than 10 mg kg(-1). However, cadmium was only found in 43% of samples with only two of 70 samples above the maximum limit. Seventy-three per cent of the samples of medicinal plants were contaminated with pesticide residues, of which 44% contained amounts that exceeded maximum residue limits. Malathion was the most frequently found pesticide residue, being detected in 203 of 391 (52%.) samples, followed by profenofos, which was detected in 131 of 391 (33%) samples. PMID:15204556

Dogheim, S M; Ashraf, El M M; Alla, S A G; Khorshid, M A; Fahmy, S M

2004-04-01

204

Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an in vitro study.  

PubMed

Different medicinal plants: Euphobia hirta (Eh); Citrus aurantifolia (Ca), Cassia occidentalis (Co), and Cassia eucalyptus (Ce), which are claimed by the Nupes of Bida in Niger State of Nigeria to be effective in the treatment of typhoid fever were collected. Ethanolic and water extracts were obtained by standard procedures. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids were absent in all the parts of Eh, Co, and Ca studied, but present in all the parts of Ce studied. Saponins were absent in the leaves and florescence of Eh, Ca fruits, but present in little amounts in Eh and Co roots. Saponins were present in large amounts in all the parts of Ce studied. Tannins were in little amount in all the medicinal plants studied, except in Ca. Glycosides were not present in any of the medicinal plants studied. The in vitro and microbial analysis showed that only Ce showed inhibition to Salmonella typhi growth. Ca plus 'Kanwa' (a locally mined, alkaline salt) showed inhibition only at a high concentration of 'Kanwa'. The MIC and MBC of Ce are 1 and 2 mg/ml, respectively. The paper concludes that, of all the medicinal plants claimed by the Nupes to be effective against S. typhi, only Ce contains the natural compound that can be used in the treatment of typhoid fever. PMID:11891083

Evans, C Egwim; Banso, Aderotimi; Samuel, O Adeyemo

2002-04-01

205

Medicinal plants used in the promotion of animal health in Tanzania.  

PubMed

Plants with curative properties enjoy the highest consideration in indigenous systems of medicine throughout the world. This is especially true in the developing countries, where imported drugs are very expensive and are therefore inaccessible to the vast majority of the population. The author presents the results of an ethnobotanical study conducted in three main areas, namely the Arusha, Kilimanjaro and Mbeya regions of Tanzania. Special attention was paid to the use of plants for veterinary purposes. A total of 103 plant species within 48 families are collected for their curative properties in the field of veterinary medicine. The family which provided the greatest number of species was Compositae (13 species), followed by Euphorbiaceae (11 species) and Papillionaceae (9 species). A total of 38 different pathological states are treated, the most frequent being gastrointestinal disorders, followed by helminthosis, wounds and urethral infections. PMID:7949362

Minja, M M

1994-09-01

206

Potential anti-dengue medicinal plants: a review.  

PubMed

Dengue fever causes mortality and morbidity around the world, specifically in the Tropics and subtropic regions, which has been of major concern to governments and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a consequence, the search for new anti-dengue agents from medicinal plants has assumed more urgency than in the past. Medicinal plants have been used widely to treat a variety of vector ailments such as malaria. The demand for plant-based medicines is growing as they are generally considered to be safer, non-toxic and less harmful than synthetic drugs. This article reviews potential anti-dengue activities from plants distributed around the world. Sixty-nine studies from 1997 to 2012 describe 31 different species from 24 families that are known for their anti-dengue activities. About ten phytochemicals have been isolated from 11 species, among which are compounds with the potential for development of dengue treatment. Crude extracts and essential oils obtained from 31 species showed a broad activity against Flavivirus. Current studies show that natural products represent a rich potential source of new anti-dengue compounds. Further ethnobotanical surveys and laboratory investigations are needed established the potential of identified species in contributing to dengue control. PMID:23591999

Abd Kadir, Siti Latifah; Yaakob, Harisun; Mohamed Zulkifli, Razauden

2013-10-01

207

Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections.

2012-01-01

208

Plant pigments (antioxidants) of medicinal plants Malva silvestris L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae).  

PubMed

Qualitative-quantitative structure of plant pigments in wild plants Malva silvestrs L. and Malva moschata L. (Malvaceae), which were collected in 20 locations in Sarajevo area and surroundings, was tested during spring and summer in 2003. Acetone extracts of both categories were made and rising paper-chromatography done for the purpose of qualitative analysis. Quantitative analysis was done by spectrophotometry. Chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and xanthophylls presence was confirmed by separation of pigments from acetone extract of these plant species. Spectrophotometric analysis of acetone extracts showed these results (given in mg/L): chlorophyll a 2,386, chlorophyll b 0,332 and carrotenoides 1,037. Data given in mg/g dry substance are: chlorophyll a 1,193x10(-2), chlorophyll b 1,66x10(-3), and carrotenoides 5,185x10(-3). Pigments structure (in mg/L) in species Malva moschata is 1,6 for chlorophyll; 1,419 for chlorophyll b; and 0,364 for carrotenoides. Data given in mg/g are: chlorophyll a 8x10(-3), chlorophyll b 7,09x10(-3), and carrotenoides 1,82x10(-3). Considering that species Malva moschata L. grows on ecologically clear soils as opposed to well-known medicinal species Malva sylvestris L., and considering the production of phytomass, phytochemical structure and pharmacological influence it can be considered very medical and be given advantage over this wider spread category. PMID:16053456

Redzi?, Sulejman; Hodzi?, Nizama; Tuka, Mijat

2005-05-01

209

Plant-Derived Anticancer Agents Used in Western and Oriental Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Cancer chemotherapeutic agents derived from higher plants are used in Western medicine. Secondary metabolites from plants\\u000a are used in oriental medicine are utilized in anticancer therapy. Immunomodulatory small organic molecules from plant species\\u000a are employed in Chinese traditional medicine are renewed.

Ah-Reum Han; Ye Deng; Yulin Ren; Li Pan; A. Douglas Kinghorn

210

Cytotoxic activity of four Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Ibervillea sonorae Greene, Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché, Tagetes lucida Cav and Justicia spicigera Scheltdd are Mexican native plants used in the treatment of different illnesses. The ethanolic extract of J. spicigera and T. lucida as well as aqueous extracts from I. sonorae, C. ficifolia, T. lucida and J. spicigera were investigated using sulforhodamine B assay. These extracts were assessed using two cell line: T47D (Human Breast cancer) and HeLa (Human cervix cancer). Colchicine was used as the positive control. Data are presented as the dose that inhibited 50% control growth (ED50). All of the assessed extracts were cytotoxic (ED50 < 20 microg/ml) against T47D cell line, meanwhile only the aqueous extract from T. lucida and the ethanolic extract from J. spicigera were cytotoxic to HeLa cell line. Ethanolic extract from J. spicigera presented the best cytotoxic effect. The cytotoxic activity of J. spicigera correlated with one of the popular uses, the treatment of cancer. PMID:22128430

Vega-Avila, Elisa; Espejo-Serna, Adolfo; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco; Velasco-Lezama, Rodolfo

2009-01-01

211

Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.  

PubMed

Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC?? value of 1.6 ?g/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC?? 13.0 ?g/ml). PMID:22683318

Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

2012-08-01

212

Antiangiogenic activity and pharmacogenomics of medicinal plants from traditional korean medicine.  

PubMed

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Kadioglu, Onat; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

213

Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine  

PubMed Central

Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others.

Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schroder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

2013-01-01

214

Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

2006-01-01

215

Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants.

Abinash Pratim Saikia; Venkat Kishore Ryakala; Pragya Sharma; Pranab Goswami; Utpal Bora

2006-01-01

216

A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer.

Vimala, G.; Gricilda Shoba, F.

2014-01-01

217

Medicinal plants used by the Tamang community in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal  

PubMed Central

Background We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Materials and methods This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation. Results A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies. Conclusions The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use.

2014-01-01

218

Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa  

PubMed Central

An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants.

Gr?nhaug, Tom Erik; Glaeserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

2008-01-01

219

Determination of aflatoxins in medicinal herbs and plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The occurrence of the aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in common medicinal herbs and plant extracts was examined. The aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of the fungal strains Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The method involves the implementation of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) together with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 are determined as their bromine derivatives, produced in an

Klaus Reif; Wolfgang Metzger

1995-01-01

220

Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica

A. Ramos; A. Visozo; J. Piloto; A. Garc??a; C. A. Rodr??guez; R. Rivero

2003-01-01

221

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14\\u000a medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma\\u000a cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of

Enos Tangke Arung; Irawan Wijaya Kusuma; Eva Oktoberiani Christy; Kuniyoshi Shimizu; Ryuichiro Kondo

2009-01-01

222

The antialgal activity of 40 medicinal plants against Microcystis aeruginosa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In search of a botanical algicide, 40 traditional medicinal plants were screened for antialgal activity against the bloom-forming\\u000a cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that significant inhibition of the algae\\u000a at 800 mg L?1 were observed for methanolic extracts of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii (Rhizoma

Yang-Lei Yi; Yi Lei; Yue-Bang Yin; Hong-Yu Zhang; Gao-Xue Wang

223

[Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].  

PubMed

This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc. PMID:17048673

Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

2006-05-01

224

Micropropagation of zedoary ( Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe) – a valuable medicinal plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tissue culture propagation system was developed for zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe), a valuable medicinal plant, using rhizome sprout cultures. Shoots were induced from rhizomes on basal MS medium containing 20 g l-1 sucrose and 5 g l-1 agar, supplemented with 20 (v\\/v) coconut water (CW) and benzylaminopurine (BA) concentrations from 0.5 to 5.0 m g l-1. The excised shoots were subcultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 20

Nguyen Hoang Loc; Doan Trong Duc; Tae Ho Kwon; Moon Sik Yang

2005-01-01

225

Chemical constituents from the Colombian medicinal plant Maytenus laevis.  

PubMed

The methanol extract of the bark of the Colombian medicinal plant Maytenus laevis gave six new compounds and 28 known compounds. The structures of the new and known compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. Several of these compounds were screened for cytokine-inducing activity on human PBMCs to investigate antitumor effects, and canophyllol (12) demonstrated the most effective induction of the cytokines. PMID:15568791

Nakagawa, Hiroyuki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Fujimoto, Yoshinori; Duque, Carmenza; Garzon, Cristina; Sato, Mitsunobu; Okamoto, Masato; Oshikawa, Tetsuya; Ahmed, Sharif Uddin

2004-11-01

226

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400mgkg?1) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400mgkg?1 methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5–61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis

A. H. Atta; K. Abo EL-Sooud

2004-01-01

227

Antifungal activity of Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine.  

PubMed

The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well as the aqueous and methanol extracts of the latter, showed the highest activity. PMID:11378288

Portillo, A; Vila, R; Freixa, B; Adzet, T; Cañigueral, S

2001-06-01

228

Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress  

PubMed Central

Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects.

Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

2013-01-01

229

Screening of 34 Indian medicinal plants for antibacterial properties.  

PubMed

A total of 34 plant species belonging to 18 different families, selected on the basis of folklore medicinal reports practised by the tribal people of Western Ghats, India, were assayed for antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, and Pseudomonas aerogenes (gram-negative bacteria) at 1000-5000 ppm using the disc diffusion method. Of these 16 plants showed activity; among them Cassia fistula, Terminalia arjuna and Vitex negundo showed significant antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria. Our findings confirm the traditional therapeutic claims for these herbs. PMID:9741889

Perumal Samy, R; Ignacimuthu, S; Sen, A

1998-09-01

230

Anti-inflammatory activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894

Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M

1986-01-01

231

Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, ?-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), ?-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

2013-01-01

232

Yucatec Mayan medicinal plants: evaluation based on indigenous uses.  

PubMed

As part of an ethnopharmacological field study 48 medicinal plants were evaluated using several biological assays with the goal to obtain information on the pharmacological effects of these plants, which may be of direct relevance to the indigenous uses. Three species used to treat gastrointestinal disorders showed remarkable activity against Helicobacter pylori. One of them showed activity against Giardia duodenalis. Cytotoxic effects against KB cells were found for six species. In the group of plants used for dermatological conditions several species were active against gram-positive bacteria and Candida albicans. Two plant species of this group were found to be active in an Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) assay measuring inhibition of this pro-inflammatory transcription factor. A species of the Solanaceae, applied in cases of pain and fever, showed a weak activity against Plasmodium falciparum. One species traditionally used for diabetes exhibited antihyperglycemic activity. None of the six species from the group of 'women's medicine' showed relevant affinity to the D(2) dopamine receptor. Based on this evaluation, plants with strong activities should be further investigated phytochemically and pharmacologically to identify active fractions and compounds. PMID:11744294

Ankli, Anita; Heinrich, Michael; Bork, Peter; Wolfram, Lutz; Bauerfeind, Peter; Brun, Reto; Schmid, Cécile; Weiss, Claudia; Bruggisser, Regina; Gertsch, Jürg; Wasescha, Michael; Sticher, Otto

2002-01-01

233

Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

2010-09-01

234

Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (?? H? Ji?o) Plants  

PubMed Central

The ethnomedical uses of Piper (?? Hú Ji?o) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles.

Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2014-01-01

235

Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Hezar Mountain Allocated in South East of Iran  

PubMed Central

This manuscript is the result of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology survey on the Hezar Mountain in SE of Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this region. The plants were collected in and around Hezar mountain from 2008-2010. The authors have conducted an interview of total 75 informants; The traditional uses of 92 species belonging to 35 vascular plant families and 78 genera have been recorded. The largest number of medicinal species came from Lamiaceae (15.2%). The most common preparations were decoction and infusion. These species are utilized to treat several ailments which the most common of them are digestive disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, (25.4%), renal and genital disorders (13%), respiratory tract system disorders (11.8%), and heart-blood circulatory system disorders (10.2%) respectively.

Rajaei, Peyman; Mohamadi, Neda

2012-01-01

236

Unraveling the commercial market for medicinal plants and plant parts on the witwatersrand, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

To unravel the market for commercial medicinal plants on the Witwatersrand in South Africa, a semiquantitative approach was\\u000a taken. A stratified random sample of 50 herb-traders was surveyed, and an inventory of all plants and parts sold was compiled.\\u000a Research participants were questioned on the scarcity and popularity of the plants traded, as well as suppliers and origins.\\u000a The rarefaction

Vivienne L. Williams; Kevin Balkwill; Edward T. F. Witkowski

2000-01-01

237

Mutagenic screening of some commonly used medicinal plants in Nigeria.  

PubMed

The uses of medicinal plants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinal plants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to determine the mutagenic potentials of Morinda lucida [Oruwo (Root)], Azadirachta indica [Dongoyaro (Leaf)], Terapluera tetraptera [Aridan (Fruit)], Plumbago zeylanica [Inabiri (Root)], Xylopia aethiopica [Erunje (Fruit)], Newbouldia laevis [Akoko (Leaf)], Alstonia boonei [Ahun (Bark)], Enantia chlorantha [Awopa (Bark)], and Rauvolfia vomitoria [Asofeyeje (Root)] using the Allium cepa Linn. model and the modified Ames assay. Allium cepa model was used to determine the mean root length, mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations effects of these plants on onion bulbs using 0.1, 1, 5 and 10mg/ml concentration of the plant extracts. The modified Ames test which is a modification of the standard Ames test as described by Ames et al. [Ames, B.N., McCann, J., Yamasaki, E., 1975. Methods for detecting carcinogens and mutagens with the Salmonella/mammalian microsome mutagenicity test. Mutation Research 31, 347-364] was done using Escherichia coli (0157:H7) that has the phenotypic characteristics of glucose and lactose fermentation, motile, urease negative, indole positive and citrate negative. The results obtained from Allium cepa assay showed increasing root growth inhibition with increased concentration, decreasing mitotic index with increased concentration and chromosomal aberrations. The modified Ames test showed an alteration in the biochemical characteristics of Escherichia coli (0157:H7) for all plants except Rauvolfia vomitoria and Plumbago zeylanica. Three of the medicinal plants altered at least three of the normal biochemical characteristics thus demonstrating mutagenic potentials. The results of internationally accepted Allium cepa were comparable with the modified Ames test. However, a long term in vivo and dose dependent study should be carried out to validate these results and the findings should be communicated to drug and food regulatory body and also to the general public. PMID:19619631

Akintonwa, Alade; Awodele, Olufunsho; Afolayan, Gbenga; Coker, Herbert A B

2009-09-25

238

Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?  

