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As part of its Essential Drugs and Medicine Policy website, the World Health Organization (WHO) has created a series of important guidelines related to good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinalplants. Given that the information about the overall importance of the healing powers of various plants, this seems like a rather sound idea. This mission is also related to a broader policy agenda within the WHO that is squarely committed to protecting such plants, along with promoting their sustainable use and cultivation. Here visitors will find such important documents as the basic guidelines on GACP for medicinalplants, guidelines for the appropriate use of herbal medicines, and monographs containing detailed descriptions of various key medicinalplants. Equally important are the three main documents on traditional health practitioners, guidelines for training traditional health practitioners, and a consultation report on the prospects for utilizing traditional health practitioners in the treatment of HIV.
|Highlights the demand for medicinalplants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)|
Though use of herbal medicine is increasing dramatically worldwide, environmental pollution especially with heavy metals poses\\u000a serious problem on quality of medicinalplants and their products. In Ethiopia, where more than 85% of the population relies\\u000a on traditional medicine, data on heavy metals level of plants is unavailable. The purpose of this study was to assess Pb and\\u000a Cd in
This article, part of Biodiversity Counts, takes a look at collectingplant specimens. The article discusses what tools are needed to collect specimens, how to press and dry specimens and has tips for numbering and labeling specimens.
Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinalplants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinalplant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinalplants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts
S Zschocke; T Rabe; J. L. S Taylor; A. K Jäger; J van Staden
An attempt has been made to review some medicinalplants used for the prevention and treatment of cancer in foreign countries. Information on the botanical names of plants with family names, parts used and their main active components, and original\\/native place of these plants have been collected from the litera- ture. This article considers 62 medicinalplants of for- eign
|This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)|
Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants
Current research in drug discovery from medicinalplants involves a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Medicinalplant drug discovery continues to provide new and important leads against various pharmacological targets including cancer, HIV\\/AIDS, Alzheimer's, malaria, and pain. Several natural product drugs of plant origin have either recently been introduced to the United States market, including arteether,
Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinalplants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the
Mankil Jung; Hyun Chul Lee; Yoon-Ho Kang; Eun Seok Kang; Sang Ki Kim
Contents: The use of medicinalplants--(Patterns of pharmaceutical development from plants and the consumption of plant-based drugs); Pharmaceutical manufacturing from medicinalplants--(Production of therapeutic agents from plants, technology requirement...
|Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)|
Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)
Summary Twenty seven accessions ofBacopamonnieri collected from semi-temperate, subtropical and tropical environments at geographically distinct locations in India were examined for genetic variability carried in them at Lucknow, India in a semi-temperate environment. The accessions were grown in earthen pans, arranged in completely random block design, replicated four times, and observed for 13 qualitative and 24 quantitative characters, including bacoside-A
Shalini Mathur; Srikant Sharma; M. M. Gupta; Sushil Kumar
This study focuses on plants used for medicinal purposes in the Mt. Pelion area of Greece; however other plant uses were noted\\u000a when discovered. A total of 225 taxa representing 77 families are presented along with habitat data and ethnobotanical information\\u000a when relevant. Some notes on related species are also included. In addition to ethnobotanical field research which included\\u000a collection
In total, 42 accessions of Origanum vulgare L., mostly originating from Europe, were evaluated, to detect molecular, quantitative morphological, and chemotype polymorphisms and to discover possible correlations between them. Twelve traits related to morphological characteristics were measured. The components in the essential oils were identified by GC/MS analysis, and the oil contents of 18 major compounds were determined. A total of 477 molecular polymorphisms including 214 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) and 263 SAMPL (selectively amplified microsatellite polymorphic loci) were used for genotyping. Euclidean distances of morphological and chemotypic data and genetic distances (1 - Dice's similarity) of molecular markers were compared by applying Mantel tests to ascertain the congruencies between them. A relatively high correlation between chemotypic patterns and genetic markers was identified, while a lower correlation was found between the morphological and genetic matrices. Pairwise analyses of correlation among all traits showed that the stem diameter was correlated to the essential-oil yield and the carvacrol content. Cluster analysis, population inference, and principal component analysis revealed a broad genetic and chemical variation among the accessions. The knowledge of these diversities, found in this study, will allow a plant improvement of Origanum vulgare related to pharmaceutical and spice uses. PMID:23255448
Many types of action can be taken in favour of the conservation and sustainable use of medicinalplants. Some of these are undertaken directly at the places where the plants are found, while others are less direct, such as some of those relating to commercial systems, ex situ conservation and bioprospecting. In the latter cases, actions taken will not lead
One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy.
The paper offers characterisation of the medicinalplants of the Bulgarian dendroflora. Of the 406 species of arboreal plants found on the Bulgarian territory, 180 (44.3 %) belonging to 97 genera and 44 families are considered medicinal and are used in different areas of medicine. Pinophyta is represented by 11 species, while Magnoliophyta by 169 species. Most medicinalplants belong
In the present paper, we analyze the past, present and future of medicinalplants, both as potential antimicrobial crude drugs as well as a source for natural compounds that act as new anti-infection agents. In the past few decades, the search for new anti-infection agents has occupied many research groups in the field of ethnopharmacology. When we reviewed the number
Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinalplants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the review also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinalplants and reported during 2001 to 2005. Many kinds of natural products, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and some others, have shown antidiabetic potential. Particularly, schulzeines A, B, and C, radicamines A and B, 2,5-imino-1,2,5-trideoxy-L-glucitol, beta-homofuconojirimycin, myrciacitrin IV, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid (Glucosol), 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose have shown significant antidiabetic activities. Among active medicinal herbs, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae), and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Leguminosae) have been reported as beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:16719780
Jung, Mankil; Park, Moonsoo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kang, Yoon-Ho; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Sang Ki
A discrepancy exists between the scientific understanding of botanical pharmacology and the contemporary use of medicinalplants. This article outlines and discusses scientific understanding and contemporary use of medicinalplants in the U.S. and abroad. A brief history of the use of medicinalplants in various cultures is presented, along with the scientific validation of the traditional uses of such
Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinalplants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants.
Verma, Archana K; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W
During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinalplants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against
T Okpekon; S Yolou; C Gleye; F Roblot; P Loiseau; C Bories; P Grellier; F Frappier; A Laurens; R Hocquemiller
In this study, medicinal uses and methods of administration of 45 wild plant taxa belonging to 27 families in Yalova are documented. The plant specimens were collected with informants. During the field works all the settlements (58 villages) were visited. The information was recorded and the col lected plants were identified and prepared voucher specimens were kept in the
Immunomodulation using medicinalplants provides an alternative to conventional chemotherapy for several diseases, especially when suppression of inflammation is desired. The "Canon of Medicine", the epochal work of Avicenna, the great Persian scientist of the middle ages, provides comprehensive information about medicinalplants which used to cure inflammatory illnesses in traditional Iranian medicine. Taking into consideration that the mechanisms of damage in these illnesses are mediated by immune responses, it is reasonable to assume that the plants used for such diseases may suppress the immune responses and the resultant inflammation. In Iran, because of great diversity of climate and geographical conditions, numerous varieties of plants grow and at least 1000 species are recorded as medicinalplants. Many of these plants such as Punica granatum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Foeniculum vulgare and Polygonum species prescribed by ancient Iranian physicians have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. In recent literature, different species of native medicinalplants such as Stachys obtusicrena, Salvia mirzayanii, Echium amoenum, Dracocephalum kotschyi and Linum persicum have been shown to have appreciable anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects including inhibitory effects on lymphocyte activation, suppression of cellular and humoral immunity and induction of apoptosis. This review focuses on plants that are used in Iranian traditional medicine and have been reported to act as immunoinhibitory agents. PMID:20574119
Artemisia pallens Wall, a medicinally important plant, belongs to family Asteraceae. It is This plant is used in Ayurvedic system of medicines. In order to search for antimicrobial activity of secondary metabolites, screening of aerial parts of A. pallens was carried out. Air shade dried powdered plant material was extracted using solvents of increasing polarity from non polar ( n-hexane
Anjali D. Ruikar; Gayatri S. Kamble; Vedavati G. Puranik; Nirmala R. Deshpande
Alkaloids, tannins, saponins, steroid, terpenoid, flavonoids, phlobatannin and cardic glycoside distribution in ten medicinalplants belonging to different families were assessed and compared. The medicinalplants investigated were Cleome nutidosperma, Emilia coccinea, Euphorbia heterophylla, Physalis angulata, Richardia bransitensis, Scopania dulcis, Sida acuta, Spigelia anthelmia, Stachytarpheta cayennensis and Tridax procumbens. All the plants were found to contain alkaloids, tannins and flavonoids
Crataeva nurvala Buch. Ham. (Capparaceae) is a high-value medicinal tree that grows almost all over India, especially in the semiarid regions. Medicinal usage has been reported in traditional systems of medicine, such as Ayurveda and Unani, wherein the plant is frequently preferred in the treatment of urinary disorders that reoccur owing to development of antibiotic resistance by the infecting organism.
Medicinalplants have long been used and prescribed in Thailand for centuries. Some of them have been used for treating various diseases including infectious diseases. Pouzolzia pentandra Benn., Gelonium multiflorum A. Juss., Erycibe elliptilimba Merr.&Chun., Balanophora abbreviate Bl. are Thai medicinalplants from the Thai pharmacopoeia that have been prescribed for treating unknown fevers including some specific infectious diseases. This
The rich flora of Sikkim has a number of raw drugs described in Ayurvedic texts. There are about 420 plants used by the tribal people for various diseases in Sikkim Himalayas region, out of which few are in utilized on commercial basis. Here thirty medicinalplants are presented which have high medicinal values in Ayurveda. Most of the drugs have
In our country, almost medicinalplants are not scientifically validated and their safety and effectiveness are frequently unknown; therefore, like any other medicines, they should be used with caution because toxic plants consumption may carry intoxication and even death. Lippia turbinata Gris., Aristolochia triangularis Cham., Ruta graveolens L., Huperzia saururs (Lam.) Trevis, Brugmansia arborea (L.) Lagerh., among others may be
Mariela A. MARINOFF; José L. MARTÍNEZ; María A. URBINA
|The MedicinalPlants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)|
The MedicinalPlants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers.
Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinalplants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinalplant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinalplants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinalplants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinalplants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinalplants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinalplants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338
In African traditional health care systems medicinalplants have long been known to contain pharmacologically active compounds. This has led to an excessively high demand of these plant products resulting in the extinction of some plant species. With the application of molecular techniques in plant diversity conservation becoming increasingly popular, the isolation of PCR amplifiable genomic DNA becomes an important
M. Moyo; S. O. Amoo; M. W. Bairu; J. F. Finnie; J. Van Staden
Healing with medicinalplants is as old as mankind itself. The connection between man and his search for drugs in nature dates from the far past, of which there is ample evidence from various sources: written documents, preserved monuments, and even original plantmedicines. Awareness of medicinalplants usage is a result of the many years of struggles against illnesses due to which man learned to pursue drugs in barks, seeds, fruit bodies, and other parts of the plants. Contemporary science has acknowledged their active action, and it has included in modern pharmacotherapy a range of drugs of plant origin, known by ancient civilizations and used throughout the millennia. The knowledge of the development of ideas related to the usage of medicinalplants as well as the evolution of awareness has increased the ability of pharmacists and physicians to respond to the challenges that have emerged with the spreading of professional services in facilitation of man's life.
Many plants have been used for the treatment of diabetes mellitus in Indian system of medicine and in other ancient systems\\u000a of the world. Out of these only a few have been evaluated as per modern system of medicine. From many such plants only extracts\\u000a have been prepared and their usefulness evaluated in experimental diabetes in animals. In some plants
R. Shukia; S. B. Sharma; D. Puri; K. M. Prabhu; P. S. Murthy
Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinalplants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinalplants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinalplants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinalplants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management of traditional therapies is urged, because the therapies are empirically and knowledge based, often culturally inherited and important to pharmacology and local livelihoods. However, traditional therapies are currently being eroded due to changing lifestyles, perceptions, social transformations, and acculturation.
Research on medicinal model organism is one of the core technologies to promote the modernization of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The research progress of Salvia miltiorrhiza as medicinal model plant is summarized in this paper. The genome of S. miltiorrhiza is small and its life cycle is short, as well as this plant can be stably genetically transformed. Because S. miltiorrhiza possesses the important medicinal and economic values, recently the transcriptome and genome of S. miltiorrhiza have been significantly recovered. The research prospect of S. miltiorrhiza as medicinal model plant in TCM was discussed, including biosynthesis of active components and their genetic regulation, relationship between quality of TCM and ecological environments, and selective breeding of good quality lines. Furthermore, as medicinal model plant, the construction of mutant library for S. miltiorrhiza, the genome map with high quality, and the functional genome should be investigated. Accompanying modern investigation of life sciences, the platform for medicinal model plant, S. miltiorrhiza, will be promoted to be established. It is important to develop the ethnopharmacology and new drugs around the world. PMID:24133975
A preliminary antiplasmodial and phytochemical screening of four Kenyan medicinalplants was carried out. The medicinalplants were extracted and tested for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against chloroquine-sensitive (K67) and chloroquine-resistant (ENT36) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. Out of 16 extracts, 12 were active against ENT36 strain while seven were active against K67 strain, that is, IC50 ? 50 ?g\\/ml. The
An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinalplants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional
In this paper, 126 traditional medicinalplants from Kirklareli Province in Turkey have been reported. One hundred and twenty six plant species belonging to 54 families and among them 100 species were wild and 26 species were cultivated plants. Most used families were Rosaceae, Labiatae, Compositae and the most used plants were Cotinus coggyria, Sambucus ebulus, Achillea millefolium subsp. pannonica, Hypericum perforatum, Matricaria chamomilla var. recutita, Melissa officinalis subsp. officinalis, Juglans regia, Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis var. subisophyllus, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, Plantago lanceolata, Rosa canina, Ecballium elaterium, Artemisia absinthium, Viscum album subsp. album, Papaver rhoeas, Helleborus orientalis, Cydonia oblonga, Prunus spinosa subsp. dasyphylla, Rubus discolor, Sorbus domestica. A total of 143 medicinal uses were obtained. The traditional medicinalplants have been mostly used for the treatment of wounds (25.3%), cold and influenza (24.6%), stomach (20%), cough (19%), kidney ailments (18.2%), diabetes (13.4%). PMID:17257791
An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinalplants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently
Tom Erik Grønhaug; Silje Glæserud; Mona Skogsrud; Ngolo Ballo; Sekou Bah; Drissa Diallo; Berit Smestad Paulsen
This study focuses on knowledge of medicinalplants among the Caiçaras (rural inhabitants of the Atlantic Forest coast, Brazil). In particular, we examine the use of medicinalplants according to sex and age to reveal general patterns of Caiçara knowledge and use of plant resources. Data collected through 449 interviews at 12 Caiçara communities (Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo
Alpina Begossi; Natalia Hanazaki; Jorge Y. Tamashiro
Progress in the studies on responses of medicinalplants to drought stress including changes of appearance, physiological adaptation, biochemistry response and molecular mechanisms were summarized. Committed steps of controlled experiment of medicinalplants to drought stress were proposed considering the characteristics of medicinalplants, which will provide rationale basis for clear elaboration of the responses of medicinalplant to the drought stress. PMID:20931837
The suitability of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) in medicinalplant analysis was investigated. PLE extracts from a selection of representative herbs were compared with extracts obtained according to Pharmacopoeia monographs with respect to yield of relevant plant constituents, extraction time and solvent consumption. In all cases a significant economy in time and solvents was realized, while extraction yields of the
Plants synthesise a vast array of secondary metabolites that are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extracts of ten Argentinean plants used in native medicine is reported. Antifungal assays included radial growth inhibition, disk and well diffusion assays and growth inhibition by broth dilution tests. The chosen test fungi were yeasts, microfungi and wood-rot
Emma Nelly Quiroga; Antonio Rodolfo Sampietro; Marta Amelia Vattuone
This supplement provides the medicinal properties of some 1,000 plants. The plants have been arranged in alphabetical order according to their scientific names so readers can find any particular drug on which information is required. Many of the commonly ...
During an ethnopharmacological survey of antiparasitic medicinalplants used in Ivory Coast, 17 plants were identified and collected. Polar, non-polar and alkaloidic extracts of various parts of these species were evaluated in vitro in an antiparasitic drug screening. Antimalarial, leishmanicidal, trypanocidal, antihelminthiasis and antiscabies activities were determined. Among the selected plants, Anogeissus leiocarpus and Terminalia glaucescens were strongly active against Plasmodium falciparum. Lawsonia inermis, selectively prescribed against trypanosomiasis shows interesting trypanocidal activities as did other 15 plants. Anthelmintic activities were found for 10 active species and 2 species (Uvaria afzelli and Monodora myristica) were actives against mites. PMID:14698515
The authors present a new approach using genetic algorithms, neural networks, and nanorobotics concepts applied to the problem of control design for nanoassembly automation and its application in medicine. As a practical approach to validate the proposed design, we have elaborated and simulated a virtual environment focused on control automation for nanorobotics teams that exhibit collective behavior. This collective behavior
The goal of this study is to inform those potentially interested (researchers, farmers, industry and public bodies) in the medicinal and aromatic properties, and profitability of Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton (Lamiaceae). Perilla, a medicinal and edible plant of Asian origin, was recently introduced to the Piedmont Region in the north-west of Italy. P. frutescens is commonly known for its anti-allergic, anti-tumor, and anti-oxidant properties. It is also widely used as human food. We collected a variety of data on Perilla crops in the Piedmont Region, including: agricultural practices, crop profitability, and its value as a bee plant. Our results suggest that ease of cultivation, approximate break-even economics, medicinal claims, and value for bees all contribute to make Perilla of economic interest in Italy. PMID:22164783
This paper is based on the results of an ethnobotanical project carried out in the area comprising Utror-Gabral Valleys of upper Swat. The residents of the area use indigenous medicinalplants for curing diseases and also sell some of them in the local market for earning their livelihood. About 44 medicinalplants are collected in the area during the months
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinalplants by the Zay people who live on islands as well as shore areas of Lake Ziway in the Ethiopian Rift Valley. A total of 33 medicinalplants were reported as being used locally for the treatment and\\/or control of human and livestock ailments. Results of
Mirutse Giday; Zemede Asfaw; Thomas Elmqvist; Zerihun Woldu
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in many physiological processes of plants, and it was also applied to fields of medicinalplant biotechnology. The article presents a review of some recent application of ABA in enhancing the production of secondary metabolites of medicinalplants, improving the in vitro conservation in medicinalplant tissue culture system. PMID:23596868
Methanol, methanol-water (1:1) and water extracts were prepared from seventy-seven Vietnamese medicinalplants and tested for their antiproliferative activities against human HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cells. Among them, fifteen extracts including seven methanol extracts of Caesalpinia sappan, Catharanthus roseus, Coscinium fenestratum, Eurycoma longifolia, Hydnophytum formicarum and Streptocaulon juventas (collected at two areas), six methanol-water (1:1) extracts of Cae. sappan, Cat. roseus, Co. fenestratum, H. formicarum and S. juventas (at two areas), and two water extracts of Cae. sappan and S. juventas exhibited antiproliferative activities in a concentration-dependent manner. Their antiproliferative activities against human cervix HeLa adenocarcinoma, human lung A549 adenocarcinoma, murine colon 26-L5 carcinoma, murine Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) and murine B16-BL6 melanoma cells were then examined. Co. fenestratum showed selective activity against lung carcinoma and/or lung metastatic cell lines, A549, LLC and B16-BL6, while H. formicarum and S. juventas showed selective activity against human tumor cell lines, HeLa and A549. Characteristic morphological change and DNA fragmentation indicated the antiproliferative activity to be due to the induction of apoptosis. PMID:12081142
Ueda, Jun-ya; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Banskota, Arjun Hari; Le Tran, Quan; Tran, Qui Kim; Harimaya, Yuko; Saiki, Ikuo; Kadota, Shigetoshi
Three different solar drying methods were carried out on four different medicinalplants to investigate the benefits of using an unglazed transpired solar dryer (UTSD) over other traditional methods. Methods involved included drying in an unglazed transpired solar dryer (using suction air flow rate of 0.06 ms), drying in the open air under direct sun rays and a common traditional drying
Due to excessive extraction of medicinalplant species in high altitude areas, Uttarakhand has seen a serious depletion of its biological resources. The state government has introduced policies to promote the conservation of these species and encourage farmers to cultivate them and supplement their incomes. This paper examines the impact of the Uttarakhand government’s promotional policies and also looks at
In an ethnopharmacological survey, extracts of the six East African medicinalplants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark and leaves), and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were tested against 105 strains of bacteria from seven genera (Staphylococcus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Mycobacterium). The minimum inhibitory concentration reached
Aqueous, methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts of 14 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine for treatment of ailments of an infectious nature were screened for antibacterial activity. Most of the activity detected was against Gram-positive bacteria. Tuber bark extracts of Dioscorea sylvatica had activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli and extracts of Dioscorea dregeana, Cheilanthes viridis and Vernonia colorata were active
Jonathan E. Kelmanson; Anna K. Jäger; Johannes van Staden
Antibacterial activity of hot aqueous and methanolic extracts prepared from six plants (Terminallia chebula, Terminallia bellerica, Phyllanthus emblica, Punica granatum, Lawsonia alba and Mikania micrantha) used in traditional folk medicines of India were screened against five pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus MTCC 2940, Bacillus subtilis MTCC 441, Escherichia coli MTCC 739, Proteus vulgaris MTCC 426 and Enterobacter aerogenes MTCC 111). The
Among 14 plants of Moroccan folk medicine tested for molluscicidal activity, ethyl acetate extract from Origanum compactum and hexane extracts from both Chenopodium ambrosioides and Ruta chalepensis were the most active (LC(90)=2.00, 2.23 and 2.23 mg l(-1), respectively) against the schistosomiasis-transmitting snail Bulinus truncatus. PMID:10844169
Oven dry powdered samples of 6 medicinalplant species were studied anatomically in search of micomorphological characters to identify the original plants used in the preparation. Moistened head of the needle was used to transfer samples unto a labeled glass slide containing 1 - 2 drops of water and glycerol\\/ethanolTS; covered with cover slip and warmed gently to remove air
Owing in large part to the foresight and efforts of Wally Welker, the National Museum of Health and Medicine has become a major repository for collections of brain specimens vital to the study of neurobehavioral evolution. From its origins in the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, with the collection of largely pathological specimens assembled by Paul Yakovlev, the museum has added to its resources four additional extensive collections, largely consisting of specimens acquired specifically for comparative and evolutionary studies: Welker's collection from the University of Wisconsin-Madison, John I. Johnson's collection from Michigan State University, the Adolf Meyer Collection from the Johns Hopkins University, and the Elizabeth Crosby collections from the University of Michigan. We describe here the history and contents of each of these five collections, to inform the scientific field of the extent and details of these remarkable resources. PMID:21599697
Starting with the isolation of a crystalline tannin (geraniin) of mild property from a popular herb medicine (Geranii herba), various polyphenolic compounds including those belonging to new classes of tannins (oligomeric hydrolyzable tannins, complex tannins, and other metabolites and condensates) have been isolated from various medicinalplants. Noticeable biological and pharmacological activities (inhibition of carcinogenesis, host-mediated antitumor activity, antiviral activity, and inhibition of active oxygen, such as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and lipoxygenase, xanthine oxidase, and monoamine oxidase) have been found for several of these polyphenolic compounds. PMID:1417694
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinalplants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20).
Summary A vast majority of population particularly those living in villages depend largely on herbal medicines. Scientific data on a good number of medicinalplants investigated has been well documented. However, only very few drugs of plant origin could reach clinical use and the National Formulary could not adopt even a dozen of plantmedicines. For this reason, a special
Medicinalplants are those plants that provide medicines - to prevent disease, maintain health or cure sickness. In one or other form, these plants benefit virtually everyone on the Earth. These plants are also related to various other usages, such as for nutrition, toiletry, bodily care, incense and ritual healing. Aromatic plants are used for their aroma and flavour and
Fifty-six ethanolic extracts of various parts of 39 plants used in traditional Australian Aboriginal medicine were investigated for their antibacterial activities against four Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes) and four Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) bacterial species. In a plate-hole diffusion assay, 12 extracts inhibited the growth of one or
Aqueous extracts of ten medicinalplants were examined for their antibacterial potential against some reference strains of\\u000a human pathogenic bacteria. Anethum graveolens, Elettaria cardamomum, Foeniculum vulgare, Trachyspermum ammi and Viola odorata were found to be better\\/equally effective compared to standard antibiotics. V. odorata was the most effective antibacterial with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 1 to 2%. The results
Silphium was both a spice and a medicinalplant. It was regarded as "one of the most precious gifts of Nature to man" (Pliny), and was one of the main sources of revenue contributing to Cyrenaica's wealth. It was so critical to the Cyrenian economy that most of their coins bore a picture of the plant. But, by the time of Nero, the plant had become extinct, probably as a result of overgrazing and overcropping. The botanical identification of silphium is dificult, but the plant was an Umbellifera and most closely resembled Ferula tingitana. Hippocrates, Celsus, Galen and Oribasius recommended it for quartan fever, but it was also said to be useful for many other diseases. PMID:18663988
Pesticide residues were determined in Egyptian spices and medicinalplants. For this purpose, a total of 303 samples, which represent 20 different plants were collected from sources in Egypt and several shipments All the collected samples were analyzed for the determination of organophosphorus and organochlorine residues. The obtained results showed the predominance of malathion in most of the analyzed samples.
