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Sample records for medicinal plant collected

  1. Medicinal Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J. David

    1997-01-01

    Highlights the demand for medicinal plants as pharmaceuticals and the demand for health care treatments worldwide and the issues that arise from this. Discusses new drugs from plants, anticancer drugs, antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, herbal remedies, quality, safety, efficacy, and conservation of plants. Contains 30 references. (JRH)

  2. Maintaining Medicinal Plant Germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For all plant genetic resources collections, including medicinal plant germplasm, maintaining the genetic integrity of material held ex situ is of major importance. This holds true for all intended end uses of the material whether it is as a source for crop improvement, medical research, as voucher...

  3. Antileishmanial, Toxicity, and Phytochemical Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Collected from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Naseer Ali; Khan, Muhammad Rashid; Nadhman, Akhtar

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an important parasitic problem and is in focus for development of new drugs all over the world. Objective of the present study was to evaluate phytochemical, toxicity, and antileishmanial potential of Jurinea dolomiaea, Asparagus gracilis, Sida cordata, and Stellaria media collected from different areas of Pakistan. Dry powder of plants was extracted with crude methanol and fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water solvents in escalating polarity order. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different class of compounds, that is, alkaloids, saponins, terpenoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, phlobatannins, flavonoids, phenolics, and tannins, was tested. Its appearance was observed varying with polarity of solvent used for fractionation. Antileishmanial activity was performed against Leishmania tropica KWH23 promastigote. Potent antileishmanial activity was observed for J. dolomiaea methanol extract (IC50 = 10.9 ± 1.1 μg/mL) in comparison to other plant extracts. However, J. dolomiaea “ethyl acetate fraction” was more active (IC50 = 5.3 ± 0.2 μg/mL) against Leishmania tropica KWH23 among all plant fractions as well as standard Glucantime drug (6.0 ± 0.1 μg/mL). All the plants extract and its derived fraction exhibited toxicity in safety range (LC50 > 100) in brine shrimp toxicity evaluation assay. PMID:24995292

  4. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    This is the first of two articles showing how plants that have been used in folk medicine for many centuries are guiding scientists in the design and preparation of new and potent drugs. Opium and its chemical derivatives are examined at length in this article. (Author/MA)

  5. [Research progress of genetic engineering on medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Teng, Zhong-qiu; Shen, Ye

    2015-02-01

    The application of genetic engineering technology in modern agriculture shows its outstanding role in dealing with food shortage. Traditional medicinal plant cultivation and collection have also faced with challenges, such as lack of resources, deterioration of environment, germplasm of recession and a series of problems. Genetic engineering can be used to improve the disease resistance, insect resistance, herbicides resistant ability of medicinal plant, also can improve the medicinal plant yield and increase the content of active substances in medicinal plants. Thus, the potent biotechnology can play an important role in protection and large area planting of medicinal plants. In the development of medicinal plant genetic engineering, the safety of transgenic medicinal plants should also be paid attention to. A set of scientific safety evaluation and judgment standard which is suitable for transgenic medicinal plants should be established based on the recognition of the particularity of medicinal plants. PMID:26137675

  6. Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Eremomastax speciosa, Carica papaya and Polyscias fulva Medicinal Plants Collected in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Sagnia, Bertrand; Fedeli, Donatella; Casetti, Rita; Montesano, Carla; Falcioni, Giancarlo; Colizzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Background The vast majority of the population around the world has always used medicinal plants as first source of health care to fight infectious and non infectious diseases. Most of these medicinal plants may have scientific evidence to be considered in general practice. Objective The aim of this work was to investigate the antioxidant capacities and anti-inflammatory activities of ethanol extracts of leaves of Cassia alata, Eleusine indica, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa and the stem bark of Polyscias fulva, collected in Cameroon. Methods Chemiluminescence was used to analyze the antioxidant activities of plant extracts against hydrogen peroxide or superoxide anion. Comet assays were used to analyze the protection against antioxidant-induced DNA damage induced in white blood cells after treating with hydrogen peroxide. Flow cytometry was used to measure γδ T cells proliferation and anti-inflammatory activity of γδ T cells and of immature dendritic cells (imDC) in the presence of different concentrations of plant extracts. Results Ethanol extracts showed strong antioxidant properties against both hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion. Cassia alata showed the highest antioxidant activity. The effect of plant extracts on γδ T cells and imDC was evidenced by the dose dependent reduction in TNF-α production in the presence of Cassia alata, Carica papaya, Eremomastax speciosa Eleusine indica, and Polyscias fulva. γδ T cells proliferation was affected to the greatest extent by Polyscias fulva. Conclusion These results clearly show the antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory activities of plant extracts collected in Cameroon. These properties of leaves and stem bark extracts may contribute to the value for these plants in traditional medicine and in general medical practice. PMID:25090613

  7. Plants and Medicinal Chemistry--2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, D.

    1977-01-01

    Second of a two part article on the influence of plants on medicinal chemistry. This part considers how drugs work, the attempts to develop anaesthetics safer than cocaine, and useful poisons. (Author/SL)

  8. Medicines and Drugs from Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agosta, William C.

    1997-07-01

    Natural preparations have been used for thousands of ages for a variety of purposes including as medicines, poisons, and psychotropic drugs. The largest grouped of preparations from living organisms are medicines, and historically these have come from plants. Quinine and aspirin are two examples of medicines which were extracted originally from plants. Mind-altering, or psychotropic, drugs come mostly from plants or fungi. In many traditional cultures, sickness and death are attributed to maligned spirits so that medicine and religion become inseparable. Uses of cohohba, snakeplant, coca, and peyote are discussed. The process by which new pharmaceuticals are discovered from natural products is described. The implications of an agreement between a major pharmaceutical company and a country in the tropics are discussed.

  9. Medicinal plants in therapy*

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, Norman R.; Akerele, Olayiwola; Bingel, Audrey S.; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Guo, Zhengang

    1985-01-01

    One of the prerequisites for the success of primary health care is the availability and use of suitable drugs. Plants have always been a common source of medicaments, either in the form of traditional preparations or as pure active principles. It is thus reasonable for decision-makers to identify locally available plants or plant extracts that could usefully be added to the national list of drugs, or that could even replace some pharmaceutical preparations that need to be purchased and imported. This update article presents a list of plant-derived drugs, with the names of the plant sources, and their actions or uses in therapy. PMID:3879679

  10. [Resources and application of She's nationality wild medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Lei, Hou-Xing; Li, Jian-Liang; Zheng, Song-Ming; Fan, Li-Hua; Li, Shui-Fu; Cheng, Wen-Liang; Hua, Jin-Wei; Yu, Hua-Li; Dai, De-Xiong; Xie, Yuan-Wei

    2014-08-01

    To make a thorough investigation of the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in our country, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and the endemic medicinal plant species, Field surveyed was conducted with 25 She people mainly lived area (county, district or city) throughout the country, the folk prescription and treatment cases provided by She's medical personnel, the drug usage and dosage, the commonly used traditional She's medicine and drug samples were collected. And the distribution, growing environment of these plants were investigated, their characteristics, photographs, GPS data and track were record , and the fresh wax leaf or plants specimens were collected. In total 1 600 varieties of folk medicine of She's nationality, 450 disease names and 1 016 prescriptions were collected. 520 kinds of these medicinal plants were commonly used, growing mainly distributed in the southeastern China, about 200 meters above sea level to 1 500 meters. There are 5 First-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), 15 second-Grade State protection wild plants (medicinal), and 11 She characteristic medicinal plants in our study, they belong to 144 families, 312 genera 494 species, 2 subspecies, 17 varieties, 3 forms and 1 cultivated varieties of She's nationality. Folk medicine usage is different from the traditional Chinese medicine and ethnic medicine. This survey finds out the common She's nationality wild medicinal plants resources in China, including the species, the distribution, the folk application and commonly used drugs, and found the rare and endangered medicinal plants and the She's nationality endemic medicinal plants, which provides a basis for further development and use the traditional She's medicine resources. PMID:25509311