PubMed

An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

2011-12-01

239

Antiquity of medicinal plant usage in two Macro-Mayan ethnic groups (México)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the biological sciences the use of medicinal plants in indigenous cultures is commonly seen as being based on a long tradition (‘traditional medicine’). However, under normal circumstances, ethnobotanical studies cannot provide evidence on the antiquity of specific uses for medicinal plants since oral traditions have a limited historical depth and archaeological evidence does not provide evidence for the specific

Marco Leonti; Otto Sticher; Michael Heinrich

2003-01-01

240

Ethnobotany of hill tribes of northern Thailand. I. Medicinal plants of Akha  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Akha are one of the 6 major tribes or minorities living in the remote hills of northern Thailand who still use extensively\\u000a plants as medicines. This paper describes the Akha culture and environment and their use of medicinal plants. An appendix\\u000a lists 121 different species and the medicinal use or uses attributed to them.

Edward F. Anderson

1986-01-01

241

Recent advances in analysis of Chinese medical plants and traditional medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide for health promotion and adjuvant therapy. Thus, selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of the plant material. Applications of both chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to the analysis of medicinal plants and Chinese traditional medicine preparations over the last 3 years are outlined

Pavel Drašar; Jitka Moravcova

2004-01-01

242

Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

2004-01-01

243

Further consideration of Asian medicinal plants in treating common chronic diseases in the West  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological knowledge is viewed as an increasingly relevant and important source for development of new medicinal products. Historically plants have been the basis of many medicines and are a major resource for human health care. This project critically examined the science-based medical evidence supporting use of traditional Asian medicinal plants for curative, preventive or palliative functions relevant to important chronic

Graeme E. Thomson

244

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-04-01

245

Antibacterial screening of plants used in Iranian folkloric medicine.  

PubMed

Fifty methanolic plant extracts belonging to 44 plant species of 33 families finding use in Iranian folkloric medicine were screened for antibacterial activity. Thirty samples, including 28 species in 20 families, had antibacterial activity against at least on one of the bacteria. Among the active plants, 32.6% were active against G(-), 62% against G(+), and 47.3% against both G(-) and G(+) bacteria. Dianthus coryophyllus was active against all tested G(-) and G(+) bacteria except Micrococcus luteus. Most susceptible G(-) bacteria were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Bordetella bronchiseptica and least susceptible G(-) bacterium was Escherichia coli. In G(+) bacteria, most and least susceptible were Staphylococcus aureus and M. luteus, respectively. The least MIC, as 0.62 mg/ml, belonged to Myrtus communis seeds against S. aureus, Bacillus cereus and B. bronchiseptica, and to Terminalia chebula ripe seeds against S. aureus. PMID:15030933

Bonjar, G H Shahidi

2004-03-01

246

Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox®. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9.

Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

2011-01-01

247

Antipyretic studies on some indigenous Pakistani medicinal plants: II.  

PubMed

Eight Pakistani medicinal plants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307

Ikram, M; Khattak, S G; Gilani, S N

1987-01-01

248

Molecular Identification of Commercialized Medicinal Plants in Southern Morocco  

PubMed Central

Background Medicinal plant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinal plants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species– ideally, as a global standard. Research Question What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinal plant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Morocco, as a test dataset. Methodology In total, 111 root samples were sequenced for four proposed barcode regions rpoC1, psbA-trnH, matK and ITS. Sequences were searched against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives using BLAST and Blastclust, and through inference of RAxML phylograms of the aligned market and reference samples. Principal Findings Sequencing success was high for rpoC1, psbA-trnH, and ITS, but low for matK. Searches using rpoC1 alone resulted in a number of ambiguous identifications, indicating insufficient DNA variation for accurate species-level identification. Combining rpoC1, psbA-trnH and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to genus level. For a minority of the market samples, the barcoding identification differed significantly from previous hypotheses based on the vernacular names. Conclusions/Significance Endemic plant species are commercialized in Marrakech. Adulteration is common and this may indicate that the products are becoming locally endangered. Nevertheless the majority of the traded roots belong to species that are common and not known to be endangered. A significant conclusion from our results is that unknown samples are more difficult to identify than earlier suggested, especially if the reference sequences were obtained from different populations. A global barcoding database should therefore contain sequences from different populations of the same species to assure the reference sequences characterize the species throughout its distributional range.

Kruger, Asa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Bjork, Lars; Martin, Gary

2012-01-01

249

Screening of Thai medicinal plants for anticandidal activity.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are often used in the treatment of various ailments. In this study, 23 of Thai medicinal plants were screened for their anticandidal activity against six pathogenic Candida species: C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. guilliermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis. The methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. fruit, Trigonostemon reidioides (Kurz) Craib root, Usnea siamensis Vain whole plant, Boesenbergia rotunda (L.) Mansf. rhizome, and Albizia myriophylla Benth. stem showed anticandidal activity against one or more species of Candida. Among them, A. myriophylla Benth. showed broad anticandidal activity. The susceptibility tests of A. myriophylla Benth. extract, in terms of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimal fungicidal concentration (MFC), were performed by the broth microdilution techniques as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute. MICs of A. myriophylla Benth. extract to all Candida species was ranged 100-500 mug ml(-1). The killing activity of A. myriophylla Benth. extract was fast acting against all Candida tested; the reduction in the number of CFU ml(-1) was >3 log(10) units (99.9%) in 2 h. This study indicates that A. myriophylla Benth. extract has considerable anticandidal activity, deserving further investigation for clinical applications for the treatment of candidiasis. PMID:18331446

Rukayadi, Yaya; Shim, Jae-Seok; Hwang, Jae-Kwan

2008-07-01

250

An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants species from 54 plant families, 98 genera used for treating diseases in Babungo. The Asteraceae was the most represented plant family while herbs made up 57% of the total medicinal plants used. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part while concoction and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. Most medicinal plants (72%) are harvested from the wild and 45% of these have other non medicinal uses. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. Conclusions A divers number of plants species are used for treating different diseases in Babungo. In addition to their use as medicines, a large number of plants have other non medicinal uses. The youth should be encouraged to learn the traditional medicinal knowledge to preserve it from being lost with the older generation.

2010-01-01

251

Alleviation of Lake Pollution by Utilization of Aquatic Plants for Nutritional, Medicinal or Industrial Purposes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aquatic plants in Minnesota have been surveyed medicinally for chemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids and lipids which might be useful in medicine. Examination of chemical constitutents was accomplished on the fo...

E. J. Staba

1973-01-01

252

A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico.

Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2012-01-01

253

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Trypanocidal and cytotoxic effects of traditionally used medicinal plants of Ethiopia were evaluated. A total of 60 crude plant extracts were prepared from 30 plant species using CH2Cl2 and MeOH. Effect upon cell proliferation by the extracts, for both bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and human leukaemia HL-60 cells, was assessed using resazurin as vital stain. Of all CH2Cl2 and MeOH extracts evaluated against the trypanosomes, the CH2Cl2 extracts from five plants showed trypanocidal activity with an IC50 value below 20 microg/mL: Dovyalis abyssinica (Flacourtiaceae), IC50 = 1.4 microg/mL; Albizia schimperiana (Fabaceae), IC50 = 7.2 microg/mL; Ocimum urticifolium (Lamiaceae), IC50 = 14.0 microg/mL; Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), IC50 = 16.6 microg/mL; and Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), IC50 = 17.1 microg/mL. A pronounced and selective killing of trypanosomes with minimal toxic effect on human cells was exhibited by Dovyalis abyssinica (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 125.0; MeOH extract, SI = 57.7) followed by Albizia schimperiana (CH2Cl2 extract, SI = 31.3) and Ocimum urticifolium (MeOH extract, SI = 16.0). In conclusion, the screening of 30 Ethiopian medicinal plants identified three species with good antitrypanosomal activities and low toxicity towards human cells. Dovyalis abyssinica might be a promising candidate for phytotherapy of trypanosomiasis. PMID:22351978

Nibret, Endalkachew; Wink, Michael

2011-01-01

254

Role of Indigenous People in Conservation of Biodiversity of Medicinal Plants: An Indian Case Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) have become a part of traditional system of medicines and have gained importance, more\\u000a so in today’s world. According to the estimate of World Health Organization (WHO), about 80% of the population of developing\\u000a world are making use of traditional medicines. The medicinal plants have been used for widespread purposes since ancient times\\u000a in countries

Pooja Joshi; Nilanjana Rao

255

Ethno-botanical study of medicinal plants of Paddar Valley of Jammu and Kashmir, India.  

PubMed

The Paddar Valley, historically known as Sapphire Valley situated in Kishtwar district, is a prime landmark in the Jammu region of J&K state and is known for its rich cultural and plant diversity because of diverse habitats such as rivers, streams, meadows and steep mountain slopes. The area is located in the dry temperate region comprising typical vegetation which disappears completely on the eastern slopes, dominated by a variety of economical species which play an important role in the rural life. The inhabitants are dependent on plant resources for food, fuel, timber, shelter, fodder/forage, household articles and traditional medicines in treating diseases like malaria, cancer, gastro-intestinal ailments, etc. This paper deals with the observations on traditional therapeutic application by the inhabitants of Paddar Valley. The ethno-botanical information on medicinal plants would not only be useful in conservation of traditional cultures and biodiversity but also community health care and drug development. Exploration survey in Paddar Valley has revealed that people collect and sell these medicinal species through local intermediaries / contractors to earn their livelihood. But the scientific cultivation and appropriate post-harvest management would improve employment opportunity and income of local farmers in the region. PMID:24146502

Gupta, Sushil Kumar; Sharma, O M Prakash; Raina, Narinder Singh; Sehgal, Sandeep

2013-01-01

256

Antimicrobial and toxicological activities of five medicinal plant species from Cameroon Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinal plants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinal plants induced no adverse effect on these organs. Conclusion These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine

2011-01-01

257

Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 ?g.mL?1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds.

Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

258

[Medicinal plants and symbols in the medieval mystic altarpiece].  

PubMed

The medieval mystic altarpiece towers above the altar table. It is linked to the evocation of a religious mystery beyond our faculty of reasoning. Symbolism of an enclosed garden evokes the image of the Heavenly Garden isolated by a wall from the rest of earthly world. In this mystic chiefly Rhenan altarpiece the enclosed garden is that of Virgin Mary who in the Middle Ages was likened to the spouse in the song of songs. The Blessed Virgin is painted with flowers, lily, rose, violet, lily of the valley. Most of these are medicinal plants in order to implore a faith healing for the believers. All in all about fifty plants are showed on Rhenan altarpieces and on 14th century mystic altarpieces almost contemporary of Issenheim's altarpiece, some Italian, some Rhenan. PMID:22073760

Fischer, Louis-Paul; Verilhac, Régine; Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Trépardoux, Francis

2011-01-01

259

Quorum sensing inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus from Italian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C

2011-01-01

260

Conference scene: molecular pharming: manufacturing medicines in plants.  

PubMed

Within the expanding area of molecular pharming, the development of plants for manufacturing immunoglobulins, enzymes, virus-like particles and vaccines has become a major focus point. On 21 September 2012, the meeting 'Molecular Pharming - recent progress in manufacturing medicines in plants', hosted by EuroSciCon, was held at the Bioscience Catalyst campus, Stevenage, UK. The scientific program of this eventful meeting covered diverse highlights of biopharming: monoclonal antibodies, virus-like particles from transient and chloroplast expression systems, for example, for Dengue and HPV, apolipoproteins from safflower seeds, and new production platforms, such as potato or hydroponics by rhizosecretion. This report summarizes the stimulating scientific presentations and fruitful panel discussions on the current topics in this promising research field. PMID:23256793

Lössl, Andreas G; Clarke, Jihong L

2013-01-01

261

Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids in Selected Indian Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

Sulaiman, C. T.; Balachandran, Indira

2012-01-01

262

Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

1997-08-01

263

Missouri Botanical Garden-Center for Plant Conservation: National Collection of Endangered Plants  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden, this website presents the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC)-National Collection of Endangered Plants which "contains plant material for more than 600 of the country's most imperiled native plants." The Collection website links to informative profiles for many endangered plants. Plant profile pages include the following concise sections: Distribution and Occurrence; Protection; Conservation, Ecology, and Research; and References. Site visitors can search for plants "by scientific name, common name, plant family, state range, or CPC participating institution." Plants can also be found through alphabetical listings by scientific name. This site links to other sections of the CPC website including Publications, Plant Links, Conservation Directory, and more.

264

Comparison of relative antioxidant activities of British medicinal plant species in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have determined the relative levels of endogenous antioxidant activity in a range of British medicinal plant species (representative of a variety of plant families, selected on the basis of their widespread use in traditional herbal medicine), via competitive scavenging of the ABTS+ or O2? radicals in vitro. A number of plant species with appreciable levels (i.e. greater than or

David Mantle; Fadel Eddeb; Anne T. Pickering

2000-01-01

265

Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies on 45 Indian medicinal plants against multi-drug resistant human pathogens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinal plants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed

Iqbal Ahmad; Arina Z. Beg

2001-01-01

266

A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents  

PubMed Central

Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinal plant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl–ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects.