An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinalplants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota
China consumes and exports traditional Chinese medicinal resources the most in the world. However, we cannot anchor our hope on field production of traditional Chinese medicinal materials and their active ingredients, due to limited land resources. Therefore, the development of biotechnology is of great importance for China to solve the problem of traditional Chinese medicinal resources. Plant cell culture is an important approach for the sustainable development of precious medicinal resources. This essary summarizes the optimization of conditions for medicinalplant cell culture, the regulation of secondary metabolic pathways and cell bioreactor culture, and realizes that the authentic commercial production of more medicinalplants requires efforts from all aspects. PMID:23630994
BACKGROUND: By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinalplants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. METHODS: Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district
Yadav Uprety; Hugo Asselin; Emmanuel K Boon; Saroj Yadav; Krishna K Shrestha
The uses of medicinalplants have always been part of human culture. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of the world's population relies on traditional medicinal system for some aspect of primary health care. However, there are few reports on the toxicological properties of most medicinalplants especially, their mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Therefore, this research is to
Alade Akintonwa; Olufunsho Awodele; Gbenga Afolayan; Herbert A. B. Coker
Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of
Medicinalplants contain a wide variety of active principles that have been exploited for the treatment of various ailments by a majority of the world's population. In recent years, many advanced biotechnological methods are employed to select, multiply, improve, and analyze medicinalplants for their application in traditional and modern medicinal preparations and drug discovery. The purpose of the present
The rural folk of North Andaman, India use the traditional medicine for their primary health care. Folklore medicinal uses of 72 interesting medicinalplant species along with botanical name, local name, family, habit, part used, disease for which the drug is administrated, mode of administration are presented. These 72 plant species which provide the crude drugs pertain to 67 genera
P. Rama Chandra Prasad; C. Sudhakar Reddy; S. H. Raza; C. B. S. Dutt
Traditional knowledge, uses, monetary costs, and benefits associated with medicinalplants were analyzed in the Chhakinal watershed of Northwestern Himalaya. Of 29 plant species used in folk medicine, only 3 species, Juglans regia, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, and Morchella esculenta were noted to have market value. The medicinal value of four species, Dioscorea deltoidea, Podophyllum hexandrum, Valeriana jatamansi, and Jurinea macrocephala, were
R. M. Dobriyal; G. S. Singh; K. S. Rao; K. G. Saxena
Medicinalplants used to treat hypoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions are of considerable interest to ethno-botanical community as they are recognized to contain valuable medicinal properties in different parts of the plant. The active principles of many plant species with desired properties are isolated to cure ailments such as diabetes type-1 and type-2, respectively. Here, we describe DiaMedBase, a database containing information of medicinalplants for diabetes. Availability http://www.progenebio.in/DMP/DMP.htm
An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information on the use of seven medicinalplants in rural areas in the nearby regions of Bamako, Mali. The plants were Opilia celtidifolia, Anthocleista djalonensis, Erythrina senegalensis, Heliotropium indicum, Trichilia emetica, Piliostigma thonningii and Cochlospermum tinctorium About 50 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The
Collection management of library materials about alternative medicine may be a growing problem for librarians because differing views exist regarding the acceptability of this information in a public forum. The purpose of the study reported was to investigate possible differences in the views of physicians, medical students, and librarians regarding the availability of information about alternative medicine for both medical students and the general public. Interviews were conducted with two representatives from each group, all of whom are affiliated with the Faculty of Medicine at The University of British Columbia or its library. The study was exploratory in nature, conducted in part to determine whether a larger research project in this area should be mounted. The data revealed considerable differences in opinion about alternative medicine: the librarians were more hesitant about the acceptability of radical or revolutionary materials, particularly those containing information that could result in direct harm to a patient. The physicians and medical students were more confident than the librarians that traditional medical treatment (and therefore information about it) should always be paramount.
To investigate the cytotoxic effect of some Bangladeshi medicinalplant extracts, 16 Bangladeshi medicinalplants were successively extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanolic and aqueous extracts were screened for cytotoxic activity against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and three human cancer-cell lines (gastric: AGS; colon: HT-29; and breast: MDA-MB-435S) using the MTT assay. Two methanolic extracts (Hygrophila auriculata and Hibiscus tiliaceous) and one aqueous extract (Limnophila indica) showed no toxicity against healthy mouse fibroblasts, but selective cytotoxicity against breast cancer cells (IC50 1.1–1.6?mg?mL?1). Seven methanolic extracts from L. indica, Clerodendron inerme, Cynometra ramiflora, Xylocarpus moluccensis, Argemone mexicana, Ammannia baccifera and Acrostichum aureum and four aqueous extracts from Hygrophila auriculata, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, X. moluccensis and Aegiceras corniculatum showed low toxicity (IC50 > 2.5?mg?mL?1) against mouse fibroblasts but selective cytotoxicity (IC50 0.2–2.3?mg?mL?1) against different cancer cell lines. The methanolic extract of Blumea lacera showed the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 0.01–0.08?mg?mL?1) against all tested cell lines among all extracts tested in this study. For some of the plants their traditional use as anticancer treatments correlates with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others so far unknown cytotoxic activities were identified.
Uddin, Shaikh J.; Grice, I. Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin
The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System is charged with the preservation of economically important crop plants and their wild relatives. Curators in the System strive to develop collections capturing the genetic diversity of each species. One mechanism for filling gaps in collections is through...
Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinalplants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinalplants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinalplant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinalplants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinalplants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinalplants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinalplant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade.
In this paper, forty-three folk medicinalplants from ?ile (Turkey) have been reported. Among them 35 species were wild and eight species were cultivated plants. The folk medicinalplants have been mostly used for the treatment of eczema, stomach and kidney ailments, asthma, cough, diabetes, and wounds.
A total of 82 Indian medicinalplants traditionally used in medicines were subjected to preliminary antibacterial screening against several pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Aqueous, hexane and alcoholic extracts of each plant were tested for their antibacterial activity using agar well diffusion method at sample concentration of 200 mg\\/ml. The results indicated that out of 82 plants, 56 exhibited antibacterial activity
Cassia alata Linn, Nauclea latifolia, Clerodendron splendens and Bryophyllum pinnatum are some of the Nigerian exotic medicinalplants. These plants not only acts as ornamental but also exhibit antiviral, antifungal, antimalarial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. They are sources of drugs and are used in herbal medicine to treat measles, malaria, asthma, eczema, cough, hepatitis, ringworm, ulcer and scabies. These plants
Tripterygium wilfordii is regarded as a promising traditional medicinalplant showing several, mainly antiinflammatory and cytotoxic activities. It contains unusal natural products currently under investigation as lead compounds. The species has been well known in Traditional Chinese Medicine but was recognized in Western science as an insecticide not before the 1930's and as a promising medicinalplant in the 1960's. The name refers to Charles Wilford, employed as a botanical collector at Kew Botanical Gardens, London from 1857-1860. He collected the plant on the island of Taiwan, formerly called Formosa, in June 1858, unfortunately without reporting its medicinal use in the country of origin. The plant was named according to the Linnaean system before 1862 what initially concealed its medicinal properties which had to be re-discovered in the second half of the 20th century. PMID:23923652
The Market for MedicinalPlants in Sapa and Hanoi, Vietnam. Economic Botany 59(4):377-385, 2005. This article describes the market for medicinalplants sold in the Vietnamese town\\u000a of Sapa as well as in nine different markets in the Vietnamese capital city, Hanoi. A total of 44 medicinalplants were identified\\u000a botanically, 27 of which are on sale in Sapa and
The essential elements in six traditional Ghanaian plantmedicines used at the Center for Scientific Research into PlantMedicine (CSRPM), Mampong-Akwapim, Ghana, for the management and cure of various diseases were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), using thermal neutrons at a flux of 5 E 11 ns cm. The plantmedicines were: Ninga powder, Lippia tea, Ritchiea powder, Momordica powder, Kenken powder
Y. Serfor-Armah; B. J. B. Nyarko; E. H. K. Akaho; A. W. K. Kyere; S. Osae; K. Oppong-Boachie
An ethnobotanical survey was carried out to collect information on the use of medicinalplants by the Lisu people who live\\u000a in the mountainous areas of the Nujiang Canyon (Salween River Valley) in Nujiang Prefecture, northwestern Yunnan Province,\\u000a China. A total of 52 medicinalplants, belonging to 32 families, were reported as being used locally for the treatment of\\u000a human
Medicinalplants activities include the collection, processing, marketing, cultivation and manufacturing of herbal medicines including formulation as per Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Homoeopathy and Naturopathy System of medicines. There is a good scope for incorporating newer drugs in different formulations by adding locally avail- able drugs. Incorporation of herbs used by the local healers in various formulations is the site of
The authors present a new approach using genetic algorithms, neural networks, and nanorobotics concepts applied to the problem of control design for nanoassembly automation and its application in medicine. As a practical approach to validate the proposed design, we have elaborated and simulated a virtual environment focused on control automation for nanorobotics teams that exhibit collective behavior. This collective behavior is a suitable way to perform a large range of tasks and positional assembly manipulation in a complex three-dimensional workspace. We emphasize the application of such techniques as a feasible approach for the investigation of nanorobotics system design in nanomedicine. Theoretical and practical analyses of control modeling is one important aspect that will enable rapid development in the emerging field of nanotechnology.
Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinalplants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinalplants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinalplants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinalplants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource.
Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinalplant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinalplant. PMID:23681554
Fifty medicinalplants belonging to 26 families were studied for their antimicrobial activity. Among 50 plants tested, 72% showed antimicrobial activity. About 22 plant extracts from 15 families exhibited activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Fourteen plants belonging to 11 families did not show activity against any of the bacteria tested. Only nine plant extracts showed antifungal activity. The
D. Srinivasan; Sangeetha Nathan; T. Suresh; P. Lakshmana Perumalsamy
China is a country rich in medicinalplants because of its wide territory and variety of geography. Plentiful experience has been accumulated and recorded in the long history of traditional Chinese medicine, but the mechanisms of many Chinese medicines remain unclear. This fascinating research field has been attracting tremendous research efforts of scientists in chemistry, biology and medical sciences. Some
Background Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinalplants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinalplant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which extent medicinalplants are vulnerable due to collection and habitat destruction. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Miandam area of Swat, North Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and locals by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. Results A total of 106 ethno-medicinalplant species belonging to 54 plant families were recorded. The most common growth forms were perennial (43%) and short-lived herbs (23%), shrubs (16%), and trees (15%). Most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%), fruits (18%) and subterranean parts (15%). A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinalplant species and remedies concerns gastro-intestinal disorders. The remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction or powder and were mainly taken orally. Eighty out of 106 ethno-medicinalplants were indigenous. Almost 50% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while slightly more than 50% were found in semi-natural, though extensively grazed, woodland and grassland vegetation. Three species (Aconitum violaceum, Colchicum luteum, Jasminum humile) must be considered vulnerable due to excessive collection. Woodlands are the main source for non-synanthropic indigenous medicinalplants. The latter include many range-restricted taxa and plants of which rhizomes and other subterranean parts are dug out for further processing as medicine. Conclusion Medicinalplants are still widely used for treatment in the area of Swat. Some species of woodlands seem to be adapted to wood-pasture, but vulnerable to overcollecting, and in particular to deforestation. It is suggested to implement local small-scaled agroforestry systems to cultivate vulnerable and commercially valuable ethno-medicinal woodland plants under local self-government responsibility.
phytomedicinal compounds. Horticultural research on medicinalplants has focused on developing the capacity for optimal growth in cultivation. This has been especially pertinent as many medicinalplants are still harvested in the wild, and conditions for growth in cultivation have not been optimized. Wild harvesting of medicinalplants can be problematic in terms of biodiversity loss, potential variation in me-
Background Medicinalplants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinalplants used by the Tibetan people. Methods After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Results Sixty-eight medicinalplant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinalplants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. Conclusion As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant traditional Tibetan medicinal prescriptions and using methods. It implies that more Tibetan medicinalplants and traditional knowledge can be discovered. Further research should be done to save the wealth of these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences before they are dying out.
Aim of the study. Ethnobotanically-driven drug-discovery programs include data related to many aspects of the preparation of botanical medicines, from initial plantcollection to chemical extraction and fractionation. The Traditional Medicine-Collection Tracking System (TM-CTS) was created to organize and store data of this type for an international collaborative project involving the systematic evaluation of commonly used Traditional Chinese Medicinalplants. Materials and Methods. The system was developed using domain-driven design techniques, and is implemented using Java, Hibernate, PostgreSQL, Business Intelligence and Reporting Tools (BIRT), and Apache Tomcat. Results. The TM-CTS relational database schema contains over 70 data types, comprising over 500 data fields. The system incorporates a number of unique features that are useful in the context of ethnobotanical projects such as support for information about botanical collection, method of processing, quality tests for plants with existing pharmacopoeia standards, chemical extraction and fractionation, and historical uses of the plants. The database also accommodates data provided in multiple languages and integration with a database system built to support high throughput screening based drug discovery efforts. It is accessed via a web-based application that provides extensive, multi-format reporting capabilities. Conclusions. This new database system was designed to support a project evaluating the bioactivity of Chinese medicinalplants. The software used to create the database is open source, freely available, and could potentially be applied to other ethnobotanically-driven natural product collection and drug-discovery programs.
Harris, Eric S. J.; Erickson, Sean D.; Tolopko, Andrew N.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Liu, Yong; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Clardy, Jon; Shamu, Caroline E.; Eisenberg, David M.
In recent years the quest for longevity and an improved quality of life has ventured into the realm of natural therapeutics, resulting in a wider acceptance of plant-based medicine in the Western world. This increased interest in natural remedies has also brought about the great challenge of maintaining a balance between the demand of expanding markets for plant-based medicines and
Susan J. Murch; Sriyani E. Peiris; C.-Z. Liu; Praveen K. Saxena
Communities in Cabo Delgado have a long tradition of using medicinalplants. In Mozambique, rural populations in general are highly dependent on natural resources. One example is the use of surrounding vegetation by people from Cabo Delgado. They use plants for food, handicrafts, construction, as a primary energy source and even for medicine purposes. In this survey, we examined the
Some researchers suggest that two-thirds of the world's plant species have medicinal value; in particular, many medicinalplants have great antioxidant potential. Antioxidants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and are therefore useful in the treatment of many human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory diseases. This paper reviews the antioxidant potential of extracts from the stems, roots, bark,
Medicinalplants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinalplants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and – for comparative purposes – Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct
Michael Heinrich; Anita Ankli; Barbara Frei; Claudia Weimann; Otto Sticher
Evidence of the use of plants for medicinal purposes dates as far back as 60 000 years ago (1) in both western and eastern cultures; in both developed and undeveloped countries. For example, the pharmacopoeia of Emperor Shen Nung of China, around 2730-3000 BC, describes the medicinal use of plants such as Hemp, Aconite, Opium. The Egyptian Phar- macopoeia of
The present study evaluated the in vivo hepatoprotective activity of two medicinalplants, namely, Justicia schimperiana (Hochst. ex Nees) (Acanthaceae) and Verbascum sinaiticum Benth. (Scrophulariaceae) used in Ethiopian traditional medical practices for the treatment of liver diseases. The levels of hepatic marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were used to assess their hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. The results revealed that pretreating mice with the hydro-alcoholic extracts of both plants significantly suppressed the plasma AST ((P < 0.01) J. schimperiana; (P < 0.05) V. Sinaiticum) and ALT ((P < 0.05) J. schimperiana) activity when compared with the CCl4 intoxicated control. Among the Soxhlet extracts of each of the plants, the methanol extract of J. schimperiana showed significant hepatoprotective activity. Further fractionation of this extract using solid phase extraction and testing them for bioactivity indicated that the fractions did not significantly reverse liver toxicity caused by CCl4. However, the percentage hepatoprotection of the distilled water fraction was comparable with that of the standard drug silymarin at the same dose (50 mg/kg) as evidenced by biochemical parameters. Histopathological studies also supported these results. In vitro DPPH assay conducted on the water fraction of J. schimperiana and the Soxhlet methanol fraction of V. sinaiticum showed that they possess moderate radical scavenging activity (IC50 = 51.2 and 41.7 microg/mL, respectively) which led to the conclusion that the hepatoprotective activity of the plants could be in part through their antioxidant action. PMID:20645727
This study documents the abundance, distribution and knowledge of medicinalplant species in a Ransa Dayak village and adjoining\\u000a forest in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Over 250 medicinalplant species from 165 genera and 75 families are utilized by the\\u000a local healer. Late successional, primary and river bench forests contained the highest diversity of locally-utilized medicinal\\u000a species and the greatest number
India have well-recorded and well practiced knowledge of traditional herbal medicines under indigenous systems of medicine like Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani. On the other hand, with about 6000 plants representing about 75% of the medicinal needs of the third world countries India is a major worldwide exporter of raw medicinal and aromatic plants and processed plant-based drugs. Government of India
Background This study documents the use of medicinalplants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinalplant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinalplants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinalplants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal species are necessary.
Dendrobium is the largest genus of tropical epiphytic orchid, some of which are traditional Chinese medicinalplants. The therapeutic\\u000a components varied significantly among species. Endophytic microbes (fungi) hidden in medicinalplants may play an important\\u000a effect on the overall quality of herb. Investigation of fungal composition in host plants is the first step toward elucidating\\u000a the relationship endophyte-therapeutic content of
Juan Chen; Ke-Xing Hu; Xiao-Qiang Hou; Shun-Xing Guo
Strategies of plants, known as metallophytes, in response to metal excess are explored. Specific features of medicinalplants\\u000a related to metal exposition are discussed. Different parameters used for metallophyte classification are discussed. Bioaccumulation\\u000a and translocation factors are characterized. Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L.), one of the most important medicinalplants, is presented as a case history. Based on actual knowledge of
Elena Masarovi?ová; Katarína Krá?ová; Marie Kummerová
Among 288 extracts, prepared from 96 medicinalplants used in Vietnamese traditional medicine to treat gout and related symptoms, 188 demonstrated xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity at 100 microg/ml, with 46 having greater than 50% inhibition. At 50 microg/ml, 168 of the extracts were active, with 21 possessing more than 50% inhibition. At 25 microg/ml, 146 extracts exhibited inhibitory activity, with 8 showing over 50% inhibition, while 126 extracts presented activity at 10 microg/ml, with 2 having greater than 50% inhibition. The MeOH extracts of Artemisia vulgaris, Caesalpinia sappan (collected at the Seven-Mountain area), Blumea balsamifera (collected in Lam Dong province), Chrysanthemum sinense and MeOH-H(2)O extract of Tetracera scandens (Khanh Hoa province) exhibited strong XO inhibitory activity with IC(50) values less than 20 microg/ml. The most active extract was the MeOH extract of the flower of C. sinense with an IC(50) value of 5.1 microg/ml. Activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract led to the isolation of caffeic acid (1), luteolin (2), eriodictyol (3), and 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (4). All these compounds showed significant XO inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, and the activity of 2 was more potent (IC(50) 1.3 microM) than the clinically used drug, allopurinol (IC(50) 2.5 microM). PMID:15340229
Nguyen, Mai Thanh Thi; Awale, Suresh; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Tran, Quan Le; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadota, Shigetoshi
As part of the ICBG program Bioactive Agents from Dryland Biodiversity of Latin America, the present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible antimycobacterial potential of compounds derived from selected Mexican medicinalplants. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude extracts of Rumex hymenosepalus (Polygonaceae), Larrea divaricata (Zygophyllaceae), Phoradendron robinsonii (Loranthaceae) and Amphipteryngium adstringens (Julianiaceae) led to the isolation of several antimycobacterial compounds. Four stilbenoids, two flavan-3-ols and three anthraquinones were isolated from R. hymenosepalus. Two flavonols and nordihydroguaiaretic acid were obtained from L. divaricata. Sakuranetin was the antimycobacterial agent isolated from P. robinsonii. Two known triterpenoids and the novel natural product 3-dodecyl-1,8-dihydroxy-2-naphthoic acid were obtained from A. adstringens. In general, the isolates were identified by spectral means. The antimycobacterial activity of the secondary compounds isolated from the analysed species, as well as that of nine pure compounds previously isolated in our laboratories, was investigated; the MIC values ranged from 16 to 128 microg mL-1. Among the tested compounds, the glycolipids, sesquiterpenoids and triterpenoids showed the best antimycobacterial activity. The antimycobacterial property of the glycolipids is reported for the first time. Although the tested compounds showed moderate antimycobacterial activity, their presence in the analysed species provides the rationale for their traditional use in the treatment of tuberculosis. PMID:16105233
Rivero-Cruz, Isabel; Acevedo, Laura; Guerrero, José A; Martínez, Sergio; Bye, Robert; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio; Franzblau, Scott; Timmermann, Barbara N; Mata, Rachel
Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122
South African medicinalplants are traditionally harvested from a wide range of undisclosed locations by plant gatherers. Thus, there is a risk that plant material may be exposed to a variety of pollutants. The variation in five heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and lead) and six essential elements (boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc) was determined in commonly used South African medicinalplants obtained from street markets. Elemental content was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometry. The reliability of the procedure was ensured by analysing a certified reference material. Medicinalplant samples contained arsenic and cadmium at levels exceeding the World Health Organization limits of 1 and 0.3 mg kg(-1) respectively. Lead and nickel were detected in all samples. Elevated iron and manganese levels were recorded in certain plant species. Multiple metal contamination of parts of medicinalplants gives grounds for concern. This study emphasizes the unsafe consequences of the South African practice of collectingmedicinalplants from undisclosed locations and making these readily available to the public. PMID:18608487
Street, R A; Kulkarni, M G; Stirk, W A; Southway, C; Van Staden, J
Coscinium fenestratum is a common medicinalplant widely used in the Indochina region, but scientific data on its safety is very limited. This study aimed to observe the effect of this plant on neurotoxicity and neurobehavior. Oral administration of plant alcoholic extract at dosages of 5, 10 and 20mg\\/kgBW for 14 days increased the rats body weight and decreased the
Background Medicinalplants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to organize a database of medicinalplants including their applications and associated procedures in Canhane village, district of Massingir, province of Gaza, Mozambique. Methods In order to gather information about indigenous medicinalplants and to maximize the collection of local knowledge, eleven informants were selected taking into account the dimension of the site and the fact that the vegetation presents a great homogeneity. The data were collected through intensive structured and semi-structured interviews performed during field research. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on field observations and herbarium collections. Results A total of 53 plant species have been reported, which were used to treat 50 different human health problems. More than half of the species were used for stomach and intestine related disturbances (including major diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery). Additionally, four species with therapeutic applications were reported for the first time, whose potential can further be exploited. The great majority of the identified species was also associated with beliefs and myths and/or used as food. In general, the community was conscientious and motivated about conservational issues and has adopted measures for the rational use of medicinalplants. Conclusions The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the Canhane village. The local community had a rich ethnobotanical knowledge and adopted sound management conservation practices. The data compiled in this study show the social importance of the surveyed plants being a contribution to the documentation of PGR at the national and regional level.
The in-vivo action of plant growth hormones on medicinalplants has been investigated only sporadically in regard to growth and yield of pharmaceutically important compounds. The economic significance of attempts of manipulating the development of drug plants and of their productivity of secondary products invites a review of the literature and of current research efforts. The proliferation of the literature
Antibacterial activity of organic and aqueous extracts of 15 Palestinian medicinalplants were carried against eight different species of bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, two Escherichia coli species, Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistant), two S. aureus (methicillin sensitive) species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus fecalis. Of the 15 plants tested, eight showed antibacterial activity. Each plant species has unique against different bacteria. The most
High-valued medicinalplants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389
High-valued medicinalplants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time.
Argentina is a country with both rich floral biodiversity and cultural diversity. Traditional herbal medicines are important in the health care of most people, and rely heavily on the use of indigenous plants. An ethnobotanical survey of the “Sierra de Comechingones” made over a 26-year period (1979–2005), indicated that 65 families and 149 different genuses were used in traditional medicines.
Marta Ester Goleniowski; G. A. Bongiovanni; L. Palacio; C. O. Nuñez; J. J. Cantero
Natural products had been indispensably used by many cultures and traditions in folklore medicines for thousands of years. These traditional medicines cater to about 85% of the world population for their primary health care needs. Natural products have been intensively explored also for their bioactive pharmacophores by modern pharmaceutical companies. In fact they are the skeletal framework of about 60%
Background The use of medicinalplants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinalplants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinalplants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinalplants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinalplants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea.
Abstracts are provided of the world-wide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: Agronomy; Botany; Breeding and Genetics; Diseases and Pests; Physiology and Biochemistry; Pharmacognosy; Clinic...
Abstracts are provided of the world-wide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: Agronomy, botany, breeding and genetics, diseases and pests, physiology and biochemistry, pharmacognosy, clinic...
This dissertation has presented the results from analysis of medicinalplant extracts using neutron activation method. Instrumental neutron activation analysis was applied to the determination of the elements Al, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cs, Fe, K, La, Mg, Mn,...
Abstracts are provided of the world-wide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: agronomy, botany, breeding, diseases and pests, physiology and biochemistry, pharmacognosy, clinical evaluation...
BACKGROUND: Six Nigerian medicinalplants Terminalia avicennioides, Phylantus discoideus, Bridella ferruginea, Ageratum conyzoides, Ocimum gratissimum and Acalypha wilkesiana used by traditional medical practitioners for the treatment of several ailments of microbial and non-microbial origins were investigated for in vitro anti-methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) activity. METHODS: Fresh plant materials were collected from the users. Water and ethanol extracts of the
Kabir O Akinyemi; Olukayode Oladapo; Chidi E Okwara; Christopher C Ibe; Kehinde A Fasure
Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinalplant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinalplants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinalplants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinalplants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinalplants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinalplant knowledge. Children knew the medicinalplants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinalplants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinalplants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinalplants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinalplants and the shift of healing practices towards a source of income with mainly non-indigenous customers, are signs of acculturation. Future studies on quantification of the use of medicinalplants, dynamics of transmission of ethno-medicinal knowledge to the young generations and comparison with available pharmacological data on the most promising medicinalplants are suggested.