  11. Antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Neelesh; Jain, Sanjay; Malviya, Sapna

    2010-01-01

    It is the fact that diabetes can't be cured and it has never been reported that someone had recovered totally from diabetes. The rapidly increasing incidence of diabetes mellitus is becoming a serious threat to mankind health in all parts of the world. Moreover, during the past few years some of the new bioactive drugs isolated from plants showed antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than oral hypoglycemic agents used in clinical therapy. The traditional medicine performed a good clinical practice and is showing a bright future in the therapy of diabetes mellitus. The present paper reviews natural medicines with their mechanism of action and their pharmacological test results. Many studies have confirmed the benefits of medicinal plants with hypoglycemic effects in the management of diabetes mellitus. The effects of these plants may delay the development of diabetic complications and correct the metabolic abnormalities. WHO has pointed out this prevention of diabetes and its complications is not only a major challenge for the future, but essential if health for all is to attain. Therefore, in recent years, considerable attention has been directed towards identification of plants with antidiabetic ability that may be used for human consumption. Further, it emphasizes strongly in this regard the optional and rational uses of traditional and natural indigenous medicines. PMID:20369787

  12. Antidiabetic agents from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jung, Mankil; Park, Moonsoo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Kang, Yoon-Ho; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Sang Ki

    2006-01-01

    Currently available therapeutic options for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, such as dietary modification, oral hypoglycemics, and insulin, have limitations of their own. Many natural products and herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of diabetes. The present paper reviews medicinal plants that have shown experimental or clinical antidiabetic activity and that have been used in traditional systems of medicine; the review also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants and reported during 2001 to 2005. Many kinds of natural products, such as terpenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolics, and some others, have shown antidiabetic potential. Particularly, schulzeines A, B, and C, radicamines A and B, 2,5-imino-1,2,5-trideoxy-L-glucitol, beta-homofuconojirimycin, myrciacitrin IV, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid (Glucosol), 4-(alpha-rhamnopyranosyl)ellagic acid, and 1,2,3,4,6-pentagalloylglucose have shown significant antidiabetic activities. Among active medicinal herbs, Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae), Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. (Leguminoceae), and Trigonella foenum graecum L. (Leguminosae) have been reported as beneficial for treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:16719780

  13. Medicinal plants in an urban environment: the medicinal flora of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Archana K; Kumar, Munesh; Bussmann, Rainer W

    2007-01-01

    Varanasi is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities of the world, and one of the most important Hindu pilgrimage sites. Despite this importance, very little information exits on the cities flora in general, and medicinal species found within its limit in particular. Traditional medicine plays a large role in Indian society. The presented study attempted to investigate if traditional plant use and availability of important common medicinal plants are maintained in urban environments. The paper presents information on the traditional uses of seventy-two plant species collected form the campus of Banares Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, and highlights the uses of these plants by the local inhabitants. PMID:17996050

  14. From Curanderas to Gas Chromatography: Medicinal Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Mary; Lara, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    The Medicinal Plants of the Southwest summer workshop is an inquiry-based learning approach to increase interest and skills in biomedical research. Working in teams, Hispanic and Native American students discover the chemical and biological basis for the medicinal activity of regional plants used by healers. (Contains 4 tables and 1 figure.)

  15. A study on traditional medicinal plants of Uthapuram, Madurai District, Tamilnadu, South India

    PubMed Central

    Sivasankari, Balayogan; Pitchaimani, Subburaj; Anandharaj, Marimuthu

    2013-01-01

    Objective To record the medicinal plants of Uthapuram Village, Madurai district, Tamilnadu, South India for the first time and the usage of these medicinal plants to remediate the diseases among the peoples. Methods Explorative field trips were made to the village for about twelve months from April 2012 to May 2013 to survey the medicinal plants and collect the information from the villagers. Results From this study 52 species of valuable medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were recorded and their ethnomedicinal values were collected from the village peoples. Conclusion This study focuses the importance, utilization and conservation of the medicinal plants among the people. PMID:24093789

  16. [Plant hydroponics and its application prospect in medicinal plants study].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan; Guo, Lan-Ping; Huang, Lu-Qi; Sun, Yu-Zhang

    2007-03-01

    This article introduced the theorem and method of hydroponics. Some examples of studies in agriculture and forestry were presented, the effects of elements, environmental stress and hormones on physiology of medicinal plants by using hydroponics were analyzed. It also introduced the feasibility and advantage of hydroponics in intermediate propagation and allelopathy of medicinal plant. And finally it made the conclusion that the way of hydroponics would be widely used in medicinal plant study. PMID:17511136

  17. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Qura'n, S

    2009-05-01

    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use of specific plants. PMID:19429338

  18. Molecular markers in medicinal plant biotechnology: past and present.

    PubMed

    Sarwat, Maryam; Nabi, Gowher; Das, Sandip; Srivastava, Prem Shankar

    2012-03-01

    Plant based medicines have gained popularity worldwide due to their almost negligible side effects. In India, the three traditional medicinal systems, namely homeopathy, Ayurveda and Siddha rely heavily on plants for medicinal formulations. To prevent the indiscriminate collection of these valuable medicinal plants and for their proper authentication and conservation, it is imperative to go for sustained efforts towards proper germplasm cataloguing and devising conservation strategies. For this purpose, molecular markers have a significant role, as they provide information ranging from diversity at nucleotide level (single nucleotide polymorphisms) to gene and allele frequencies (genotype information), the extent and distribution of genetic diversity, and population structure. Over the past twenty years, the molecular marker field has completely transformed the meaning of conservation genetics which has emerged from a theory-based field of population biology to a full-fledged pragmatic discipline. In this review, we have explored the transition and transformation of molecular marker technologies throughout these years. PMID:21649550

  19. Medicinal plants, traditional medicine, markets and management in far-west Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern therapeutic medicine is historically based on indigenous therapies and ethnopharmacological uses, which have become recognized tools in the search for new sources of pharmaceuticals. Globalization of herbal medicine along with uncontrolled exploitative practices and lack of concerted conservation efforts, have pushed many of Nepal's medicinal plants to the verge of extinction. Sustainable utilization and management of medicinal plants, based on traditional knowledge, is therefore necessary. Methods After establishing verbal informed consent with participating communities, five field surveys, roughly 20 days in duration, were carried out. In all, 176 schedules were surveyed, and 52 participants were consulted through focus group discussions and informal meetings. Altogether, 24 key informants were surveyed to verify and validate the data. A total of 252 individuals, representing non-timber forest product (NTFP) collectors, cultivators, traders, traditional healers (Baidhya), community members, etc. participated in study. Medicinal plants were free-listed and their vernacular names and folk uses were collected, recorded, and applied to assess agreement among respondents about traditional medicines, markets and management. Results Within the study area, medicinal herbs were the main ingredients of traditional therapies, and they were considered a main lifeline and frequently were the first choice. About 55% plants were ethnomedicinal, and about 37% of ethnomedicinal plants possessed the highest informant consensus value (0.86–1.00). Use of Cordyceps sinensis as an aphrodisiac, Berberis asiatica for eye problems, Bergenia ciliata for disintegration of calculi, Sapindus mukorossi for dandruff, and Zanthoxylum armatum for toothache were the most frequently mentioned. These species possess potential for pharmacology. Conclusion Medicinal plants are inseparable from local livelihoods because they have long been collected, consumed, and managed through local customs and knowledge. Management of traditional therapies is urged, because the therapies are empirically and knowledge based, often culturally inherited and important to pharmacology and local livelihoods. However, traditional therapies are currently being eroded due to changing lifestyles, perceptions, social transformations, and acculturation. PMID:23587109