Gadekar, R.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

2010-01-01

267

Medicinal plant diversity in the flora of Saudi Arabia 1: a report on seven plant families  

Microsoft Academic Search

A preliminary survey on the medicinal plant diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made with seven families: Amaranthaceae, Apocynaceae, Capparidaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Labiatae, Polygonaceae and Solanaceae, as an initial study. These families are represented in the flora with 254 species (i.e. 12% of the total species), and individually with 21, 7, 29, 66, 76, 22

M. Atiqur Rahman; Jaber S. Mossa; Mansour S. Al-Said; Mohammed A. Al-Yahya

2004-01-01

268

The use of medicinal plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are an important element of Ethiopian traditional medicine. This questionnaire survey examined the extent and type of medicinal plants used in self-care by rural Ethiopian community. Six hundred mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of the use of herbal drugs in self-care was found to be 12.5%. Twenty-five plant species belonging to 21 families were

Teferi Gedif; Heinz-Jürgen Hahn

2003-01-01

269

Modulation of programmed cell death by medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Programmed cell death (apoptosis), a form of cell death, described by Kerr and Wyllie some 20 years ago, has generated considerable interest in recent years. The mechanisms by which this mode of cell death (seen both in animal and plant cells), takes place have been examined in detail. Extracellular signals and intracellular events have been elaborated. Of interest to the clinician, is the concentrated effort to study pharmacological modulation of programmed cell death. The attempt to influence the natural phenomenon of programmed cell death stems from the fact that it is reduced (like in cancer) or increased (like in neurodegenerative diseases) in several clinical situations. Thus, chemicals that can modify programmed cell death are likely to be potentially useful drugs. From foxglove, which gave digitalis to the Pacific Yew from which came taxol, plants have been a source of research material for useful drugs. Recently, a variety of plant extracts have been investigated for their ability to influence the apoptotic process. This article discusses some of the interesting data. The ability of plants to influence programmed cell death in cancerous cells in an attempt to arrest their proliferation has been the topic of much research. Various cell-lines like HL60, human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (KIM-1), a cholangiocarcinoma cell-line (KMC-1), B-cell hybridomas, U937 a monocytic cell-line, HeLa cells, human lymphoid leukemia (MOLT-4B) cells and K562 cells have been studied. The agents found to induce programmed cell death (measured either morphologically or flow cytometrically) included extracts of plants like mistletoe and Semicarpus anacardium. Isolated compounds like bryonolic acid (from Trichosanthes kirilowii var. Japonica, crocin (from saffron) and allicin (from Allium sativum) have also been found to induce programmed cell death and therefore arrest proliferation. Even Chinese herbal medicine "Sho-saiko-to" induces programmed cell death in selected cancerous cell lines. Of considerable interest is the finding that Panax ginseng prevents irradiation-induced programmed cell death in hair follicles, suggesting important therapeutic implications. Nutraceuticals (dietary plants) like soya bean, garlic, ginger, green tea, etc. which have been suggested, in epidemiological studies, to reduce the incidence of cancer may do so by inducing programmed cell death. Soy bean extracts have been shown to prevent development of diseases like polycystic kidneys, while Artemisia asiatica attenuates cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Interestingly enough, a number of food items as well as herbal medicines have been reported to produce toxic effects by inducing programmed cell death. For example, programmed cell death in isolated rat hepatocytes has been implicated in the hepatitis induced by a herbal medicine containing diterpinoids from germander. Other studies suggest that rapid progression of the betel- and tobacco-related oral squamous cell carcinomas may be associated with a simultaneous involvement of p53 and c-myc leading to inhibition of programmed cell death. Several mechanisms have been identified to underlie the modulation of programmed cell death by plants including endonuclease activation, induction of p53, activation of caspase 3 protease via a Bcl-2-insensitive pathway, potentiate free-radical formation and accumulation of sphinganine. Programmed cell death is a highly conserved mechanism of self-defense, also found to occur in plants. Hence, it is natural to assume that chemicals must exist in them to regulate programmed cell death in them. Thus, plants are likely to prove to be important sources of agents that will modulate programmed cell death. PMID:10726985

Thatte, U; Bagadey, S; Dahanukar, S

2000-02-01

270

Virtualizing the p-ANAPL Library: A Step towards Drug Discovery from African Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Background Natural products play a key role in drug discovery programs, both serving as drugs and as templates for the synthesis of drugs, even though the quantities and availabilities of samples for screening are often limitted. Experimental approach A current collection of physical samples of > 500 compound derived from African medicinal plants aimed at screening for drug discovery has been made by donations from several researchers from across the continent to be directly available for drug discovery programs. A virtual library of 3D structures of compounds has been generated and Lipinski’s “Rule of Five” has been used to evaluate likely oral availability of the samples. Results A majority of the compound samples are made of flavonoids and about two thirds (2/3) are compliant to the “Rule of Five”. The pharmacological profiles of thirty six (36) selected compounds in the collection have been discussed. Conclusions and implications The p-ANAPL library is the largest physical collection of natural products derived from African medicinal plants directly available for screening purposes. The virtual library is also available and could be employed in virtual screening campaigns.

Fotso, Ghislain W.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Bezabih, Merhatibeb; Ndom, Jean Claude; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T.; Ogundaini, Abiodun O.; Abegaz, Berhanu M.; Meva'a, Luc Mbaze

2014-01-01

271

Diuretic effects of selected Thai indigenous medicinal plants in rats.  

PubMed

Extracts of five indigenous Thai medicinal having ethnomedical application in the treatment of dysuria were investigated for their diuretic activity. Root extracts of Ananas comosus and Carica papaya, given orally to rats at a dose of 10 mg/kg, demonstrated significantly increased urine output (P < 0.01) which was 79 and 74%, respectively, of the effect of an equivalent dose of hydrochlorothiazide. Both plant extracts gave similar profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion to that of the hydrochlorothiazide. The analyses of the urinary osmolality and electrolyte excretion per unit time suggest the observed effect of A. comosus was intrinsic, whereas that of C. papaya may have resulted from a high salt content of this extract. However, our experimental evidence on the diuretic activities of the other three plants did not parallel their local utilization for dysuria. It was found that the rhizome of Imperata cylindrica apparently inhibited the urination of rats whereas the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus and the stem of Averrhoa carambola failed to demonstrate any diuretic activities. These results indicate that two of the plants investigated exert their action by causing diuresis. The other three plants need further investigation to determine their effectiveness in the treatment of dysuria. PMID:11297849

Sripanidkulchai, B; Wongpanich, V; Laupattarakasem, P; Suwansaksri, J; Jirakulsomchok, D

2001-05-01

272

Boerhaavia diffusa: metabolite profiling of a medicinal plant from Nyctaginaceae.  

PubMed

Boerhaavia diffusa is a plant which is extensively used in folk medicine. However, when it comes to its phytochemical characterization, little attention has been given to secondary metabolites other than rotenoids and alkaloids. A metabolite profiling and biological study was undertaken in this species' leaves and roots and substantial differences were found between the two parts of the plant. The volatile composition was analysed for the first time using HS-SPME-GC-MS and several compounds, including terpenes, phenylpropanoids, indol compounds, norisoprenoids, among others, were identified. Organic acid analysis was also performed, allowing their characterization in this species for the first time, and oxalic, ketoglutaric, pyruvic, quinic and fumaric acids were identified. Quantitative differences between the two vegetal materials were found. Additionally, several flavonoids and one phenolic acid were also confirmed. Concerning the biological potential, the aqueous extract of each plant part was tested against DPPH radical, one reactive oxygen species (O(2)(-)) and one reactive nitrogen species (()NO). Moreover, activity against acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme with a well-known role in several physio-pathological processes, was assayed. When possible, the relation between the chemistry and activity displayed was established. Leaves revealed stronger antioxidant activity than roots, and acetylcholinesterase inhibition was not found in neither plant part. PMID:19500634

Pereira, David M; Faria, Joana; Gaspar, Luís; Valentão, Patrícia; de Pinho, Paula Guedes; Andrade, Paula B

2009-08-01

273

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.  

PubMed

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

2012-07-01

274

Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity  

PubMed Central

Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria.

Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

2012-01-01

275

The use of medicinal plants in self-care in rural central Ethiopia.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are an important element of Ethiopian traditional medicine. This questionnaire survey examined the extent and type of medicinal plants used in self-care by rural Ethiopian community. Six hundred mothers were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. The prevalence of the use of herbal drugs in self-care was found to be 12.5%. Twenty-five plant species belonging to 21 families were reported, each with local names, methods of preparation and parts used. This study showed that self-care using medicinal plants is a major part of health care options in Butajira community. PMID:12860301

Gedif, Teferi; Hahn, Heinz-Jürgen

2003-08-01

276

Could the products of Indian medicinal plants be the next alternative for the treatment of infections?  

PubMed

Indian medicinal plants are now recognized to have great potential for preparing clinically useful drugs that could even be used by allopathic physicians. Traditionally, practitioners of Indian medicine have used plant products in powder, syrup or lotion forms, without identification, quantification and dose regulation, unlike their allopathic counterparts. The present review explores the immense potential of the demonstrated effect of Indian medicinal plants on microbes, viruses and parasites. In the present context, with the available talent in the country like pharmaceutical chemists, microbiologists, biotechnologists and interested allopathic physicians, significant national effort towards identification of an "active principle" of Indian medicinal plants to treat human and animal infections should be a priority. PMID:21654101

Nandagopal, B; Sankar, S; Ramamurthy, M; Sathish, S; Sridharan, G

2011-01-01

277

A meta-analysis of medicinal plants to assess the evidence for toxicity  

PubMed Central

Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinal plants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinal plants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinal plants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.

Chen, Sarah; Vieira, Amandio

2010-01-01

278

Medicinal Plant Use and Health Sovereignty: Findings from the Tajik and Afghan Pamirs  

PubMed Central

Medicinal plants are indicators of indigenous knowledge in the context of political volatility and sociocultural and ecological change in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Medicinal plants are the primary health care option in this region of Central Asia. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that medicinal plants contribute to health security and sovereignty in a time of instability. We illustrate the nutritional as well as medicinal significance of plants in the daily lives of villagers. Based on over a decade and half of research related to resilience and livelihood security, we present plant uses in the context of mountain communities. Villagers identified over 58 cultivated and noncultivated plants and described 310 distinct uses within 63 categories of treatment and prevention. Presence of knowledge about medicinal plants is directly connected to their use.

Karamkhudoeva, Munira; Ruelle, Morgan; Baumflek, Michelle

2010-01-01

279

Indigenous plant medicines for health care: treatment of Diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants have played an important role in treating and preventing a variety of diseases throughout the world. Metabolic syndrome had become a global epidemic, defined as a cluster of three of five criteria: insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low high-density cholesterol, and hypertriglyceridemia. The current review focuses on Indian medicinal plant drugs and plants used in the treatment of diabetes and hyperlipidemia. Though there are various approaches to reduce the ill-effects of diabetes and hyperlipidemia and its secondary complications, plant-based drugs are preferred due to lesser side effects and low cost. The current review focuses on twenty-three medicinal plants used in the treatment of Diabetes mellitus and nine medicinal plants used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. The wealth of knowledge on medicinal plants points to a great potential for research and the discovery of new drugs to fight diseases, including diabetes and hyperlipidemia. PMID:24856756

Parikh, Nisha H; Parikh, Palak K; Kothari, Charmy

2014-05-01

280

Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.  

PubMed

This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

2000-06-12

281

Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

2014-01-01

282

Antioxidant Activity and Glucose Diffusion Relationship of Traditional Medicinal Antihyperglycemic Plant Extracts  

PubMed Central

Plants with hypoglycemic properties are important in the treatment of diabetes. One of the mechanisms in reducing blood glucose is preventing the digestive absorption of glucose. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant properties of some traditional medicinal plants collected from different regions of Iran and their effects on glucose diffusion decrease. The amounts of phenolic compounds, total flavonoids, total polysaccharides, antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation were determined respectively by folin ciocalteu, querceting, sulfuric acid, FRAP and thiobarbituric acid - reactive substanses (TBARS) in eleven confirmed traditional antihyperglycemic medicinal plants prepared at 50g/l concentrations using the boiling method. Phenolic compounds of Eucalyptus globules (100.8± 0.01 mg /g), total flavonoids content of Juglans regia (16.9± 0.01 mg /g) and total polysaccharide amount of Allium satirum (0.28± 0.05) were the highest. Significant relationship was observed between the polyphenols and flavonoids (p <0.05). The grape seed extract showed the highest antioxidant activity (133± 0.02 mg/g) together with decreased glucose diffusion as well as increased polyphenols (p <0.05), but the increase in antioxidant activity was not related to glucose diffusion. Antihyperglycemic plant extracts containing higher polyphenols showed more efficiently in vitro glucose diffusion decrease, but no significant relationship was observed between antioxidant activity increase and glucose diffusion.

Asgharpour, Fariba; Pouramir, Mahdi; Khalilpour, Asieh; Asgharpour Alamdar, Sobgol; Rezaei, Mehrasa

2013-01-01

283

Chronic toxicity, genotoxic assay, and phytochemical analysis of four traditional medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Four medicinal plants--Tecoma stans, Ligusticum porteri, Monarda austromontana, and Poliomintha longiflora, which are distributed in tropical and subtropical countries of the American continent--are widely used in folk medicine to treat diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery. In addition, T. stans and P. longiflora are extensively used as hypoglycemic agents, and M. austromontana and P. longiflora are used as condiments. The plants were collected, identified, dried, and pulverized. Solvent extraction was prepared by maceration of the plant samples, and the phytochemical composition of the extracts was determined by using standard analysis procedures. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of triterpenoids/steroids, flavonoids, and phenols/tannins and, in L. porteri, traces of alkaloids. After the elimination of solvents in vacuo, the extracts were administrated to Drosophila larvae to test their toxicity and genotoxicity. Third instar larvae were chronically fed with the phytoextracts. The extract from L. porteri was toxic, whereas those from T. stans, P. longiflora, and M. austromontana were not. Genotoxic activities of the 4 plants were investigated by using the wing-spot assay of D. melanogaster. Mitomycin C was used as a positive control. No statistically significant increase was observed between treated sample series and a concurrent negative (water) or solvent control sample series. PMID:21554118

Castañeda Sortibrán, América; Téllez, María Guadalupe Ordaz; Ocotero, Verónica Muñoz; Carballo-Ontiveros, Marco Antonio; García, Angélica Méndez; Valdés, Rocio Jimena Jiménez; Gutiérrez, Elizabeth Romero; Rodríguez-Arnaiz, Rosario

2011-09-01

284

Collecting plant genetic resources in Cuba  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary After a short introduction into recent collecting activities in Cuba information is provided concerning the joint expedition of the Instituto de Investigaciones Fundamentales en Agricultura Tropical and the Zentralinstitut für Genetik und Kulturpflanzenforschung in the province of Holguín, Eastern Cuba, in February 1986 within the agreement between the Academy of Sciences of Cuba and the Academy of Sciences of

Miguel Esquivel; Leonor Castiñeiras; Bartolomé Rodríguez; Karl Hammer

1987-01-01

285

Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil)  

PubMed Central

The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinal plant use. Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. The material collected represent 125 plants, distributed among 61 botanical families, with little participation of native plants. This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat blood-related problems, but cite a much more diverse group of plants to treat problems related to the respiratory and digestive systems – two important categories in studies undertaken in different parts of the world. The local medicinal flora is largely based on plants that are either cultivated or obtained from anthropogenic zones, possibly due to the use and access restrictions of the legally protected neighboring forest. Despite these restrictions, the species with the highest use-value by this community was Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macb., a native plant of the Atlantic Forest.

Gazzaneo, Luiz Rodrigo Saldanha; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

2005-01-01

286

Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.  

PubMed

The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

2011-09-01

287

Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Kurd tribe in Dehloran and Abdanan Districts, Ilam Province, Iran.  

PubMed

This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. The aim of this work is to catalogue, document, and make known the uses of plants for folk medicine in Dehloran and Abdanan districts, Ilam Province, Iran. An analysis was made of the species used, parts of the plant employed, preparation methods, administration means, and the ailments treated in relation to pathological groups. A folk botanical survey was carried out from February 2007 to October 2009. The information was collected from 81 persons (60% men and 40% women) in 20 villages. The informants reported data on 122 species, belonging to 49 botanical families, were claimed as medicinal. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 95% of the pharmaceutical uses. The most commonly represented families were Asteraceae (37.5%), Lamiaceae (20.8%), Rosaceae (18.7%), Fabaceae (16.7%) and Apiaceae (14.6%). Some of the uses were found to be new when compared with published literature on ethnomedicine of Iran. The folk knowledge about medicinal plant use is still alive in the studied region, and a number of scarcely reported plant uses has been detected, some of them with promising phytotherapeutical applications. The results of the study reveal that some of species play an important role in primary healthcare system of these tribal communities. PMID:24146463

Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A; Momeni, M; Bahmani, M

2013-01-01

288

Toxicity studies on dermal application of plant extract of Dodonaea viscosa used in Ethiopian traditional medicine.  