Medicinalplants and their endophytes are important resources for discovery of natural products. Several previous studies\\u000a have found a positive correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic content (TPC) of many medicinal\\u000a plant extracts. However, no information is available on whether such a relationship also exists in their endophytic fungal\\u000a metabolites. We investigated the relationship between TAC and
Wu-Yang Huang; Yi-Zhong Cai; Jie Xing; Harold Corke; Mei Sun
The present paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the reducing effect of some medicinal herbs on voluntary alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism. Pueraria lobata, Tabernanthe iboga, Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum proved to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. Reduction of alcohol absorption from the gastrointestinal system appears to be a common feature among most of the above plants. These data suggest that medicinalplants may constitute novel and effective pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. PMID:10930711
Carai, M A; Agabio, R; Bombardelli, E; Bourov, I; Gessa, G L; Lobina, C; Morazzoni, P; Pani, M; Reali, R; Vacca, G; Colombo, G
The Carrier, an Athapaskan-speaking people of northcentral British Columbia, occupy the sub-boreal spruce forests of the central interior. This report, which is based on field study, documents some traditional and contemporary knowledge of the medicinal use of plants by the Carrier people. Important medicinalplants include: Abies lasiocarpa, Alnus incana, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, Artemisia frigida, Fragaria virginiana, Juniperus communis, Picea glauca, Pinus contorta, Populus tremuloides, Rubus idaeus and Shepherdia canadensis. PMID:8735452
Ritch-Krc, E M; Thomas, S; Turner, N J; Towers, G H
The methanol extracts of nine medicinalplants traditionally used in Chinese medicine were screened for antioxidant activity versus resveratrol, which has been shown to protect cells from oxidative damage [Toxicol. Lett. 102 (1998) 5]. Most of the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the H2O2-induced apoptosis of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells. The extracts of Areca catechu var.
Si Eun Lee; Hyun Jin Hwang; Jung-Sun Ha; Han-Seung Jeong; Jeong Hee Kim
Dandelion plants, the genus Taraxacum, are used in herbal medicine owing to their choleretic, diuretic and anti-carcinogenic activities and several medicinal compounds have been isolated from the roots of these plants. Metabolic manipulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis is a potential strategy to improve the production of high-value secondary metabolites. The enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is known to control a key
Tae Woong Bae; Hae Ryoung Park; Youn Sig Kwak; Hyo Yeon Lee; Stephen B. Ryu
Diversity of MedicinalPlants among Different Forest-use Types of the Pakistani Himalaya Medicinalplantscollected in Himalayan forests play a vital role in the livelihoods of regional rural societies and are also increasingly recognized at the international level. However, these forests are being heavily transformed by logging. Here we ask how forest transformation influences the diversity and composition of medicinalplants in northwestern Pakistan, where we studied old-growth forests, forests degraded by logging, and regrowth forests. First, an approximate map indicating these forest types was established and then 15 study plots per forest type were randomly selected. We found a total of 59 medicinalplant species consisting of herbs and ferns, most of which occurred in the old-growth forest. Species number was lowest in forest degraded by logging and intermediate in regrowth forest. The most valuable economic species, including six Himalayan endemics, occurred almost exclusively in old-growth forest. Species composition and abundance of forest degraded by logging differed markedly from that of old-growth forest, while regrowth forest was more similar to old-growth forest. The density of medicinalplants positively correlated with tree canopy cover in old-growth forest and negatively in degraded forest, which indicates that species adapted to open conditions dominate in logged forest. Thus, old-growth forests are important as refuge for vulnerable endemics. Forest degraded by logging has the lowest diversity of relatively common medicinalplants. Forest regrowth may foster the reappearance of certain medicinal species valuable to local livelihoods and as such promote acceptance of forest expansion and medicinalplants conservation in the region. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12231-012-9213-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:23293378
Rauvolfia serpentina L. is a high value medicinalplant having wide distribution in the tropics as well as other parts of the world. Thirteen accessions of Rauvolfia collected from different locations in the Western Ghat region of the peninsular India were analyzed for genetic variation using 15 ISSR primers. The 91 polymorphic amplicons generated were statistically analyzed using WinDist and
Anemopsis californica (Saururaceae) commonly called yerba mansa, is an important medicinalplant in many deserts in the southwestern region of North America. Populations of A. californica, collected throughout New Mexico, were examined for chemical variability in roots and rhizomes for select monocyclic (cymene, limonene, piperitone and thymol) and bicyclic (?-pinene, 1,8-cineole and myrtenol) monoterpenoid and phenylpropanoid (methyleugenol, isoeugenol and elemicin)
Andrea L. Medina-Holguín; F. Omar Holguín; Sandra Micheletto; Sondra Goehle; Julian A. Simon; Mary A. O’Connell
Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinalplants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinalplant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinalplants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinalplant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government is addressing the potential loss of valuable species in this region.
Asthma is a common disease that is rising in prevalence worldwide with the highest prevalence in industrialized countries. Asthma affect about 300 million people worldwide and it has been estimated that a further 100 million will be affected by 2025. Since the ancient times, plants have been exemplary sources of medicine. Current asthma therapy lack satisfactory success due to adverse effect, hence patients are seeking complementary and alternative medicine to treat their asthma. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in various human ailments. India has about 45 000 plant species and among them several thousand are claimed to possess medicinal properties. Researches conducted in the last few decades on the plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for asthma have shown antiasthmatic, antihistaminic and antiallergic activity. This review reveals that some plants and their extract have antiasthmatic, antihistaminic, anticholinergic and antiallergic activity.
In the present study, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of 16 Jordanian medicinalplant extracts against four reference bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Enterobacter faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi. For that purpose, whole plants were extracted and antimicrobial susceptibility testing and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were determined. Ethanolic extracts of most medicinalplants exerted a dose-dependent cytotoxiciy against different reference bacteria. Origanum syriaca, Varthemia iphionoides, Psidium guajava, Sarcopoterium spinosa plant extracts were most active against S. aureus (MIC; 70 ?g/mL), E. faecalis (MIC; 130 ?g/mL), E. coli (MIC; 153 ?g/mL), and S. typhi (MIC; 110 ?g/mL), respectively. Results indicate that medicinalplants grown in Jordan might be a valuable source of starting materials for the extraction and/or isolation of new antibacterial agents. PMID:23455195
Masadeh, Majed Mohammad; Alkofahi, Ahmad Suleiman; Tumah, Haitham Najeeb; Mhaidat, Nizar Mahmoud; Alzoubi, Karem Hasan
Medicinal and aromatic plants (MAPs) are important sources for plant secondary metabolites, which are important for human\\u000a healthcare. Improvement of the yield and quality of these natural plant products through conventional breeding is still a\\u000a challenge. However, recent advances in plant genomics research has generated knowledge leading to a better understanding of\\u000a the complex genetics and biochemistry involved in biosynthesis
Buddleja globosa is a medicinal shrub native to Chile. Its leaves have been traditionally used for wound and ulcer healing. Different medicinal properties, such as outstanding antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, wound healing and analgesic activities have been shown. Today, all raw materials for pharmaceutical process are coming from wild collection or recently established crops but not from selected plants. Studies of the
Hermine Vogel; Paula Jeldres; Iván Razmilic; Ursula Doll
This article examines how a group of public health physicians in the urban Amazon values medicinalplant knowledge. As biomedical health care providers, physicians routinely draw on scientific plant knowledge. At the same time, as residents of the Amazon and health care providers to the poor, they are aware of and sometimes participate in local systems of plant knowledge. When discussing medicinalplant use, physicians repeatedly mention three themes: science, superstition, and biopiracy. The way in which physicians construct and negotiate these themes is part of the process of maintaining and legitimating their expertise and authority. This analysis finds that context is key to understanding whether, when, and why physicians value certain bodies of knowledge. Locally, in clinics, scientific plant knowledge is constructed as superior. In a global context, however, local plant knowledge is explicitly valued. This situational valuation/devaluation of plant knowledge relates to the positions of power physicians occupy in each context. PMID:14716920
Medicinalplants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinalplants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinalplants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinalplants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115
Extracts from plants have been used among traditional healers, especially in tropical areas where there are plentiful sources, as therapy for snakebite for a long time. Several medicinalplants, which appear in old drug recipes or which have been passed on by oral tradition, are believed to be snakebite antidotes. In modern science, there have been many attempts to study
Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic
Anna K. Jäger; Anne Hutchings; Johannes van Staden
Crude extracts from 21 South African medicinalplants, traditionally used for ailments of an infectious or septic nature, were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity using the agar diffusion and dilution methods. Almost all the activity exhibited was against Gram-positive bacteria, with 12 of the 21 plant species tested showing some activity against Bacillus subtilis. Only the Warburgia salutaris methanol
Halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinalplant metabolism would
Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also
A. M. Ageel; N. S. Parmar; J. S. Mossa; M. A. Al-Yahya; M. S. Al-Said; M. Tariq
Gloriosa superba L. is a perennial climber and is used as an ayurvedic medicinal herb to cure diseases in various parts of Africa and Southeast Asia. The plant was under threatened category due to its imprudent harvesting from wild as it is extensively used by medicinal industries for its colchicine content. It also faces a low seed set problem, but due to its industrial demand it is now under cultivation. The plant is used to cure arthritis, gout, rheumatism, inflammation, ulcers, bleeding piles, skin diseases, leprosy, impotency, snakebites, etc. Various compounds have been isolated from the plant parts mainly tubers and seeds, viz colchicine, colchicoside (its semi-synthetic derivative - thiocolchicoside), superbine, gloriosine, lumicolchicine, 3-demethyl-N-deformyl-N-deacetylcolchicine, 3-demethylcolchicine, N-formyl deacetylcolchicine. In the present review, we have summarized the information concerning the occurrence, botanical description, ethanopharmacology, medicinal uses, biological activities and toxicological studies on this plant. PMID:21059382
Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada- kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method. PMID:22557193
In order to determine the frequency and characteristics of the use of medicinalplants in patients from two third-level hospitals in the city of Cusco, a cross-sectional study was conducted between August and September 2011. For data collection, an instrument was built and validated through experts' judgment. The sample included 250 people selected in a non-probabilistic way. 83.2 and 75.3% informed having had used medicinalplants sometime during their lives and in the last month, respectively; additionally, 85.7 indicated that they wished their doctor would have prescribed them medicinalplants. Their most frequent uses include digestive problems (62.4%) as well as urinary (42.4%) and respiratory problems (40.4%). We conclude that the use of medicinalplants is widely spread among users of two hospitals in the city of Cusco. Utilization patterns show that patients wished the physicians of the health system prescribed medicinalplants in their consults. PMID:23612815
The bioactive compounds of medicinalplants are products of the plant itself or of endophytes living inside the plant. Endophytes isolated from eight different anticancer plantscollected in Yunnan, China, were characterized by diverse 16S and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies. A functional gene-based molecular screening strategy was used to target nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in endophytes. Bioinformatic analysis of these biosynthetic pathways facilitated inference of the potential bioactivity of endophyte natural products, suggesting that the isolated endophytes are capable of producing a plethora of secondary metabolites. All of the endophyte culture broth extracts demonstrated antiproliferative effects in at least one test assay, either cytotoxic, antibacterial or antifungal. From the perspective of natural product discovery, this study confirms the potential for endophytes from medicinalplants to produce anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal compounds. In addition, PKS and NRPS gene screening is a valuable method for screening isolates of biosynthetic potential. PMID:22430508
Miller, Kristin I; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Roufogalis, Basil D; Neilan, Brett A
Plant-derived medicines have a long history of use for the prevention and treatment of human disease. Today, many pharmaceuticals currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have origins to plant sources. A major role for plant-derived compounds based on the reported immunomodulatory effects has emerged in recent times and has led to the rigorous scientific examination to determine efficacy and safety. The discovery of novel plant compounds with immune system modulating activities has become an increasingly important area of research, particularly in the search for new-generation vaccine adjuvants. This review discusses the important role of plant-derived medicines as immunomodulators and provides evidence in support of the continued investigation of this new class of drugs for the maintenance of human health. The identification and characterization of plant compounds that augment new or existing vaccines, and in particular mucosally administered vaccines, will be of significant interest to vaccinologists and immunologists. PMID:21056709
An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinalplants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinalplants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinalplants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition.
Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinalplant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinalplant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinalplant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinalplant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinalplants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinalplant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinalplant consumption dynamics (medicinalplants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinalplant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinalplant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinalplants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinalplant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinalplant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies.
The vast majority of the medicinalplants in Chile have been studied from a pharmacological point of view. These studies, although giving important insights into the understanding of the Mapuche’s traditional medicine in terms of the therapeutical value of the plants, fail, however, to portray the numerous sociocultural and symbolic aspects of this form of medicine. This article aims to
The antimicrobial activity of crude ethanolic extracts of 16 Siberian medicinalplants was tested against five species of microorganisms: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. Of the 16 plants tested, 12 showed antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active antimicrobial plants were Bergenia crassifolia,Chelidonium majus,Rhaponticum carthamoides,Sanguisorba officinalis, and Tussilago farfara.
L. Kokoska; Z. Polesny; V. Rada; A. Nepovim; T. Vanek
Inhibitors of carbohydrate hydrolyzing enzymes such as ?-amylase play an important role for the control of diabetes mellitus\\u000a especially in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study we selected ten antidiabetic medicinalplants, because they have\\u000a been recommended to treat diabetes in traditional Iranian medicine, and screened them for ?-amylase inhibitory activities.\\u000a Among the tested samples, Camellia sinensis (Theaceae)
People’s livelihood in several Himalayan regions largely depends on collection, use, and trade of medicinalplants. Traditional\\u000a use is generally not a problem, but commercial gathering of selected species to meet increasing national and international\\u000a demand can result in over-exploitation. Sustainable management of medicinalplants requires a clear understanding of the respective\\u000a roles, responsibilities and viewpoints of the various stakeholders
Yadav Uprety; Ram C. Poudel; Hugo Asselin; Emmanuel K. Boon; Krishna K. Shrestha
Conclusion The major portion of the local population which is economically depressed is scattered in different hill terrains, which are\\u000a beyond the normal mode of approach. Sometimes it takes days to reach remote corners of the country, where the usual supply\\u000a of allopathic medicine is out of the question. Due to increasing export demand, dependence of the local people on the
M. P. Singh; S. B. Malla; S. B. Rajbhandari; A. Manandhar
Medicinalplants constitute an important component of flora and are widely distrib- uted in India. The pharmacological evaluation of substances from plants is an established method for the identification of lead compounds which can leads to the development of novel and safe medicinal agents. Based on the ethnopharmacological literature, several species of medicinalplants used in traditional medicine in India
Alluri V. Krishnaraju; Tayi V. N. Rao; Dodda Sundararaju; Mulabagal Vanisree; Hsin-Sheng Tsay; Gottumukkala V. Subbaraju
Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinalplants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinalplants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinalplants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products.
Although the majority of serious cases in the world are concerned with snake bite envenomation, but those which are caused by scorpion stings are also famous for causing extreme pain. The present view is an attempt to enlist scientifically ignored medicinalplants of Pakistan exhibiting anti-scorpion venom activity. In this review data of 35 medicinalplants is collected with their families, parts used, distribution in Pakistan, and major constituents present in plant. Amaranthaceae, Astraceae and Euphorbiaceae represent 3 species. Anacardiaceae, Asclepidaceae and Liliaceae represent 2 species. Araceae, Capparidaceae, Ceasalpinaceae, Cyperaceae, Labiatae, Lamiaceae, Meliaceae, Menispermaceae, Oleaceae, Oxalidaceae, Pinaceae, Polygonaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rubiaceae, Solanaceae, Valerianaceae and Zingiberaceae represented single medicinalplant with anti scorpion potential. According to literature, all parts are used in anti scorpion envenomination. Leaves exhibit 30%, whole plant 9%, fruit, bark and seeds 8% anti scorpion activity. Bulb and stems show 5% contribution in this respect and twigs, resins, inflorescence, latex and flowers express 3% potential. This article may assist the researchers to bring innovation in natural product field for scorpion bite envenomation. However, these medicinalplants are still requiring pharmacological and phytochemical investigation in order to be claimed as effective in scorpion bite envenomation. PMID:23757928
Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Sajjad, Ashif; Khan, Shujaat Ali; Mumtaz, Amara; Farzana, Kalsoom; Rashid, Zarmina; Murtaza, Ghulam
The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinalplants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183
Ten plants indigenous to Sudan and of common use in Sudanese folk-medicine, were examined in vitro for antimalarial activity against schizonts maturation of Plasmodium falciparum, the major human malaria parasite. All plant samples displayed various antiplasmodial activity. Three plant extracts caused 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentrations of plant material ? 500 ug/ml. The two most active extracts that produced 100% inhibition of the parasite growth at concentration of plant material ? 50 ?g/ml were obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa and the whole plant of Aristolochia bracteolata. The ten plants were phytochemically screened for their active constituents. The two most active plants showed the presence of sterols, alkaloids and tannins.
Ahmed, El-Hadi M.; Nour, Bakri Y.M.; Mohammed, Yousif G.; Khalid, Hassan S.
Halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinalplant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinalplant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group-a halide-is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinalplants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore seem to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts. PMID:21048708
Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E
Halogenation, once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways1. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants2. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products1, we rationalized that introduction of halides into medicinalplant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinalplant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group– a halide– is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinalplants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore appear to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts.
Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E.
BACKGROUND: Recent years have witnessed that there is a revival of interest in drug discovery from medicinalplants for the maintenance of health in all parts of the world. The aim of this work was to investigate 26 plants belonging to 17 families collected from a unique place in Yemen (Soqotra Island) for their in vitro anticancer, antimicrobial and antioxidant
Ramzi A Mothana; Ulrike Lindequist; Renate Gruenert; Patrick J Bednarski
Background Selaginellaceae is a family of nonseed plants with special evolutionary significance. Plants of the family Selaginellaceae are similarly shaped and easily confused, complicating identification via traditional methods. This study explored, for the first time, the use of the DNA barcode ITS2 to identify medicinalplants of the Selaginellaceae family. Methodology/Principal Findings In our study, 103 samples were collected from the main distribution areas in China; these samples represented 34 species and contained almost all of the medicinalplants of Selaginellaceae. The ITS2 region of the genome was amplified from these samples and sequenced using universal primers and reaction conditions. The success rates of the PCR amplification and sequencing were 100%. There was significant divergence between the interspecific and intraspecific genetic distances of the ITS2 regions, while the presence of a barcoding gap was obvious. Using the BLAST1 and nearest distance methods, our results proved that the ITS2 regions could successfully identify the species of all Selaginellaceae samples examined. In addition, the secondary structures of ITS2 in the helical regions displayed clear differences in stem loop number, size, position, and screw angle among the medicinalplants of Selaginellaceae. Furthermore, cluster analysis using the ITS2 barcode supported the relationship between the species of Selaginellaceae established by traditional morphological methods. Conclusion The ITS2 barcode can effectively identify medicinalplants of Selaginellaceae. The results provide a scientific basis for the precise identification of plants of the family Selaginellaceae and the reasonable development of these resources. This study may broaden the application of DNA barcoding in the medicinalplant field and benefit phylogenetic investigations.
The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinalplants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI) of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinalplant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species) were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark.
Almeida, Cecilia de Fatima CBR; de Amorim, Elba Lucia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Maia, Maria Bernadete S
Polygonum L. s. str., belonging to Polygonaceae family, is a big genus with abundant medicinalplants. More than 10 plants are specified in Chinese Pharmacopoeia and many local medicinal standards and over 50 species are used as folk medicines. Owing to the similar morphologies and very small flowers and fruits, they are uneasily identified and often confused with each other and misused clinically. In order to provide a basis for identification of Polygonum s. str. plants, a histological study on stems and leaves of 30 species from Polygonum was undertaken by a routine/polarized light microscopy for the first time. The results showed that: (1) the transverse sections of stems of Polygonum are relatively similar, sclerenchyma such as xylem and fibres with strong polarization effects; (2) the surface views of leaves of Polygonum are distinguishable on distributions and types of stomata, with or without attachments (such as glandular hairs/scales or non-glandular hairs) and the polariscopic features of epidermal cell walls, stomata and cell contents. Observed under polarized light, it was found for the first time that stomata on leaf surface of some plants have a Maltese-cross effect with the arms of the cross intersecting at the stomatal opening. As a result, a key combining the microscopic and polariscopic characteristics of the stems as well as leaves was provided for identifying the 30 medicinalplants of Polygonum. The polarized light microscopic method was proven to be one of the quick, simple and effective techniques for the identification of medicinalplants and botanic crude materials. PMID:23227558
As a natural antioxidant resource, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been paid much more attentions than before. The studies on its antioxidative activity have also increased dramatically in recent years. Abundant studies on TCM show that some TCM can increase body's activity of antioxidant enzymes, enhance body's ability of scavenging free radicals and decrease the generation of lipid peroxide (LPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the body etc. The action mechanism of TCM is closely related to its active constituents, including polysaccharides, quinines, flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, terpenes, phenolic acids compounds and tannins etc. Through referring to related reports on TCM, in the last 20 years, this paper reviews literatures involved in antioxidation research on TCM. Antioxidative mechanism, functional property and application prospect of some active constituents with antioxidation in TCM are discussed. PMID:22512585
Although used for more than 4000 years for recreational and medicinal purposes, Cannabis and its best-known pharmacologically active constituents, the cannabinoids, became a protagonist in medical research only recently. This revival of interest is explained by the finding in the 1990s of the mechanism of action of the main psychotropic cannabinoid, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which acts through specific membrane receptors, the cannabinoid receptors. The molecular characterization of these receptors allowed the development of synthetic molecules with cannabinoid and noncannabinoid structure and with higher selectivity, metabolic stability, and efficacy than THC, as well as the development of antagonists that have already found pharmaceutical application. The finding of endogenous agonists at these receptors, the endocannabinoids, opened new therapeutic possibilities through the modulation of the activity of cannabinoid receptors by targeting the biochemical mechanisms controlling endocannabinoid tissue levels. PMID:16409166
Expression profiling analysis offers great opportunities for the identification of novel molecular targets, drug discovery, development, and validation. The beauty of microarray analysis of gene expression is that it can be used to screen the expression of tens of thousands of genes in parallel and to identify appropriate molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. Toward identifying novel therapeutic options, natural products, notably from medicinalplants used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have been thoroughly investigated. Increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of TCM-derived drugs could be achieved through application of modern molecular technologies including transcript profiling. In the present review, we introduce a brief introduction to the field of microarray technology and disclose its role in target identification and validation. Moreover, we provide examples for applications regarding molecular target discovery in medicinalplants derived TCM. This could be an attractive strategy for the development of novel and improved therapeutics. PMID:22495629
Methanolic extracts of 20 medicinalplants were screened at 1–10 mg\\/ml for in vitro macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility\\u000a assay against adult Setaria digitata, the cattle filarial worm. Four plant extracts showed macrofilaricidal activity by worm motility at concentrations below\\u000a 4 mg\\/ml and an incubation period of 100 min. Complete inhibition of worm motility and subsequent mortality was observed at\\u000a 3, 2, 1
Mathew Nisha; M. Kalyanasundaram; K. P. Paily; Abidha; P. Vanamail; K. Balaraman
The Euphorbiaceae is an extensive family of plants that includes about 300 genera and 5000 species and is mainly distributed\\u000a in tropical areas. For a long time this family has been recognized and reported for its anti-cancer components, anti-hepatitis\\u000a B components and carcinogenic factors. In the literature of ancient traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), 33 species of plants\\u000a from 17 genera
Neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been applied to multielemental determination of eleven medicinalplants used to cure\\u000a the urinary tract diseases observed in Algeria. These plants include Androgena Citratus, Ceratonia Siliquata, Punica Granatum, Glyryrrhiza Glabra, Lausaunia Alba, Fragaria Vesca, Arbutus Unedol,\\u000a Hordeum Vulgaris, Papieteria Officinalis, Zea Mays L, and Davallia Seae. Concentrations of twenty elements Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Co,
Z. Lamari; S. Landsberger; J. Braisted; H. Neggache; R. Larbi
Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC<100 ?g\\/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia
L. Tona; K. Kambu; N. Ngimbi; K. Cimanga; A. J. Vlietinck
In an ethnopharmacological screening of selected medicinalplants used in Nepal, methanol extracts from 21 plant species were assayed for activity against 8 strains of bacteria and 5 strains of fungi. Duplicate assays were conducted with and without exposure to UV-A radiation to test for light-activated or light-enhanced activity. All 21 of the extracts showed activity against at least 2
The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinalplants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC50 (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm.
M Markouk; K Bekkouche; M Larhsini; M Bousaid; H. B Lazrek; M Jana
Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinalplants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinalplants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinalplants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action.
Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.
The aim of this literature review was to pool data on heavy metal accumula- tion in herbs, spices and medicinalplants in Europe. A comparative study performed by MTT Agrifood Research Finland in 1990 showed that lead concentration in Finnish herbs was clearly lower that in herbs produced in other parts in Europe. Cadmium concentrations did not differ much between
Problem statement: About 32 extracts from eight selected medicinalplants, n amely Pereskia bleo , Pereskia grandifolia , Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb., Curcuma zedoria , Curcuma mangga , Curcuma inodora aff. Blatter , Zingiber officinale var. officinale (jahe gajah) and Zingiber officinale var. rubrum (jahe emprit) used by Malaysia traditional health c are systems were screened for their antimicrobial activity against
Koshy Philip; Sri Nurestri; Abd Malek; Wirakarnain Sani; Sim Kae Shin; Saravana Kumar; Lee Guan Serm; Syarifah N. S. A. Rahman
Three research posters have recently been placed online at the Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre (ECORC) Website. This one, by A. Sinclair and P.M. Catling, proposes a recovery method for the native medicinalplant Goldenseal, threatened in Canada. All three posters are available in .pdf format.
The antimicrobial activities of 23 extracts of 12 Cuban plant species reported in traditional medicine were tested. The agar diffusion method was used to assess the activity against four bacteria and one yeast: Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The results, evaluated as the diameter of the inhibition zone of microbial growth, showed that nine
M. J. Martínez; J. Betancourt; N. Alonso-González; A. Jauregui
In this research, the most commonly used equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and equilibrium relative humidity (ERH) equations are compared on their ability to best fit the published sorption data for selected medicinal and aromatic plants. A non-linear regression technique is used to fit data subsets. In order to compare the performance of the EMC\\/ERH equations, three statistical error parameters are
From the leaves of popular Malian medicinalplants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water–ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan (?54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan (?30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan (?60%), the rhamnogalacturonan (?14%) and
M. Šutovská; S. Fra?ová; L. Prisežnaková; G. Nosá?ová; A. Togola; D. Diallo; B. S. Paulsen; P. Capek
The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well
Aida Portillo; Roser Vila; Blanca Freixa; Tomás Adzet; Salvador Cañigueral
The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinalplants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinalplants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man’s metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinalplants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinalplants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.