  20. Medicinal plants used in Iranian traditional medicine to treat epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Sahranavard, Shamim; Ghafari, Saeedeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs used to treat epilepsy can cause severe, life threatening side effects. In Iranian traditional medicine, herbal remedies have been used for centuries to treat seizures. In this study, the five most important herbals in Iranian traditional medicine, namely Canon, al-Hawi, al-Abniah 'an Haqaeq al Adwia, Tuhfat al-Mu'minin, and Makhzan ul-Adwia, were searched for the term "sar-e", which means epilepsy, to identify the herbs used for treatment in ancient times. We also searched scientific literature for pharmacological evidence of their effectiveness. Twenty-five plants were identified as herbal remedies to treat epilepsy. Pharmacological data related to the antiepileptic activity of eleven of these plants exists. A large number of these plants which have not been investigated pharmacologically for antiepileptic activity would be good candidates for study in exploring new herbal anticonvulsant remedies. PMID:24525263

  1. Cytotoxicity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Seo, Ean-Jeong; Krusche, Benjamin; Oswald, Mira; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the cytotoxicity of a panel of 280 Korean medicinal plants belonging to 73 families and 198 species against human CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their mode of action. Methods. The resazurin assay was used to determine cytotoxicity of the plant extracts. Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling, COMPARE, and hierarchical cluster analyses were applied to identify which genes correlate with sensitivity or resistance to selected phytochemicals of the Korean plants. Results. The results of the resazurin assay showed that cytotoxicity extracts tested at 10 μg/mL from 13 samples inhibited proliferation more than 50% (IC50 < 10 μg/mL) and the most active plants are Sedum middendorffianum (15.33%) and Lycoris radiata (17.61%). Out of 13 selected phytochemicals from these plants, hopeaphenol and deoxynarciclasine were the most cytotoxic ones. Genes from various functional groups (transcriptional or translational regulation, signal transduction, cellular proliferation, intracellular trafficking, RNA metabolism, endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum function, etc.) were significantly correlated with response of tumor cell lines to these two compounds. Conclusion. The results provide evidence on the possible use of selected Korean medicinal plants and chemical constituents derived from them for the treatment of tumors. PMID:23935662

  2. Medicinal Plants and Cancer Chemoprevention

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Avni G.; Qazi, Ghulam N.; Ganju, Ramesh K.; El-Tamer, Mahmoud; Singh, Jaswant; Saxena, Ajit K.; Bedi, Yashbir S.; Taneja, Subhash C.; Bhat, Hari K.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Although great advancements have been made in the treatment and control of cancer progression, significant deficiencies and room for improvement remain. A number of undesired side effects sometimes occur during chemotherapy. Natural therapies, such as the use of plant-derived products in cancer treatment, may reduce adverse side effects. Currently, a few plant products are being used to treat cancer. However, a myriad of many plant products exist that have shown very promising anti-cancer properties in vitro, but have yet to be evaluated in humans. Further study is required to determine the efficacy of these plant products in treating cancers in humans. This review will focus on the various plant-derived chemical compounds that have, in recent years, shown promise as anticancer agents and will outline their potential mechanism of action. PMID:18781909

  3. [Plants and traditional medicine in southeast Madagascar].

    PubMed

    Beaujard, P

    1988-01-01

    This paper makes a first inventory of plants used by the medicine-men of the South-East of Madagascar (Tanala and Antemoro regions). The heirs - directly or indirectly - to an esoteric "moslem" knowledge which has been transmitted since the XVth century by the aristocratic islamized groups, the medicine-men are also the possessors of a knowledge which has been acquired by the autochthonous groups, that are said "masters of the earth" (commoners). Some divergences in the respective practices of the Tanala and Antemoro medicine-men seem to be connected with differences in the social structure and in the links between society and the environment. PMID:3193788

  4. Cinnamon: A Multifaceted Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  5. Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pasupuleti Visweswara; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum, and Cinnamon cassia), the eternal tree of tropical medicine, belongs to the Lauraceae family. Cinnamon is one of the most important spices used daily by people all over the world. Cinnamon primarily contains vital oils and other derivatives, such as cinnamaldehyde, cinnamic acid, and cinnamate. In addition to being an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, anticancer, lipid-lowering, and cardiovascular-disease-lowering compound, cinnamon has also been reported to have activities against neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases. This review illustrates the pharmacological prospective of cinnamon and its use in daily life. PMID:24817901

  6. Kenyan medicinal plants used as antivenin: a comparison of plant usage

    PubMed Central

    Owuor, Bethwell O; Kisangau, Daniel P

    2006-01-01

    The success of snake bite healers is vaguely understood in Kenya, partly due to their unknown materia medica and occult-mystical nature of their practice. A comparison is made of plants used in snake bite treatments by two culturally distinct African groups (the Kamba and Luo). Thirty two plants used for snakebite treatment are documented. The majority of the antidotes are prepared from freshly collected plant material frequently leaves. Though knowledge of snake bite conditions etiological perceptions of the ethnic groups is similar, field ethnobotanical data suggests that plant species used by the two ethnic groups are independently derived. Antivenin medicinal plants effectively illustrate the cultural context of medicine. Randomness or the use of a variety of species in different families appears to be a feature of traditional snake bite treatments. A high degree of informant consensus for the species was observed. The study indicates rural Kenya inhabitants rely on medicinal plants for healthcare. PMID:16451723

  7. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

  8. Analgesic activity of some Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Malairajan, P; Geetha Gopalakrishnan; Narasimhan, S; Jessi Kala Veni, K

    2006-07-19

    In the present study of some of the Indian medicinal plants Sida acuta whole plant (Malvaeae), Stylosanthes fruticosa (whole plant) (Papilionaceae), Toona ciliata (heart wood) (Meliaceao), Bougainvilla spectabilis (leaves) (Nyctaginaceae), Ficus glomerata (bark, leaves) (Moraceae) and Polyalthia longifolia (leaves) (Annonaceae). The different plants were used in folklore medicine in the treatment of toothache and strengthening of gums, anthelmintic, kidney diseases, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antihyperglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anticancer. The extract was prepared using powdered material with ethanol, concentrated under vacuo and were evaluated for analgesic activity by analgesiometer at three dose level (100, 300 and 500mg/kg). Analgesic activity was significant with Toona ciliata (heart wood) ethanolic extract when compared with other extracts and its activity was confirmed by tail immersion method. PMID:16647234