PubMed

Despite advances in the understanding of the medicinal properties of many herbs, the consumer today is confronted with the lack of or misinformation concerning the safety of these herbs that rivals the heyday of the patent medicine era. In the present study, Dodonaea viscosa (Sapindaceae), a medicinal plant commonly used for skin diseases in Ethiopia was subjected to a systematic dermatotoxicity study. To this effect, the dermatotoxicity of an 80% methanol extract of the leaf was investigated in animals following standard procedures for irritation, sensitization, acute toxicity and repeated toxicity tests. The skin irritation test in rabbits showed the extract to be a slight or negligibly slight irritant, with a primary irritation index of 0.45. A sensitization test in mice by the mouse ear swelling test method revealed the extract to be a non-sensitizer in the dose range 12-30 mg/mL. The percent responder was zero. The acute and repeated dermal toxicity tests on rats did not show any overt sign of toxicity. The findings of this study collectively indicate that dermal application of D. viscosa is not associated with any toxicologically relevant effects and the data could provide satisfactory preclinical evidence of safety to launch a clinical trial on a standardized formulation of the plant extracts. PMID:19441008

Teshome, Kefale; Gebre-Mariam, Tsige; Asres, Kaleab; Engidawork, Ephrem

2010-01-01

289

Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinal plants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values

Ajit Kar; B. K Choudhary; N. G Bandyopadhyay

2003-01-01

290

Metal uptake by medicinal plant species grown in soils contaminated by a smelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis tested in this study was if medicinal plants could be grown as alternative crops in heavy metal polluted soils without contamination of the final marketable produce. Furthermore, medicinal crops may offer a phytoremediation option for mildly heavy metal polluted agricultural soils. The effect of metal-enriched soils was evaluated in five medicinal species (Bidens tripartita L., Leonurus cardiaca L.,

Valcho D. Zheljazkov; Ekaterina A. Jeliazkova; Natasha Kovacheva; Anatoli Dzhurmanski

2008-01-01

291

Potent ?-amylase inhibitory activity of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Indian medicinal plants used in the Ayurvedic traditional system to treat diabetes are a valuable source of novel anti-diabetic agents. Pancreatic ?-amylase inhibitors offer an effective strategy to lower the levels of post-prandial hyperglycemia via control of starch breakdown. In this study, seventeen Indian medicinal plants with known hypoglycemic properties were subjected to sequential solvent extraction and tested for ?-amylase inhibition, in order to assess and evaluate their inhibitory potential on PPA (porcine pancreatic ?-amylase). Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the lead extracts was performed in order to determine the probable constituents. Methods Analysis of the 126 extracts, obtained from 17 plants (Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f., Adansonia digitata L., Allium sativum L., Casia fistula L., Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don., Cinnamomum verum Persl., Coccinia grandis (L.) Voigt., Linum usitatisumum L., Mangifera indica L., Morus alba L., Nerium oleander L., Ocimum tenuiflorum L., Piper nigrum L., Terminalia chebula Retz., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers., Trigonella foenum-graceum L., Zingiber officinale Rosc.) for PPA inhibition was initially performed qualitatively by starch-iodine colour assay. The lead extracts were further quantified with respect to PPA inhibition using the chromogenic DNSA (3, 5-dinitrosalicylic acid) method. Phytochemical constituents of the extracts exhibiting? 50% inhibition were analysed qualitatively as well as by GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry). Results Of the 126 extracts obtained from 17 plants, 17 extracts exhibited PPA inhibitory potential to varying degrees (10%-60.5%) while 4 extracts showed low inhibition (< 10%). However, strong porcine pancreatic amylase inhibitory activity (> 50%) was obtained with 3 isopropanol extracts. All these 3 extracts exhibited concentration dependent inhibition with IC50 values, viz., seeds of Linum usitatisumum (540 ?gml-1), leaves of Morus alba (1440 ?gml-1) and Ocimum tenuiflorum (8.9 ?gml-1). Acarbose as the standard inhibitor exhibited an IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration)value of 10.2 ?gml-1. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins and steroids with the major phytoconstituents being identified by GC-MS. Conclusions This study endorses the use of these plants for further studies to determine their potential for type 2 diabetes management. Results suggests that extracts of Linum usitatisumum, Morus alba and Ocimum tenuiflorum act effectively as PPA inhibitors leading to a reduction in starch hydrolysis and hence eventually to lowered glucose levels.

2011-01-01

292

An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia  

PubMed Central

Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District); it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3%) and 14 (12%) species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6%) are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90%) were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5%) for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5%) were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8%) followed by fire (22.3%) and construction (19%). Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34) were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community), which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process of threatening the resources and this signals the need for serious efforts to create public awareness so that measures are taken to conserve the medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments.

Bekalo, Tesfaye Hailemariam; Woodmatas, Sebsebe Demissew; Woldemariam, Zemede Asfaw

2009-01-01

293

The antinociceptive effect of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinal plants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5-61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis acris, Plantago major leaves and Mentha microphylla, in the large dose, showed a protection of 50.8-45.8%, which were significantly different as compared to control. The smaller dose of the tested plant extracts did not protect animals from painful acetic acid stimulation with the exception of Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents. PMID:15507342

Atta, A H; Abo EL-Sooud, K

2004-12-01

294

Indian medicinal plants as a reservoir of protective phytochemicals.  

PubMed

India is one of the 12 mega diversity countries in the world so it has a vital stake in conservation and sustainable utilization of its biodiversity resources. Plant secondary metabolites have been of interest to man for a long time due to their pharmacological relevance. With this in view, the bark powder of Acacia auriculiformis, A. nilotica, Juglans regia, and the fruit powder of Terminalia bellerica, T. chebula, Emblica officinalis, and a combination drug "Triphala," which are known to be rich in polyphenols, were tested for their antimutagenic activities. Antimutagenic activities of the extracts were estimated by employing the plate incorporation Ames Salmonella histidine reversion assay by using the frame shift mutagen tester strain TA98 and base pair substitution strain TA100 against direct acting mutagens (NPD, sodium azide), and the S9-dependent mutagen 2-aminofluorene(2AF). Acetone extracts of all the plants exhibited significant antimutagenic activities among the other extracts tested, but an acetone extract of Acacia nilotica showed a marked anti-mutagent effect. Furthermore, it was more effective against indirect acting mutagen, 2AF, in both TA98 and TA100 tester strains of Salmonella typhimurium than against the direct acting mutagens. The results indicate that an acetone extract of bark and fruit of the medicinal plants under study harbors constituents with promising antimutagenic/anticarcinogenic potential that could be investigated further. PMID:12616620

Arora, Saroj; Kaur, Kamaljit; Kaur, Swayamjot

2003-01-01

295

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro

2011-12-01

296

Antibacterial activity of some selected medicinal plants of Pakistan  

PubMed Central

Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.

2011-01-01

297

Antifungal activities and chemical composition of some medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated in recent years. Ethnopharmacologists, botanists, microbiologists and natural-products scientists are combing the earth for phytochemicals and leads, which could be developed for treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antifungal activities of the essential oils of some medicinal plants such as Stachys pubescens, Thymus kotschyanus, Thymus daenensis and Bupleurum falcatum against Fusarium oxysporum, Aspergillus flavus and Alternaria alternata. The essential oils were used to evaluate their MICs and MFCs compared to the amphotricin B as a standard drug. The essential oils were also analyzed by GC/MS. Essential oils isolated from the S. pubescens, T. kotschyanus and B. falcatum showed strong antifungal activities. The essential oil of T. daenensis exhibited a moderate activity against the selected fungi in comparison with the other plants' essential oils. In addition, the results showed that 26, 23, 22 and 15 components were identified from the essential oils of T. kotschyanus, S. pubescens, T. daenensis and B. falcatum, respectively. These oils exhibited a noticeable antifungal activity against the selected fungi. Regarding obtained results and that natural antimicrobial substances are inexpensive and have fewer side effects, they convey potential for implementation in fungal pathogenic systems. PMID:24768063

Mohammadi, A; Nazari, H; Imani, S; Amrollahi, H

2014-06-01

298

Platelet aggregation inhibitors in a Bhutanese medicinal plant, shug chher.  

PubMed

The 90% methanol-soluble fraction of a Bhutanese medicinal plant, Shug Chher, exhibited inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by platelet activating factor. Bioassay-directed fractionation led to the isolation of four new labdane diterpenoids, 3 alpha, 15-dihydroxy-labda-8(17), 13E-diene (5), 3 alpha-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 13E-dien-15-oic acid (6), 3 alpha-hydroxy-labda-8(17), 12E, 14-trien-19-oic acid (7), and 3 alpha-acetoxyisocupressic acid (8) and four known diterpenoids, manool (1), 3 alpha-hydroxymanool (2), 3 alpha-hydroxy-12, 13E-biformene (3), and isocupressic acid (4). The structures of the new compounds were determined spectroscopically. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 inhibited platelet aggregation. PMID:8221975

Kagawa, K; Tokura, K; Uchida, K; Kakushi, H; Shike, T; Kikuchi, J; Nakai, H; Dorji, P; Subedi, L

1993-09-01

299

Anti-HIV-1 efficacy of extracts from medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study. PMID:20437159

Lee, Su-A; Hong, Seong-Karp; Suh, Chang-Il; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young

2010-04-01

300

[Instrumental analysis of medicinal plants and their drug products].  

PubMed

The experiences obtained during the development of gas chromatographic and other (GC, TLC and infrared spectrophotometric) methods for the 7th edition of the Hungarian Pharmacopoeia for essential oils and drugs containing essential oils are summarized with emphasis on the selection of suitable internal standard for the gas chromatographic assays. The qualitative and quantitative estimation of bitter compounds and polyphenoles e.g. flavonoids and procyanidines by means of ultraviolet and infrared spectrophotometry and HPLC is also described. Some HPLC methods for the determination of anthocyan and carotinoid derivatives are also presented. These are not yet included in the pharmacopoeia but are successfully used for the analytical investigation of commercially available medicinal plants and drug products made thereof. PMID:7942042

Petri, G; Lemberkovics, E

1994-05-01

301

Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 ?g/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

2009-05-01

302

Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.  

PubMed

Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

2006-09-01

303

From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

Weso, Thomas F.

2004-01-01

304

Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.  

PubMed

In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251

Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

2009-10-01

305

Stokes Collection of Florida Plant Railway Photographs  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professional photographer C.H. Stokes wandered his way around the old route of the Orange Belt Railway in the 1890s and took a diverse set of photos of all that he saw. He had a wonderful eye and, interestingly enough, these photographs were used to promote tourism and development. This collection contains over 90 photos of everything from alligators lazing about in the Anclote River to boaters on Lake Apopka. Visitors can peruse the photos by topic, geographic area, date, and other metrics. It's a wonderful look into the Sunshine State's history, particularly the development of its railroad system in the late 19th century.

306

A phytopharmacological review on an important medicinal plant - Amorphophallus paeoniifolius  

PubMed Central

Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review.

Dey, Yadu Nandan; Ota, Sarada; Srikanth, N.; Jamal, Mahvish; Wanjari, Manish

2012-01-01

307

Channel Islands National Park vascular plant voucher collections: NPSpecies database  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Collections information for 3898 vascular plant specimens from searches at Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, San Diego Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History.

Chess, Katherine; McEachern, Kathryn

2001-01-01

308

Preliminary evaluation of the hypoglycemic effect of some Brazilian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

The hypoglycemic effect of five Brazilian medicinal plants (Epidendrum monsenii, Marrubium vulgare, Rheedia gardneriana, Rubus imperialis and Wedelia paludosa) was studied on alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The extract of these plants was intragastrically administered to diabetic rats. The results showed that all plants studied (except R. gardneriana) significantly lowered the blood glucose. These results suggest that these four medicinal plants could be an adjuvant agent in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:11677867

Novaes, A P; Rossi, C; Poffo, C; Pretti Júnior, E; Oliveira, A E; Schlemper, V; Niero, R; Cechinel-Filho, V; Bürger, C

2001-01-01

309

Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo Le?n, M?xico  

PubMed Central

Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared) (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality), Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest); the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities), and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses). Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for medicinal purposes were found to be leaves (123 species), stems (55), fruits (28), roots (17), and bark (14). No differences were noted in the number of medicinal plant species identified among people, but differences were significant in their knowledge with respect to the number of uses among people of the three municipalities studied; people from both, scrublands and oak-pine forest know similar number of species and number of uses. Men and women of the three different municipalities knew statistically the same number of species and number of uses. There was no correlation between resident’s age and number of species known and resident’s age and number of uses either in Galeana or in Aramberri, but, there was high correlation among these variables in Zaragoza. Conclusion In southern Nuevo León people use at least 5% of the total State flora as medicinal plants, and most of these species are included in few plant families. Most of medicinal species are wild and indigenous to the region. The two most important major plant communities, scrublands and oak-pine forest provide almost the same number of medicinal species. A third of the medicinal flora recorded are used in all three municipalities, most of them are wild. Leaves, stems and fruits are the plant parts most commonly used for healing, and boiling is the most common method used for this purpose. Men and women from the three municipalities are familiar with nearly the same number of species; however, their knowledge of the number of uses varies significantly. In Galeana and Aramberri there was no correlation between a person’s age and number of species recognized, however, in Zaragoza, there existed a high correlation between these two factors.

2012-01-01

310

Ethnoveterinary medicines in four districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia: cross sectional survey for plant species and mode of use  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicines have been used for nearly 90% of livestock populations in Ethiopia where complimentary remedies are required to the modern health care system. All plants with pharmacological activity complimentarily prescribed as best choice against livestock diseases. A community based cross - sectional survey was conducted to investigate ethno-veterinary knowledge and practices of study area by purposive sampling techniques. The data from respondents were collected through face-to face interview using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, which was further accompanied by field observations of the medicinal plants. The vast majority of the statistics were analyzed descriptively by SPSS 16 Windows version to extrapolate our findings in ethno-botanical knowledge. Results In the study, a total of 74 species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species from 31 families have been identified for treating 22 different livestock ailments. The three families: Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae make up larger proportion of reported medicinal plants which accounted for 10.41%, 8.33% and 6.25%, respectively. Of reported medicinal plants, 16.7% informant consensus was recorded for the species Croton macrostachyus Del., 10.7% for Nicotiana tabacum L. and 9.5% for Olea capensis L.Subsp. macrocarpa (C.H. Wright) I.Verd. in treatment of one or more veterinary ailments. The greater varieties of medicinal plant species that accounted for 28.2% were used against management of blackleg which was common livestock diseases in the study area. The findings showed, trees accounted for 43.24%, followed by shrubs (33.78%) and herbs (14.86%). Eighty one percent of medicinal plants reported by respondents were collected from wild habitats, and leaves reported to be used by 68% of the informants for ethnoveterinary medicines preparations. The preparations were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for (76.2%), followed by application of topical (9.53%) and nasal (5.19%). Conclusions Ethnoveterinary practices significantly suggested to play greater roles in livestock health care as an alternative or integral part of modern veterinary practices. The traditional knowledge in treatment of livestock diseases of the study districts needs further scientific evaluations by phytochemical and antimicrobial experimentation to determine safety, efficacy, mode of delivery, drug development and dosage in pharmacological laboratory.