This study was carried out to discover whether an alternative growing from officinal and spice plants on grassland sites in the north eastern part of Germany is possible. To find suitable species, special botanical studies of large grassland areas were made and analysed. Furthermore, parcel experiments with different species as well as field experiments in farms were made. First of
Alzheimer's disease is an age-associated, irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by severe memory loss, unusual behavior, personality changes, and a decline in cognitive function. No cure for Alzheimer's exists, and the drugs currently available to treat the disease have limited effectiveness. It is believed that therapeutic intervention that could postpone the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease would dramatically reduce the number of cases in the next 50 years. Ayurvedic medicinalplants have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs, and over a hundred new products are already in clinical development. Indeed, several scientific studies have described the use of various Ayurvedic medicinalplants and their constituents for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact mechanism of their action is still not clear, phytochemical studies of the different parts of the plants have shown the presence of many valuable compounds, such as lignans, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols, and alkaloids, that show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-cholinesterase, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. This review gathers research on various medicinalplants that have shown promise in reversing the Alzheimer's disease pathology. The report summarizes information concerning the phytochemistry, biological, and cellular activities and clinical applications of these various plants in order to provide sufficient baseline information that could be used in drug discovery campaigns and development process, thereby providing new functional leads for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22747839
Rao, Rammohan V; Descamps, Olivier; John, Varghese; Bredesen, Dale E
This paper examines the traditional use of medicinalplants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices.
Preparations of some tropical plants of medicinal importance, collected from the savannah vegetational belt of Nigeria, were nitrosated and analysed for volatile N-nitrosamines formed under chemical and simulated gastric conditions. N-Nitrosamines were determined on a Thermal Energy Analyser following gas chromatographic separation. Mean concentrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in the range of 7 to 58 ppb and N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) in the
S. E. Atawodi; A. G. Lamorde; B. Spiegelhalder; R. Preussmann
A total of 973 isolates of endophytic fungi were recovered from 1144 tissue fragments of the six medicinalplant species belonging\\u000a to 4 families collected in the Beijing Botanical Garden. Of these isolates 778 sporulated and were identified into 21 taxa\\u000a by morphological characteristics. Among the taxa 11 belonged to Coelomycetes, 6 to Ascomycetes, and 4 to Hyphomycetes. Various\\u000a numbers
JianQiu Sun; LiangDong Guo; Wei Zang; WenXiang Ping; DeFu Chi
Summary One hundred and thirty endophytic fungi isolated from 12 Chinese traditional medicinalplantscollected at Yuanmou county\\u000a and Dawei Mountain, Yunnan province, southwest China, were tested for antitumour and antifungal activities by MTT assay on\\u000a human gastric tumour cell line BGC-823 and the growth inhibition test against 7 phytopathogenic fungi. The results showed\\u000a that fermentation broths from 9.2% of the
Study was conducted in two sub-districts in northwestern Ethiopia to compile and analyse knowledge on the use of medicinalplants for treatment or prevention of human ailments by three socio-cultural groups, namely the Amharas, Shinashas and Agew-Awis. Data were mainly collected through individual interviews conducted with selected knowledgeable farmers and professional healers of the three socio-cultural groups. A total of
THE ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITY OF THREE ORGANIC SOLVENT EXTRACTS AND WATER RESIDUE OF THE PLANTS: Acacia nilotica (Mimosaceae) (husk), Ambrosia miratima (Astraceae) (aerial shoot) and Azadarichta indica (Meliaceae) (leaves) were tested in vitro against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The study revealed that the extracts of A. nilotica and A. miratima have effectious antileishmanial activity at concentrations (IC(50)) less than 8 ?g/ml, while the extracts of A. indica lack antileishmanial activity. The chromatographic analysis of the ethyl acetate extract of A. nilotica, the most potent extract, resulted in four TLC fractions. Three of these fractions possessed antileishmanial activity. Phytochemical study of the potent fractions revealed the presence of poly hydroxyl compounds. PMID:23326001
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Abstracts (MAPA) is a bimonthly (issued every two months) abstracting journal reporting world literature on medicinal and aromatic plants. Its aim is to highlight current research findings in the field, culled out from importan...
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants Abstracts (MAPA) is a bimonthly abstracting journal reporting world literature on medicinal and aromatic plants. Its aim is to highlight current research findings in this field, culled out from important journals of the world.
Local empirical knowledge about medicinal properties of plants is the basis for their use as home remedies. Particularly in developing countries such remedies still are an indispensable resource for everyday health care. They form the basis for numerous studies on drugs from natural sources. Like other indigenous groups across the world, the Ch'orti' Maya in Eastern Guatemala are currently experiencing a phase of dramatic cultural change, with their traditional knowledge about plants being in great danger of disappearing. During 17 months of fieldwork, medicinalplant uses were documented using a semi-quantitative approach and analysed using ethnopharmacological methods. The most important groups of illnesses treated with plants were gastrointestinal complaints and illnesses associated with pain and fever. Field data were compared with mostly unpublished historical data collected in the 1930s by the anthropologist Charles Wisdom. This comparison showed that medicinalplant uses that are more consistent over time are also shared by a larger number of people. A literature search on the most frequently mentioned medicinalplants showed that, even for widely used medicinal species, phytochemical and pharmacological data are insufficient for fully understanding their therapeutic profile. Whereas a few examples of potentially dangerous practices were encountered, the limited amount of information available mostly supports local medicinalplant usage. PMID:16105234
Kufer, Johanna; Förther, Harald; Pöll, Elfriede; Heinrich, Michael
The antimicrobial potential of seventy-seven extracts from twenty-four plants was screened against eight bacteria and four pathogenic fungi, using microbroth dilution assay. Lowest concentration of the extract, which inhibits any visual microbial growth after treatment with p-iodonitrotetrazolium violet, was considered to be minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Water extracts of Acacia nilotica, Justicia zelanica, Lantana camara and Saraca asoca exhibited good activity against all the bacteria tested and the MIC was recorded in range of 9.375-37.5 microg/ml and 75.0-300.0 microg/ml against the bacterial and fungal pathogens, respectively. The other extracts of Phyllanthus urinaria, Thevetia nerifolia, Jatropha gossypifolia Saraca asoca, Tamarindus indica, Aegle marmelos, Acacia nilotica, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Mangifera indica, Woodfordia fruticosa and Phyllanthus emblica showed antimicrobial activity in a range of 75-1200 microg/ml. PMID:20161895
Dabur, Rajesh; Gupta, Amita; Mandal, T K; Singh, Desh Deepak; Bajpai, Vivek; Gurav, A M; Lavekar, G S
The present study was conducted in Morgah Biodiversity Park, Rawalpindi during 2006 to enlist the economic importance of medicinalplants with their medicinal properties and uses. The inhabitants of the area have to use the medicinalplants for various purposes and have for a long time been dependent on surrounding plant sources for their food, shelter, fodders, health care and
Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinalplants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinalplants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100??g/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06??g/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections.
Knowledge about proper coding in sports medicine will not benefit a physician or his or her practice if bills submitted to insurance companies are not regularly monitored and analyzed for trends. Physicians can help ensure successful collections by understanding the dynamics of reimbursement, enlisting the efforts of office colleagues, and facilitating patient involvement when appropriate. This is the third article in a three-part series about economics issues encountered in a sports medicine practice. The authors are not certified coding experts, and the articles are not meant to serve as a definitive guide to billing and coding in sports medicine, but rather to provide insight into this poorly understood and complex area of medicine that can make or break a practice. The first article, on coding basics, appeared in May, and the second, on advanced sports medicine coding, appeared in June. PMID:20086369
Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 µg/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 µg/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent.
Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927
Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Kadioglu, Onat; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas
The present paper deals with the medicinalplants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants.
An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinalplants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants.
Sustainable use of wild populations of medicinalplants (as with other non-timber forest products) requires robust assessment of the distribution and abundance of target species. Long-term population dynamics datasets are typically unavailable in many developing countries, and then perhaps only for one to few high profile taxa. Given the scale and urgency of sustainability issues, one-off inventories provide the only
Jeremy Russell-Smith; Nimal S. Karunaratne; Ranjith Mahindapala
In search of a botanical algicide, 40 traditional medicinalplants were screened for antialgal activity against the bloom-forming\\u000a cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa using coexistence culture system assay. The results of the coexistence assay showed that significant inhibition of the algae\\u000a at 800 mg L?1 were observed for methanolic extracts of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Radix Salviae Miltiorrhizae), rhizome of Acorus tatarinowii (Rhizoma
Yang-Lei Yi; Yi Lei; Yue-Bang Yin; Hong-Yu Zhang; Gao-Xue Wang
The antifungal activity of aqueous, dichloromethane and methanol extracts from 14 Paraguayan plants used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin diseases was assayed in vitro by the agar disk diffusion method against 11 fungal strains comprising several filamentous fungi and yeasts. Among them, the dichloromethane extracts of Acanthospermum australe, Calycophyllum multiflorum, Geophila repens and Tabebuia avellanedae, as well as the aqueous and methanol extracts of the latter, showed the highest activity. PMID:11378288
Portillo, A; Vila, R; Freixa, B; Adzet, T; Cañigueral, S
Oncogene modulated signal transduction based on intracellular phosphorylation of protein tyrosine or serine\\/threonine has been utilized as a target for oncogene-based anti-cancer drug discovery. Inhibition of protein-tyrosine kinase and protein kinase C directed prescreen has identified numerous potential anti-tumor Chinese medicinalplants. Further bioassay- guided fractionation and separation have led to the discovery of novel protein kinase inhibitors, anthraquinones, stilbenes
Ching-jer Chang; Curtis L. Ashendel; Thomas C. K. Chan; Robert L. Geahlen; Jerry McLaughlin; David J. Waters
An efficient micropropagation protocol was developed for an important medicinalplant, Plantago major L. For this purpose,\\u000a it is recommended to culture shoot-tips on modified MS medium [412.5 mg dm-3 NH4NO3 and 340 mg dm-3 KH2PO4] supplemented with\\u000a 50 g dm-3 glucose and 0.5 ?M 6-benzylaminopurine. Maximum rooting frequency was obtained at 1 ?M naphthaleneacetic acid.
In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14\\u000a medicinalplants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl\\u000a (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma\\u000a cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of
Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1\\/Vero cells and influenza virus A\\/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and
M. Rajbhandari; R. Mentel; P. K. Jha; R. P. Chaudhary; S. Bhattarai; M. B. Gewali; N. Karmacharya; M. Hipper; U. Lindequist
Tissue culture propagation system was developed for zedoary (Curcuma zedoaria Roscoe), a valuable medicinalplant, using rhizome sprout cultures. Shoots were induced from rhizomes on basal MS medium containing 20 g l-1 sucrose and 5 g l-1 agar, supplemented with 20 (v\\/v) coconut water (CW) and benzylaminopurine (BA) concentrations from 0.5 to 5.0 m g l-1. The excised shoots were subcultured on Murashige-Skoog (MS) medium with 20
Nguyen Hoang Loc; Doan Trong Duc; Tae Ho Kwon; Moon Sik Yang
Epilobium angustifolium L. (fireweed) is a medicinalplant that has been used to treat diarrhea, mucous colitis, irritable-bowel syndrome, skin problems,\\u000a prostate problems, menstrual disorders, asthma, whooping cough, and hiccups. A highly efficient and rapid regeneration system\\u000a via multiple shoot formation was developed for fireweed. Explants (leaf, petiole, root, and stem segments) excised from sterile\\u000a seedlings were cultured on medium
Arzu Ucar Turker; Esra Cansever Mutlu; Arzu Birinci Y?ld?r?m
Rauvolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz called sarpagandha(the snake root) in Hindi, belongs to family Apocynaceae. This plant is listed in earliest Ayurvedic medicinal text the Charaka Samhita(c. 700 B.C.) and has been used since at least that time to treat mental illness and insomnia. The roots of R. serpentina contain numerous alkaloids. Its indiscriminate use and poor method of conventional
Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinalplants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ?50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinalplants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 ?g/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinalplants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 ?g/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720
Hosted by the Missouri Botanical Garden, this website presents the Center for Plant Conservation (CPC)-National Collection of Endangered Plants which "contains plant material for more than 600 of the country's most imperiled native plants." The Collection website links to informative profiles for many endangered plants. Plant profile pages include the following concise sections: Distribution and Occurrence; Protection; Conservation, Ecology, and Research; and References. Site visitors can search for plants "by scientific name, common name, plant family, state range, or CPC participating institution." Plants can also be found through alphabetical listings by scientific name. This site links to other sections of the CPC website including Publications, Plant Links, Conservation Directory, and more.
Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation\\u000a of new bioactive compounds.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species
Yamin Bibi; Sobia Nisa; Fayyaz M Chaudhary; Muhammad Zia
Five plants which have been used for the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and gout in the traditional medicine of Saudi Arabia, were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory properties. Of these the ethanolic extract of Capparis decidua and the aqueous extract of Capparis spinosa were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced oedema in rats. These two plants were also tested for their antipyretic and analgesic activity. C. decidua was found to possess significant antipyretic effect. Both of them are devoid of analgesic activity. PMID:3485894
Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Mossa, J S; Al-Yahya, M A; Al-Said, M S; Tariq, M
Medicinalplants have been used world-wide for thousands of years and are widely recognized as having high healing but minor toxic side effects. The scarcity and increasing demand for medicinalplants and their products have promoted the development of artificial cultivation of medicinalplants. Currently, one of the prominent issues in medicinal cultivation systems is the unstable quality of the products. Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) affects secondary metabolism and the production of active ingredients of medicinalplants and thus influence the quality of herbal medicines. In this review, we have assembled, analyzed, and summarized the effects of AM symbioses on secondary metabolites of medicinalplants. We conclude that symbiosis of AM is conducive to favorable characteristics of medicinalplants, by improving the production and accumulation of important active ingredients of medicinalplants such as terpenes, phenols, and alkaloids, optimizing the composition of different active ingredients in medicinalplants and ultimately improving the quality of herbal materials. We are convinced that the AM symbiosis will benefit the cultivation of medicinalplants and improve the total yield and quality of herbal materials. Through this review, we hope to draw attention to the status and prospects of, and arouse more interest in, the research field of medicinalplants and mycorrhiza. PMID:23417725
Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinalplants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within ±5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinalplant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.
Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.
To unravel the market for commercial medicinalplants on the Witwatersrand in South Africa, a semiquantitative approach was\\u000a taken. A stratified random sample of 50 herb-traders was surveyed, and an inventory of all plants and parts sold was compiled.\\u000a Research participants were questioned on the scarcity and popularity of the plants traded, as well as suppliers and origins.\\u000a The rarefaction
Vivienne L. Williams; Kevin Balkwill; Edward T. F. Witkowski
An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinalplants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157
In the biological sciences the use of medicinalplants in indigenous cultures is commonly seen as being based on a long tradition (‘traditional medicine’). However, under normal circumstances, ethnobotanical studies cannot provide evidence on the antiquity of specific uses for medicinalplants since oral traditions have a limited historical depth and archaeological evidence does not provide evidence for the specific
Chinese herbal medicine is gaining increasing popularity worldwide for health promotion and adjuvant therapy. Thus, selective and efficient analytical methods are required not only for quality assurance but also for authentication of the plant material. Applications of both chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques to the analysis of medicinalplants and Chinese traditional medicine preparations over the last 3 years are outlined
The Akha are one of the 6 major tribes or minorities living in the remote hills of northern Thailand who still use extensively\\u000a plants as medicines. This paper describes the Akha culture and environment and their use of medicinalplants. An appendix\\u000a lists 121 different species and the medicinal use or uses attributed to them.
Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinalplants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values
Eight Pakistani medicinalplants were investigated for antipyretic activity in rabbits receiving subcutaneous yeast injections. Hexane- and chloroform-soluble extracts of Aconitum napellus stems, Corchorus depressus whole plant and Gmelina asiatica roots exhibited prominent oral antipyretic activity while insignificant antipyretic effects were found in the hexane- and chloroform-soluble portions of Melia azadirachta seeds, Tinospora cordifolia stems and Vitex trifolia seeds. No antipyretic actions whatsoever were produced by extracts of A. heterophyllum roots and Hedysarum alhagi aerial parts. Toxicity studies revealed no noteworthy toxic or adverse effects for any of the above plant extracts up to the highest oral doses of 1.6 g/kg except in the case of A. napellus. PMID:3497307
Origanum syriacum is a medicinalplant widely used in Jordan both as a folk remedy and in the food and beverage industry. As the plant can be treated with pesticides during commercial production, three different methods for pesticide multiresidue analysis of this plant have been evaluated. One method based on soxhlet extraction followed by acetonitrile/petroleum ether (PE) partitioning was found to be particularly suitable. Extracts were cleaned-up using a Florisil column. Mean recoveries of pesticides from spiked herbal samples were 74-119%, with coefficients of variation between 1.0 and 23.6%. The limits of detection were in the range 0.0008-0.5 mg kg(-1). The method was used for the determination of pesticide residues in O. syriacum samples purchased from the local market. Seven out of eight samples contained detectable levels of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), folpet, dicofol, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), hecachlorocyclohexane (HCH), quintozene, transchlordane and vinclozolin. PMID:17364929
Collections information for 3898 vascular plant specimens from searches at Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, San Diego Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History.
Background Medicinalplant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinalplants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species– ideally, as a global standard. Research Question What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinalplant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Morocco, as a test dataset. Methodology In total, 111 root samples were sequenced for four proposed barcode regions rpoC1, psbA-trnH, matK and ITS. Sequences were searched against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinalplants and their closest relatives using BLAST and Blastclust, and through inference of RAxML phylograms of the aligned market and reference samples. Principal Findings Sequencing success was high for rpoC1, psbA-trnH, and ITS, but low for matK. Searches using rpoC1 alone resulted in a number of ambiguous identifications, indicating insufficient DNA variation for accurate species-level identification. Combining rpoC1, psbA-trnH and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to genus level. For a minority of the market samples, the barcoding identification differed significantly from previous hypotheses based on the vernacular names. Conclusions/Significance Endemic plant species are commercialized in Marrakech. Adulteration is common and this may indicate that the products are becoming locally endangered. Nevertheless the majority of the traded roots belong to species that are common and not known to be endangered. A significant conclusion from our results is that unknown samples are more difficult to identify than earlier suggested, especially if the reference sequences were obtained from different populations. A global barcoding database should therefore contain sequences from different populations of the same species to assure the reference sequences characterize the species throughout its distributional range.
Kruger, Asa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Bjork, Lars; Martin, Gary
The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinalplant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico.
Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
The aquatic plants in Minnesota have been surveyed medicinally for chemical compounds such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, saponins, steroids and lipids which might be useful in medicine. Examination of chemical constitutents was accomplished on the fo...
A nuclear energy plant with a reactor protecting container in which below the reactor core there is provided a cooled collecting container for molten core masses while cooling pipes are inserted in the wall of the collecting container. The cooling pipes are designed as heat pipes. One end of the pipes is arranged within the region of the inner wall
In our continuous search for bioactive natural products from natural resources, we explored medicinalplants of Bangladesh,\\u000a targeting cancer-related tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-signaling pathway, along with some other\\u000a biological activities such as prostaglandin inhibitory activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free-radical-scavenging activity,\\u000a and cell growth inhibitory activity. Along with this, we describe a short field study on Sundarbans mangrove forests, Bangladesh,\\u000a in the
Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses.
Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.
Extracts obtained from sweatweed and licorice roots, flax seeds, milfoil, bur-marigold, plantain, coltsfoot, nettle, Indian corn stigmas, laminaria produced a stimulating effect on the growth of Candida albicans test strain and Streptococcus pyogenes test strain Dick 1. Sweatweed, licorice, Aerva lanata and violet extracts influenced the growth of Corynebacterium xerosis 1911, while sweatweed, violet, horse-tail, bur-marigold, camomile, plantain, and nettle extracts influenced the growth of shigellae. The stimulating effect could be supposedly produced by biologically active substances contained in medicinalplants (organic acids, alkaloids, carotinoids, vitamins, microelements). Further studies aimed at the identification of substances producing the stimulating effect are planned. PMID:11871308
Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinalplants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku village with plants in the families Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae comprising an important part of plants used in the indigenous healthcare management in the village. Malaria and bacterial infections dominate the list of diseases that are managed using traditional medicines.
Medicinalplant species has a valuable economic importance because of its usage as pharmaceuticals, nutritional, as well as its use in popular medication. For DNA-based techniques, nanogram quantities of the purified DNA are requisite to amplify and yield sufficient amounts of PCR products. SDS-based DNA isolation method was used to extract DNA from 11 species of different aromatic and medicinalplantscollected from Saudi Arabia. Three hundred milligrams of fresh shredded plant material was necessary. The DNA purity was further confirmed by agarose gel, restriction endonuclease digestion and microsatellite primed-polymerase chain reaction (MP-PCR). DNA yields ranged from 10-20 ?g (in 100-?L elution volumes) from all plant material evaluated. The DNA obtained was free of any contaminating proteins, polysaccharides and colored pigments. The extracted genomic DNA was found suitable for restriction digestion and PCR amplification. Our experimental procedure provides an easy, suitable, non-toxic, cheap, and quick process for the amplification of DNA from medical plant tissue. PMID:22370937
Alatar, A A; Mahmoud, M A; Al-Sohaibani, S A; Abd-Elsalam, K A
Background Infectious diseases caused by multiresistant microbial strains are on the increase. Fighting these diseases with natural products may be more efficacious. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic, ethylacetate (EtOAc) and hexanic fractions of five Cameroonian medicinalplants (Piptadeniastum africana, Cissus aralioides, Hileria latifolia, Phyllanthus muellerianus and Gladiolus gregasius) against 10 pathogenic microorganisms of the urogenital and gastrointestinal tracts. Methods The fractions were screened for their chemical composition and in vivo acute toxicity was carried out on the most active extracts in order to assess their inhibitory selectivity. The agar well-diffusion and the micro dilution methods were used for the determination of the inhibition diameters (ID) and Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) respectively on 8 bacterial species including two Gram positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis), and six Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi) and two fungal isolates (Candida albicans, Candida krusei). The chemical composition was done according to Harbone (1976), the acute toxicity evaluation according to WHO protocol and the hepatic as well as serum parameters measured to assess liver and kidney functions. Results The chemical components of each plant's extract varied according to the solvent used, and they were found to contain alkaloids, flavonoids, polyphenols, triterpens, sterols, tannins, coumarins, glycosides, cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars. The methanolic and ethylacetate extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastum africana presented the highest antimicrobial activities against all tested microorganisms with ID varying from 8 to 26 mm and MIC from 2.5 to 0.31 mg/ml. The in vivo acute toxicity study carried out on the methanolic extracts of Phyllanthus muellerianus and Piptadeniastrum africana indicated that these two plants were not toxic. At the dose of 4 g/kg body weight, kidney and liver function tests indicated that these two medicinalplants induced no adverse effect on these organs. Conclusion These results showed that, all these plant's extracts can be used as antimicrobial phytomedicines which can be therapeutically used against infections caused by multiresistant agents. Phyllanthus muellerianus, Piptadeniastum africana, antimicrobial, acute toxicity, kidney and liver function tests, Cameroon Traditional Medicine
An efficient and rapid plant regeneration system via direct organogenesis was established for Teucrium stocksianum Boiss. (Lamiaceae), an endangered and valuable medicinalplant. Hypocotyl explants excised from seedlings germinated in vitro\\u000a were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different concentrations of kinetin and indoleacetic acid\\u000a (IAA) to induce shoot formation. Differentiation of multiple shoots was initiated within
A serious leaf-spot disease of Mangifera indica was noted during the last 10 years in Satpura plateau of India. On the basis of characteristic symptoms and cultural characters, the pathogen was identified as Pestalotiopsis mangiferae which is hitherto not reported from Satpura plateau of India. Screening of 17-medicinalplants against the test pathogen revealed 14 antimycotic whereas 3-plants, viz., Argemone mexicana, Caesalpinia bonducella, and Casia fistula acclerated the growth of the pathogen. The maximum activity was shown by Eucalyptus globulus (88%) and Catharanthus roseus (88%) followed by Ocimum sanctum (85.50%), Azadirachta indica (84.66%), Ricinus communis (75%) and Lawsonia inermis (74.33%) while the minimum activity was exhibited by Jatropha curcas (10%). PMID:9676046
Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinalplants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate.
Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.