  9. Medicinal plants used in traditional medicine by Oromo people, Ghimbi District, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ethiopia is one of the six centres of biodiversity in the world with several topographies, climatic conditions and various ethnic cultures. Ethnobotanical study is a real and encourageable in rich biological resource areas for medicinal plant identification, documentation, ranking, conservation and sustainable usages. The purpose of this study was to identify the most effective medicinal plants for specific treatment through priority ranking and to assess the status of the transfer of Traditional Botanical Knowledge (TBK) based on age groups and educational levels. Methodology Ethnobotanical data were collected using field observation and semi-structured interview, A total of 30 key informants and 165 community members were interviewed and data on medicinal plant species and associated knowledge were recorded, quantified and verified using several preference ranking methods. Results The study revealed a total of 49 medicinal plant species (belonging to 31 families and 46 genera) used to treat various human ailments, the majority of which 40 (81.6%) species were collected from wild while the rests from home garden. Herbs constituted the largest growth habit (18 species, 37%) followed by trees (16 species, 32%) and shrubs (15 species, 31%). Leaf `17 (35%) is the plant part widely used followed by root 13 (27%), leafy-stem 5 (10%), and seed 6 (12%). Oral administration was the dominant route (63%), followed by dermal route (22%) and nasal (11%). The highest number of plant species being used for infectious (48%) followed by two or more diseases and non-infectious disease. Of five and seven medicinal plants of preference ranking the highest ranks were given first for Croton macrostaychus used for malaria treatment and for Prunus africana as ‘’rare” for immediate collection and use in the traditional treatment. Significantly higher average number of medicinal plants (p < 0.05) were reported by informants of higher institution (14.3 ± 34) and adult age groups (11.6 ± 43). Conclusion The Ghimbi people possess rich ethno-medicinal knowledge. This study can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation, sustainable use and drug development. PMID:24885586

  10. [Mythology and the medicinal plants of antiquity].

    PubMed

    Fabre, André-Julien

    2003-01-01

    In any civilization, nature is closely bound to the world of divinities. This is clearly seen in the Mediterranean world of Antiquity in every reference to the medicinal plants. Our aim, in this study, was to demonstrate the link between mythology and medicine. Through several centuries of medicinal practice, appears a therapeutic knowledge close to become a science. In spite of many gaps, errors and illusions thus emerges a first attempt to master the art of healing. Is it possible to speculate on a new type of drug research guided from ancient texts? Ethnopharmacology investigating medicinal traditions of the world has already obtained in this field some spectacular findings. At the moment, it would be difficult to predict the future of archeopharmacology but as Paul Valery said: "Present is nothing else than a future nutriment for the past". PMID:12797322

  11. Antiviral activity of African medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Beuscher, N; Bodinet, C; Neumann-Haefelin, D; Marston, A; Hostettmann, K

    1994-04-01

    Plants from Africa and Mauritius with a history of use in traditional medicine have been investigated for their antiviral activities. Extracts were tested against poliovirus, herpes simplex virus and rhinovirus in plaque reduction assays. Their general toxicity and effects on interferon production were also studied. PMID:8072303

  12. Application of plant cell and tissue culture for the production of phytochemicals in medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Pant, Bijaya

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 80% of the world inhabitants depend on the medicinal plants in the form of traditional formulations for their primary health care system well as in the treatment of a number of diseases since the ancient time. Many commercially used drugs have come from the information of indigenous knowledge of plants and their folk uses. Linking of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants to modern research activities provides a new reliable approach, for the discovery of novel drugs much more effectively than with random collection. Increase in population and increasing demand of plant products along with illegal trade are causing depletion of medicinal plants and many are threatened in natural habitat. Plant tissue culture technique has proved potential alternative for the production of desirable bioactive components from plants, to produce the enough amounts of plant material that is needed and for the conservation of threatened species. Different plant tissue culture systems have been extensively studied to improve and enhance the production of plant chemicals in various medicinal plants. PMID:24595608

  13. The knowledge of medicinal plants in Africa today.

    PubMed

    Lantum, D N

    1980-03-01

    The oral tradition for communication in Africa is stressed as well as the secrecy of the treatments with plants by traditional medicine-men. This makes it difficult to obtain more exact information on all the different aspects of traditional medicine. Nevertheless, some data have been collected in the Francophone countries. In English-speaking Africa efforts to gather information have also been made and a number of valuable reports and books published. A number of books report our present knowledge in the African regions south of the equator, mainly in Zambia. PMID:7464190

  14. The current status of knowledge of herbal medicine and medicinal plants in Fiche, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A majority of Ethiopians rely on traditional medicine as their primary form of health care, yet they are in danger of losing both their knowledge and the plants they have used as medicines for millennia. This study, conducted in the rural town of Fiche in Ethiopia, was undertaken with the support of Southern Cross University (SCU) Australia, Addis Ababa University (AAU) Ethiopia, and the Ethiopian Institute of Biodiversity (EIB), Ethiopia. The aim of this study, which included an ethnobotanical survey, was to explore the maintenance of tradition in the passing on of knowledge, the current level of knowledge about medicinal herbs and whether there is awareness and concern about the potential loss of both herbal knowledge and access to traditional medicinal plants. Methods This study was conducted using an oral history framework with focus groups, unstructured and semi-structured interviews, field-walk/discussion sessions, and a market survey. Fifteen people were selected via purposeful and snowball sampling. Analysis was undertaken using a grounded theory methodology. Results Fourteen lay community members and one professional herbalist provided information about 73 medicinal plants used locally. An ethnobotanical survey was performed and voucher specimens of 53 of the plants, representing 33 families, were collected and deposited at the EIB Herbarium. The community members are knowledgeable about recognition of medicinal plants and their usage to treat common ailments, and they continue to use herbs to treat sickness as they have in the past. A willingness to share knowledge was demonstrated by both the professional herbalist and lay informants. Participants are aware of the threat to the continued existence of the plants and the knowledge about their use, and showed willingness to take steps to address the situation. Conclusion There is urgent need to document the valuable knowledge of medicinal herbs in Ethiopia. Ethnobotanical studies are imperative, and concomitant sustainable programmes that support the sustainability of herbal medicine traditions may be considered as a way to collect and disseminate information thereby supporting communities in their efforts to maintain their heritage. This study contributes to the documentation of the status of current traditional herbal knowledge in Ethiopia. PMID:24885355

  15. Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Two hundred fifteen plant species were collected, identified and their vernacular names and traditional uses recorded. This number of species indicates that the healers, market vendors and members of the public interviewed still have a very high knowledge of plants in their surroundings, which can be seen as a reflection of the knowledge of the population in general. However, the area represents only an outlier of the larger Northern Peruvian cultural area, where more than 500 species of plants are used medicinally, indicating that in Ecuador much of the original plant knowledge has already been lost. Most plant species registered are only used medicinally, and only a few species have any other use (construction, fodder, food). The highest number of species is used for the treatment of "magical" (psychosomatic) ailments (39 species), followed by respiratory disorders (34), problems of the urinary tract (28), Fever/Malaria (25), Rheumatism (23) and nervous system problems (20). PMID:17032450

  16. Determination of elements in ayurvedic medicinal plants by AAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teerthe, Santoshkumar S.; Kerur, B. R.