2014-01-01

311

Role of Medicinal Plants in the Rural Development Programs of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

India is clearly known to be the richest source of medicinal plants. One of the estimates indicates that the Andhra Pradesh State in India alone is a habitat for more than 1000 varieties of plants that are used in ayurvedic, unani, sydhi, homeopathic, J.J. Dechane, or tribal medicine. In a \\

Sriram Vemuri

312

Pressurized liquid extraction of berberine and aristolochic acids in medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Berberine and aristolochic acids I and II present naturally in medicinal plants were extracted using a laboratory-made pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) system in the dynamic mode. As the target analytes were present naturally in the medicinal plants, spiking was not done and comparison with ultrasonic extraction and Soxhlet extraction was performed to assess the method accuracy. The effect of temperature,

Eng-Shi Ong; Soo-On Woo; Yuk-Lin Yong

2000-01-01

313

Medicinal wild plant knowledge and gathering patterns in a Mapuche community from North-western Patagonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinal plants and

Diego Estomba; Ana Ladio; Mariana Lozada

2006-01-01

314

Phytophagous mites – a potential threat to medicinal plants in Kerala, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the results of a brief survey of mites infesting medicinal plants in the Kannur district of Kerala state in south India. Six species, damaging five species of important medicinal plants, were found. These species included Tetranychus urticae Koch (Tetranychidae), Brevipalpus phoenicis Geij. 1939 (Tenuipalpidae) and four Eriophyid species, Paratetra murrayae ChannaBasavanna 1966, Anthocoptes vitexae Mohanasundaram 1981, Aceriasp.

Kinathi Sheela; Niravath Ramani

2012-01-01

315

Antioxidant activity of some algerian medicinal plants extracts containing phenolic compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytochemicals are extensively found at different levels in many medicinal plants. This work had two objectives: the first, to evaluate the total phenolic or flavonoid contents of 11 Algerian medicinal plants and second, to determine whether these compounds have an antioxidant capacity toward free radical propagation. The polyphenolic extractions of the dried powdered samples have been performed using 70% ethanol.

A. Djeridane; M. Yousfi; B. Nadjemi; D. Boutassouna; P. Stocker; N. Vidal

2006-01-01

316

The European role on traditional herbal medicinal products and traditional plant food supplements.  

PubMed

Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims. PMID:22955367

Serafini, Mauro; Stanzione, Alessandra; Foddai, Sebastiano; Anton, Robert; Delmulle, Luc

2012-10-01

317

Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments

Haile Yineger; Delenasaw Yewhalaw

2007-01-01

318

Molecular identification of oriental medicinal plant Schizonepeta tenuifolia bunge (Hyung-Gae) by multiplex PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Schizonepeta tenuifolia (Korean name “Hyung-Gae”) is an oriental medicinal plant that is widely used in Korea, China and Japan. S. tenuifolia (Hyung-Gae) has many pharmacological activities and is mostly used for many medicinal preparations. The dried aerial part\\u000a (spikes and stems) of three oriental medicinal plants, S. tenuifolia (Hyung-Gae), Agastache rugosa (Kwhak-Hyang) and Elsholtzia ciliata (Hyang-Yoo) belonging to the same

Baigalmaa Jigden; Hongtao Wang; Yeon-Ju Kim; Narantuya Samdan; Jun-Gyo In; Deok Chun Yang

2010-01-01

319

Use of medicinal plants for human health in Udzungwa Mountains Forests: a case study of New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania  

PubMed Central

The dependence of local people on plant medicine from natural forests has a long tradition in Tanzania and is becoming increasingly popular among rural and urban communities due to among others increase in living costs. The study on utilization of medicinal plants for meeting heath care needs was carried out between March 2001 and March 2002 in New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania. The study aimed at generating necessary data for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project to draft sound Joint Forest Management plans. Specific objectives of the study among others were to assess knowledge associated with utilization of medicinal plants for health care needs as well as factors associated in using plant medicines in the study area. A questionnaire survey, market survey and literature review were used to collect information. Tools used for data analysis were Statistical Packages for Social Science and content analysis. A total of 45 plant species were documented curing about 22 human diseases. Medicinal plants were readily available throughout the year and plentiful in the forest reserve. Roots and leaves were the plant parts harvested for medicinal purposes. Processing of plant medicines involved boiling, pounding, soaking in water and chewing. Distance to health facility, income level of the household and beliefs contributed to the use of plant medicines. The study concluded that medicinal plants play an important role in providing primary health care to the rural communities. It is recommended that in achieving joint forest management (JFM), villagers adjacent to the forest reserve should be sensitised on the importance of JFM through seminars, workshops, drama, school songs or video show. During the development of a joint draft management plan, villagers as an informal institution must define their priority needs of use of parts of the forest in collaboration with the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project.

Kitula, Rukia A

2007-01-01

320

In vitro propagation and withaferin A production in Withania ashwagandha, a rare medicinal plant of India.  

PubMed

Withania ashwagandha, belonging to the family Solanaceae, is an important medicinal herb of India with restricted geographic distribution. It is a rich source of withaferin A (WA) and other bioactive withanolides. In the present study a rapid in vitro mass propagation protocol of W. ashwagandha was developed from nodal explants. Nodal explants were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators (PGRs). The highest number of regenerated shoots per ex-plant (33?±?2.7) and highest WA (13.4?±?1.15 mg/g of DW) production was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 5.0 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.0 ?M Kinetin (Kn). In vitro raised shoots were further rooted on half-strength MS medium containing 2.0 ?M Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and analyzed for WA production. The rooted plantlets when transferred to poly bags in the greenhouse showed 90 % survival frequency. Levels of WA were higher in the in vitro and ex vitro derived shoot and root tissues as compared to field grown mother plants. In an attempt to further maximize WA production, shoot cultures were further grown in liquid MS medium supplemented with 5.0 ?M 6-benzyladenine (BA) and 1.0 ?M Kinetin (Kn). Root cultures were grown on half strength MS liquid medium fortified with 2.0 ?M of IBA. WA production in the liquid cultures was significantly higher compared to the static composition of the same media. This protocol, first of its kind in this plant, can be successfully employed for conservation, proliferation and large-scale production of WA. The regenerated plants can also be used in traditional medicine as an alternative to naturally collected plants. PMID:25049463

Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Koul, Sushma

2014-07-01

321

Induction of hairy roots and plant regeneration from the medicinal plant Pogostemon Cablin  

Microsoft Academic Search

An efficient transformation system for the medicinal and aromatic plant, Pogostemon cablin Benth was developed by using agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. Hairy roots formed directly from the cut edges of leaf explants or via callus stage 8 days after inoculation with\\u000a the bacterium. The highest frequency of leaf explant transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 was about 80% after infection for 25 days.

Shi He-PingLong; Long Yong-Yue; Sun Tie-Shan; Tsang Po Keung Eric

322

[Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].  

PubMed

The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583

Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

2007-01-01

323

Acetylcholinesterase inhibition by somes promising Brazilian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

A microplate assay and a thin-layer chromatography (TLC) "in situ" assay based on the Ellman assay was used to screen for acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Brazilian medicinal plants of families that, according to the literature, have traditional uses that might be connected with acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Eighteen species belonging to Convolvulaceae, Crassulaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Leguminosae, Malvaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Rutaceae families were tested. The most active plants were Ipomoea asarifolia (IC50 = 0.12 mg/mL), Jatropha curcas (IC50 = 0.25 mg/mL), Jatropha gossypiifolia (IC50 = 0.05 mg/mL), Kalanchoe brasiliensis (IC50 = 0.16 mg/mL) and Senna alata (IC50 = 0.08 mg/mL). The most promising extracts were the Jatropha gossypiifolia and Senna alata species assuming there were compounds with a similar activity to galanthamine, which should contain about 1% of an active compound, or if present at lower levels even more active compounds than galanthamine (IC50 = 0.37 x 10-3 mg/mL) should be present. PMID:21881804

Feitosa, C M; Freitas, R M; Luz, N N N; Bezerra, M Z B; Trevisan, M T S

2011-08-01

324

The molluscicidal activity of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine.  

PubMed

In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Goiás state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846

Dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E

2000-01-01

325

Plant Collections Online: Using Digital Herbaria in Biology Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Herbaria are collections of preserved plants specimens, some of which date back to the 16th century. They are essential to botanical research, especially in systematics. They can also be important historical documents. The collections of Lewis and Clark, Carolus Linnaeus, and Charles Darwin, to name a few, are primary sources for the study of…

Flannery, Maura C.

2013-01-01

326

Fungal communities in herbaceous medicinal plants from the malnad region, southern India.  

PubMed

Fungal communities were isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of nine ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal herbs collected from the Bhadra River Project Area, the Malnad region, Southern India. A total of 2159 isolates belonging to 55 different fungal species were isolated from 3600 leaf segments collected during the wet and dry seasons. Chaetomium globosum (7.3%), Aureobasidium pullulans (6.1%), Cladosporium cladosporioides (3.9%), Curvularia lunata (1.9%), Nigrospora oryzae (1.7%), Alternaria alternata (1.3%), Botryosphaeria subglobosa (1.1%), Phoma multirostrata (0.9%), Aspergillus niger (0.8%), Fusarium oxysporum (0.7%), Rhizoctonia solani (0.4%), and Sphaeropsis sapenea (0.3%) were the most frequently isolated fungal species. Colonization rates of fungal species varied significantly between the two seasons. Host specificity was observed in some host plants. PMID:21558683

Krishnamurthy, Yelugere L; Naik, Shankar B; Jayaram, Shashikala

2008-01-01

327

Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru.  

PubMed

Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinal plants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinal plants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinal plants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda) and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque), as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinal plants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1) common exotic medicinal plants; (2) plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"); (3) specialized medicinal plants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4) highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere. PMID:18070350

Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas; Vandebroek, Ina; Jones, Ana; Revene, Zachary

2007-01-01

328

Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru  

PubMed Central

Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinal plants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinal plants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinal plants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda) and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque), as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinal plants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1) common exotic medicinal plants; (2) plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"); (3) specialized medicinal plants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4) highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere.

Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas; Vandebroek, Ina; Jones, Ana; Revene, Zachary

2007-01-01

329

Uses of medicinal plants by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camag?ey, Cuba  

PubMed Central

Background Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. Methods Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the literature. Results Informants reported using 123 plant species belonging to 112 genera in 63 families. Haitian immigrants and their descendants mainly decoct or infuse aerial parts and ingest them, but medicinal baths are also relevant. Some 22 herbal mixtures are reported, including formulas for a preparation obtained using the fruit of Crescentia cujete. Cultural aspects related to traditional plant posology are addressed, as well as changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. Conclusion The rapid disappearance of Haitian migrants' traditional culture due to integration and urbanization suggests that unrecorded ethnomedicinal information may be lost forever. Given this, as well as the poor availability of ethnobotanical data relating to traditional Haitian medicine, there is an urgent need to record this knowledge.

Volpato, Gabriele; Godinez, Daimy; Beyra, Angela; Barreto, Adelaida

2009-01-01

330

A collection of homework problems about the application of electricity and magnetism to medicine and biology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article contains a collection of homework problems to help students learn how concepts from electricity and magnetism can be applied to topics in medicine and biology. The problems are at a level typical of an undergraduate electricity and magnetism class, covering topics such as nerve electrophysiology, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging. The goal of these problems is to train biology and medical students to use quantitative methods, and also to introduce physics and engineering students to biological phenomena.

Roth, Bradley J.; Hobbie, Russell K.

2014-05-01

331

Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties  

PubMed Central

Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 ?g/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 ?g/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 ?g/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress.

Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

2012-01-01

332

Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives  

PubMed Central

Background Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities in Zimbabwe. The local people have a long history of traditional plant usage for medicinal purposes. Despite the increasing acceptance of traditional medicine in Zimbabwe, this rich indigenous knowledge is not adequately documented. Documentation of plants used as traditional medicines is needed so that the knowledge can be preserved and the utilized plants conserved and used sustainably. The primary objective of this paper is to summarize information on traditional uses of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe, identifying research gaps and suggesting perspectives for future research. Methods This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials. Results A total of 93 medicinal plant species representing 41 families and 77 genera are used in south-central Zimbabwe. These plant species are used to treat 18 diseases and disorder categories, with the highest number of species used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by sexually transmitted infections, cold, cough and sore throat and gynaecological problems. Shrubs and trees (38% each) were the primary sources of medicinal plants, followed by herbs (21%) and climbers (3%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants documented in south-central Zimbabwe are well supported by literature, with 82.8% of the plant species having similar applications in other regions of Zimbabwe as well as other parts of the world and 89.2% having documented biological and pharmacological properties. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments in south-central Zimbabwe. Traditional medicines still play an important role in meeting basic health care of local communities in Zimbabwe.

2013-01-01

333

[Antônio Moniz de Souza, the 'Man of Brazilian Nature': science and medicinal plants in the early 19th century].  

PubMed

Early nineteenth century Brazil saw a vibrant movement to study nature, including a number of expeditions aimed at gathering a corpus of knowledge on Brazilian flora. One of the main goals of these expeditions was to map and identify plant species of economic and therapeutic value. The government undertook and sponsored various initiatives, and it was within this context that the Bahian voyager Antônio Moniz de Souza engaged in his activities. He traveled through areas of the Brazilian territory in the first decades of the nineteenth century, observing, cataloging, and collecting products from the three kingdoms, especially plants with medicinal powers. This study of Moniz de Souza pinpoints and analyzes important features in the exploration of nature and knowledge and the use of medicinal plants during this timeframe. PMID:19824323

dos Santos, Laura Carvalho

2008-01-01

334

The use of medicinal plants by the Yanomami Indians of Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of the first detailed study of the use of medicinal plants by a group of Yanomami Indians are presented. Contrary\\u000a to previous assumptions, they are shown to possess a substantial pharmacopoeia, including at least 113 species of plants and\\u000a fungi. The changes in their use and knowledge of plant medicine are discussed in the context of the past

William Milliken; Bruce Albert

1996-01-01

335

Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District  

PubMed Central

Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33) plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies) while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies). Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species) followed by roots (13 species) while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further enhances the validity of plants used in traditional medicine in this region as resources that can be relied on to provide effective, accessible and affordable basic healthcare to the local communities. The plants documented also have the potential of being used in drug development and on farm domestication initiatives.

2010-01-01

336

Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents.

Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

2009-01-01

337

Antidiarrhoeal activity of some Egyptian medicinal plant extracts.  