Within the expanding area of molecular pharming, the development of plants for manufacturing immunoglobulins, enzymes, virus-like particles and vaccines has become a major focus point. On 21 September 2012, the meeting 'Molecular Pharming - recent progress in manufacturing medicines in plants', hosted by EuroSciCon, was held at the Bioscience Catalyst campus, Stevenage, UK. The scientific program of this eventful meeting covered diverse highlights of biopharming: monoclonal antibodies, virus-like particles from transient and chloroplast expression systems, for example, for Dengue and HPV, apolipoproteins from safflower seeds, and new production platforms, such as potato or hydroponics by rhizosecretion. This report summarizes the stimulating scientific presentations and fruitful panel discussions on the current topics in this promising research field. PMID:23256793
Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the AGR locus and is responsible for the production of ?-hemolysin. Quantification of ?-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of AGR activity at the translational rather than transcriptional level. We employed reversed phase high performance chromatographic (RP-HPLC) techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of ?-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinalplants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of ?-hemolysin, indicating anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243
Quave, Cassandra L; Plano, Lisa R W; Bennett, Bradley C
BACKGROUND: Medicinalplants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to
Ana Ribeiro; Maria M Romeiras; João Tavares; Maria T Faria
BACKGROUND: An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinalplants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinalplants used for treating diseases. METHODS: Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. RESULTS: The survey
SUMMARY Rising demand for medicinalplants has led to increased pressure on wild plant populations. This, combined with shrinking habitats, means that many species in South Africa are now facing local extinction. In 1997, a study was initiated to determine the extent of trade in medicinalplants in the South African Lowveld (the low lying plains to the east of
BACKGROUND: Cultivation of medicinalplants is not only a means for meeting current and future demands for large volume production of plant-based drug and herbal remedies, but also a means of relieving harvest pressure on wild populations. Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (Huang-qin or Chinese skullcap) is a very important medicinalplant in China. Over the past several decades, wild resource of
We have determined the relative levels of endogenous antioxidant activity in a range of British medicinalplant species (representative of a variety of plant families, selected on the basis of their widespread use in traditional herbal medicine), via competitive scavenging of the ABTS+ or O2? radicals in vitro. A number of plant species with appreciable levels (i.e. greater than or
Ethanolic extracts of 45 Indian medicinalplants traditionally used in medicine were studied for their antimicrobial activity against certain drug-resistant bacteria and a yeast Candida albicans of clinical origin. Of these, 40 plant extracts showed varied levels of antimicrobial activity against one or more test bacteria. Anticandidal activity was detected in 24 plant extracts. Overall, broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity was observed
The use of plants in treatment of burns, dermatophytes and infectious diseases is common in traditional medicine. Based on ethno pharmacological and taxonomic information, antibacterial activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of some medicinalplants were determined by in vitro by agar diffusion-method against some human pathogenic bacteria. The leaves of five different plants, belonging to the different family and
Ethanolic extracts of 23 medicinalplants, commonly used in Sudanese folk medicines against infectious diseases, were investigated for their immunomodulating activity using luminol/lucigenin-based chemiluminescence assay. Preliminary screenings on whole blood oxidative burst activity showed inhibitory activities of 14 plant extracts, while only one plant, Balanites aegyptiaca fruits exhibited a proinflammatory activity. Further investigation was conducted by monitoring their effects on oxidative burst of isolated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) and mononuclear cells (MNCs) by using two different phagocytosis activators (serum opsonizing zymosan-A and PMA). Results obtained showed that the fruits and barks of Acacia nilotica, and leaves and barks of Khaya senegalensis, possess average inhibitory effects in the range of 70.7, 67.1, 69.5 and 67.4% on both types of phagocytes (PMNs and MNCs), respectively, at a 6.25 microg/mL concentration. Moderate inhibitory activity (52.2%) was exerted by the aerial parts of Xanthium brasilicum, while the rest of the plants showed only a weak inhibitory activity. The inhibition of oxidative burst activity was found to be irreversible in most of the extracts, except for Peganum harmala, Tephrosia apollinea, Tinospora bakis, and Vernonia amygdalina. Interestingly, the fruits of Balanites aegyptiaca exhibited a moderate proinflammatory effect (37-40.4% increases in ROS level compared to the control) at 25-100 microg/mL concentration in the case of whole blood along with PMNs phagocyte activity. The Tinospora bakis extract showed proinflammatory response at a low concentration (6.25 microg/mL) during activation with PMA. None of these extracts affected PMNs viability (90-98%) upon 2 h incubation, except of the ethanolic extracts of Acacia nilotica fruits and Balanites aegyptiaca barks. PMID:18440170
Koko, W S; Mesaik, M Ahmed; Yousaf, S; Galal, M; Choudhary, M Iqbal
Afrormosia laxiflora (A. laxiflora), Chenopodium ambrosioides (C. ambrosioides), Microglossa pyrifolia (M. pyrifolia) and Mimosa pudica (M. pudica) are plants used in traditional medicine in Cameroon to treat insomnia, epilepsy, anxiety, and agitation. They were evaluated for their anxiolytic like activity in mice. Animal models (elevated plus maze and stress-induced hyperthermia tests) were used. The four plants showed anxiolytic activity. In stress-induced hyperthermia test, A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica significantly antagonised the increase of temperature. ?T° decreased from 0.75°C in the control group to 0.36°C at the dose of 110 mg/kg for A. laxiflora; from 1°C in the control group to -1.1°C at the dose of 120 mg/kg for C. ambrosioides; from 1.7°C in the control group to 0.2°C at the dose of 128 mg/kg for M. pyrifolia and from 1.3°C in the control group to 0.5°C at the dose of 180 mg/kg for M. pudica. In the elevated plus maze test, the four plants increased the number of entries into, percentage of entries into, and percentage of time in open arms. A. laxiflora, C. ambrosioides and M. pudica also reduced the percentage of entries and time in closed arms. In addition, C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica showed antipyretic activity by reducing the body temperature. The results suggested that C. ambrosioides, M. pyrifolia and M. pudica posses anxiolytic-like and antipyretic activities while A. laxiflora possesses only anxiolytic-like properties. These plants could be helpful in the treatment of anxiety and fever in traditional medicine in Cameroon. PMID:22754066
Bum, E Ngo; Soudi, S; Ayissi, E R; Dong, C; Lakoulo, N H; Maidawa, F; Seke, P F E; Nanga, L D; Taiwe, G S; Dimo, T; Njikam, Njifutie; Rakotonirina, A; Rakotonirina, S V; Kamanyi, A
With gaining popularity of herbal remedies worldwide, the need of assuring safety and efficacy of these products increases as well. By nature they are complex matrices, comprising a multitude of compounds, which are prone to variation due to environmental factors and manufacturing conditions. Furthermore, many traditional preparations compose of multiple herbs, so that only highly selective, sensitive and versatile analytical techniques will be suitable for quality control purposes. By hyphenating high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) these high demands are fulfilled, providing the user with a multitude of technical options and applications. This review intends to reflect the impact of LC-MS for medicinalplant analysis focusing on most relevant reports published within the last five years. Commenced by introductory remarks to the different MS approaches most commonly used (e.g. ion trap and time of flight mass analyzers, fragmentation and ionization modes), respective LC-MS applications on the analysis of natural products in medicinalplants, commercial products and biological samples are presented. Methodological aspects like stationary and mobile phase selection or MS settings are discussed, and advantages or limitations of the described techniques are highlighted. PMID:21131153
Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinalplant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl–ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinalplant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects.
Gadekar, R.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.
Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinalplant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HCl-ethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinalplant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects. PMID:22228953
Gadekar, R; Singour, P K; Chaurasiya, P K; Pawar, R S; Patil, U K
A large number of people rely on medicinalplants for maintaining their health and treating diseases. Official data on medicinalplant markets are, however, virtually non-existent and available local-level case studies do not allow generalisations. This study investigates the market efficiency and benefit distribution in the Nepal–India medicinalplant market by building a national-level dataset along the market chain from
Traditional medicinalplants have a long history of therapeutic use. The beneficial health effects of medicinalplants rich in polyphenols are often attributed to their potent antioxidant activities, as established in vitro, since diets rich in polyphenols are epidemiologically associated with a decreased incidence of age-related diseases in humans. However, medicinalplants may also exert pro-oxidant effects that up-regulate endogenous
In order to collect ethnobotanical information about antidiarrhoeal plants, we performed inquiries among traditional healers, community leaders, and native people of Lomela villages in Congo. Six medicinalplants widely used in this region were designated as having antidysenteric and antidiarrhoeal properties. These six medicinalplants were screened for groups of phytochemical compounds with antibacterial and antiamoebic activities. They were found to contain tannins, alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, sterols and/or triterpenes and reducing sugars. Of the six tested plants, three showed prominent antibacterial activity whereas two acted against Entamoeba histolytica. The usefulness of the phytochemical bases and biological activities of these plants as potential source of antidiarrhoeal remedies is discussed. PMID:10940578
The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinalplants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinalplants.
The occurrence of mycorrhiza in 40 selected medicinalplants was studied. The percentage of mycorrhizal colonization in each of the plant was calculated. The colonization was found to be very less in four plants and very high in six plants. All others showed a moderate level of colonization. The present work suggests the use of mycorrhiza as a biofertilizer to enhance the growth and yield of medicinalplants. PMID:22557224
The concentration of heavy metals including Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni and Fe in different parts of Rosmarinus officinalis medicinalplant grown in Jordan were evaluated. Medicinalplant samples and soil samples were collected from three different\\u000a zones in Jordan (Irbid, Al-Mafraq and Ma’an). Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after chemical\\u000a treatments using acid digestion procedures. Heavy
Abdul-Wahab O. El-Rjoob; Adnan M. Massadeh; Mohammad N. Omari
Of the more than two hundred collections of pildamchanghwa scattered around the world that are being catalogued and translated, more than forty are medical in nature. This paper organizes and charts the medical written conversations by their dates of publication and examine the various aspects of their publication. Medical written conversations have been collected since the Fourth Envoy. There are no records of medical written conversations or poetry exchange in Tsushima even though that was the first port of arrival for the Tongsinsa. Instead, sources show that written conversations and poetry exchanges mostly took place in Kyoto, Tokyo, and Osaka; indeed, these three cities, in that order, also have yielded the highest volumes of publication. The first commercially published collection of medical written conversations was Sanghaneuidam, published in 1713 following the Eighth Envoy. Though Gyerimchanghwajip was published two years earlier in 1711, it is clear from the usage of the word changhwa in the title that this collection was not strictly limited to medical written conversations. Sanghaneuidam was an attempt by Japanese medicine to collect questions and answers in order to publish as medical textbooks. The Japanese medicine that was involved in the most written conversations was Kawamura Shunko, who was the editor of Sanghaneuimundap and Joseonpildam following the Tenth Envoy. Publications with titles containing 'eui' explicitly contemplates the targeted readership. Kitao Shunpo was one Japanese medicine who was less interested in meeting a literary scrivener, but instead sought to converse with a respected medicine. When the Eighth Envoy of 1711 arrived in Ogaki, Kitao followed around the Joseon medicines and attempted written conversations. He enlisted the aid of his second son Shunrin in organizing the written conversations, and published the collection, complete with preface, postscript, and appendices-an editorial decision that fully contemplated his audience. Prior to meeting Gi Du-mun, Kitao meticulously planned out the order of questions-that is, the table of contents for Sanghaneuidam. Kitao drafted his questions to serve the purpose of a medical textbook, edited the contents of the written conversations, and added illustrations before presenting the collection to the public. Seomulyuchan, one of the most famous leishu in Japan, contains a preface by Lee Hyeon, a scrivener of Joseon. Kitao, who had studied Dongeuibogam, had already possessed a vast and systematic knowledge of materia medica; however, he sought Lee's contributions, hoping that a preface written by a renowned Joseon scholar would lend his publication more credibility. As such, it can be inferred that the preface to Seomulyuchan was created as an extension of the medical written conversations. PMID:20671402
Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinalplants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order – Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria.
Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.
This review summarizes human infections caused by endoparasites, including protozoa, nematodes, trematodes, and cestodes, which affect more than 30% of the human population, and medicinalplants of potential use in their treatment. Because vaccinations do not work in most instances and the parasites have sometimes become resistant to the available synthetic therapeutics, it is important to search for alternative sources of anti-parasitic drugs. Plants produce a high diversity of secondary metabolites with interesting biological activities, such as cytotoxic, anti-parasitic and anti-microbial properties. These drugs often interfere with central targets in parasites, such as DNA (intercalation, alkylation), membrane integrity, microtubules and neuronal signal transduction. Plant extracts and isolated secondary metabolites which can inhibit protozoan parasites, such as Plasmodium, Trypanosoma, Leishmania, Trichomonas and intestinal worms are discussed. The identified plants and compounds offer a chance to develop new drugs against parasitic diseases. Most of them need to be tested in more detail, especially in animal models and if successful, in clinical trials. PMID:23114614
Toxicity of phytochemicals, plant-based extracts and dietary supplements, and medicinalplants in general, is of medical importance and must be considered in phytotherapy and other plant uses. We show in this report how general database analyses can provide a quantitative assessment of research and evidence related to toxicity of medicinalplants or specific phytochemicals. As examples, several medicinalplants are analyzed for their relation to nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. The results of analyses in different databases are similar, and reveal the two best-established toxic effects among the group of plants that were examined: nephrotoxicity of Aristolochia fangchi and hepatotoxicity of Larrea tridentata.
Medicinalplants are indicators of indigenous knowledge in the context of political volatility and sociocultural and ecological change in the Pamir Mountains of Afghanistan and Tajikistan. Medicinalplants are the primary health care option in this region of Central Asia. The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate that medicinalplants contribute to health security and sovereignty in a time of instability. We illustrate the nutritional as well as medicinal significance of plants in the daily lives of villagers. Based on over a decade and half of research related to resilience and livelihood security, we present plant uses in the context of mountain communities. Villagers identified over 58 cultivated and noncultivated plants and described 310 distinct uses within 63 categories of treatment and prevention. Presence of knowledge about medicinalplants is directly connected to their use. PMID:21258436
The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinalplants; verify the sources of medicinalplants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinalplant use. Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. The material collected represent 125 plants, distributed among 61 botanical families, with little participation of native plants. This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat blood-related problems, but cite a much more diverse group of plants to treat problems related to the respiratory and digestive systems – two important categories in studies undertaken in different parts of the world. The local medicinal flora is largely based on plants that are either cultivated or obtained from anthropogenic zones, possibly due to the use and access restrictions of the legally protected neighboring forest. Despite these restrictions, the species with the highest use-value by this community was Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macb., a native plant of the Atlantic Forest.
Gazzaneo, Luiz Rodrigo Saldanha; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961
Arsenic (As) is a widespread environmental and food chain contaminant and class I, non-threshold carcinogen. Plants accumulate\\u000a As due to ionic mimicry that is of importance as a measure of phytoremediation but of concern due to the use of plants in\\u000a alternative medicine. The present study investigated As accumulation in native plants including some medicinalplants, from\\u000a three districts [Chinsurah
This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. The aim of this work is to catalogue, document, and make known the uses of plants for folk medicine in Dehloran and Abdanan districts, Ilam Province, Iran. An analysis was made of the species used, parts of the plant employed, preparation methods, administration means, and the ailments treated in relation to pathological groups. A folk botanical survey was carried out from February 2007 to October 2009. The information was collected from 81 persons (60% men and 40% women) in 20 villages. The informants reported data on 122 species, belonging to 49 botanical families, were claimed as medicinal. This work is focused on human medicinalplant uses, which represent 95% of the pharmaceutical uses. The most commonly represented families were Asteraceae (37.5%), Lamiaceae (20.8%), Rosaceae (18.7%), Fabaceae (16.7%) and Apiaceae (14.6%). Some of the uses were found to be new when compared with published literature on ethnomedicine of Iran. The folk knowledge about medicinalplant use is still alive in the studied region, and a number of scarcely reported plant uses has been detected, some of them with promising phytotherapeutical applications. The results of the study reveal that some of species play an important role in primary healthcare system of these tribal communities. PMID:24146463
Medicinalplants are being used extensively in Jordanian traditional medicinal system for the treatment of diabetes symptoms. Twenty one plant samples were collected from different Jordanian locations and used for antioxidant evaluation. The level of antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ABTS assays in relation to the total phenolic contents of the medically used parts. The most frequently used plant parts as medicines were fruit, shoot and leaves. The total phenolic contents of methanol and aqueous extracts, from plants parts, ranged from 6.6 to 103.0 and 3.0 to 98.6 GAE mg g(-1) of plant part dry weight, respectively. DPPH-TEAC of the methanol extracts of plants parts were varied from 4.1 to 365.0 mg g(-1) of plant dry weight versus 0.6 to 267.0 mg g(-1) in aqueous extracts. Moreover, the mean values of ABTS*- (IC50) varied from 6.9 to 400.0 microg dry weight mL(-1) ABTS in methanol extracts versus 9.8 to 580.5 microg mL(-1) in aqueous extracts. According to their antioxidant capacity, the plants were divided into three categories: high (DPPH-TEAC > or = 80 mg g(-1) ), (i.e., Punica granatum peel, Quercus calliprinos leave, Quercus calliprinos fruit, Cinchona ledgeriana and Juniperus communis leave), moderate (DPPH-TEAC range 20-80 mg g(-1)) (i.e., Salvia fruticosa shoot, Crataegus azarolus stem, Crataegus azarolus leave, Varthemia iphionoides shoot, Artemisia herba-alba shoot, Thymus capitatus shoot, Morus nigra leaves and Arum palaestinum leaves) and low antioxidant plants (DPPH-TEAC < 20 mg g(-1)), (i.e., Matricaria aurea shoot, Artemisia judaica shoot, Teucrium polium shoot, Pinus halepenss pollen grains, Sarcopoterium spinosum root, Crataegus azarolus fruit, Inula viscose shoot and Achillea fragrantissima shoot). The antioxidant activity of these plant's extracts and their potential rule in radical scavenging agreed with their potential use by Jordanian population as a traditional anti-diabetic agents. PMID:18817155
In our experiments 30 hypoglycaemic medicinalplants (known and less known) have been selected for thorough studies from indigenous folk medicines, Ayurvedic, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines. In all the experiments with different herbal samples (vacuum dried 95% ethanolic extracts), definite blood glucose lowering effect within 2 weeks have been confirmed in alloxan diabetic albino rats. Blood glucose values
The USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System (NPGS) is charged with the preservation of economically important crop plants and their wild relatives. Curators in the System strive to develop collections capturing the genetic diversity of each species. One mechanism for filling gaps in collections...
The plantcollections of botanical gardens and arboreta in North America represent a significant repository of plant diversity from throughout the world. Including more than 100,000 acres and half a million diverse collections, the nearly 500 institutional members of AABGA can be a major force in ex...
Background Screening of the ethnobotenical plants is a pre-requisite to evaluate their therapeutic potential and it can lead to the isolation of new bioactive compounds. Methods The crude extracts and fractions of six medicinal important plants (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, Pistacia integerrima, Aesculus indica, and Toona ciliata) were tested against three Gram positive and two Gram negative ATCC bacterial species using the agar well diffusion method. Results The crude extract of P. integerrima and A. indica were active against all tested bacterial strains (12-23 mm zone of inhibition). Other four plant's crude extracts (Arisaema flavum, Debregeasia salicifolia, Carissa opaca, and Toona ciliata) were active against different bacterial strains. The crude extracts showed varying level of bactericidal activity. The aqueous fractions of A. indica and P. integerrima crude extract showed maximum activity (19.66 and 16 mm, respectively) against B. subtilis, while the chloroform fractions of T. ciliata and D. salicifolia presented good antibacterial activities (13-17 mm zone of inhibition) against all the bacterial cultures tested. Conclusion The methanol fraction of Pistacia integerrima, chloroform fractions of Debregeasia salicifolia &Toona ciliata and aqueous fraction of Aesculus indica are suitable candidates for the development of novel antibacterial compounds.
The antinociceptive effect of methanolic extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) of eight Egyptian medicinalplants was studied using acetic acid-induced writhing and tail-flick test in mice. Oral administration of 400 mg kg(-1) methanolic extracts of Convolvulus fatmensis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major seeds, Conyza dioscaridis significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the nociception to acetic acid-induced writhes with a protection of 85.5-61.3%. Schouwia thebaica, Diplotaxis acris, Plantago major leaves and Mentha microphylla, in the large dose, showed a protection of 50.8-45.8%, which were significantly different as compared to control. The smaller dose of the tested plant extracts did not protect animals from painful acetic acid stimulation with the exception of Alhagi maurorum. In the tail-flick test, methanolic extracts of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscaridis, Alhagi maurorum, Plantago major leaves, Diplotaxis acris and Convolvulus fatmensis in a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) produced significant increase in the latency to response of tail to thermal stimulation. Mild or no effect was observed by the small dose with the exception of Diplotaxis acris that had significant antinociceptive effect at the dose of 200 mg kg(-1). The extracts of all tested plants in doses up to 2 g kg(-1) b.wt. did not cause any deaths or major signs of acute toxicity. Phytochemical screening indicated the presence of unsaturated sterols, triterpenes, tannins, flavonoids and carbohydrates and/or glycosides as major constituents. PMID:15507342
Water extracts (infusions) from a group of medicinalplants were studied in terms of their activity enhancing the uterine tonus in a series of experiments with a preparation of an isolated rabbit and guinea pig uterine horn. In a final extract concentration of 1 to 2 mg crude drug per 1 cm3 the plants ranked in the following descending order with regard to their tonus-raising effect on the uterus: camomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.), potmarigold calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) cockscomb (Celosia cristata L.), plantain (Plantago lanceolata L. et Plantago major L.), symphytum (Symphytum officinale L.), shepherdspurse (Capsella bursa pastoris L.), St.-John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.). No effect showed the infusions of flax seeds (Linum usitatissimum L.) and bearberry leaves (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L.). The combined preparation 'Antiinflamin', consisting of a pooled freeze-dried extract from three plants and chemotherapeutic agents produced a good enhancing effect, in the form of 'comprets' for intrauterine application at the rate of one compret per 2500 cm3. PMID:7314446
The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinalplants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741
Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; González-Espíndola, Luis Angel; Domínguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; García-Lujan, Concepción; González-Martínez, Marisela del Rocio; Gómez-Sánchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castillón, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Milán, Pedro; García-Carrancá, Alejandro
The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinalplants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821
Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl
In search of broad-spectrum antibacterial activity from traditionally used Indian medicinalplants, 66 ethanolic plant extracts were screened against nine different bacteria. Of these, 39 extracts demonstrated activity against six or more test bacteria. Twelve extracts showing broad-spectrum activity were tested against specific multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESbetaL)-producing enteric bacteria. In vitro efficacy was expressed in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of plant extracts. MIC values ranged from 0.32-7.5 mg/ml against MRSA and 0.31-6.25 mg/ml against ESbetaL-producing enteric bacteria. The overall activity against all groups of bacteria was found in order of Plumbago zeylanica > Hemidesmus indicus > Acorus calamus > Camellia sinensis > Terminalia chebula > Terminalia bellerica > Holarrhena antidysenterica > Lawsonia inermis > Mangifera indica > Punica granatum > Cichorium intybus and Delonix regia. In addition, these extracts showed synergistic interaction with tetracycline, chloramphenicol and ciprofloxacin against S. aureus and/or Escherichia coli. The ethanolic extracts of more than 12 plants were found nontoxic to sheep erythrocytes and nonmutagenic, determined by Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium test strains (TA 97a, TA 100, TA 102 and TA 104). Based on above properties, six plants-Plumbago zeylanica, Hemidesmus indicus, Acorus calamus, Punica granatum, Holarrhena antidysenterica and Delonix regia-were further subjected to fractionation-based study. Ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol fractions of more than six plants indicated that the active phytocompounds were distributed mainly into acetone and ethyl acetate fractions, whereas they were least prevalent in methanol fractions as evident from their antibacterial activity against MDR bacteria. Gram-positive and Gram-negative MDR bacteria are almost equally sensitive to these extracts/fractions, indicating their broad-spectrum nature. However, strain- and plant extract-dependent variations in the antibacterial activity were also evident. Time-kill assay with the most promising plant fraction Plumbago zeylanica (ethyl acetate fraction) demonstrated killing of test bacteria at the level lower than its MIC. Further, identification of active constituents in each fraction and their additive and synergistic interactions are needed to exploit them in evaluating efficacy and safety in vivo against MDR bacteria. PMID:17440624
|A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinalplants, associated with shamanistic practices.|
Extracts of the traditionally used medicinalplants Entada abyssinica (stem bark), Terminalia spinosa (young branches), Harrisonia abyssinica (roots), Ximenia caffra (roots), Azadirachta indica (stem bark), Zanha africana (stem bark) and Spilanthes mauritiana (roots and flowers) were investigated for fungistatic and fungicidal activity against Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp. by a microtitre serial dilution technique. Entada abyssinica, T. spinosa, X. caffra, A. indica, and Z. africana showed activity against various Candida species. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranged from 0.006 to > 8 mg ml-1 and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) from 0.06 to > 8 mg ml-1. Extracts from S. mauritiana (both roots and flowers) exhibited no activity against Candida spp., but against Aspergillus spp., the MIC and MFC values ranged from 0.13 to 0.25 mg ml-1 and from 0.13 to 1 mg ml-1 respectively. It is concluded that the extracts contain compounds with high antifungal potency. PMID:8786762
Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 ?g/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.
Aim of the studyIn recent years the use of medicinalplants has been growing worldwide and this is particularly true in Lebanon. In the present investigation we report the inhibitory activity against digestive enzymes related to diabetes and angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) of extracts of nine plant species collected in Lebanon, where they have a traditional use against diabetes.
Monica R. Loizzo; Antoine M. Saab; Rosa Tundis; Federica Menichini; Marco Bonesi; Vitaliano Piccolo; Giancarlo A. Statti; Bruno de Cindio; Peter J. Houghton; Francesco Menichini
Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review.