    2015-08-01

    India has a rich country for the uses of Ayurvedic medicinal plants for treatment and also the north- Karnataka boasts an unparallel diversity of medicinal plants. The present study attempts to estimate and compare the level of trace and heavy metals in some selected leaves and root samples of Ayurvedic medicinal plants such as Mg, Al, K, Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The samples are collected from different places of North-Karnataka regions and sample solutions prepared as the ratio of 1:25:25+950ml=1000ppm.the trace and heavy elemental concentration was estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrometric (AAS) Method. The average concentrations of Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn, are ranging from 2ppm to 5250.2ppm and potassium (K) has more concentration as compare to all other. The other elements likes Al, Cr, Cu, and Cd were also estimed and presented in the table. Therefore, these medicinal plants are rich in some essential minerals, especially K, Mg, Mn, Fe and Zn which are essential for human health

  17. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wonago Woreda, SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Fisseha; Demissew, Sebsebe; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun

    2009-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are the integral part of the variety of cultures in Ethiopia and have been used over many centuries. Hence, the aim of this study is to document the medicinal plants in the natural vegetation and home gardens in Wonago Woreda, Gedeo Zone, Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Regional State (SNNPR). Materials and methods Thirty healers were selected to collect data on management of medicinal plants using semi-structured interview, group discussion, and field observation. The distribution of plant species in the study areas was surveyed, and preference ranking, direct matrix ranking, priority ranking of factors and Informant consensus factor (ICF) were calculated. Results The informants categorized the vegetation into five community types based on plant density and associated landform: 'Raqqa', 'Hakka cadanaba', 'Mancchha', 'Bullukko', and 'Wodae gido'. 155 plant species were collected from the natural vegetation and 65 plant species from the home gardens ('Gattae Oduma'). Seventy-two plant species were documented as having medicinal value: Sixty-five (71%) from natural vegetation and 27 (29%) from home gardens. Forty-five (62%) were used for humans, 15(21%) for livestock and 13(18%) for treating both human and livestock ailments: 35 (43.2%) were Shrubs, 28(34.5%) herbs, 17 (20.9%) trees and 1(1.2%) climbers. The root (35.8%) was the most commonly used plant part. The category: malaria, fever and headache had the highest 0.82 ICF. Agricultural expansion (24.4%) in the area was found to be the main threat for medicinal plants followed by fire wood collection (18.8%). Peoples' culture and spiritual beliefs somehow helped in the conservation of medicinal plants. Conclusion Traditional healers still depend largely on naturally growing plant species and the important medicinal plants are under threat. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for further studies on the regions medicinal plants knowledge and for future phytochemical and pharmacological studies. PMID:19821994

  18. Evaluating Medicinal Plants for Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    Solowey, Elisha; Lichtenstein, Michal; Sallon, Sarah; Paavilainen, Helena; Solowey, Elaine; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined the effects of three whole plant extracts (ethanol extraction) on human tumor cells. The extracts were from Urtica membranacea (Urticaceae), Artemesia monosperma (Asteraceae), and Origanum dayi post (Labiatae). All three plant extracts exhibited dose- and time-dependent killing capabilities in various human derived tumor cell lines and primary cultures established from patients' biopsies. The killing activity was specific toward tumor cells, as the plant extracts had no effect on primary cultures of healthy human cells. Cell death caused by the whole plant extracts is via apoptosis. Plant extract 5 (Urtica membranacea) showed particularly strong anticancer capabilities since it inhibited actual tumor progression in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. Our results suggest that whole plant extracts are promising anticancer reagents. PMID:25478599

  19. Evaluating medicinal plants for anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Solowey, Elisha; Lichtenstein, Michal; Sallon, Sarah; Paavilainen, Helena; Solowey, Elaine; Lorberboum-Galski, Haya

    2014-01-01

    Plants have been used for medical purposes since the beginning of human history and are the basis of modern medicine. Most chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment are molecules identified and isolated from plants or their synthetic derivatives. Our hypothesis was that whole plant extracts selected according to ethnobotanical sources of historical use might contain multiple molecules with antitumor activities that could be very effective in killing human cancer cells. This study examined the effects of three whole plant extracts (ethanol extraction) on human tumor cells. The extracts were from Urtica membranacea (Urticaceae), Artemesia monosperma (Asteraceae), and Origanum dayi post (Labiatae). All three plant extracts exhibited dose- and time-dependent killing capabilities in various human derived tumor cell lines and primary cultures established from patients' biopsies. The killing activity was specific toward tumor cells, as the plant extracts had no effect on primary cultures of healthy human cells. Cell death caused by the whole plant extracts is via apoptosis. Plant extract 5 (Urtica membranacea) showed particularly strong anticancer capabilities since it inhibited actual tumor progression in a breast adenocarcinoma mouse model. Our results suggest that whole plant extracts are promising anticancer reagents. PMID:25478599

  20. Native medicinal plants commercialized in Brazil - priorities for conservation.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Joabe Gomes; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2009-09-01

    A majority of the native medicinal plants that are commercialized in Brazil are harvested from natural populations. In addition to this essentially unrestrained collecting, these plants have been heavily impacted by the cutting and the fragmentation of forest formations throughout the country. Considering the limited availability of natural resources, threats to species diversity, and the necessity of conservation efforts in light of the rapid exhaustion of natural ecosystems, it is becoming exceedingly important to establish conservation priorities. The present work sought to identify the native medicinal plants harvested for industrial purposes and to establish conservation priorities for the species of highest commercial value. To that end, a survey of Brazilian industrial products that use medicinal plants was undertaken in 54 shops in the city of Recife (Pernambuco, NE Brazil). The survey noted information concerning the commercial name of the product, its plant composition and pharmaceutical presentation, therapeutic indications, as well as the laboratory that produced it. Only native species were considered. A total of 74 different native species used to produce more than 300 types of products were encountered in the present survey. Twelve species demonstrated significant versatility (Species which had the highest numbers of different therapeutic indications and body systems), and 58.33% of these plants were trees. Destructive collecting predominates (58.11%), greatly affecting taxa collected exclusively from wild populations (86.49%). The intensive use of exclusively wild species and the destructive harvesting techniques employed in gathering them create serious problems that will threaten the availability of these resources to future generations. PMID:18726244

  1. Ethnogynaecological Assessment of Medicinal Plants in Pashtun's Tribal Society

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; AbdEIsalam, Naser M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to document detailed ethnogynaecological knowledge of selected remote regions of Pashtun's tribe in northwest Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were designed to collect ethnogynaecological and ethnographic data. Total of 51 medicinal plants belonging to 36 families were documented that were used by the women of studied regions for the treatment of 9 types of gynaecological complaints. Majority of the plants (19) were found used against menses followed by 11 plants each for gonorrhea and pregnancy. Bannu region has high number of gynaecological plants (22) followed by Karak (15). Women of the regions mostly used whole plants (33%) and leaves (31%) for various ethnomedicinal preparation of gynae. Fic results showed that all ailments in different areas scored high consensus ranges between 0.6 and 1.00. Majority of the female respondents (44%) were aged between 61 and 70 years, of which most were illiterate. Women in the remote regions of Pakistan have tremendous traditional knowledge in utilizing medicinal plants for their reproductive health. Plants with high Fic values should be cross-checked for their in vitro and in vivo validation. Young girls should be educated on the importance of ethnogynaecological practices to conserve this valuable knowledge. PMID:25756042

  2. [Issues of large scale tissue culture of medicinal plant].