PubMed

The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinal plant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016

Atta, Attia H; Mouneir, Samar M

2004-06-01

338

Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

2006-09-19

339

Antitrypanosomal screening and cytotoxic effects of selected medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 ?g/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 ?g/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:24862048

Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S; Rasedee, A; Mohd-Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

2014-03-01

340

Investigations on antimycobacterial activity of some Ethiopian medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Fifteen crude extracts prepared from seven Ethiopian medicinal plants used to treat various infectious diseases were assessed for their ability to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. A preliminary screening of the crude extracts against M. tuberculosis typus humanus (ATCC 27294) was done by dilution assay using Löwenstein-Jensen medium. None of the tested extracts except the acetone fraction obtained from the stem bark of Combretum molle (R. Br. ex G. Don.) Engl & Diels (Combretaceae) showed significant inhibitory action against this strain. The acetone fraction of the stem bark of C. molle caused complete inhibition at concentrations higher than 1 mg/mL. Phytochemical analysis of the bioactive fraction led to the isolation of a major tannin and two oleanane-type pentacyclic triterpene glycosides. The tannin was identified as the ellagitannin, punicalagin, whilst the saponins were characterized as arjunglucoside (also called 4-epi-sericoside) and sericoside. All the pure compounds were further tested against the ATCC strain. Punicalagin was found to inhibit totally growth of the ATCC and also of a patient strain, which was fully sensitive to the standard antituberculosis drugs, at concentrations higher than 600 microg/mL and 1.2 mg/mL, respectively. On the other hand, the saponins failed to show any action on the ATCC strain. It appears that our findings are the first report of tannins exhibiting antimycobacterial activity. PMID:11406856

Asres, K; Bucar, F; Edelsbrunner, S; Kartnig, T; Höger, G; Thiel, W

2001-06-01

341

Biological screening of araripe basin medicinal plants using Artemia salina Leach and pathogenic bacteria  

PubMed Central

Background: Many medicinal plant species from the Araripe Basin are widely known and used in folk medicine and for commercial manufacturing of phytotherapeutic products. Few ethnobotanical and pharmacological studies have been undertaken in this region, however, in spite of the great cultural and biological diversity found there. Materials and Methods: Extracts of 11 plant species collected from Ceará state, Brazil, were subjected to the brine shrimp lethality test in order to detect potential sources of novel cytotoxic, antitumor compounds. The larvicidal activity, based on the percentage of larval mortality, was evaluated after 24 h exposure to the treatments. Results: All species tested showed good larvicidal activity as compared to a reference compound and literature data. The extract from Vanillosmopsis arborea was the most active with an LC50 of 3.9 ?g/ml. Best results were shown by Lantana montevidensis against Pseudomonas aeruginosa [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 8?g/ml] and Escherichia coli (MIC 32 ?g/ml), Zanthoxylum rhoifolium against E. coli (MIC, 256 ?g/ml) and Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 64 ?g/ml) and Croton zenhtneri against S. aureus (MIC 64 ?g/ml). Conclusion: Chemical tests indicated that a wide variety of natural product classes was present in those extracts that showed significant activities in the bioassays.

da Costa, Jose Galberto M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Brito, Samara A.; Pereira, Carla Karine B.; Souza, Erlanio O.; Rodrigues, Fabiola Fernandes G.

2010-01-01

342

Factors influencing rapid clonal propagation of Chlorophytum arundinaceum (Liliales: Liliaceae), an endangered medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Chlorophytum arundinaceum is an important medicinal plant and its tuberous roots are used for various health ailment treatments. It has become an endangered species in the Eastern Ghats, and a rare medicinal herb in India, due to its excessive collection from its natural habitat and its destructive harvesting techniques, coupled with poor seed germination and low vegetative multiplication ratio. In order to contribute to its production systems, an efficient protocol was developed for in vitro clonal propagation through shoot bud culture. For this, multiple shoots were induced from shoot bud explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 2.5-3.0 mg/L BAP, 0.01-0.1 mg/LNAA and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Inclusion of Adenine Sulphate (25mg/L) in the culture medium improved the frequency of multiple shoot production and recovered the chlorotic symptoms of the leaves. Media having pH 5.9 and 4% sucrose showed significant improvement on shoot bud multiplication and growth. In vitro flowering was observed when the subcultures were carried out for over four months in the same multiplication media. Rooting was readily achieved upon transferring the shoots on to half- strength MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L IBA and 2% (w/v) sucrose. Micropropagated plantlets were hardened in the green house, successfully established, and flowered in the field. This method could effectively be applied for the conservation and clonal propagation to meet the demand of planting materials. PMID:21513203

Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Maiti, Satyabrata

2011-03-01

343

AfroDb: A Select Highly Potent and Diverse Natural Product Library from African Medicinal Plants  

PubMed Central

Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We assess the bioactivity and “drug-likeness” of a relatively small but structurally diverse dataset (containing >1,000 compounds) from African medicinal plants, which have been tested and proven a wide range of biological activities. The geographical regions of collection of the medicinal plants cover the entire continent of Africa, based on data from literature sources and information from traditional healers. For each isolated compound, the three dimensional (3D) structure has been used to calculate physico-chemical properties used in the prediction of oral bioavailability on the basis of Lipinski’s “Rule of Five”. A comparative analysis has been carried out with the “drug-like”, “lead-like”, and “fragment-like” subsets, as well as with the Dictionary of Natural Products. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Furthermore, descriptors related to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) have been used to predict the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds within the dataset. Our results prove that drug discovery, beginning with natural products from the African flora, could be highly promising. The 3D structures are available and could be useful for virtual screening and natural product lead generation programs.

Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Zofou, Denis; Babiaka, Smith B.; Meudom, Rolande; Scharfe, Michael; Lifongo, Lydia L.; Mbah, James A.; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Sippl, Wolfgang; Efange, Simon M. N.

2013-01-01

344

Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinal plants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values less than 4 µg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 30 µg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC50 values more than 30 µg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides.

Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Al-shamahy, Hassan A.; Alsllami, Salah F.; Lindequist, Ulrike

2009-01-01

345

AfroDb: a select highly potent and diverse natural product library from African medicinal plants.  

PubMed

Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We assess the bioactivity and "drug-likeness" of a relatively small but structurally diverse dataset (containing >1,000 compounds) from African medicinal plants, which have been tested and proven a wide range of biological activities. The geographical regions of collection of the medicinal plants cover the entire continent of Africa, based on data from literature sources and information from traditional healers. For each isolated compound, the three dimensional (3D) structure has been used to calculate physico-chemical properties used in the prediction of oral bioavailability on the basis of Lipinski's "Rule of Five". A comparative analysis has been carried out with the "drug-like", "lead-like", and "fragment-like" subsets, as well as with the Dictionary of Natural Products. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Furthermore, descriptors related to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) have been used to predict the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds within the dataset. Our results prove that drug discovery, beginning with natural products from the African flora, could be highly promising. The 3D structures are available and could be useful for virtual screening and natural product lead generation programs. PMID:24205103

Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Zofou, Denis; Babiaka, Smith B; Meudom, Rolande; Scharfe, Michael; Lifongo, Lydia L; Mbah, James A; Mbaze, Luc Meva'a; Sippl, Wolfgang; Efange, Simon M N

2013-01-01

346

The plant glycosyltransferase clone collection for functional genomics.  

PubMed

The glycosyltransferases (GTs) are an important and functionally diverse family of enzymes involved in glycan and glycoside biosynthesis. Plants have evolved large families of GTs which undertake the array of glycosylation reactions that occur during plant development and growth. Based on the Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZy) database, the genome of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana codes for over 450 GTs, while the rice genome (Oryza sativa) contains over 600 members. Collectively, GTs from these reference plants can be classified into over 40 distinct GT families. Although these enzymes are involved in many important plant specific processes such as cell-wall and secondary metabolite biosynthesis, few have been functionally characterized. We have sought to develop a plant GTs clone resource that will enable functional genomic approaches to be undertaken by the plant research community. In total, 403 (88%) of CAZy defined Arabidopsis GTs have been cloned, while 96 (15%) of the GTs coded by rice have been cloned. The collection resulted in the update of a number of Arabidopsis GT gene models. The clones represent full-length coding sequences without termination codons and are Gateway(®) compatible. To demonstrate the utility of this JBEI GT Collection, a set of efficient particle bombardment plasmids (pBullet) was also constructed with markers for the endomembrane. The utility of the pBullet collection was demonstrated by localizing all members of the Arabidopsis GT14 family to the Golgi apparatus or the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Updates to these resources are available at the JBEI GT Collection website http://www.addgene.org/. PMID:24905498

Lao, Jeemeng; Oikawa, Ai; Bromley, Jennifer R; McInerney, Peter; Suttangkakul, Anongpat; Smith-Moritz, Andreia M; Plahar, Hector; Chiu, Tsan-Yu; González Fernández-Niño, Susana M; Ebert, Berit; Yang, Fan; Christiansen, Katy M; Hansen, Sara F; Stonebloom, Solomon; Adams, Paul D; Ronald, Pamela C; Hillson, Nathan J; Hadi, Masood Z; Vega-Sánchez, Miguel E; Loqué, Dominique; Scheller, Henrik V; Heazlewood, Joshua L

2014-08-01

347

Exploring the potential of endophytes from medicinal plants as sources of antimycobacterial compounds.  

PubMed

Natural product drug discovery has regained interest due to low production costs, structural diversity, and multiple uses of active compounds to treat various diseases. Attention has been directed towards medicinal plants as these plants have been traditionally used for generations to treat symptoms of numerous diseases. It is established that plants harbour microorganisms, collectively known as endophytes. Exploring the as-yet untapped natural products from the endophytes increases the chances of finding novel compounds. The concept of natural products targeting microbial pathogens has been applied to isolate novel antimycobacterial compounds, and the rapid development of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis has significantly increased the need for new treatments against this pathogen. It remains important to continuously screen for novel compounds from natural sources, particularly from rarely encountered microorganisms, such as the endophytes. This review focuses on bioprospecting for polyketides and small peptides exhibiting antituberculosis activity, although current treatments against tuberculosis are described. It is established that natural products from these structure classes are often biosynthesised by microorganisms. Therefore it is hypothesised that some bioactive polyketides and peptides originally isolated from plants are in fact produced by their endophytes. This is of interest for further endophyte natural product investigations. PMID:24582778

Alvin, Alfonsus; Miller, Kristin I; Neilan, Brett A

2014-01-01

348

Towards the scientific validation of traditional medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large proportion of the population of developing countries usestraditional medicine alone, or in combination with Western drugs to treat awide variety of ailments. There has seldom been effective collaborationbetween the traditional and Western medical practitioners, largely due tothe perception that the use of traditional and herbal medicines has noscientific basis. With the renewed interest from Western countries in herbalremedies,

J. L. S. Taylor; T. Rabe; L. J. McGaw; A. K. Jäger; J. van Staden

2001-01-01

349

Cytotoxic activity of selected plants used as antitumorals in Mexican traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Crude extracts from nine plants widely used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer have been subjected to a bioscreening study to detect cytotoxic activity against human tumor cells. Three different extracts (petroleum ether, ethylacetate, and methanol) from each plant species, were tested towards KB, HCT-15 COLADCAR and UISO-SQC-1 cell cultures. The results showed that three plants Colubrina

Jovita Popoca; Abiga??l Aguilar; Daniel Alonso; Ma. Luisa Villarreal

1998-01-01

350

Variation in heavy metals and microelements in South African medicinal plants obtained from street markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

South African medicinal plants are traditionally harvested from a wide range of undisclosed locations by plant gatherers. Thus, there is a risk that plant material may be exposed to a variety of pollutants. The variation in five heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and lead) and six essential elements (boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc) was determined in commonly

M. G. Kulkarni; W. A. Stirk; C. Southway; J. Van Staden

2008-01-01

351

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF MEDICINAL PLANTS FROM THE HUAUTLA SIERRA BIOSPHERE RESERVE IN MORELOS (MÉXICO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-two extracts from nine Mexican medicinal plants of eight different families used for people neighbor to Huautla Sierra Biosphere Reserve (REBIOSH) in different infectious diseases were assayed in vitro to determine their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fae- calis; Escherichia coli; Proteus mirabilis; Salmonella typhi and the yeast Candida albicans. Most plants showed antibacterial activity, while two plants showed

David O. Salinas Sánchez; Gema L. Arteaga Najera; Ismael León Rivera; Oscar Dorado

352

Toxicity studies on dermal application of plant extract of Plumbago zeylanica used in Ethiopian traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant-based therapeutic preparations are cyclically returning to complement dermatologic therapy, however, data on the toxicity profile of such plants are lacking. In the present study, Plumbago zeylanica, a medicinal plant commonly used in Ethiopia for skin diseases was subjected to a systematic dermatotoxicity study. To this effect, the dermatotoxicity of 80% methanol extract of the root part of Plumbago zeylanica

Kefale Teshome; Tsige Gebre-Mariam; Kaleab Asres; Franklin Perry; Ephrem Engidawork

2008-01-01

353

Ethnobotanical survey and preliminary evaluation of medicinal plants with antidiarrhoea properties in Sokoto state, Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants use in Sokoto state of Nigeria for the treatment of diarrhoeal disorders was conducted. The plants documented were identified botanically and ranked based on informant frequency of citation. Ten top rank plants were then selected and screened for acute toxicity, phytochemical constituents and antidiarrhoea properties. A fixed single dose (3000 mg\\/kg b.wt.) of aqueous extract

E. U. Etuk; M. O. Ugwah; O. P. Ajagbonna; P. A. Onyeyili

354

Plants used as antidiabetics in popular medicine in Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants are widely used for medicinal purposes. In countries where much of the population has limited access to health care, their use is widespread, allied to the belief that the use of medical plants is totally safe. Therefore, the study of these plants is essential because many of them may have undesirable effects, such as acute or chronic toxicity; or

M. Trojan-Rodrigues; T. L. S. Alves; G. L. G. Soares; M. R. Ritter

355

Monitoring of metallic micronutrients and heavy metals in herbs, spices and medicinal plants from Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal, aromatic and spice plants grown in different regions of Austria were monitored as to their Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents. Since the plants were grown under common field conditions, the essential elements were within the usual ranges for plant material. The contamination level with the toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd, can be classified as normally

Remigius Chizzola; Hanneliese Michitsch; Chlodwig Franz

2003-01-01

356

Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants  

PubMed Central

Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the ?-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations.

2012-01-01

357

PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ROOTS OF LESSER KNOWN MEDICINAL PLANT CAESALPINIA DIGYNA ROTTL  

PubMed Central

Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. (Caesalpiniaceae) is shrubby perennial climber found in Eastern Ghats. Roots are astringent and used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicines. Bergenin, Caesalpinine A and Caesalpinine C were isolated from the roots. However, this medicinal plant has not been studied pharmacognostically. Hence, the present investigation reports pharmacognostical and physicochemical properties of roots of Caesalpinia digyna.

Mitra, S.K.; Kannan, R.; Sundaram, R.

2007-01-01

358

Pharmacognostical and physicochemical characteristics of roots of lesser known medicinal plant caesalpinia digyna rottl.  

PubMed

Caesalpinia digyna Rottl. (Caesalpiniaceae) is shrubby perennial climber found in Eastern Ghats. Roots are astringent and used in Ayurveda and Unani systems of medicines. Bergenin, Caesalpinine A and Caesalpinine C were isolated from the roots. However, this medicinal plant has not been studied pharmacognostically. Hence, the present investigation reports pharmacognostical and physicochemical properties of roots of Caesalpinia digyna. PMID:22557239

Mitra, S K; Kannan, R; Sundaram, R

2007-01-01

359

Phenylpropanoids from Medicinal Plants: Distribution, Classification, Structural Analysis, and Biological Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature and our own research results on phenylpropanoids from medicinal plants were reviewed and systematized. Data were presented for the distribution of phenylpropanoids. Their classification was proposed. The biological structure-activity relationships for compounds found in roseroot (Rhodiola rosea), thorny eleutherococcus (Eleutherococus senticosus), common lilac (Syringa vulgaris), purple echinacea (Echinacea purpurea), medicinal melissa (Melissa officinalis), variegated milk-thistle (Silybum marianum), and

V. A. Kurkin

2003-01-01

360

Structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of phenolic compounds from traditional Chinese medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal

Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke

2006-01-01

361

Levels of organophosphorus pesticides in medicinal plants commonly consumed in Iran.  