Among the current treatment strategies for the peptic ulcer patient with Helicobacter pylori infection, the method of choice is triple therapy based on the concurrent use of proton inhibitors and two antibiotics. Alchornea triplinervia is a medicinalplant commonly used by people living in the Cerrado region of Brazil to treat gastrointestinal ulcers. In the present work we proposed therapy based on this medicinalplant that presents effective gastroprotective action with antibiotic effects. Oral pretreatment with methanolic extract (ME) of A. triplinervia in rats and mice decreased the gastric injuries induced by ethanol and HCl/ethanol. Increasing the dose reduced the gastroprotective effects of ME on the gastric lesions induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. After pylorus ligature of mice, oral administration of ME induced a decrease not only in total acid but also in the ulcer index. We also observed that ME displayed antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Liquid-liquid separation of ME indicated that active constituents responsible for the gastroprotective action are concentrated in the ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) (50% protection) rather than in the aqueous fraction, which did not induce significant gastroprotection at the same dose (100 mg/kg). EAF induced an increase of gastric mucosa prostaglandin (PG) E(2) levels, which remained high even after previous administration of indomethacin. The phytochemical profile of ME revealed that EAF contains mainly flavonoids. In conclusion, all these results suggest that ME did not show acute toxicity, but exhibited an antisecretory property, anti-H. pylori effect, and gastroprotective action. The observed effect did not involve the participation of nitric oxide or endogenous sulfhydryl groups. However, EAF showed a more efficient gastroprotective effect than ME at a lower dose and protected the gastric mucosa by increasing PGE(2). PMID:19053863
Lima, Z P; Calvo, T R; Silva, E F; Pellizzon, C H; Vilegas, W; Brito, A R M S; Bauab, T M; Hiruma-Lima, C A
The present study aims to inventory and analyse the ethnobotanical knowledge about medicinalplants in the Serra de Mariola Natural Park. In respect to traditional uses, 93 species reported by local informants were therapeutic, 27 food, 4 natural dyes and 13 handcrafts. We developed a methodology that allowed the location of individuals or vegetation communities with a specific popular use. We prepared a geographic information system (GIS) that included gender, family, scientific nomenclature and common names in Spanish and Catalan for each species. We also made a classification of 39 medicinal uses from ATC (Anatomical, Therapeutic, Chemical classification system). Labiatae (n=19), Compositae (n=9) and Leguminosae (n=6) were the families most represented among the plants used to different purposes in humans. Species with the most elevated cultural importance index (CI) values were Thymus vulgaris (CI=1.431), Rosmarinus officinalis (CI=1.415), Eryngium campestre (CI=1.325), Verbascum sinuatum (CI=1.106) and Sideritis angustifolia (CI=1.041). Thus, the collectedplants with more therapeutic uses were: Lippia triphylla (12), Thymus vulgaris and Allium roseum (9) and Erygium campestre (8). The most repeated ATC uses were: G04 (urological use), D03 (treatment of wounds and ulcers) and R02 (throat diseases). These results were in a geographic map where each point represented an individual of any species. A database was created with the corresponding therapeutic uses. This application is useful for the identification of individuals and the selection of species for specific medicinal properties. In the end, knowledge of these useful plants may be interesting to revive the local economy and in some cases promote their cultivation. PMID:24146454
Belda, A; Zaragozí, B; Belda, I; Martínez, Je; Seva, E
The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinalplants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinalplants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on
The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinalplants have regained a wide
BACKGROUND: There has been a long standing interest in the identification of medicinalplants and derived natural products for developing cancer therapeutics. Our study focuses upon pancreatic cancer, due to its high mortality rate, that is attributed in part to the lack of an effective chemotherapeutic agent. Previous reports on the use of medicinalplant extracts either alone or alongside
Sherine George; Siddharth V Bhalerao; Erich A Lidstone; Irfan S Ahmad; Atiya Abbasi; Brian T Cunningham; Kenneth L Watkin
Certain Lamiaceous and Asteraceous plants have long histories of use as restoratives of lost or declining cognitive functions in western European systems of traditional medicine. Investigations were carried out to evaluate human CNS cholinergic receptor binding activity in extracts of those European medicinalplants reputed to enhance or restore mental functions including memory. Ethanolic extracts were prepared from accessions of
George Wake; Jennifer Court; Anne Pickering; Rhiannon Lewis; Richard Wilkins; Elaine Perry
BACKGROUND: This paper is based on ethnomedicinal investigation conducted from 1999–2002 in Chuxiong, central Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The Yi medicine has made a great contribution to the ethnomedicinal field in China. Neither case studies nor integrated inventories have previously been conducted to investigate the traditional Yi plants. This paper aims to argue the status and features of medicinalplants
Chunlin Long; Sumei Li; Bo Long; Yana Shi; Benxi Liu
India is clearly known to be the richest source of medicinalplants. One of the estimates indicates that the Andhra Pradesh State in India alone is a habitat for more than 1000 varieties of plants that are used in ayurvedic, unani, sydhi, homeopathic, J.J. Dechane, or tribal medicine. In a \\
Studies were carried out on analysis of secondary metabolites by RP-HPLC from different parts (both in vitro and in vivo) of Nothpodytes nimmoniana, an endangered medicinalplant. HPLC analysis showed the presence of camptothecin, a medicinally important alkaloid from N. nimmoniana. The plant parts used for the analysis include leaves, seeds, seed coat and leaf derived callus. Among all the
Indramohan Singh; N. Kumaravadivel; R. Gnanam; S. Vellaikumar
BACKGROUND: Medicinalplants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinalplants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healers were selected
The study was conducted around Debre Libanos monastery from October 2005 to June 2006. A total of 250 villagers, 13 monks and 3 nuns were interviewed using semistructured questionnaire on the knowledge and use of medicinalplants. The informant consensus factor (ICF) and the fidelity level (FL) of the species were determined. Eighty medicinalplant species were reported. The average
Consumption of preparations of medicinalplants has been increasing during the last decades in occidental societies. However, there are no effective sanitary controls of these products. To evaluate the nature and content of microbiological contamination, 62 samples of seven medicinalplants (chamomile, leaves of orange tree, flowers of linden, corn silk, marine alga, pennyroyal mint and garden sage) were studied,
Herm??nia Marina Martins; M. L??gia Martins; Maria Inês Dias; Fernando Bernardo
Medicinalplants are being widely investigated owing to their ability to produce molecules of therapeutic significance. Isolation of good quality RNA is a tedious but primary step towards undertaking molecular biology experiments. However, medicinalplants are rich in secondary metabolites and not amenable to standard RNA isolation protocols involving Guanidine isothiocyanate (GITC). So an RNA isolation protocol from difficult samples
Medicinalplant use has persisted as a long standing tradition in the Mapuche communities of Southern Argentina and Chile. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the rural Curruhuinca community located near the mountain city of San Martin de los Andes, Argentina. Semi-structured interviews were carried out on 22 families in order to examine the present use of medicinalplants and
Phytochemicals are extensively found at different levels in many medicinalplants. This work had two objectives: the first, to evaluate the total phenolic or flavonoid contents of 11 Algerian medicinalplants and second, to determine whether these compounds have an antioxidant capacity toward free radical propagation. The polyphenolic extractions of the dried powdered samples have been performed using 70% ethanol.
A. Djeridane; M. Yousfi; B. Nadjemi; D. Boutassouna; P. Stocker; N. Vidal
Herbs are used in Europe as medicinal products, food, food supplements, and related products. This paper will discuss the concepts of Traditional Herbal Medicines and Traditional Plant Food Supplements, defined in European legislation under differing legal frameworks, regarding Traditional Plant Food Supplements (including Claims Regulation) and the role of the European Food Safety Authority in health claims. PMID:22955367
Medicinalplants have many traditional claims including the treatment of ailments of infectious origin. In the evaluation of traditional claims, scientific research is important. The objective of the study was to determine the presence of antibacterial activity in the crude extracts of some of the commonly used medicinalplants in Malaysia, Andrographis paniculata, Vitex negundo, Morinda citrifolia, Piper sarmentosum, and
Research conducted in 2003\\/2004 documented and validated (in a non-experimental way) ethnoveterinary medicines used by small-scale,\\u000a organic livestock farmers in British Columbia (BC), Canada. Interviews were conducted with 60 participants who were organic\\u000a farmers or holistic medicinal\\/veterinary practitioners. A workshop was held with selected participants to discuss the plant-based\\u000a treatments. This paper reports on the medicinalplants used for fleas
An efficient transformation system for the medicinal and aromatic plant, Pogostemon cablin Benth was developed by using agropine-type Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834. Hairy roots formed directly from the cut edges of leaf explants or via callus stage 8 days after inoculation with\\u000a the bacterium. The highest frequency of leaf explant transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes ATCC15834 was about 80% after infection for 25 days.
Shi He-PingLong; Long Yong-Yue; Sun Tie-Shan; Tsang Po Keung Eric
Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinalplants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinalplants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice.
The objective of this paper was to investigate the phytochemistry and hypoglycemic activities of aqueous extracts of Anisopus mannii, Daniella olivieri, Detarium macrocarpum, Leptedenia hastate and Mimosa invisa, traditionally prescribed for diabetes mellitus. The aqueous extracts were tested for phytochemicals and free radical scavenging activity by the DPPH assay. The antidiabetic tests were performed in normoglycemic and alloxan induced diabetic mice. High intensity of saponins, xanthones, tannins and glycosides were detected in A. mannii, D. macrocarpum and M. invisa, respectively. For the free radical scavenging activity, D. macrocarpum showed the highest activity with an IC50 of 0.027 mg/ml which was 2.1 folds of ascorbic acid. All extracts showed potent hypoglycemic effects in alloxan induced diabetic mice with the highest fasting blood glucose reduction of 70.39 percent in A. mannii which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and human insulin, respectively. A. mannii showed the potent hypoglycemic activity which was 1.54 and 0.98 fold of glibenclamide and insulin, respectively. This study confirmed the traditional use of these Nigerian medicinalplants in diabetes treatment. These plants showed high potential for further investigation to novel anti-diabetic drugs. PMID:22754948
Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinalplants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinalplants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinalplants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinalplants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda) and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque), as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinalplants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1) common exotic medicinalplants; (2) plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"); (3) specialized medicinalplants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4) highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere.
Background An efficient method for the identification of medicinalplant products is now a priority as the global demand increases. This study aims to develop a DNA-based method for the identification and authentication of plant species that can be implemented in the industry to aid compliance with regulations, based upon the economically important Hypericum perforatum L. (St John’s Wort or Guan ye Lian Qiao). Methods The ITS regions of several Hypericum species were analysed to identify the most divergent regions and PCR primers were designed to anneal specifically to these regions in the different Hypericum species. Candidate primers were selected such that the amplicon produced by each species-specific reaction differed in size. The use of fluorescently labelled primers enabled these products to be resolved by capillary electrophoresis. Results Four closely related Hypericum species were detected simultaneously and independently in one reaction. Each species could be identified individually and in any combination. The introduction of three more closely related species to the test had no effect on the results. Highly processed commercial plant material was identified, despite the potential complications of DNA degradation in such samples. Conclusion This technique can detect the presence of an expected plant material and adulterant materials in one reaction. The method could be simply applied to other medicinalplants and their problem adulterants.
Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in Ethiopia since early times for the control of various ailments afflicting humans and their domestic animals. However, little work has been made in the past to properly document and promote the knowledge. Today medicinalplants and the associated knowledge in the country are threatened due to deforestation, environmental degradation and acculturation. Urgent ethnobotanical studies and subsequent conservation measures are, therefore, required to salvage these resources from further loss. The purpose of the present study was to record and analyse traditional medicinalplant knowledge of the Bench ethnic group in Southwest Ethiopia. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Bench informants selected during transect walks made to houses as well as those identified as knowledgeable by local administrators and elders to gather data regarding local names of medicinalplants used, parts harvested, ailments treated, remedy preparation methods, administration routes, dosage and side effects. The same method was also employed to gather information on marketability, habitat and abundance of the reported medicinalplants. Purposive sampling method was used in the selection of study sites within the study district. Fidelity Level (FL) value was calculated for each claimed medicinalplant to estimate its healing potential. Results The study revealed 35 Bench medicinalplants: 32 used against human ailments and three to treat both human and livestock ailments. The majority of Bench medicinalplants were herbs and leaf was the most frequently used part in the preparation of remedies. Significantly higher average number of medicinalplants was claimed by men, older people and illiterate ones as compared to women, younger people and literate ones, respectively. The majority of the medicinalplants used in the study area were uncultivated ones. Conclusion The study revealed acculturation as the major threat to the continuation of the traditional medical practice in the study area. Awareness should, therefore, be created among the Bench community, especially the young ones, by concerned organizations and individuals regarding the usefulness of the practice.
The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined. PMID:22024968
Occupational history is fundamental for the evaluation of possible workplace influences on health. We reviewed 2,922 initial history-and-physical reports from 137 third-year medical students to examine occupational history collection. Overall reporting frequencies were recorded as the following: industry, 55.8%; occupation, 70.0%; specific occupational exposure, 8.4%; smoking status, 91.4%. Patients younger than 40 years of age and women were significantly less likely than other older patients and men to have notations of occupation and industry. Surgery students were less likely than internal medicine students to collect data for industry (41.6% vs 66.6%, P < 0.001), occupation (57.4% vs 79.7%, P < 0.001), and smoking (88.1% vs 94.0%, P < 0.001). The highest frequencies of notation were those for circulatory and respiratory conditions. No significant differences were noted for student gender, academic quarter, or week of clerkship. Clinical occupational medicine teaching should emphasize the need to collect occupational information from all patients, including women and young persons. PMID:9729750
Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinalplants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179
Medicinalplants are one of the most important groups of plant genetic resources. Their use in biotechnology has assumed considerable significance because of overexploitation of these plants to meet the increasing demand. As cells cultured in vitro are prone to spontaneous changes, continuous culture of plant cells is often undesirable. Cryopreservation is a safe and cost-effective technique for preservation of
Sonali Dixit; Sangeeta Ahuja; Alka Narula; P. S. Srivastava
Ethanolic and aqueous extracts of 20 Palestinian plant species used in folk medicine were investigated for their antimicrobial activities against five bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and one yeast (Candida albicans). The plants showed 90% of antimicrobial activity, with significant difference in activity between the different plants. The most antimicrobially active plants were
M. S Ali-Shtayeh; Reem M.-R Yaghmour; Y. R Faidi; Khalid Salem; M. A Al-Nuri
Plant tissue culture studies were carried out for the preservation of medicinalplant resources and efficient production of pharmaceutically important secondary metabolites. Micropropagation methods for Cephaelis ipecacuanha were established and these methods enabled much more efficient propagation of plants than the conventional methods using seedling or layering. The C. ipecacuanha plants propagated through tissue culture grew uniformly in the field
A total of 81 Thai medicinalplant species collected from forests in four geographical regions of Thailand were examined for\\u000a the presence of endophytic fungi with biological activity. Of 582 pure isolates obtained, 360 morphologically distinct fungi\\u000a were selected for cultivation on malt Czapek broth and yeast extract sucrose broth, from which extracts were tested for biological\\u000a activity. Extracts of
Context An ethnobotany-based approach in the selection of raw plant materials to study was implemented. Objective To acquire raw plant materials using ethnobotanical field interviews as starting point to discover new bioactive compounds from medicinalplants of the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Methods Using semi-structured field interviews with healers in the Lao PDR, plant samples were collected, extracted, and bio-assayed to detect bioactivity against cancer, HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria. Plant species demonstrating activity were recollected and the extracts subjected to a bioassay-guided isolation protocol to isolate and identify the active compounds. Results Field interviews with 118 healers in 15 of 17 provinces of Lao PDR yielded 753 collections (573 species) with 955 plant samples. Of these 955, 50 extracts demonstrated activity in the anticancer, 10 in the anti-HIV, 30 in the anti-TB, and 52 in the antimalarial assay. Recollection of actives followed by bioassay-guided isolation processes yielded a series of new and known in vitro-active anticancer and antimalarial compounds from 5 species. Discussion Laos has a rich biodiversity, harboring an estimated 8000–11,000 species of plants. In a country highly dependent on traditional medicine for its primary health care, this rich plant diversity serves as a major source of their medication. Conclusions Ethnobotanical survey has demonstrated the richness of plant-based traditional medicine of Lao PDR, taxonomically and therapeutically. Biological assays of extracts of half of the 955 samples followed by in-depth studies of a number of actives have yielded a series of new bioactive compounds against the diseases of cancer and malaria.
Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinalplants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinalplants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinalplants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinalplant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinalplants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinalplants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinalplant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western boreal forest. In addition, several critical issues need to be addressed regarding the legal, ethical and cultural aspects of the conservation of medicinalplant species and the protection of the associated traditional knowledge.
Early nineteenth century Brazil saw a vibrant movement to study nature, including a number of expeditions aimed at gathering a corpus of knowledge on Brazilian flora. One of the main goals of these expeditions was to map and identify plant species of economic and therapeutic value. The government undertook and sponsored various initiatives, and it was within this context that the Bahian voyager Antônio Moniz de Souza engaged in his activities. He traveled through areas of the Brazilian territory in the first decades of the nineteenth century, observing, cataloging, and collecting products from the three kingdoms, especially plants with medicinal powers. This study of Moniz de Souza pinpoints and analyzes important features in the exploration of nature and knowledge and the use of medicinalplants during this timeframe. PMID:19824323
Background Skin diseases have been of major concern recently due to their association with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunity Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The study area (northern Maputaland) has the highest HIV infection rate in South Africa, which made them more prone to a wide range of skin conditions. Fungal infections due to the hot climate and overcrowding households are common in this area, as well as burn accidents due to the use of wood as the major fuel for cooking. It is known that the lay people in this area depend on medicinalplants for their primary health care. However no survey has been done in northern Maputaland to document the medicinalplants used to treat various skin disorder. Methods Interviews were undertaken at 80 homesteads, using structured questionnaires. The focus was on plants used for dermatological conditions and information regarding vernacular plant names, plant parts used, preparation (independently and in various combinations) and application was collected. Results A total of 87 lay people, both male (22%) and female (78%) were interviewed on their knowledge of medicinalplants used to treat disorders of the skin. Forty-seven plant species from 35 families were recorded in the present survey for the treatment of 11 different skin disorders including abscesses, acne, burns, boils, incisions, ringworm, rashes, shingles, sores, wounds and warts. When searching the most frequently used scientific databases (ScienceDirect, Scopus and Pubmed), nine plant species (Acacia burkei, Brachylaena discolor, Ozoroa engleri, Parinari capensis, subsp. capensis, Portulacaria afra, Sida pseudocordifolia, Solanum rigescens, Strychnos madagascariensis and Drimia delagoensis) were found to be recorded for the first time globally as a treatment for skin disorders. Fourteen plant combinations were used. Surprisingly, the application of enema’s was frequently mentioned. Conclusions The preference of traditional medicine over allopathic medicine by most of the interviewees strengthens previous studies on the importance that traditional medicine can have in the primary health care system in this rural community. Studies to validate the potential of these plants independently and in their various combinations is underway to provide insight into the anti-infective role of each plant.
Since centuries, natural compounds from plants, animals and microorganisms were used in medicinal traditions to treat various diseases without a solid scientific basis. Recent studies have shown that plants that were used or are still used in the medieval European medicine are able to provide relieve for many diseases including cancer. Here we summarize impact and effect of selected purified active natural compounds from plants used in European medieval medicinal traditions on cancer hallmarks and enabling characteristics identified by Hanahan and Weinberg. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the pharmacological effect of pure compounds originally discovered in plants with therapeutic medieval use. Whereas many reviews deal with Ayurvedic traditions and traditional Chinese medicine, to our knowledge, the molecular basis of European medieval medicinal approaches are much less documented. PMID:23973807
Teiten, Marie-Hélène; Gaascht, François; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc
Thirty-six medicinalplant species belonging to 25 families were surveyed to study Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal diversity\\u000a from different localities of North and South Goa of Western Ghats, Goa region, India. A total of 30 medicinalplant species\\u000a were found to be mycorrhizal and six plant species showed absence of AM fungal colonization. Forty two AM fungal species belonging\\u000a to
A field survey of commonly used medicinalplants in the district of Paksan, Bolikhamsai Province in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao P.D.R.) indicates that 55 species of plants, belonging to 49 genera in 31 families of vascular plants, are used in day-to-day medical therapy. Lao names along with uses and preparations for remedies are given. Seven species have medicinal
A. Libman; S. Bouamanivong; B. Southavong; K. Sydara; D. D. Soejarto
The results of the first detailed study of the use of medicinalplants by a group of Yanomami Indians are presented. Contrary\\u000a to previous assumptions, they are shown to possess a substantial pharmacopoeia, including at least 113 species of plants and\\u000a fungi. The changes in their use and knowledge of plantmedicine are discussed in the context of the past
Objectives: Screening of the medicinalplants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinalplants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents.
...TRADE PRACTICE RULES GUIDES FOR THE NURSERY INDUSTRY Â§ 18.6 Plantscollected...however, that plants propagated in nurseries from plants lawfully collected from the wild state may be designated as ânursery-propagated.â [Guide 6]...
This study considered traditional ethno-medicinal practices of rural people of Feni district, Bangladesh, focusing on their utilization of medicinalplants and associated indigenous knowledge. Ninety households were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Plant resources are used to treat 26 different ailments ranging from simple cuts to diabetes. In total, 46 medicinalplants are as used, of which a third are
Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Masao Koike; Nur Muhammed; Narayan Saha; Hajime Kobayashi
This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit.
This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491
Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D
Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinalplants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values less than 4 microg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 30 microg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC(50) values more than 30 microg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides. PMID:18955251
Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alsllami, Salah F; Lindequist, Ulrike
Chlorophytum arundinaceum is an important medicinalplant and its tuberous roots are used for various health ailment treatments. It has become an endangered species in the Eastern Ghats, and a rare medicinal herb in India, due to its excessive collection from its natural habitat and its destructive harvesting techniques, coupled with poor seed germination and low vegetative multiplication ratio. In order to contribute to its production systems, an efficient protocol was developed for in vitro clonal propagation through shoot bud culture. For this, multiple shoots were induced from shoot bud explants on Murashige and Skoog's medium supplemented with 2.5-3.0 mg/L BAP, 0.01-0.1 mg/LNAA and 3% (w/v) sucrose. Inclusion of Adenine Sulphate (25mg/L) in the culture medium improved the frequency of multiple shoot production and recovered the chlorotic symptoms of the leaves. Media having pH 5.9 and 4% sucrose showed significant improvement on shoot bud multiplication and growth. In vitro flowering was observed when the subcultures were carried out for over four months in the same multiplication media. Rooting was readily achieved upon transferring the shoots on to half- strength MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L IBA and 2% (w/v) sucrose. Micropropagated plantlets were hardened in the green house, successfully established, and flowered in the field. This method could effectively be applied for the conservation and clonal propagation to meet the demand of planting materials. PMID:21513203
The occurrence of some veterinary medicines in the livestock wastewater plants (WWTPs) was investigated. This investigation represented the occurrence of veterinary medicines to treat in the livestock WWTPs or be discharged into the water system in Korea since the sampling sites were widely distributed across the nation and samples were collected from the 11 livestock WWTPs. Nine antibiotics, two analgesics, and two disinfectants occurred in the livestock wastewater plants (WWTPs). From 11 livestock WWTP influents, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, acetylsalicylic acid, and disinfectants frequently occurred with the high concentrations. Meanwhile, sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin-H?O, and trimethoprim did not occur during sampling periods. The values for log Kow of each chemical showed a high correlation with the number of hydrogen bonding acceptors and were important parameters to estimate and understand the biodegradability and toxicity of a compound in the environment. The biodegradability of each compound was proportional to the hydrophilicity of each compound and the toxicity was proportional to the number of hydrogen bonding acceptors of each compound. The expected introductory concentration (EIC), predicted exposure concentration (PEC), and hazard quotient showed that the livestock WWTP effluents were hazardous to ecosystems. PMID:23638893
Lim, Seung J; Seo, Cheon-Kyu; Kim, Tak-Hyun; Myung, Seung-Woon
Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinalplants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values less than 4 µg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC50 values ranging from 10 to 30 µg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC50 values more than 30 µg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides.
Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Al-shamahy, Hassan A.; Alsllami, Salah F.; Lindequist, Ulrike
The antidiarrhoeal activity of six Egyptian medicinalplant extracts (200 and 400 mg kg(-1)) and their effect on motility of isolated rabbit's duodenum was investigated. Phytochemical screening of the plant extracts for their active constituents was also carried out by TLC. Oral administration of methanol extract from Conyza dioscoridis (CD) or Alhagi maurorum (AM) in a 200 mg kg(-1) dose exhibits a significant antidiarrhoeal effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea, while Mentha microphylla (MM), Convolvulus arvensis (CA), Conyza linifolia (CL) produced no significant effect. In a dose of 400 mg kg(-1), Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Alhagi maurorum, Zygophyllum album (ZA), and Conyza linifolia produced a significant (P<0.01) effect, while Convolvulus arvensis produced no antidiarrhoeal effect in rats. Methanol extract of Mentha microphylla, Conyza dioscoridis, Zygophyllum album, and Convolvulus arvensis induced a dose-dependent (0.4-2.8 mg ml(-1)) relaxation of rabbit's duodenal smooth muscle. Alhagi maurorum and Conyza linifolia increased the contractile force in concentrations between 0.4 and 1.6 mg ml(-1). Higher concentrations (>3.2 mg ml(-1)) caused a rapid depressant effect. The depressant effect induced by Alhagi maurorum (in a higher dose) and Zygophyllum album appeared to be due to calcium channel blocking effect, since CaCl(2) could not restore the contractile response of the tissue impregnated in calcium free-medium. However, a ganglionic blocking effect appeared to be a possible mechanism of action of Mentha microphylla and Conyza dioscoridis since a stimulant dose of nicotine could not restore the contractile response of the tissue. The effect of Convolvulus arvensis and Conyza linifolia was not through any of the common mediators. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, unsaturated sterols/triterpenes, carbohydrates, lactones and proteins/amino acids as major constituents. PMID:15138016
Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinalplants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376
Bah, Sékou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T
Two actinobacterial strains CPCC 203464T and CPCC 203448 isolated from surface-sterilized stems of medicinalplants were subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. These two aerobic organisms formed pale yellow colonies on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Cells were Gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-motile, rod- or coccoid-like elements. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strains CPCC 203464T and CPCC 203448 were most closely related to the type strains of the species of the genus Williamsia. Chemotaxonomic data such as containing meso-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall, arabinose, galactose and ribose being the whole-cell hydrolysates sugars, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) as the phospholipids profile, and C16:0, C18:0 10-methyl, C18:1?9C, C16:1?7C and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH as major fatty acids supported the affiliation of strains CPCC 203464T and CPCC 203448 to the genus Williamsia. The DNA-DNA hybridization values in combination with differentiating chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics strongly suggested that these two isolates should be classified as a novel species of the genus Williamsia. The name Williamsia sterculiae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain CPCC 203464T ( =DSM 45741T =KCTC 29118T ) as the type strain. PMID:23771621
Several medicinalplants used in Italy were analysed to determine natural and artificial radioactivity in those parts (leaves, fruits, seeds, roots, peduncles, flowers, barks, berries, thallus) used generally as remedies. The radionuclides were determined by alpha ((238)U, (210)Po) and gamma ((214)Pb-Bi, (210)Pb, (40)K and (137)Cs) spectrometry. (238)U ranged between <0.1 and 7.32 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (210)Po between <0.1 and 30.3 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (214)Pb-(214)Bi between <0.3 and 16.6 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (210)Pb between <3 and 58.3 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (40)K between 66.2 and 3582.0 Bq kg(dry)(-1); (137)Cs between <0.3 and 10.7 Bq kg(dry)(-1). The percentage of (210)Po extraction in infusion and decoction was also determined; the arithmetical mean value of percentage of (210)Po extraction resulted 20.7+/-7.5. PMID:20537772
Desideri, Donatella; Meli, Maria Assunta; Roselli, Carla
The paper gives results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the ventur...