    PubMed

    Lv, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai

    2014-09-01

    In order to increase the yield and quality of the medicinal plant and enhance the competitive power of industry of medicinal plant in our country, this paper analyzed the status, problem and countermeasure of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. Although the biotechnology is one of the most efficient and promising means in production of medicinal plant, it still has problems such as stability of the material, safety of the transgenic medicinal plant and optimization of cultured condition. Establishing perfect evaluation system according to the characteristic of the medicinal plant is the key measures to assure the sustainable development of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. PMID:25522641

  3. Medicinal Plants: Their Use in Anticancer Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Greenwell, M.; Rahman, P.K.S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Globally cancer is a disease which severely effects the human population. There is a constant demand for new therapies to treat and prevent this life-threatening disease. Scientific and research interest is drawing its attention towards naturally-derived compounds as they are considered to have less toxic side effects compared to current treatments such as chemotherapy. The Plant Kingdom produces naturally occurring secondary metabolites which are being investigated for their anticancer activities leading to the development of new clinical drugs. With the success of these compounds that have been developed into staple drugs for cancer treatment new technologies are emerging to develop the area further. New technologies include nanoparticles for nano-medicines which aim to enhance anticancer activities of plant-derived drugs by controlling the release of the compound and investigating new methods for administration. This review discusses the demand for naturally-derived compounds from medicinal plants and their properties which make them targets for potential anticancer treatments. PMID:26594645

  4. Ethnobotanical drug discovery based on medicine men's trials in the African savanna: screening of east African plants for antimicrobial activity II.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, M; Kubo, I

    1993-09-01

    Antimicrobial activity of a number of East African plants was evaluated. The plants collected based on information provided by medicine men showed a much higher probability of finding active extracts than the plants collected randomly. PMID:8254349

  5. Quantitative analysis of heavy metals in medicinal plants collected from environmentally diverse locations in India for use in a novel phytopharmaceutical product.

    PubMed

    Sadhu, Ananya; Upadhyay, Prabhat; Singh, Praveen K; Agrawal, Aruna; Ilango, Kaliappan; Karmakar, Dipankar; Singh, Gur Prit Inder; Dubey, Govind Prasad

    2015-08-01

    It is important to monitor the quality of the phytopharmaceutical product as its therapeutic potential depends on standardized delivery of active ingredients present in the botanical source. Minimal presence of toxic impurities like heavy metals (HMs) is warranted to ensure product safety and prevent hazardous health impacts. In the present study, conducted as part of the development of a novel phytopharmaceutical product, the chemical profile of 13 heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, Mo, V, Cr, As, Pb, Hg, and Cd) was studied in the whole plant, fruit, and rhizome of Bacopa monnieri, Hippophae rhamnoides, and Dioscorea bulbifera, respectively, from environmentally diverse regions in India. Most samples had HM profiles within permissible limits as established by regulatory authorities, with the exception of Cd and Hg in low-altitude regions. This study indicates geographical regions in India suitable for procuring raw materials to develop and manufacture phytopharmaceutical products. PMID:26223217

  6. Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy.

    PubMed

    Pieroni, A

    2000-06-01

    An ethnopharmacobotanical survey of the medicinal plants and food medicines of the northern part of Lucca Province, north-west Tuscany, central Italy, was carried out. The geographical isolation of this area has permitted the survival of a rich folk phytotherapy involving medicinal herbs and also vegetable resources used by locals as food medicine. Among these are the uncommon use of Ballota nigra leaves as a trophic protective; the use of Lilium candidum bulbs as an antiviral to treat shingles (Herpes zoster); Parmelia sp. as a cholagogue; Crocus napolitanus flowers as antiseptic; Prunus laurocerasus drupes as a hypotensive; and the consumption of chestnut flour polenta cooked with new wine as bechic. Many wild gathered greens are eaten raw in salads, or in boiled mixtures, as 'blood cleansing' and 'intestine cleansing' agents. Of particular interest is the persistence of the archaic use of Bryonia dioica root against sciatica, and the use of ritual plant therapeuticals as good omens, or against the 'evil eye.' Over 120 species represent the heritage of the local folk pharmacopoeia in upper Garfagnana. Anthropological and ethnopharmacological considerations of the collected data are also discussed. PMID:10837988

  7. Antimalarial activity of three Pakistani medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Irshad, Saba; Mannan, Abdul; Mirza, Bushra

    2011-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine the in vitro anti-malarial activity of three medicinal plants, Picrorhiza kurroa, Caesalpinia bonducella and Artemisia absinthium of Pakistan. Different extracts of various parts of these plants were prepared by maceration and percolation, and were evaluated for their antimalarial activity. Aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa showed 34%, 100% and 90% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively, at 2.00 mg/ml. While aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extracts of Caesalpinia bonducella showed 65%, 56% and 76% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at same concentrations. In the case of Artemisia absinthium, aqueous, cold alcoholic and hot alcoholic extract of Artemisia absinthium showed 35%, 55% and 21% inhibition in growth of Plasmodium falciparum, respectively at 2.00 mg/ml. In our study, extracts of Picrorhiza kurroa were found good for traditional therapy with highly significant results. PMID:21959826

  8. Antiradical efficiency of 20 selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Raka; Yadav, Sunita; Mathur, Manas; Katariya, Pawan

    2012-01-01

    The antioxidant system of a plant comprises a group of chemicals that are highly diverse in their sources, effects and uses. These antioxidants are capable of contracting and damaging free radicals. This investigation deals with a screening and comparison of the antioxidant activities of 20 selected medicinal plants and their parts, individually and in combination with vitamins A, C or E, using the DPPH radical scavenging method. Phyllanthus emblica L., Santalum album L., Syzygium cumini L. and Trigonella foenum-graecum L. presented highly significant antiradical efficiency (AE) singly and in combination with either vitamin A, C or E. Further, Curcuma longa L., Momordica charantia L., S. cumini, T. foenum-graecum, Moringa oleifera Lam and S. album have also shown fairly significant AE in a vitamin combination dose of 0.001 mM concentration. PMID:22010999

  9. Cytotoxicity Potentials of Eleven Bangladeshi Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Tania; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 µg/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 µg/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 µg/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 µg/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  10. Cytotoxicity potentials of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Amina; Rahman, Mahmudur; Haque, Tania; Rahman, Md Mahfizur; Akter, Mahfuja; Akter, Subarna; Jhumur, Afrin

    2014-01-01

    Various forms of cancer are rising all over the world, requiring newer therapy. The quest of anticancer drugs both from natural and synthetic sources is the demand of time. In this study, fourteen extracts of different parts of eleven Bangladeshi medicinal plants which have been traditionally used for the treatment of different types of carcinoma, tumor, leprosy, and diseases associated with cancer were evaluated for their cytotoxicity for the first time. Extraction was conceded using methanol. Phytochemical groups like reducing sugars, tannins, saponins, steroids, gums, flavonoids, and alkaloids were tested using standard chromogenic reagents. Plants were evaluated for cytotoxicity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay using Artemia salina comparing with standard anticancer drug vincristine sulphate. All the extracts showed potent to moderate cytotoxicity ranging from LC50 2 to 115 g/mL. The highest toxicity was shown by Hygrophila spinosa seeds (LC50 = 2.93 g/mL) and the lowest by Litsea glutinosa leaves (LC50 = 114.71 g/mL) in comparison with standard vincristine sulphate (LC50 = 2.04 g/mL). Among the plants, the plants traditionally used in different cancer and microbial treatments showed highest cytotoxicity. The results support their ethnomedicinal uses and require advanced investigation to elucidate responsible compounds as well as their mode of action. PMID:25431796