PubMed

The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5?ng?g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) proposed by the international organizations. PMID:23351610

Sarkhail, Parisa; Yunesian, Masud; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Sarkheil, Pantea; Rastkari, Noushin

2012-01-01

362

Survey and scientific evaluation of medicinal plants used by the Pahan and Teli tribal communities of Natore district, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The Pahans and the Telis are two of the smallest indigenous communities in Bangladesh. The Pahans, numbering about 14,000 people are widely scattered in several northern districts of the country, while the Telis are such a small community that nothing has been reported on their numbers and lifestyle. Both tribes are on the verge of disappearance. One each of the Pahan and the Teli community was located after much search in two adjoining villages of Natore district, Bangladesh. Since the tribes were found to still depend on their traditional medicinal practitioners for treatment of ailments, it was the objective of the present study to document their traditional usage of medicinal plants and to evaluate such plants against modern research-based pharmacological activity studies on these plants. Interviews were conducted of the practitioners of the Pahan and Teli community of Natore district with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and using the guided field-walk method. Plant specimens as pointed out by the practitioners were collected and pressed on the field and identification completed at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The Pahan tribal practitioners used 13 plants distributed into 9 families for treatment of 14 different ailments. The Teli tribal practitioner used 15 plants divided into 14 families for treatment of 17 different ailments. Eight out of the thirteen plants used by the Pahan tribal practitioner (61.5%) had reported relevant pharmacological activities in the scientific literature, while six out of the fifteen plants used by the Teli tribal practitioners (40%) had such relevant pharmacological activities in accordance with their usage. The medicinal plants used by the Pahans and Telis warrant further scientific studies toward discovery of lead compounds and efficacious drugs and the documentation and protection of the traditional medical knowledge held by these tribes. PMID:23983368

Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Khatun, Zubaida; Hasan, Abid; Parvin, Waheda; Moniruzzaman, Md; Khatun, Asha; Mahal, Mostafi Jumrut; Bhuiyan, Md Shaiful Alam; Mou, Sadia Moin; Jahan, Rownak

2012-01-01

363

Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities screening of some Brazilian medicinal plants used in Governador Valadares district  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanol extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by Governador Valadares people were tested for antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity (BST assay). The field survey was conducted during the years 1997-2000 by means of direct interviews with healing men (\\

Beatriz Gonçalves Brasileiro; Virgínia Ramos Pizziolo; Délio Soares Raslan; Claudia Mashrouah Jamal; Dâmaris Silveira

2006-01-01

364

In vitro cytotoxic activity of nine plants used in Mayan traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevancePlants have been used in folk medicine by Mayan ancient people from the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico, to treat some diseases considered as cancer diseases such as chronic wounds or tumors.

G. Mena-Rejon; E. Caamal-Fuentes; Z. Cantillo-Ciau; R. Cedillo-Rivera; J. Flores-Guido; R. Moo-Puc

2009-01-01

365

Ethno-medicinal plants use by the Manipuri tribal community in Bangladesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ethno-medicinal investigation was conducted to understand the traditional knowledge of medicinal plants being used by the\\u000a Manipuri tribe in Bangladesh. The present study was done through structured questionnaires in consultations with the tribal practitioners.\\u000a A total 32 plant species belonging to 26 families and 29 genera were found to use for curing 37 ailments. Results show that\\u000a the use

Sayma Akhter

2010-01-01

366

Analyzing factors that influence the folk use and phytonomy of 18 medicinal plants in Navarra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  This article analyzes whether the distribution or area of use of 18 medicinal plants is influenced by ecological and cultural\\u000a factors which might account for their traditional use and\\/or phytonymy in Navarra.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a This discussion may be helpful for comparative studies, touching as it does on other ethnopharmacological issues: a) which\\u000a cultural and ecological factors affect the selection of medicinal plants;

Silvia Akerreta; Rita Yolanda Cavero; Víctor López; María Isabel Calvo

2007-01-01

367

Antioxidant properties and principal phenolic phytochemicals of Indian medicinal plants from Asclepiadoideae and Periplocoideae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The subfamily Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) and the closely-related Periplocoideae are sources of many indigenous Indian medicinal plants. We surveyed antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 15 samples, representing 12 Indian medicinal plant species from these subfamilies. Total antioxidant assay was performed using the 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured using

Siddharthan Surveswaran; Yi-Zhong Cai; Jie Xing; Harold Corke; Mei Sun

2010-01-01

368

Medicinal plants of the Meinit ethnic group of Ethiopia: An ethnobotanical study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethnopharmacological relevanceThe majority of the Ethiopian people, including the Meinit ethnic group, are highly dependent on medicinal plants for their day-to-day public healthcare and veterinary needs. The existence of medicinal plants and the associated knowledge is, however, currently being threatened mainly due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Thus, there is an urgent need to document and analyse the knowledge.

Mirutse Giday; Zemede Asfaw; Zerihun Woldu

2009-01-01

369

Zapotec and Mixe use of Tropical Habitats for securing medicinal plants in MéXico  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal plants are essential in the medical systems of the Mixe and Zapotec. In this study ethno-ecological strategies,\\u000a employed by the two neighboring Indian groups in Mexico, for obtaining medicinal plants are analyzed. The indigenous classification\\u000a of the environment is notably different from the Western one and distinguishes six dissimilar principal “zones” or land use\\u000a types. Most ethnomedically important species

B. Frei; O. Sticher; M. Heinrich

2000-01-01

370

Screening for Antifungal Activities of Some Medicinal Plants used Traditionally in Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aly, M.M. and Bafeel, S.O. 2010. Screening for antifungal activities of some medicinal plants used traditionally in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 39–44.The antimicrobial activities of water and organic crude extracts of 6 medicinal plants (Azadirachta Indica (neem), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Lepidium sativum and Rosmarinus officinalis) were detected against different pathogenic yeasts and fungi

Magda M. Aly; Samira O. Bafeel

2010-01-01

371

A survey of medicinal plants used by the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh  

PubMed Central

Background The number of tribes present within Bangladesh has been estimated to approximate one hundred and fifty. Information on traditional medicinal practices, particularly of the smaller tribes and their clans is lacking. It was the objective of the study to document the tribal medicinal practices of the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe, which clan can be found residing in Dolusora Tripura Palli of Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh. A further objective was to determine the extent of the community households who still prefer traditional treatment to other forms of treatment, particularly allopathic treatment. Methods Interviews of the tribal healer and the tribal community regarding their ethnomedicinal practices were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. All together 67 clan members were interviewed including the Headman, tribal healer, 19 Heads of households and 46 other adult members of the clan. Information on number of members of household, their age, gender, educational status, occupation of working household members and preferred mode of treatment was obtained through the semi-structured questionnaire. In the guided field-walk method, the healer took the interviewers on field-walks through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Results The clan had a total of 135 people distributed into 20 households and had only one traditional healer. Use of medicinal plants, wearing of amulets, and worship of the evil god ‘Bura debta’ constituted the traditional medicinal practices of the clan for treatment of diseases. The healer used a total of 44 medicinal plants distributed into 34 families for treatment of various ailments like pain, coughs, cold, gastrointestinal disorders, cuts and wounds, diabetes, malaria, heart disorders, and paralysis. Conclusions Available scientific reports validate the use of a number of plants by the traditional healer. A number of the plants used by the clan healer had reported similar uses in Ayurveda, but differ considerably in their therapeutic uses from that reported for other tribes in Bangladesh. The present survey also indicated that in recent years the Deb barma clan members are inclining more towards allopathic medicine.

2014-01-01

372

The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery.  

PubMed Central

In this review we describe and discuss several approaches to selecting higher plants as candidates for drug development with the greatest possibility of success. We emphasize the role of information derived from various systems of traditional medicine (ethnomedicine) and its utility for drug discovery purposes. We have identified 122 compounds of defined structure, obtained from only 94 species of plants, that are used globally as drugs and demonstrate that 80% of these have had an ethnomedical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant. We identify and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using plants as starting points for drug development, specifically those used in traditional medicine.

Fabricant, D S; Farnsworth, N R

2001-01-01

373

Medicinal plants used by the Yi ethnic group: a case study in central Yunnan  

PubMed Central

Background This paper is based on ethnomedicinal investigation conducted from 1999–2002 in Chuxiong, central Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The Yi medicine has made a great contribution to the ethnomedicinal field in China. Neither case studies nor integrated inventories have previously been conducted to investigate the traditional Yi plants. This paper aims to argue the status and features of medicinal plants used in traditional Yi societies through a case study. Methods The approaches of ethnobotany, anthropology, and participatory rural appraisal were used in the field surveys. Twenty-two informants in four counties were interviewed during eight field trips. Medicinal plant specimens were identified according to taxonomic methods. Results One hundred sixteen medicinal plant species were found to be useful by the local people in the treatment of various diseases or disorders, especially those relating to trauma, gastrointestinal disorders and the common cold. Among these 116 species, 25 species (21.55%) were found to have new curative effects and 40 species (34.48%) were recorded for their new preparation methods; 55 different species were used in treating wounds and fractures, and 47 were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Traditional Yi herbal medicines are characterized by their numerous quantities of herbaceous plants and their common preparation with alcohol. Conclusion Totally 116 species in 58 families of medicinal plants traditionally used by the Yi people were inventoried and documented. The characteristics of medicinal plants were analyzed. Some new findings (such as new curative effects and new preparation methods) were recorded These newly gathered ethnobotanical and medicinal data are precious sources for the future development of new drugs, and for further phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies.

Long, Chunlin; Li, Sumei; Long, Bo; Shi, Yana; Liu, Benxi

2009-01-01

374

DNA barcode ITS effectively distinguishes the medicinal plant Boerhavia diffusa from its adulterants.  

PubMed

Boerhavia diffusa (B. diffusa), also known as Punarnava, is an indigenous plant in India and an important component in traditional Indian medicine. The accurate identification and collection of this medicinal herb is vital to enhance the drug's efficacy and biosafety. In this study, a DNA barcoding technique has been applied to identify and distinguish B. diffusa from its closely-related species. The phylogenetic analysis was carried out for the four species of Boerhavia using barcode candidates including nuclear ribosomal DNA regions ITS, ITS1, ITS2 and the chloroplast plastid gene psbA-trnH. Sequence alignment revealed 26% polymorphic sites in ITS, 30% in ITS1, 16% in ITS2 and 6% in psbA-trnH, respectively. Additionally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for 15 species using ITS sequences which clearly distinguished B. diffusa from the other species. The ITS1 demonstrates a higher transition/transversion ratio, percentage of variation and pairwise distance which differentiate B. diffusa from other species of Boerhavia. Our study revealed that ITS and ITS1 could be used as potential candidate regions for identifying B. diffusa and for authenticating its herbal products. PMID:23317705

Selvaraj, Dhivya; Shanmughanandhan, Dhivya; Sarma, Rajeev Kumar; Joseph, Jijo C; Srinivasan, Ramachandran V; Ramalingam, Sathishkumar

2012-12-01

375

Micropropagation: a tool for the production of high quality plant-based medicines.  

PubMed

Medicinal plants are the most important source of life saving drugs for the majority of the world's population. The biotechnological tools are important to select, multiply and conserve the critical genotypes of medicinal plants. Plant tissue culture techniques offer an integrated approach for the production of standardized quality phytopharmaceutical through mass-production of consistent plant material for physiological characterization and analysis of active ingredients. Micropropagation protocols for cloning of some medicinal plants such as Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae), Chlorophytum borivilianum (Liliaceae), Datura metel (Solanaceae), and Bacopa monnieri (Scrophulariaceae) have been developed. Regeneration occurred via organogenesis and embryogenesis in response to auxins and cytokinins. The integrated approaches of our culture systems will provide the basis for the future development of novel, safe, effective, and high-quality products for consumers. PMID:16472132

Debnath, Mousumi; Malik, C P; Bisen, P S

2006-02-01

376

76 FR 24848 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; Category of Plants for Planting Not...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No...an Information Collection; Category of Plants for Planting Not Authorized for Importation...Pest Risk Analysis AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA....

2011-05-03

377

Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region  

PubMed Central

The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb’s clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH).

Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

2012-01-01

378

Introduction of medicinal plants species with the most traditional usage in alamut region.  

PubMed

The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herb's clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

2012-01-01

379

Yang-tonifying traditional Chinese medicinal plants and their potential phytoandrogenic activity.  

PubMed

The concept of phytoandrogens, plants that contain androgens or those that stimulate androgenic activity in men, is relatively new. In traditional Chinese medicine a number of phytoandrogens are classified in medicinal plant restoratives for reinforcing yang, and they find their application in the treatment of the kidney yang deficiency diseases. In this review, the phytoandrogens used in traditional Chinese medicine are listed, and their proven applications in the treatment of kidney yang deficiency diseases, such as sexual disorders, cancer, and obesity and associated metabolic syndromes are presented. As a background, the mechanism of action of androgens, their synthesis and metabolism, the interrelations of androgens and estrogens, as well as the state of art methods to detect and analyze these hormonal activities in medicinal plants are discussed. PMID:24856755

Edouard, Munyangaju Jose; Miao, Lin; Fan, Guan-Wei; Ojong, Barnabas Bessem Orang; Zhen, Hu; Zhang, Ju; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhu, Yan

2014-05-01

380

Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia  

PubMed Central

Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge.

Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

2009-01-01

381

Regulation of medicinal plants for public health--European community monographs on herbal substances.  

PubMed

The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374

Knöss, Werner; Chinou, Ioanna

2012-08-01

382

Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.  

PubMed

Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

2011-01-01

383

Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development.

Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

2014-01-01

384

Ethnobotanical study on traditional use of medicinal plants in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district.  

PubMed

Ethnopharmacological relevance: This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinal plant uses in the Zlatibor district, South-Western Serbia. Materials and methods: A survey was performed using questionnaires with 220 informants (mean age 47, 79% female, 21% male). In addition, the use value and the relative importance of species were determined and the informant consensus factor was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. Intended plants usage was compared with previous ethnobotanical literature, with reference to the neighboring areas of Zlatibor district. Results: The informants provided data for 69 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families. Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Asteraceae were the predominant locally used families. The species with the highest use value were Mentha piperita, Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were ones for treating gastrointestinal ailments, respiratory problems and skin diseases. Usually, the administration was primarily oral followed by topical applications. All different plant parts were utilized, however leaves were the most exploited parts of the plants. Conclusions: Folk medicine in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district is intended mainly as a mode of primary health care in healing of minor illnesses. The results indicate a slight reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in this area, when compared with neighboring regions. PMID:23422337

Savikin, Katarina; Zduni?, Gordana; Menkovi?, Nebojša; Zivkovi?, Jelena; Cuji?, Nada; Tereš?enko, Milena; Bigovi?, Dubravka

2013-04-19

385

Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections  

PubMed Central

Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus ? hemolític, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 ?g/ml), clindamycin (0.3 ?g/ml) and nystatin (1.0 ?g/ml) were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 ?g/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 ?g/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 ?g/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 ?g/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 ?g/ml). Conclusion This in vitro study corroborated the antimicrobial activity of the selected plants used in folkloric medicine. All these plants were effective against three or more of the pathogenic microorganisms. However, they were ineffective against Streptococcus ? hemolytic and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their medicinal use in infections associated with these two species is not recommended. This study also showed that Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

Rojas, Jhon J; Ochoa, Veronica J; Ocampo, Saul A; Munoz, John F

2006-01-01

386

Antimicrobial activity of extract and two alkaloids from traditional Chinese medicinal plant Stephania dielsiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two alkaloids, stephanine and crebanine, were isolated from tubers of the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Stephania dielsiana, using an activity-directed isolation method, and inhibitory activity of methanol extract, stephanine and crebanine against ten animal pathogenic bacteria and eight plant pathogenic fungi was evaluated in vitro. The results showed that extract from S. dielsiana exhibited high inhibitory activity against five gram-positive

Yecheng Deng; Yanzhen Yu; Haiyu Luo; Ming Zhang; Xu Qin; Lifeng Li

2011-01-01

387

Broad-spectrum antibacterial and antifungal properties of certain traditionally used Indian medicinal plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ethanolic extracts of 22 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were studied for their antimicrobial activity against seven bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, S. paratyphi, S. typhi, E. coli, Shigella dysenteriae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and five filamentous fungi (Aspergillus niger, Alternaria alternata, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Rhizoctonia bataticola and Trichoderma viride) and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 16 plant

Farrukh Aqil; Iqbal Ahmad

2003-01-01

388

Antiplasmodial activity of extracts from seven medicinal plants used in malaria treatment in Cameroon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyIn a search for new plant-derived biologically active compounds against malaria parasites, we have carried out an ethnopharmacological study to evaluate the susceptibility of cultured Plasmodium falciparum to extracts and fractions from seven Cameroonian medicinal plants used in malaria treatment. We have also explored the inhibition of the Plasmodium falciparum cysteine protease Falcipain-2.