Methanolic extracts obtained from different organs of Cleome rosea, collected from its natural habitat and from in vitro-propagated plants, were submitted to in vitro biological assays. Inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production by J774 macrophages and antioxidant effects by protecting the plasmid DNA from the SnCl(2)-induced damage were evaluated. Extracts from the stem of both origins and leaf of natural plants inhibited NO production. The plasmid DNA strand breaks induced by SnCl(2) were reduced by extracts from either leaf or stem of both sources. On the other hand, root extracts did not show any kind of effects on plasmid DNA, and presented significant toxic effects to J774 cells. The results showed that C. rosea presents medicinal potential and that the acclimatization process reduces the plant toxicity both to plasmid DNA and to J774 cells, suggesting the use of biotechnology tools to obtain elite plants as source of botanical material for pharmacological and phytochemical studies. PMID:16376496
Simões, Claudia; De Mattos, José Carlos P; Sabino, Kátia C C; Caldeira-de-Araújo, Adriano; Coelho, Marsen G P; Albarello, Norma; Figueiredo, Solange F L
We have examined antioxidant activities of twenty-six medicinal herbal extracts that have been popularly used as folk medicines in Taiwan. The results of scavenging DPPH radical activity show that, among the 26 tested medicinalplants, Ludwigia octovalvis, Vitis thunbergii, Rubus parvifolius, Lindernia anagallis, and Zanthoxylum nitidum exhibited strong activities and their IC50 values for DPPH radicals were 4.6, 24, 27,
Lie-Fen Shyur; Jieh-Hen Tsung; Je-Hsin Chen; Chih-Yang Chiu; Chiu-Ping Lo
Asparagus racemosus Willd. is an important medicinalplant of tropical and subtropical India. Its medicinal usage has been reported in the Indian\\u000a and British Pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine such as Ayurveda, Unani, and Siddha. The multiple uses of\\u000a this species have increased its commercial demand, resulting in over-exploitation. Because of destructive harvesting, the\\u000a natural population of A.
The therapeutic use of herbs is as old as human civilization and has evolved along with it. The vast majority of people on\\u000a this planet still rely on their indigenous system of medicine and use herbal drugs. The Indian and Chinese systems of medicine\\u000a are well established with written records going back around 3000 years. Medicinalplant drug discovery continues
Dorema ammoniacum D. Don. (Apiaceae), a native medicinalplant in Iran, is classified as a vulnerable species. Root, hypocotyl, and cotyledon\\u000a segments were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) (1962) medium supplemented with either 2,4-dichlorophenyoxyacetic acid\\u000a (2,4-D) or naphathalene acetic acid (NAA), at 0–2 mg l?1, alone or in combination with either benzyladenine (BA) or kinetin (KN), at 0–2 mg l?1 for callus induction.
N. Irvani; M. Solouki; M. Omidi; A. R. Zare; S. Shahnazi
The antiproliferative activities of six medicinalplant extracts from Burkina Faso were evaluated in order to justify their traditional use for the treatment of cancer. The SOS chromotest method was used in vitro on Escherichia coli PQ37 to evaluate the mutagenic effect of the plant extracts. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of each plant. The antiproliferative
W. R. Sawadogo; A. Maciuk; J. T. Banzouzi; P. Champy; B. Figadere; I. P. Guissou; O. G. Nacoulma
The antiproliferative activities of six medicinalplant extracts from Burkina Faso were evaluated in order to justify their traditional use for the treatment of cancer. The SOS chromotest method was used in vitro on Escherichia coli PQ37 to evaluate the mutagenic effect of the plant extracts. The DPPH method was used to evaluate the antioxidant activity of each plant. The antiproliferative
W. R. Sawadogo; A. Maciuk; J. T. Banzouzi; P. Champy; B. Figadere; I. P. Guissou; O. G. Nacoulma
The concentrations of heavy metals (zinc, copper, iron, manganese, cadmium, lead and nickel) were measured in 51 desert plants, of which 42 are considered medicinal, three fodder and six common plant species. Accumulation of certain heavy metals in some plant species was 2 ? 260?fold higher than the available heavy metal content of the soil of the Negev desert.The highest
Twenty-two extracts from nine Mexican medicinalplants of eight different families used for people neighbor to Huautla Sierra Biosphere Reserve (REBIOSH) in different infectious diseases were assayed in vitro to determine their antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus fae- calis; Escherichia coli; Proteus mirabilis; Salmonella typhi and the yeast Candida albicans. Most plants showed antibacterial activity, while two plants showed
David O. Salinas Sánchez; Gema L. Arteaga Najera; Ismael León Rivera; Oscar Dorado
An ethnopharmacological survey was used to compare the medicinalplants most frequently recommended by herbalists, naturopaths, and other traditional practitioners in Moroccan and Canadian socio-economical settings. Striking differences in traditional pharmacopoeias were noted between Morocco and the Canadian province of Quebec, with only one plant, garlic, on both lists of the top 20 most frequently recommended plants. Therapeutic indications, however,
Pierre S. Haddad; Michelle Depot; Abdellatif Settaf; Allal Chabli; Yahia Cherrah
Medicinal, aromatic and spice plants grown in different regions of Austria were monitored as to their Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents. Since the plants were grown under common field conditions, the essential elements were within the usual ranges for plant material. The contamination level with the toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd, can be classified as normally
Remigius Chizzola; Hanneliese Michitsch; Chlodwig Franz
In order to find out new sources of safe and inexpensive antioxidants, the antioxidant capacities of 45 selected medicinalplants were evaluated using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays, respectively, and the total phenolic contents of these plants were measured by the Folin–Ciocalteu method. Most of these plants were analyzed for the first time
The use of medicinalplants in the world, and espe- cially in South America, contributes significantly to pri- mary health care. Many plants are used in Brazil in the form of crude extracts, infusions or plasters to treat com- mon infections without any scientific evidence of effi- cacy. Pharmacological studies done with essential oils from 15 species of aromatic plants
Fabíola Barbiéri Holetz; Greisiele Lorena Pessini; Neviton Rogério Sanches; Diógenes Aparício Garcia Cortez; Celso Vataru Nakamura; Benedito Prado Dias Filho
South African medicinalplants are traditionally harvested from a wide range of undisclosed locations by plant gatherers. Thus, there is a risk that plant material may be exposed to a variety of pollutants. The variation in five heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, nickel, and lead) and six essential elements (boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, and zinc) was determined in commonly
M. G. Kulkarni; W. A. Stirk; C. Southway; J. Van Staden
The Pahans and the Telis are two of the smallest indigenous communities in Bangladesh. The Pahans, numbering about 14,000 people are widely scattered in several northern districts of the country, while the Telis are such a small community that nothing has been reported on their numbers and lifestyle. Both tribes are on the verge of disappearance. One each of the Pahan and the Teli community was located after much search in two adjoining villages of Natore district, Bangladesh. Since the tribes were found to still depend on their traditional medicinal practitioners for treatment of ailments, it was the objective of the present study to document their traditional usage of medicinalplants and to evaluate such plants against modern research-based pharmacological activity studies on these plants. Interviews were conducted of the practitioners of the Pahan and Teli community of Natore district with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and using the guided field-walk method. Plant specimens as pointed out by the practitioners were collected and pressed on the field and identification completed at the Bangladesh National Herbarium. The Pahan tribal practitioners used 13 plants distributed into 9 families for treatment of 14 different ailments. The Teli tribal practitioner used 15 plants divided into 14 families for treatment of 17 different ailments. Eight out of the thirteen plants used by the Pahan tribal practitioner (61.5%) had reported relevant pharmacological activities in the scientific literature, while six out of the fifteen plants used by the Teli tribal practitioners (40%) had such relevant pharmacological activities in accordance with their usage. The medicinalplants used by the Pahans and Telis warrant further scientific studies toward discovery of lead compounds and efficacious drugs and the documentation and protection of the traditional medical knowledge held by these tribes. PMID:23983368
The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinalplants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5?ng?g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) proposed by the international organizations. PMID:23351610
The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinalplants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5?ng?g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) proposed by the international organizations.
India has a rich heritage of traditional systems of medicine viz. Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, Tibetan which are mostly based on botanical formulations. Although biologically, the region is extremely rich in medicinalplants, due to years of unwise use, the availability of raw materials in desired quality and quantity has become difficult to obtain raising serious doubt about the safety and
BACKGROUND: This study documents the use of medicinalplants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. METHODS: Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in
Shandesh Bhattarai; Ram P Chaudhary; Cassandra L Quave; Robin SL Taylor
Traditional Chinese medicinalplants associated with anticancer contain a wide variety of natural phenolic compounds with various structural features and possessing widely differing antioxidant activity. The structure–radical scavenging activity relationships of a large number of representative phenolic compounds (e.g., flavanols, flavonols, chalcones, flavones, flavanones, isoflavones, tannins, stilbenes, curcuminoids, phenolic acids, coumarins, lignans, and quinones) identified in the traditional Chinese medicinal
Yi-Zhong Cai; Mei Sun; Jie Xing; Qiong Luo; Harold Corke
An examination was made on the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of four medicinalplants Carum carvi, Coriandrum sativum, Hyssopus officinalis, and Eucalyptus globulus, the first three of which are also used as culinary spice herbs. Carum carvi L. and Coriandrum sativum L. belong to the Apiacea family. In traditional medicine, Carum carvi is used in the form of a
M. Cvijovic; D. Djukic; L. Mandic; G. Acamovic-Djokovic; M. Pesakovic
A large proportion of the population of developing countries usestraditional medicine alone, or in combination with Western drugs to treat awide variety of ailments. There has seldom been effective collaborationbetween the traditional and Western medical practitioners, largely due tothe perception that the use of traditional and herbal medicines has noscientific basis. With the renewed interest from Western countries in herbalremedies,
J. L. S. Taylor; T. Rabe; L. J. McGaw; A. K. Jäger; J. van Staden
Correct identification and quality assurance is indispensable to ensure reproducible medicinal quality of herbal drugs. Authentication is especially useful in case of those medicinal herbs that are frequently substituted or adulterated with other species or varieties morphologically and phytochemically indistinguishable. In this study, the RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) technique was employed for authentication of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. from its
Salim Khan; Khanda Jabeen Mirza; Malik Zainul Abdin
Ephedrine (EPH), pseudoephedrine (PEPH), phenylpropanolamine (PPA), and methylephedrine (MEPH) are ephedrine alkaloids commonly found in cold medications and are banned by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). These compounds were detected in the urinary doping tests during the national sport competitions in Taiwan. To study the sources of these compounds, 91 over-the-counter (OTC) nonprescription cold remedies, along with 1803 athletes' urine samples collected (from 1999 to 2001) in competitions were analyzed using gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection (GC-NPD) for initial screening and GC-mass spectrometry (MS) for confirmation. We found that 80% of OTC cold medicines showed banned ephedrines in their ingredients lists, in which MEPH (52%) was the most common drug labeled. However, when these OTC cold medicines were analyzed by GC-NPD and GC-MS, EPH (35.4%) was found substantially higher than that labeled in the OTC products (1.3%). In the total urine specimens tested, approximately 2.8% contained banned ephedrines and 1.3% exceeded the IOC cutoff levels. Within the urine specimens that exceeded the IOC cutoff values, PEPH accounted for a 44% occurrence rate, followed by EPH (28%), PPA (17%), and MEPH (11%). In agreement with the other report, bodybuilders showed a high incidence rate for ephedrines misuse. Nevertheless, it is likely that the high incidence of doping violations for ephedrine-related substances was related to misuse of ephedrines present in most OTC common cold medicines and some dietary supplements for relieving cold symptoms, reducing body weight, and preserving muscle. PMID:14516489
Abstracts are provided of the worldwide literature concerning medicinal and aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: Agronomy, Botany, Breeding and genetics; Diseases and pests; Physiology and biochemistry; Pharmacognosy; Clinica...
Abstracts are provided of the worldwide literature concerning medicinal & aromatic plants. The following aspects of the subject are covered: Agronomy; Botany; Breeding & Genetics; Diseases & Pests; Physiology & Biochemistry; Pharmacognosy; Clinical Studie...
Based on large inquest, the authors point out the questions of plant protection in produce of Chinese medicinal materials, meanwhile present the methods to solve them and list the research subjects which now must be down. PMID:11341020
The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 must detoxify plant-produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in order to survive in its host plant. Candidate enzymes for this detoxification include the monofunctional catalases KatB and KatE and the bifunctional catalase-peroxidase KatG of DC3000. This study shows that KatG is the major housekeeping catalase of DC3000 and provides protection against menadione-generated endogenous H2O2. In contrast, KatB rapidly and substantially accumulates in response to exogenous H2O2. Furthermore, KatB and KatG have nonredundant roles in detoxifying exogenous H2O2 and are required for full virulence of DC3000 in Arabidopsis thaliana. Therefore, the nonredundant ability of KatB and KatG to detoxify plant-produced H2O2 is essential for the bacteria to survive in plants. Indeed, a DC3000 catalase triple mutant is severely compromised in its ability to grow in planta, and its growth can be partially rescued by the expression of katB, katE, or katG. Interestingly, our data demonstrate that although KatB and KatG are the major catalases involved in the virulence of DC3000, KatE can also provide some protection in planta. Thus, our results indicate that these catalases are virulence factors for DC3000 and are collectively required for pathogenesis.
Guo, Ming; Block, Anna; Bryan, Crystal D.; Becker, Donald F.
Aly, M.M. and Bafeel, S.O. 2010. Screening for antifungal activities of some medicinalplants used traditionally in Saudi Arabia. J. Appl. Anim. Res., 38: 39–44.The antimicrobial activities of water and organic crude extracts of 6 medicinalplants (Azadirachta Indica (neem), Zingiber officinale (ginger), Eucalyptus globules, Lawsonia inermis, Lepidium sativum and Rosmarinus officinalis) were detected against different pathogenic yeasts and fungi
Summary Medicinalplants are valuable sources of medicinal and many other pharmaceutical products. The conventional propagation method\\u000a is the principal means of propagation and takes a long time for multiplication because of a low rate of fruit set, and\\/or\\u000a poor germination and also sometimes clonal uniformity is not maintained through seeds. The plants used in the phyto-pharmaceutical\\u000a preparations are obtained mainly
The Silphium Motif Adorning Ancient Libyan Coinage: Marketing a MedicinalPlant. Economic Botany 53(2): 133–143, 1999. Ancient\\u000a texts provide an extensive list of purported medicinal benefits for Cyrenaic silphium but omit reference to this extinct,\\u000a unidentified species o\\/Ferula (Umbelliferae) as an aphrodisiac. The plant may have been so regarded since ithyphallic and\\u000a testicular imagery are evoked via stylized representations of
The subfamily Asclepiadoideae (Apocynaceae) and the closely-related Periplocoideae are sources of many indigenous Indian medicinalplants. We surveyed antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents of 15 samples, representing 12 Indian medicinalplant species from these subfamilies. Total antioxidant assay was performed using the 2,2-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid and ferric-reducing antioxidant power methods. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents were measured using
Siddharthan Surveswaran; Yi-Zhong Cai; Jie Xing; Harold Corke; Mei Sun
Understanding of the habitat range of threatened Himalayan medicinalplants which are declining in their abundance due to\\u000a high anthropogenic disturbances is essential for developing conservation strategies and agrotechnologies for cultivation.\\u000a In this communication, we have discussed the habitat range of two alpine medicinalplants, Aconitum naviculare (Brühl) Stapf and Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennel) Hong in a trans-Himalayan dry valley of
In this review we describe and discuss several approaches to selecting higher plants as candidates for drug development with the greatest possibility of success. We emphasize the role of information derived from various systems of traditional medicine (ethnomedicine) and its utility for drug discovery purposes. We have identified 122 compounds of defined structure, obtained from only 94 species of plants, that are used globally as drugs and demonstrate that 80% of these have had an ethnomedical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant. We identify and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using plants as starting points for drug development, specifically those used in traditional medicine.
This User's Guide to microbial culture collections and collections of germplasm of higher plants contains a variety of instructional material. It specifies to potential users amongst the plant science community, but especially plant pathologists, how to locate collections on line or via corresponde...
The entomological collection of the Institute Oswaldo Cruz is one of the most representative of neotropical insects, comprising a diverse variety of specimens of distinct taxonomic groups, including those not linked to research in tropical medicine. The present work retraces the history of the collection and reports on its main actors and their professional relationships, emphasizing the peculiarity of such an important collection still being housed in a medical research institution. PMID:20055228
There is increasing resistance of malaria parasites to chloroquine, the cheapest and commonly used drug for malaria in Nigeria. Artemisin, a product from medicinalplant indigenous to China, based on active principle of Artemisia annua, has been introduced into the Nigerian market. However not much has been done to project antimalaria properties of indigenous medicinalplants. This study thus, has the main objective of presenting medicinalplants used for malaria therapy in Okeigbo, Ondo State, South west Nigeria. Focus group discussions and interview were held about plants often found useful for malaria therapy in the community. Fifty species (local names) including for example: Morinda lucida (Oruwo), Enantia chlorantha (Awopa), Alstonia boonei (Ahun), Azadirachta indica (Dongoyaro) and Khaya grandifoliola (Oganwo) plants were found to be in use for malaria therapy at Okeigbo, Southwest, Nigeria . The parts of plants used could either be the barks, roots, leaves or whole plants. The recipes also, could be a combination of various species of plants or plant parts. This study highlights potential sources for the development of new antimalarial drugs from indigenous medicinalplants found in Okeigbo, Nigeria. PMID:20162091
Odugbemi, Tolu O; Akinsulire, Odunayo R; Aibinu, Ibukun E; Fabeku, Peter O
Background: The levels of 5 minerals namely; lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and aluminum were assessed in 10 medicinalplants sampled from 5 different geographical locations to determine the effect of location on the plants’ mineral content. Materials and Methods: Atomic absorption spectrophotometry (wet digestion) was used for the analyzes, and content of the minerals per sample was expressed as ?g/g. The levels of minerals were compared to their limit specification for herbs and daily total intake of these minerals. A two-way analysis of variance, which tends to look at the effect of the location and the medicinalplant itself on the plants mineral content, was used in the statistical analysis. Results: Lead (Pb) was present in all plant species examined, except Ocimum gratissimum. One plant exceeded the maximum safety limit for lead. Cadmium was also detected in some of the medicinalplant species (44%) whilst majority were below the detection limit (0.002) representing 56%. 40% of the plant species exceeded the limit for cadmium. Mercury and arsenic in all the plant species were below the detection limit (0.001). Significant variation existed in mineral content for the various locations (P ? 0.05). Conclusion: The findings generally suggest the variation in mineral levels for the various locations. Thus, our study has shown that same species of medicinalplants, growing in different environments, accumulates different levels of heavy metals.
Annan, Kofi; Dickson, Rita A.; Amponsah, Isaac K.; Nooni, Isaac K.
Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinalplants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinalplants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis).
In our search for new antiprotozoal chemotherapy, we collected a selection of 26 plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Methanolic extracts of these species were screened for their antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites using in vitro tests. Among the tested extracts, the derivates of following species showed selectivity and significant
Fernando Calzada; Lilian Yépez-Mulia; Abigaíl Aguilar
The Mauritian population has a long tradition in the use of ethno-medicine, and the practice is still strong, especially in the treatment of minor ailments. Such interest stems from an existing culture, and many \\
A. Gurib-Fakim; H. Subratty; F. Narod; J. Govinden-Soulange; F. Mahomoodally
Background This paper is based on ethnomedicinal investigation conducted from 1999–2002 in Chuxiong, central Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The Yi medicine has made a great contribution to the ethnomedicinal field in China. Neither case studies nor integrated inventories have previously been conducted to investigate the traditional Yi plants. This paper aims to argue the status and features of medicinalplants used in traditional Yi societies through a case study. Methods The approaches of ethnobotany, anthropology, and participatory rural appraisal were used in the field surveys. Twenty-two informants in four counties were interviewed during eight field trips. Medicinalplant specimens were identified according to taxonomic methods. Results One hundred sixteen medicinalplant species were found to be useful by the local people in the treatment of various diseases or disorders, especially those relating to trauma, gastrointestinal disorders and the common cold. Among these 116 species, 25 species (21.55%) were found to have new curative effects and 40 species (34.48%) were recorded for their new preparation methods; 55 different species were used in treating wounds and fractures, and 47 were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Traditional Yi herbal medicines are characterized by their numerous quantities of herbaceous plants and their common preparation with alcohol. Conclusion Totally 116 species in 58 families of medicinalplants traditionally used by the Yi people were inventoried and documented. The characteristics of medicinalplants were analyzed. Some new findings (such as new curative effects and new preparation methods) were recorded These newly gathered ethnobotanical and medicinal data are precious sources for the future development of new drugs, and for further phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies.
An ethnobotanical study of medicinalplants marketed in La Paz and El Alto cities in the Bolivian Andes, reported medicinal information for about 129 species, belonging to 55 vascular plant families and one uncertain lichen family. The most important family was Asteraceae with 22 species, followed by Fabaceae s.l. with 11, and Solanaceae with eight. More than 90 general medicinal
There is a paucity of data on the occurrence of hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinalplants, and there are no data on the hepatotoxic properties of herbal medicines that are used in the traditional pharmacopoiea of Sri Lanka and other Asian and African countries. In view of the extensive consumption of these herbs and the occurrence of chronic liver diseases including hepatocellular cancer in this and other countries of South Asia, we have screened fifty medicinalplants for pyrrolizidine alkaloids and have obtained positive results with three species, namely Crotalaria verrucosa L., Holarrhena antidysenterica (L.) Br., and Cassia auriculata L. Feeding trials in rats with materials from these three species produced liver lesions--disruption of the centrilobular veins, congestion or haemorrhage in the centrilobular sinusoids, centrilobular or focal hepatocellular necrosis--and histopathology in the lungs and kidneys which were compatible with the action of pyrrolizidine alkaloids. The presence of alkaloids in C. auriculata has not been previously reported nor has the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in H. antidysenterica. It is suggested that the consumption of herbal medicines that contain pyrrolizidine alkaloids could contribute to the high incidence of chronic liver disease including primary hepatocellular cancer in Asian and African countries. PMID:7311596
Arseculeratne, S N; Gunatilaka, A A; Panabokke, R G
In China, about 40% of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) comes from cultivation in agrarian systems. The cropland is fundamental to the productions of medicinalplants, and the sustainable soil management is essential for sustainable using of the TCM resources, furthermore it affects the local economies of the medicinalplant production regions and the sustainable development of TCM agriculture. In this paper, the concept of the sustainable use of TCM cropland was discussed and the problems on sustainable soil management in China were analyzed from the aspects of resources and quality. The research advances in sustainable use of the medicinalplants cropland were reviewed from the aspects of continuous cropping obstacles, faming systems and degraded soil remediation. The strengthening research fields in the further were suggested. PMID:17225528
The European legislation on medicinal products also addresses the medicinal use of products originating from plants. The objective of the legislation is to ensure the future existence of such products and to consider particular characteristics when assessing quality, efficacy, and safety. Two categories are defined: i) herbal medicinal products can be granted a marketing authorisation; and ii) traditional herbal medicinal products can be granted a registration based on their longstanding use if they are complying with a set of provisions ensuring their safe use. The Committee on Herbal Medicinal Products (HMPC) was established at the European Medicines Agency (EMA) to provide monographs and list entries on herbal substances and preparations thereof. Meanwhile, approx. 100 monographs have been published, which define a current scientific and regulatory standard for efficacy and safety of herbal substances and herbal preparations used in medicinal products. This harmonised European standard will facilitate the availability and adequate use of traditional herbal medicinal products and herbal medicinal products within the European Union. Consequent labelling shall also enable patients and health care professionals to differentiate medicinal products from other product categories like cosmetics, food supplements, and medical devices. PMID:22618374
The document is an expert report on assistance to a research center developing pharmaceuticals from medicinalplants and aromatic plants in Turkey and covers; (1) an assessment of previous achievements, such as the installation of a pilot plant and labora...
Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinalplants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190
Ethnopharmacological relevance: This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on medicinalplant uses in the Zlatibor district, South-Western Serbia. Materials and methods: A survey was performed using questionnaires with 220 informants (mean age 47, 79% female, 21% male). In addition, the use value and the relative importance of species were determined and the informant consensus factor was calculated for the medicinalplants included in the study. Intended plants usage was compared with previous ethnobotanical literature, with reference to the neighboring areas of Zlatibor district. Results: The informants provided data for 69 medicinalplants belonging to 36 families. Rosaceae, Lamiaceae and Asteraceae were the predominant locally used families. The species with the highest use value were Mentha piperita, Matricaria chamomilla, Hypericum perforatum and Achillea millefolium. The most frequently reported medicinal uses were ones for treating gastrointestinal ailments, respiratory problems and skin diseases. Usually, the administration was primarily oral followed by topical applications. All different plant parts were utilized, however leaves were the most exploited parts of the plants. Conclusions: Folk medicine in South-Western Serbia, Zlatibor district is intended mainly as a mode of primary health care in healing of minor illnesses. The results indicate a slight reduction in the ethnobotanical and medical knowledge in this area, when compared with neighboring regions. PMID:23422337
A number of herbal plants from Romania widely used as natural food additives or for health promotion in traditional medicine\\u000a were investigated for their antioxidant activity. Methanol extracts were obtained from plants belonging to the Lamiaceae family (lavender Lavandula angustifolia L.; lemon balm Melissa officinalis; sage Salvia officinalis; oregano Origanum vulgare L.; rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis L.; thyme Thymus vulgaris L.;
The Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, is among the most devastating termite pests. Natural products derived from plant extracts were tested in a discovery programme for effective, environment friendly termite control agents. Screening for anti-termitic activity of plant extracts with some known medicinal attributes could lead to the discovery of new agents for termite control. The aim of this
G. Elango; A. Abdul Rahuman; C. Kamaraj; A. Bagavan; A. Abduz Zahir; T. Santhoshkumar; S. Marimuthu; K. Velayutham; C. Jayaseelan; A. Vishnu Kirthi; G. Rajakumar
We present the results of an ethnopharmacological investigation of a Bolivian lowland ethnic group, the Tacana. The Tacana have a long tradition of exchange with highland communities. Though facing rapid acculturation, highlighted by the loss of the Tacana language among the younger generations, the knowledge and uses of medicinalplants are still alive. Of the approximately 450 different plant species
G. Bourdy; S. J. DeWalt; L. R. Chávez de Michel; A. Roca; E. Deharo; V. Muñoz; L. Balderrama; C. Quenevo; A. Gimenez
Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinalplants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells.