  11. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species), followed by trees (23%). The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were ranked as priority species, 13 of which having also been prioritized in a country-wide governmental classification. Conclusions The Tamang people possess rich ethnopharmacological knowledge. This study allowed to identify many high value and high priority medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection and trade. PMID:20102631

  12. MAPS Database: Medicinal plant Activities, Phytochemical and Structural Database

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Usman Ali; Mumtaz, Arooj; Qamar, Tahir ul; Fatima, Tabeer

    2013-01-01

    Drug development from natural sources is an important and fast developing area. Natural sources (plants) have been used to cure a range of diseases for Thousands of years. Different online medicinal plant databases provide information about classifications, activities, phytochemicals and structure of phytochemicals in different formats. These databases do not cover all aspects of medicinal plants. MAPS (Medicinal plant Activities, Phytochemicals & structural database) has been constructed with uniqueness that it combines all information in one web resource and additionally provides test targets on which particular plant found to be effective with reference to the original paper as well. MAPS database is user friendly information resource, including the data of > 500 medicinal plants. This database includes phytochemical constituents, their structure in mol format, different activities possessed by the medicinal plant with the targets reported in literature. Availability http://www.mapsdatabase.com PMID:24391364

  13. In vitro anticancer screening of 24 locally used Nigerian medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinal plants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity. Methods The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human cancer cell lines. Results Results obtained from the plants screened indicate that 18 plant extracts of folk medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan was found to demonstrate potent anti-cancer activity in this study exhibiting IC50 = 0.2-1.3 ?g/ml. Conclusions Based on the significantly potent activity of some plants extracts reported here, further studies aimed at mechanism elucidation and bio-guided isolation of active anticancer compounds is currently underway. PMID:23565862

  14. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal plants in Jeju Island, Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study aims to analyze and record orally transmitted knowledge of medicinal plants from the indigenous people living in Hallasan National Park of Korea. Methods Data was collected through the participatory rural appraisal method involving interviews, informal meetings, open and group discussions, and overt observations with semi-structured questionnaires. Results In this study, a total of 68 families, 141 genera, and 171 species of plants that showed 777 ways of usage were recorded. Looking into the distribution of the families, 14 species of Asteraceae occupied 11.1% of the total followed by 13 species of Rosaceae, 10 species of Rutaceae, and nine species of Apiaceae which occupied 5.0%, 7.1% and 3.0% of the whole, respectively. 32 kinds of plant-parts were used for 47 various medicinal purposes. Values for the informant consensus factor regarding the ailment categories were for birth related disorders (0.92), followed by respiratory system disorders (0.90), skin disease and disorders (0.89), genitourinary system disorders (0.87), physical pain (0.87), and other conditions. According to fidelity levels, 36 plant species resulted in fidelity levels of 100%. Conclusion Consequently, results of this study will legally utilize to provide preparatory measures against the Nagoya Protocol (2010) about benefit-sharing for traditional knowledge of genetic resources. PMID:23837693

  15. Ecological status and traditional knowledge of medicinal plants in Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Himalayan forests are the most important source of medicinal plants and with useful species for the local people. Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS) is situated in the interior part of the Garhwal Himalayan region. The presented study was carried out in Madhmeshwar area of KWLS for the ecological status of medicinal plants and further focused on the ethnomedicinal uses of these plants in the study area. Methods Ecological information about ethnomedicinal plants were collected using random quadrats in a random sampling technique along an altitudinal gradient in the KWLS. Information on medicinal properties of plants encountered in the present study was generated by questionnaire survey and was also compared with relevant literature. Results A total of 152 medicinally important plant species were reported, in which 103 were found herbs, 32 shrubs and 17 were tree species which represented 123 genera of 61 families. A total of 18 plant species fell into the rare, endangered (critically endangered) and vulnerable status categories. Conclusion The present study documented the traditional uses of medicinal plants, their ecological status and importance of these plants in the largest protected area of Garhwal Himalaya. This study can serve as baseline information on medicinal plants and could be helpful to further strengthen the conservation of this important resource. PMID:23281594

  16. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Arjan Parishan protected area in Fars Province of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhahi, Mehdi; Dolatkhahi, Ali; Nejad, Javad Bagher

    2014-01-01

    Objective : Today, medicinal plants are widely used in remedies for several ailments and improvement of human health because of their pharmaceutical properties. This study aimed to document important useful medicinal plants and their medicinal characteristics for treatment of human ailments in the Arjan _ Parishan protected area in Fars province of Iran during 2010-2012. Materials and Methods : Data were obtained using direct interviews with 80 informants particularly those who were more familiar with the herbs and their medicinal properties. Collected plants were recognized and families, genera, and species determined using indispensable references. In this paper, scientific name, local name, parts used, and ways of application and ailments treated using traditional medicinal plant species have been provided. Results : We documented 85 plant species belonging to 39 families and 78 genera used for treating ailments. Among which, Asteraceae with 13 species was the most frequently used family and fruits and leaves were the favored parts for local users. Our results indicated that in this area, the highest compliance in the use of plants in treating ailments were related to the intestinal digestive system (40.8%). Conclusion : The present study is the first contribution to the ethnobotany of this region. Our results showed that some plants are used for medicinal purposes in this region, either for the same or for different purposes. Generally, the results of the present investigation can be used as a basis for selecting useful medicinal plants and also help to preserve precious information that may otherwise be lost to future generations. PMID:25386404

  17. Cameroonian medicinal plants: a bioactivity versus ethnobotanical survey and chemotaxonomic classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Cameroon herbs are traditionally used to meet health care needs and plans are on the way to integrate traditional medicine in the health care system, even though the plans have not been put into action yet. The country however has a rich biodiversity, with ~8,620 plant species, some of which are commonly used in the treatment of several microbial infections and a range of diseases (malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, diabetes and tuberculosis). Methods Our survey consisted in collecting published data from the literature sources, mainly from PhD theses in Cameroonian university libraries and also using the author queries in major natural product and medicinal chemistry journals. The collected data includes plant sources, uses of plant material in traditional medicine, plant families, region of collection of plant material, isolated metabolites and type (e.g. flavonoid, terpenoid, etc.), measured biological activities of isolated compounds, and any comments on significance of isolated metabolites on the chemotaxonomic classification of the plant species. This data was compiled on a excel sheet and analysed. Results In this study, a literature survey led to the collection of data on 2,700 secondary metabolites, which have been previously isolated or derived from Cameroonian medicinal plants. This represents distinct phytochemicals derived from 312 plant species belonging to 67 plant families. The plant species are investigated in terms of chemical composition with respect to the various plant families. A correlation between the known biological activities of isolated compounds and the ethnobotanical uses of the plants is also attempted. Insight into future direction for natural product search within the Cameroonian forest and Savanna is provided. Conclusions It can be verified that a phytochemical search of active secondary metabolites, which is inspired by knowledge from the ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants could be very vital in a drug discovery program from plant-derived bioactive compounds. PMID:23802859

  18. Root endophyte Piriformospora indica DSM 11827 alters plant morphology, enhances biomass and antioxidant activity of medicinal plant Bacopa monniera.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Ram; Kamal, Shwet; Sharma, Pradeep K; Oelmüller, Ralf; Varma, Ajit