Fabrice Fekam Boyom; Eugénie Madiesse Kemgne; Roselyne Tepongning; Vincent Ngouana; Wilfred Fon Mbacham; Etienne Tsamo; Paul Henri Amvam Zollo; Jiri Gut; Philip J. Rosenthal

2009-01-01

389

Antiviral activities of some Ethiopian medicinal plants used for the treatment of dermatological disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acokanthera schimperi (Apocynaceae), Euclea schimperi (Ebenaceae), Inula confertiflora (Asteraceae), Melilotus elegans (Leguminosae), and Plumbago zeylanica (Plumbaginaceae), are some of the medicinal plants used in Ethiopia for treatment of various skin disorders. In this study, the antiviral activities of the 80% methanolic extracts of these plants have been examined against coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), influenza A virus and herpes simplex virus type1

T. Gebre-Mariam; R. Neubert; P. C. Schmidt; P. Wutzler; M. Schmidtke

2006-01-01

390

Plants of the Olympic Coastal Forests: ancient knowledge of materials and medicines and future heritage.  

PubMed

The indigenous people of the west coast of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula have used a wide variety of forest plants for centuries to make materials and medicines. The late David Forlines shared at least eight generations of the knowledge of uses of these plants for materials and medicines with us in hopes that this information might be used 'to help science catch up with the old people.' Dyes, paints and adhesives were some of the materials made. The medicines were often administered as teas, but in some cases, fresh plant material was required. Some parallels were found to European and Chinese uses of similar species. Plants from the family Rosaceae had the greatest number of medicinal uses, but several other plant families known to contain polyphenols were also encountered. The role of polyphenols in the use of these plants is difficult to estimate because in many cases the plants have not been studied chemically. A preliminary screening indicated that many of the plants were rich in procyanidins and associated compounds. PMID:1417699

Forlines, D R; Tavenner, T; Malan, J C; Karchesy, J J

1992-01-01

391

Spatio-temporal Effects on Species Classification of Medicinal Plants in Soone Valley of Pakistan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soone Valley of Salt range in Pakistan was investigated to determine the distribution pattern of vegetation especially medicinal plant diversity at different sites and seasons. Six sites were selected on the basis of variation in their environmental (elevation, slope, aspect (western\\/northern), altitude, topography and soil composition) and community attributes (habitat, vegetation type & plant community structure). The ecological data for

IFTIKHAR AHMAD; MUHAMMAD SAJID; AQEEL AHMAD; MUMTAZ HUSSAIN; MANSOOR HAMEED; MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF; MUHAMMAD SAGHIR; SHAISTA KOUKAB

392

Antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants and its relationship with their antioxidant property  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced

M. C Sabu; Ramadasan Kuttan

2002-01-01

393

Screening of hundred Rwandese medicinal plants for antimicrobial and antiviral properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 100 Rwandese medicinal plants (267 plant extracts), used by traditional healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties. The results of the testing showed that 45% were active against Staphylococcus aureus, 2% against Escherichia coli, 16% against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 7% against Candida albicans, 80% against Microsporum canis and 60% against Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Not

A. J. Vlietinck; L. Van Hoof; J. Totté; A. Lasure; D. Vanden Berghe; P. C. Rwangabo; J. Mvukiyumwami

1995-01-01

394

Screening of radical scavenging activity of some medicinal and aromatic plant extracts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and

G. Miliauskas; P. R. Venskutonis; T. A. van Beek

2004-01-01

395

Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of selected traditional medicinal plants from Perú  

Microsoft Academic Search

Folk medicine practitioners in Perú employ plant preparations as wound-healing agents on superficial and internal wounds (gastric ulcers). The results of a scientific evaluation of the wound-healing activity of nine plants found in the Amazon jungle near Iquitos and in the Andes mountains is presented. The species studied were: Peperomia galioides, Mentzelia cordifolia, Mutisia acuminata, Himatanthus sucuuba, Spondias mombin, Eleutherine

León F. Villegas; Irma D. Fernández; Holger Maldonado; Rosa Torres; Alfonso Zavaleta; Abraham J. Vaisberg; Gerald B. Hammond

1997-01-01

396

Efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is among the most devastating termite pests. Natural products derived from plant extracts were tested in a discovery programme for effective, environment friendly termite control agents. Screening for anti-termitic activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of new agents for termite control. The aim of this

G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abduz Zahir; T. Santhoshkumar; S. Marimuthu; K. Velayutham; C. Jayaseelan; A. Vishnu Kirthi; G. Rajakumar

397

Antibacterial activity of traditional therapeutic coastal medicinal plants against some pathogens.  

PubMed

Antimicrobial activity of 10 traditional coastal medicinal plant species from South west coast of India were tested against 12 human bacterial pathogens and two cattle pathogens. Among the plant species tested, a butanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri showed maximum inhibitory activity against the human pathogen Escherichia coli, whereas the butanolic extract of Aristolochia indica. L showed maximum inhibitory activity against the cattle pathogen Listeria monocytogen. The mean zone of inhibition indicates that the growth of Salmonella enteritidis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were highly inhibited by the coastal medicinal plant extract than the other bacterial species and also the antibacterial activity was found higher in the butanolic extract than water extract. PMID:16334271

Ravikumar, S; Nazar, S; Nuralshiefa, A; Abideen, S

2005-06-01

398

Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India  

PubMed Central

Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community.

2010-01-01

399

Potential genotoxicity of plant extracts used in Ethiopian traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim of the studyAlthough traditional herbal medicines are widely used in Ethiopia, no information is available on their potential genotoxicity. In the present study, hydroalcoholic extracts of Glinus lotoides, Plumbago zeylanica, Rumex steudelii and Thymus schimperi were evaluated for their DNA damaging effects using the comet assay.

J. Demma; E. Engidawork; B. Hellman

2009-01-01

400

MEDICINAL PLANTS USED BY KADAZANDUSUN COMMUNITIES AROUND CROCKER RANGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief account of 50 plant species used by the Kadazandusun communities living around the Crocker Range Sabah, Malaysia is present ed here. It is interesting to note the commonality between plants used to treat specific ailments by the Kadazandusun communities here and other indigenous communities of Borneo as pre viously documented by our own studies. The plants include those

Fasihuddin B. Ahmad; Ghazally Ismail

401

Plant regeneration from callus cultures of Vitex trifolia (Lamiales: Lamiaceae): a potential medicinal plant.  

PubMed

Vitex trifolia is a shrub species with popular use as a medicinal plant, for which leaves, roots and flowers have been reported to heal different distresses. The increasing exploitation of these plants has endangered its conservation, and has importantly justified the use of biotechnological tools for their propagation. Our aim was to present an efficient protocol for plant regeneration through organogenesis; and simultaneously, to analyze the genetic homogeneity of the established clonal lines by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Plantlet regeneration was achieved in callus cultures derived from stem, leaf and petiole explants of V. trifolia on a differently supplemented Murashige & Skoog medium, and incubated at 25 +/-2 degrees C under a light intensity of 61 micromol/m2s from cool white fluorescent lamps and a 16 h photoperiod. The rate of shoot bud regeneration was positively correlated with the concentration of hormones in the nutrient media. Shoot buds regenerated more rapidly from stem and petiole explants as compared to leaf explants on medium containing 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microMNAA. Addition of 135.74-271.50 microM adenine sulphate (Ads) and 0.72-1.44 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) to the culture medium increased the growth of shoot buds. The highest rate of shoot bud regeneration responses was obtained in stem explants using 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microM NAA, 271.50 microM Ads and 1.44 microM GA3. In vitro rooting of the differentiated shoots was achieved in media containing 1.23 microM indole butyric acid (IBA) with 2% (w/v) sucrose. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in soil with 86% survival under field condition. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat markers analyses have confirmed the genetic uniformity of the regenerated plantlets derived from the second up to fifth subcultures. This protocol may help in mass propagation and conservation of this important medicinal plant of great therapeutic potential. PMID:24027909

Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Maiti, Satyabrata

2013-09-01

402

Evaluation of the In Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial, and Antitrypanosomal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Saudi and Yemeni Traditional Medicine  

PubMed Central

The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinal plants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10??g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8??g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2??g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1??g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3??g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinal plants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents.

Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

2014-01-01

403

Evaluation of the in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of medicinal plants used in saudi and yemeni traditional medicine.  

PubMed

The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinal plants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10? ? g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8? ? g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2? ? g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1? ? g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3? ? g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinal plants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents. PMID:24963330

Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

2014-01-01

404

Traditional medicines, collective negotiation, and representations of risk in Indian cancer care.  

PubMed

Cancer is emerging as a key disease in India, but there has been virtually no research exploring understandings of cancer and practices of communication within oncology settings. This is despite the fact that the Indian context presents clinicians, patients, and family members with a range of unique challenges, including those related to disease awareness, interpersonal dynamics, and the use of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines (TCAM). Drawing on a series of qualitative interviews with 22 Delhi-based oncology clinicians, in this article we examine clinicians' accounts of communication with their cancer patients. The interviews reveal the challenges of communication given cancer's relative novelty, cultural practices around collective negotiation, and rhetorical practices evident in advice-giving regarding TCAM. We conclude that with cancer set to become a major burden in India, research exploring competing forms of expertise, the politics of representation, and the nexus between traditional beliefs and techno-scientific development is urgently needed. PMID:23044983

Broom, Alex F; Doron, Assa

2013-01-01

405

Cytokinin-induced somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in Corydalis yanhusuo (Fumariaceae) - a medicinal plant.  

PubMed

An efficient method has been developed for regeneration of complete plants via somatic embryogenesis in Corydalis yanhusuo (Fumariaceae), an important medicinal plant, using tuber-derived callus. Primary callus was induced by culturing mature tuber pieces on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg l(-1) N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) and 0.5 mg l(-1) alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) in darkness. Somatic embryos were induced by subculturing the primary callus on MS medium supplemented with 0.5-4.0 mg l(-1) BA, kinetin, or zeatin, within 2 weeks of culture in light. Embryos with well-developed cotyledonary leaves were transferred in half-strength liquid MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) zeatin riboside for the development of roots. Converted somatic embryos were cultured on half-strength MS medium supplemented with 6% sucrose, and with 0.5-10.0 mg l(-1) abscisic acid (ABA), paclobutrazol, or ancymidol, 0.5-5.0 mg l(-1) GA(3) and 15-100 mg l(-1) polyethylene glycol (PEG) 4000 for further development of plantlets and in vitro tuber formation. The development of somatic embryos over the surface of tuber and/or cotyledonary leaf base region of the converted primary somatic embryo was observed. Before ex vitro establishment of somatic embryo-derived plants, plants with well-developed tubers were cultured on half-strength MS medium with 2% sucrose and 0.1 mg l(-1) GA(3) for 3 weeks. PMID:11164586

Sagare, A P.; Lee, Y L.; Lin, T C.; Chen, C C.; Tsay, H S.

2000-12-01

406

Natural plant chemicals: source of industrial and medicinal materials  

SciTech Connect

Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. However, most species of higher plants have never been described, much less surveyed for chemical or biologically active constituents, and new sources of commercially valuable materials remain to be discovered. Advances in biotechnology, particularly methods for culturing plants cells and tissues, should provide new means for the commercial processing of even rare plants and the chemicals they produce. These new technologies will extend and enhance the usefulness of plants as renewable resources of valuable chemicals. In the future, biologically active plant-derived chemicals can be expected to play an increasingly significant role in the commercial development of new products for regulating plant growth and for insect and weed control. 65 references.

Balandrin, M.F.; Klocke, J.A.; Wurtele, E.S.; Bollinger, W.H.

1985-01-01

407

High throughput phenotyping for aphid resistance in large plant collections  

PubMed Central

Background Phloem-feeding insects are among the most devastating pests worldwide. They not only cause damage by feeding from the phloem, thereby depleting the plant from photo-assimilates, but also by vectoring viruses. Until now, the main way to prevent such problems is the frequent use of insecticides. Applying resistant varieties would be a more environmental friendly and sustainable solution. For this, resistant sources need to be identified first. Up to now there were no methods suitable for high throughput phenotyping of plant germplasm to identify sources of resistance towards phloem-feeding insects. Results In this paper we present a high throughput screening system to identify plants with an increased resistance against aphids. Its versatility is demonstrated using an Arabidopsis thaliana activation tag mutant line collection. This system consists of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and the circulative virus Turnip yellows virus (TuYV). In an initial screening, with one plant representing one mutant line, 13 virus-free mutant lines were identified by ELISA. Using seeds produced from these lines, the putative candidates were re-evaluated and characterized, resulting in nine lines with increased resistance towards the aphid. Conclusions This M. persicae-TuYV screening system is an efficient, reliable and quick procedure to identify among thousands of mutated lines those resistant to aphids. In our study, nine mutant lines with increased resistance against the aphid were selected among 5160 mutant lines in just 5?months by one person. The system can be extended to other phloem-feeding insects and circulative viruses to identify insect resistant sources from several collections, including for example genebanks and artificially prepared mutant collections.

2012-01-01

408

Improvement of somatic embryogenesis and plantlet conversion in Oplopanax elatus, an endangered medicinal woody plant.  

PubMed

Oplopanax elatus is a medicinal plant on the verge of extinction because of overexploitation. In the present study, the effects of various factors on enhancing somatic embryogenesis and plantlet conversion were studied. Mature seeds were collected from a total of 13 plants from 4 mountains in South Korea, and the genetic distances were calculated to analyze the effect of genotype on somatic embryogenesis. Results of cluster analysis and the unweighted-pair-group method with arithmetic mean of 13 genotypes indicated the presence of 3 main groups. Both genotype and explant type affected the induction of somatic embryos (SEs). Sorak 2 and root were found to be the most suitable genotype and explant type, respectively, for SE induction in O. elatus. Among the different types of carbon sources tested, 5% sucrose induced the maximum number of SEs. The formation and development of SEs were significantly influenced by culture density; thus, 10 mg embryonic callus was found to be the most suitable for SE induction. The highest rates of germination and SE conversion were obtained in a germination medium containing 1.8 gelrite and 3.2 g·l(-1) agar. In addition, 80% of the plantlets that were transplanted into artificial soil acclimatized successfully. Thus, our results showed that the percentage survival of O. elatus during in vitro proliferation could be increased by optimizing to the somatic embryogenesis system. PMID:24024109

Moon, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Wook; Hong, Yong-Pyo; Park, So-Young

2013-01-01

409

Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia.  

PubMed

The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%). The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit). No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinal plant species abundance in the study area. PMID:17547765