The antitumor activity of the ethanolic extracts of 12 medicinalplants of Bangladesh, including the vincristine–vinblastine producing Catharanthus roseus was studied using the potato disk bioassay technique. Among these, 10 plant extracts at 25.0-?g\\/disc exhibited significant inhibition of crown gall tumors caused by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
N. Haque; S. A. R. Chowdhury; M. T. H. Nutan; G. M. S. Rahman; K. M. Rahman; M. A. Rashid
Ethanolic extracts of selected nine Thai medicinalplants were tested for antiproliferative activity against SKBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line using MTT assay. Garcinia mangostana showed the most potent activity. However, all plant extracts showed activity in potential range for further investigation on cancer cells. 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malaria is a major global public health problem and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. An ethnopharmacological investigation was undertaken of medicinalplants traditionally used to treat malaria in the South Vietnam. Forty-nine plants were identified, 228 extracts were prepared and tested
Julie Nguyen-Pouplin; Hop Tran; Hung Tran; Tuyet Anh Phan; Christiane Dolecek; Jeremy Farrar; Tinh Hien Tran; Philippe Caron; Bernard Bodo; Philippe Grellier
The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Glomus mosseae, family Glomaceae), and fertilization on vegetative growth of two tropical medicinalplants, viz, Withania somnifera and Spilanthes calva was evaluated. The growth was assessed in terms of height, number of leaves and % colonization. Inoculation with G. mosseae was significantly effective in promoting plant growth causing remarkable increase in shoot height, number
Extracts of 12 medicinal and aromatic plants were investigated for their radical scavenging activity using DPPH and ABTS assays: Salvia sclarea, Salvia glutinosa, Salvia pratensis, Lavandula angustifolia, Calendula officinalis, Matricaria recutita, Echinacea purpurea, Rhaponticum carthamoides, Juglans regia, Melilotus officinalis, Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fruticosa. Salvia officinalis was used as a reference plant with well documented antioxidant activity. G. macrorrhizum and
Methanolic extract (75%) of Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis and their combination named ‘Triphala’ (equal proportion of above three plant extracts) are being used extensively in Indian system of medicine. They were found to inhibit lipid peroxide formation and to scavenge hydroxyl and superoxide radicals in vitro. The concentration of plant extracts that inhibited 50% of lipid peroxidation induced
Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinalplant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinalplant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinalplants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinalplant species between the young and the older generation.
A series of 30 Indian folklore medicinalplants used by tribal healers to treat infections, were screened for antibacterial properties at 10 mg\\/ml concentration by using disc diffusion method against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella aerogenes, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aerogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Twenty plant species showed activity against one or more species of bacteria used in this assay; among
Soone Valley of Salt range in Pakistan was investigated to determine the distribution pattern of vegetation especially medicinalplant diversity at different sites and seasons. Six sites were selected on the basis of variation in their environmental (elevation, slope, aspect (western\\/northern), altitude, topography and soil composition) and community attributes (habitat, vegetation type & plant community structure). The ecological data for
IFTIKHAR AHMAD; MUHAMMAD SAJID; AQEEL AHMAD; MUMTAZ HUSSAIN; MANSOOR HAMEED; MUHAMMAD YASIN ASHRAF; MUHAMMAD SAGHIR; SHAISTA KOUKAB
Many plants are used in traditional medicine as active agents against various effects of snake bites. Phospholipase A2 enzymes are commonly found in venoms of snakes of the Viperidae and Elaphidae families, which are their main components. This article presents an overview of inhibitors isolated from plants, which show antiophidian properties. PMID:23544601
Hage-Melim, Lorane I S; Sampaio, Suely V; Taft, Carlton A; Silva, Carlos H T P
Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) show a hazardous potential for humans and animals. They can possess mutagenic, teratogenic, cancerogenic and fetotoxic properties. One pathway of a human intoxication can be the use of medicinalplants which contain toxic PAs. The Traditional Indian medicine--in particular Ayurveda--is a popular and well-known healing system. Within this system several PA-containing plants are used which, on account of their PA level, represent a severe health risk. In general, it is not recommended to use plants containing those toxic compounds. PMID:23469679
Background Many ecosystem services provided by forests are important for the livelihoods of indigenous people. Sacred forests are used for traditional practices by the ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and they protect these forests that are important for their culture and daily life. Swidden fallow fields are a dominant feature of the agricultural farming landscapes in the region. In this study we evaluate and compare the importance of swidden fallow fields and sacred forests as providers of medicinalplants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern Thailand. Methods We made plant inventories in swidden fallow fields of three different ages (1–2, 3–4, 5–6 years old) and in sacred forests around two villages using a replicated stratified design of vegetation plots. Subsequently we interviewed the villagers, using semi-structured questionnaires, to assess the medicinal use of the species encountered in the vegetation survey. Results We registered a total of 365 species in 244 genera and 82 families. Of these 72(19%) species in 60(24%) genera and 32(39%) families had medicinal uses. Although the sacred forest overall housed more species than the swidden fallow fields, about equal numbers of medicinalplants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means that a higher proportion (48% and 34%) of the species in the relatively species poor fallows were used for medicinal purposes than the proportion of medicinalplants from the sacred forest which accounted for 17–22%. Of the 32 medicinalplant families Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae had most used species in the Karen and Lawa villages respectively. Conclusion Sacred forest are important for providing medicinalplant species to the Karen and Lawa communities in northern Thailand, but the swidden fallows around the villages are equally important in terms of absolute numbers of medicinalplant species, and more important if counted as proportion of the total number of species in a habitat. This points to the importance of secondary vegetation as provider of medicinalplants around rural villages as seen elsewhere in the tropics.
Vitex trifolia is a shrub species with popular use as a medicinalplant, for which leaves, roots and flowers have been reported to heal different distresses. The increasing exploitation of these plants has endangered its conservation, and has importantly justified the use of biotechnological tools for their propagation. Our aim was to present an efficient protocol for plant regeneration through organogenesis; and simultaneously, to analyze the genetic homogeneity of the established clonal lines by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Plantlet regeneration was achieved in callus cultures derived from stem, leaf and petiole explants of V. trifolia on a differently supplemented Murashige & Skoog medium, and incubated at 25 +/-2 degrees C under a light intensity of 61 micromol/m2s from cool white fluorescent lamps and a 16 h photoperiod. The rate of shoot bud regeneration was positively correlated with the concentration of hormones in the nutrient media. Shoot buds regenerated more rapidly from stem and petiole explants as compared to leaf explants on medium containing 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microMNAA. Addition of 135.74-271.50 microM adenine sulphate (Ads) and 0.72-1.44 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) to the culture medium increased the growth of shoot buds. The highest rate of shoot bud regeneration responses was obtained in stem explants using 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microM NAA, 271.50 microM Ads and 1.44 microM GA3. In vitro rooting of the differentiated shoots was achieved in media containing 1.23 microM indole butyric acid (IBA) with 2% (w/v) sucrose. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in soil with 86% survival under field condition. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat markers analyses have confirmed the genetic uniformity of the regenerated plantlets derived from the second up to fifth subcultures. This protocol may help in mass propagation and conservation of this important medicinalplant of great therapeutic potential. PMID:24027909
The present paper briefly reviews the most relevant experimental data on the reducing effect of some medicinal herbs on voluntary alcohol intake in animal models of alcoholism. Pueraria lobata, Tabernanthe iboga, Panax ginseng, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Hypericum perforatum proved to be effective in decreasing alcohol consumption. Reduction of alcohol absorption from the gastrointestinal system appears to be a common feature
Mauro A. M Carai; Roberta Agabio; Ezio Bombardelli; Iouri Bourov; Gian Luigi Gessa; Carla Lobina; Paolo Morazzoni; Marialaura Pani; Roberta Reali; Giovanni Vacca; Giancarlo Colombo
Oplopanax elatus is a medicinalplant on the verge of extinction because of overexploitation. In the present study, the effects of various factors on enhancing somatic embryogenesis and plantlet conversion were studied. Mature seeds were collected from a total of 13 plants from 4 mountains in South Korea, and the genetic distances were calculated to analyze the effect of genotype on somatic embryogenesis. Results of cluster analysis and the unweighted-pair-group method with arithmetic mean of 13 genotypes indicated the presence of 3 main groups. Both genotype and explant type affected the induction of somatic embryos (SEs). Sorak 2 and root were found to be the most suitable genotype and explant type, respectively, for SE induction in O. elatus. Among the different types of carbon sources tested, 5% sucrose induced the maximum number of SEs. The formation and development of SEs were significantly influenced by culture density; thus, 10 mg embryonic callus was found to be the most suitable for SE induction. The highest rates of germination and SE conversion were obtained in a germination medium containing 1.8 gelrite and 3.2 g·l(-1) agar. In addition, 80% of the plantlets that were transplanted into artificial soil acclimatized successfully. Thus, our results showed that the percentage survival of O. elatus during in vitro proliferation could be increased by optimizing to the somatic embryogenesis system. PMID:24024109
Moon, Heung-Kyu; Kim, Yong-Wook; Hong, Yong-Pyo; Park, So-Young
The traditional medicine still plays an important role in the primary health care in Yemen. The current study represents the investigation of 16 selected plants, which were collected from different localities of Yemen. The plants were dried and extracted with two different solvents (methanol and hot water) to yield 34 crude extracts. The obtained extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive bacteria, two Gram-negative bacteria, one yeast species and three multiresistant Staphylococcus strains using agar diffusion method, for their antioxidant activity using scavenging activity of DPPH radical method and for their cytotoxic activity using the neutral red uptake assay. In addition, a phytochemical screening of the methanolic extracts was done. Antibacterial activity was shown only against Gram-positive bacteria, among them multiresistant bacteria. The highest antimicrobial activity was exhibited by the methanolic extracts of Acalypha fruticosa, Centaurea pseudosinaica, Dodonaea viscosa, Jatropha variegata, Lippia citriodora, Plectranthus hadiensis, Tragia pungens and Verbascum bottae. Six methanolic extracts especially those of A. fruticosa, Actiniopteris semiflabellata, D. viscosa, P. hadiensis, T. pungens and V. bottae showed high free radical scavenging activity. Moreover, remarkable cytotoxic activity against FL-cells was found for the methanolic extracts of A. fruticosa, Iris albicans, L. citriodora and T. pungens. The phytochemical screening demonstrated the presence of different types of compounds like flavonoids, terpenoids and others, which could be responsible for the obtained activities.
Abdo, Salah A. A.; Hasson, Sidgi; Althawab, Faisal M. N.; Alaghbari, Sama A. Z.; Lindequist, Ulrike
BACKGROUND: Eight medicinalplants were tested for their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Different extraction methods were also tested for their effects on the bioactivities of the medicinalplants. METHODS: Eight plants, namely Herba Polygonis Hydropiperis (Laliaocao), Folium Murraya Koenigii (Jialiye), Rhizoma Arachis Hypogea (Huashenggen), Herba Houttuyniae (Yuxingcao), Epipremnum pinnatum (Pashulong), Rhizoma Typhonium Flagelliforme (Laoshuyu), Cortex Magnoliae Officinalis (Houpo) and Rhizoma
Lai Wah Chan; Emily LC Cheah; Constance LL Saw; Wanyu Weng; Paul WS Heng
A variety of different medicinalplants have traditionally been used in Asian cultures as medicinalplants to enhance immunity and treat cancers. However, limited information exists on the underlying mechanisms responsible for these immune enhancing properties. The current investigation was conducted to examine the effects of methanol extracts of 3 Korean indigenous plants (dandelion root, mustard leaf, and safflower leaf)
Sung-Hyen Lee; Hyun Soon Lillehoj; Hye-Kyung Chun; Wenbin Tuo; Hong-Ju Park; Soo-Muk Cho; Young-Min Lee; Erik P. Lillehoj
Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. However, most species of higher plants have never been described, much less surveyed for chemical or biologically active constituents, and new sources of commercially valuable materials remain to be discovered. Advances in biotechnology, particularly methods for culturing plants cells and tissues, should provide new means for the commercial processing of even rare plants and the chemicals they produce. These new technologies will extend and enhance the usefulness of plants as renewable resources of valuable chemicals. In the future, biologically active plant-derived chemicals can be expected to play an increasingly significant role in the commercial development of new products for regulating plant growth and for insect and weed control. 65 references.
The knowledge and use of medicinalplant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinalplants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%). The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit). No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinalplant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinalplant species abundance in the study area.
This study was developed to evaluate the fungal burden, toxigenic molds, and mycotoxin contamination and to verify the effects of gamma radiation in four kinds of medicinalplants stored before and after 30 days of irradiation treatment. Eighty samples of medicinalplants (Peumus boldus, Camellia sinensis, Maytenus ilicifolia, and Cassia angustifolia) purchased from drugstores, wholesale, and open-air markets in São Paulo city, Brazil, were analyzed. The samples were treated using a (60)Co gamma ray source (Gammacell) with doses of 5 and 10 kGy. Nonirradiated samples were used as controls of fungal isolates. For enumeration of fungi on medicinalplants, serial dilutions of the samples were plated in duplicate onto dichloran 18% glycerol agar. The control samples revealed a high burden of molds, including toxigenic fungi. The process of gamma radiation was effective in reducing the number of CFU per gram in all irradiated samples of medicinalplants after 30 days of storage, using a dose of 10 kGy and maintaining samples in a protective package. No aflatoxins were detected. Gamma radiation treatment can be used as an effective method for preventing fungal deterioration of medicinalplants subject to long-term storage. PMID:20501045
Aquino, Simone; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Rossi, Maria Helena; Nogueira, Juliana Hellmeister de Campos; Reis, Tatiana Alves Dos; Corrêa, Benedito
UDC 615.779 We have studied the antimicrobial properties of substances extracted from spice-aromatic and medicinalplants. For evaluation of the antimicrobial activity of preparations isolated from plants, essential and extractive oils, alcohol-water extracts, freshly prepared slurry, and also tissue juices of the original raw material are used in general practice [1-3]. Substances isolated from plants that possess antimicrobial characteristics are
M. L. Khanin; A. I. Korotyaev; A. F. Prokopchuk; T. V. Perova; O. F. Vyazemskii
Novel enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of plant secondary metabolites have been discovered in our laboratory from both differentiated plants and in vitro cultures of Thai medicinalplants. The discovered enzymes included (1) geranylgeraniol-18-hydroxylase from Croton sublyratus containing plaunotol, an anti-peptic ulcer diterpenoid, (2) dopamine-secologanin condensing enzymes from Alangium lamarckii containing emetine, an amoebicidal tetrahydroisoquinoline monoterpene alkaloid, (3) lawsone-forming multienzyme
Traditional Chinese medicinalplants are sources of biologically active compounds, providing raw material for pharmaceutical,\\u000a cosmetic and fragrance industries. The endophytes of medicinalplants participate in biochemical pathways and produce analogous\\u000a or novel bioactive compounds. Panxi plateau in South-west Sichuan in China with its unique geographical and climatological\\u000a characteristics is a habitat of a great variety of medicinalplants. In
Ke Zhao; Petri Penttinen; Tongwei Guan; Jing Xiao; Qiang Chen; Jun Xu; Kristina Lindström; Lili Zhang; Xiaoping Zhang; Gary A. Strobel
... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...
Castilleja tenuiflora is a medicinalplant that grows in pine–oak woods primarily in southern and central Mexico. It is highly valued for its medicinal\\u000a properties, which have been attributed to aucubin-like iridoids. In the present study, we developed an efficient protocol\\u000a for in vitro shoot proliferation and ex vitro rooting of C. tenuiflora. Using a colorimetric method, we determined total
Blanca P. Martínez-Bonfil; Guadalupe Salcedo-Morales; Alma R. López-Laredo; Elsa Ventura-Zapata; Silvia Evangelista-Lozano; Gabriela Trejo-Tapia
Alstonia scholaris, commonly known as sapthaparna, has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine for treatment of various disorders. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible chemopreventive and anti-oxidative properties of this medicinalplant on two-stage process of skin carcinogenesis induced by a single application of 7, 12-dimethyabenz(a)anthrecene (100 lg\\/100 ll acetone), and two weeks later, promoted
The stimulating effect of subinhibitory concentrations of antibiotics on the production of verocytotoxin (VT) by enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 has been claimed. The purpose of this study was to find an alternative, but bioactive medicine for the treatment of this organism. Fifty-eight preparations of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 38 medicinalplant species commonly used in Thailand to cure
Medicinalplants are highly rich in Cuba and an amount of 179 species have been reported to be used by the population for diuretic purposes, nevertheless, no experimental validation has supported this effect. This study presents the relative importance of the medicinalplant species most widely used for diuretic purposes in two communities of Quemado de Guines Municipality, Villa Clara province. The information was obtained through the application of an interview to 85 inhabitants, from which 80 were random surveys to people with a great knowledge of plants, and five to herbalists and doctors practicing natural medicine. The etnopharmacological information was registered (gathered) by means of the "Tradicional of the Medicine of the Island" (TRAMIL) methodology and the interesting species were identified by a botanist and deposited in the Herbarium of the Central University "Marta Abreu" from Villa Clara, registered in the Index Herbarium, published periodically by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy. The data was analyzed by means of the indexes of use values and significant use level after TRAMIL. From the total of 19 botanical families, 26 medicinal species were identified, and 10 plants resulted with higher significant use and higher indexes of use values. From the plants reported as diuretics, 53.8% have not been experimentally validated in Cuba, the rest of the identified species have been validated at a preclinical level in some centers in the country, but its use have not been authorized as phytochemicals by the Cuban Regulatory Agency. The documentation related to the use of medicinalplants in the studied areas reveals that the traditional knowledge continues deeply rooted in the communities, and popular wisdom is kept through the representative images of the herbalist and people with considerable knowledge about this topic. PMID:22208098
Pérez Machín, Maykel; Sueiro, Mario L; de la Cruz, Ania; Boffill, María A; Morón, Francisco; Méndez, Orestes R; Cárdenas, Jaqueline
Investigation of antioxidant properties of some plants was carried out. A group of plants affected human central nervous system was studied in detail. Efficiency of plants as antioxidants was tested by the influence of their extracts on the yield of photochemiluminescence of Gly-Trp solutions. Antioxidant properties were examined under conditions when their own absorption was minimized. Riboflavin as additional sensitizer was used in this experiment for superoxide generation. The antioxidant effect was evaluated with regard to single dose of plant extracts and their concentration in human organism. The effect decreases in the following consequence: Hypericum > Eleutherococcus > Rhodiola > Leonurus > Aralia > Valeriana > Echinopanax > Schizandra > Panax gin-seng. PMID:9172694
Bol'shakova, I V; Lozovskaia, E L; Sapezhinski?, I I
In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinalplantscollected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinalplants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205
Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda
For the Matsigenka of the Peruvian Amazon, health and well-being in daily life depend upon harmonious relationships within the social group and with the spirit world. Psychoactive plants play a crucial role in curing disrupted social relationships while giving humans access to the otherwise remote, parallel world of spirits. Different species and cultivars of psychoactive plants, as well as varying
Anthocyanins are water soluble plant secondary metabolites responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many plant tissues. They have been shown to be strong antioxidants, and may exert a wide range of health benefits through antioxidant or other mechanisms. Anthocyanins occur primarily as g...
Extracts of 21 plants used in Bulgarian phytotherapy for the treatment of respiratory, gastrointestinal and other inflammatory disorders were screened in vitro for antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds content. Plant extracts were prepared as herbal teas following the ethnic use. The water-phase TEAC (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) of the teas were compared to that of the famous tea-like beverages mate,
Anthocyanins are water soluble plant secondary metabolites responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many plant tissues. They have been shown to be strong antioxidants, and may exert a wide range of health benefits through antioxidant or other mechanisms. Anthocyanins occur primarily as gly...
Given the importance of studying the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of migrant communities to understand the dynamics of plant resource use, we reviewed the scientific literature concerning the use of medicinalplants by migrant populations engaged in international or long-distance migrations. We considered the importance of two processes: (1) adaptation to the new flora of the host country (i.e., substitution and incorporation of plants in the pharmacopoeia) and (2) continued use and acquisition of the original flora from migrants' home countries (i.e., importation, cultivation, and/or continued use of plants that grow in both host and home environments). We suggest that, depending on the specific context and conditions of migration, different processes that determine the use and/or selection of plants as herbal medicines may become predominant.
de Medeiros, Patricia Muniz; Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Alencar, Nelson Leal; Vandebroek, Ina; Pieroni, Andrea; Hanazaki, Natalia; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino
The in vitro study of the antioxidant properties of the hydroalcoholic extracts of various Indian medicinalplants can logically help to develop a better and safer way of amelioration from oxidative stress. As aimed, the present study has been done to estimate and thereby conclude regarding the antioxidant activities of a few Indian medicinalplants, viz., Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Emblica officinalis, Caesalpinia crista, Cajanus cajan, and Tinospora cordifolia. The extracts of the plants have been subjected to the evaluation of antioxidant properties through scavenging assays for reactive oxygen species like superoxide, nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, hypochlorous acid, singlet oxygen, etc. and measurement of TEAC values and other phytochemical parameters. The phenolic and flavonoid contents of each plant have been found to be correlated to their individual antioxidant activity. The results showed the hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were efficient indicators of their antioxidant capacity thus concreting their basis to be used as natural antioxidant. PMID:22624183
Natural radioactivity levels in some selected medicinalplants commonly used in Ghana from the Centre for Scientific Research into PlantMedicine were investigated to determine the activity concentration and the annual committed effective dose due to naturally occurring radionuclides of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K. The activity concentration was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The results of the analysis indicated an average activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the medicinalplants to be 31.8±2.8 Bq kg(-1), 56.2±2.3 Bq kg(-1) and 839.8±11.9 Bq kg(-1) respectively. Khaya ivorensis recorded the highest activity concentration of (238)U and (232)Th while Lippia multiflora recorded the highest activity concentrations of (40)K. The total annual committed effective doses ranged from 0.026±0.001 to 0.042±0.002 mSv a(-1) with an average value of 0.035±0.001 mSv a(-1). The average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of the natural radionuclides in the medicinalplant samples were far below the world average annual committed effective dose of 0.3 mSv a(-1) for ingestion of natural radionuclides provided in UNSCEAR 2000 report. Therefore, the radiological hazard associated with intake of the natural radionuclides in the medicinalplants is insignificant. The results provide baseline values which may be useful in establishing rules and regulations relating to radiation protection as well as developing standards and guidelines for the use of medicinal or herbal plants to the appropriate authorities. PMID:23641323
Tettey-Larbi, Lordford; Darko, Emmanuel Ofori; Schandorf, Cyril; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah
The fungal flora of 6 Asian medicinalplants, Aerva lanata (Linn.) Juss. Alyssicarpus vaginalis D.C., Tribulus terrestris Linn. Adhatoda vasica Nees., Centella asciatica (L.) Urb., Cardiospermum halicacabum Linn. was determined. After surface disinfection Aspergillus spp. were most frequently observed. Aspergillus flavus, isolated from Alyssicarpus vaginalis and Aerva lanata produced aflatoxins in culture. Aflatoxin B1 was also detected in a sample of Aerra lanata at a level of 0.5 micrograms/g. Plant material destined for medicinal use should be stored carefully prior to its use to prevent growth of naturally occurring toxigenic mold fungi. PMID:1906136
Twelve species of Huperziaceae have been identified for resolving the resource depletion of Huperziaceae plants. The chloroplast genes rbcL, rpL16, and psbA-trnH intergenic spacers were used in this study. Identification of different species of Huperziaceae is possible by analyzing the information obtained from rbcL, rpL16, and psbA-trnH intergenic spacer sequences. The result also can provide information with regard to the use of plant tissue culture and cuttage propagation to solve the problem of the resource depletion of these plants. PMID:18186591
Europe has the greatest concentration of botanic gardens in the world, they cultivate extensive collections of plants that include samples of European threatened plant species. This study looks at the effectiveness of these collections in supporting species conservation. A three part study is presented: (1) the results of a survey and assessment of threatened plants in botanic gardens, as defined
A total number of 48 plants used in the Zairean pharmacopoeia were tested against molluscan intermediate hosts of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts from five plants: Maesa lanceolata, Chenopodium ugandae, Asparagus racemosus, Phyllanthus nummulariifolius and Crinum zeylanicum, exhibited high mortality rate (100%) against Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Lymnaea natalensis. Their LC50 was respectively 0.1, 5, 5, 10 and 50 mg ml-1 for B. pfeifferi and 0.5, 5, 1, 10 and 10 mg ml-1 for L. natalensis. The activities are attributed to the presence of terpenoids, steroids and saponins in the plant extracts. Except for the extracts from Ch. ugandae however, the plants have shown toxic effect on fishes and aquatic insects. PMID:8140033
The presence of secondary amines; di-methylamine and diethylamine, methylamine, nitroso-methyl-n-propylamine have been reported in plants (Bush i970). Levels found in tobacco samples range between 2 - 100 ppm. The occurrence, metabolism and functions of plant amines have been reviewed by Smith(1971). Nitrate is a normal constituent of human saliva, its concentration in that body compartment isdirectly related to the nitrate
There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinalplants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinalplants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinalplants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability.
It has been estimated that 300–500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further scientific research towards possible discovery of novel compounds that can be used to successfully treat malaria with less undesirable sideeffects.