    2013-12-01

    Unorganized collections and over exploitation of naturally occurring medicinal plant Bacopa monniera is leading to rapid depletion of germplasm and is posing a great threat to its survival in natural habitats. The species has already been listed in the list of highly threatened plants of India. This calls for micropropagation based multiplication of potential accessions and understanding of their mycorrhizal associations for obtaining plants with enhanced secondary metabolite contents. The co-cultivation of B. monniera with axenically cultivated root endophyte Piriformospora indica resulted in growth promotion, increase in bacoside content, antioxidant activity and nuclear hypertrophy of this medicinal plant. PMID:23681554

  19. Sustainable harvest of medicinal plants at Bulashbar Nullah, Astore (Northern Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Shinwari, Zabta Khan; Gilani, Syed Shahinshah

    2003-02-01

    Rapid decline of plant resources due to their conventional use needs ex-situ and in-situ conservation, training of the community regarding collection of medicinal plants and their marketing. In this regard, the Bulashbar valley, Astore, District Diamer was identified as a case study. The main objectives of this activity were to enlist economic, medicinal and aromatic plants including their occurrence, general distribution and abundance in the project areas; to determine traditional use and pharmaceutical values of each medicinal plant species found in the project area. Ethnobotanical studies of the area revealed that 33 plants were being used by the local communities for medicinal purposes. Two species, Bunium persicum and Ephedra gerardiana, are recommended for in vitro cultivation to obtain quick benefits. While Hippophae rhamnoides can be sustainably used for socio-economic uplift of the local communities. PMID:12648828

  20. Antioxidant activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Karadeniz, A; inbilgel, I; Gn, S ?; etin, A

    2015-12-01

    DPPH, superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activities and total phenolic content (TPC) of some less known plants, distributed in Burdur-Antalya provinces and consumed both as food and for the medicine, Asplenium ceterach L. (golden herb), Valeriana dioscoridis Sm. (valerian), Doronicum orientale Hoffm. (tiger herb), Cota pestalozzae (Boiss.) Boiss. (camomile), Eremurus spectabilis M. Bieb. (foxtail lily), Asphodeline lutea (L.) Rchb. (asphodel) and Smyrnium connatum Boiss. and Kotschy (hemlock) were investigated. As a result, the highest 2,2-diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity was determined in C. pestalozzae extract (IC50=18.66?gmL(-1)), the highest superoxide and nitric oxide radical scavenging activity was determined in A. ceterach extract (IC50=145.17 and 372.03?gmL(-1)). The highest TPC was determined in A. ceterach extract (59,26?gmL(-1)) as gallic acid equivalent. Further bioactivity and phytochemistry studies on these plants may enlighten new drug discovery researches. PMID:25649168

  1. Quantifying of bactericide properties of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    cs, Andrs; Glncsr, Flra; Barabs, Anik

    2011-01-01

    Extended research has been carried out to clarify the ecological role of plant secondary metabolites (SMs). Although their primary ecological function is self-defense, bioactive compounds have long been used in alternative medicine or in biological control of pests. Several members of the family Labiatae are known to have strong antimicrobial capacity. For testing and quantifying antibacterial activity, most often standard microbial protocols are used, assessing inhibitory activity on a selected strain. In this study, the applicability of a microbial ecotoxtest was evaluated to quantify the aggregate bactericide capacity of Labiatae species, based on the bioluminescence inhibition of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Striking differences were found amongst herbs, reaching even 10-fold toxicity. Glechoma hederacea L. proved to be the most toxic, with the EC50 of 0.4073 g dried plant/l. LC50 values generated by the standard bioassay seem to be a good indicator of the bactericide property of herbs. Traditional use of the selected herbs shows a good correlation with bioactivity expressed as bioluminescence inhibition, leading to the conclusion that the Vibrio fischeri bioassay can be a good indicator of the overall antibacterial capacity of herbs, at least on a screening level. PMID:21502819

  2. Diversity and use of ethno-medicinal plants in the region of Swat, North Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Due to its diverse geographical and habitat conditions, northern Pakistan harbors a wealth of medicinal plants. The plants and their traditional use are part of the natural and cultural heritage of the region. This study was carried out to document which medicinal plant species and which plant parts are used in the region of Swat, which syndrome categories are particularly concerned, and which habitat spectrum is frequented by collectors. Finally, we assessed to which extent medicinal plants are vulnerable due to collection and habitat destruction. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken in the Miandam area of Swat, North Pakistan. Data were collected through field assessment as well as from traditional healers and locals by means of personal interviews and semi-structured questionnaires. Results A total of 106 ethno-medicinal plant species belonging to 54 plant families were recorded. The most common growth forms were perennial (43%) and short-lived herbs (23%), shrubs (16%), and trees (15%). Most frequently used plant parts were leaves (24%), fruits (18%) and subterranean parts (15%). A considerable proportion of the ethno-medicinal plant species and remedies concerns gastro-intestinal disorders. The remedies were mostly prepared in the form of decoction or powder and were mainly taken orally. Eighty out of 106 ethno-medicinal plants were indigenous. Almost 50% of the plants occurred in synanthropic vegetation while slightly more than 50% were found in semi-natural, though extensively grazed, woodland and grassland vegetation. Three species (Aconitum violaceum, Colchicum luteum, Jasminum humile) must be considered vulnerable due to excessive collection. Woodlands are the main source for non-synanthropic indigenous medicinal plants. The latter include many range-restricted taxa and plants of which rhizomes and other subterranean parts are dug out for further processing as medicine. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still widely used for treatment in the area of Swat. Some species of woodlands seem to be adapted to wood-pasture, but vulnerable to overcollecting, and in particular to deforestation. It is suggested to implement local small-scaled agroforestry systems to cultivate vulnerable and commercially valuable ethno-medicinal woodland plants under local self-government responsibility. PMID:23587127

  3. MEDICINAL PLANT WEALTH OF ANDHRA PRADESH PART I

    PubMed Central

    Hemadri, Koppula; Sarma, C. Raja Rajeswari; Rao, Swahari Sasibushana

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the Medical Plant Wealth of Andhra Pradesh based on the results of Medico Ethno Botanical exploration undertaken during the last fourteen years (1971 72 till the end of 1984). In all, 117 well known medicinal plants widely used in Ayurveda, Siddha and other systems of Medicine are enumerated here. PMID:22557569

  4. [Medicinal plant resources of Trib. Isopyreae and prospects of exploitation].

    PubMed

    Qi, Yinde; Yang, Yongjian

    2002-02-01

    There are 17 species of medicinal plants from Trib. Isopyreae Schröd in China. This paper reports their resources, habitats and medicinal properties. On the basis of referring to the native and abroad medical studies on the plants from same Trilbe, their prospects of exploitation were advised. PMID:12599404

  5. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used in Kilte Awulaelo District, Tigray Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ethiopian people have been dependent on traditional medicine, mainly medicinal plants, from time immemorial for control of human and animal health problems, and they still remain to be largely dependent on the practice. The purpose of the current study was to conduct ethnobotanical study to document medicinal plants used to treat diseases of human and domestic animals in Kilte Awulaelo District in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected between July and September 2011 through semi-structured interviews, ranking exercises and field observations. For the interviews, 72 knowledgeable informants were sampled using purposive sampling method. For the different ranking exercises, key informants were identified with the help of elders and local administrators from informants that were already involved in the interviews. Results The study revealed 114 medicinal plant species belonging to 100 genera and 53 families. The plants were used to treat 47 human and 19 livestock diseases. Of the species, the majority (74%) were obtained from the wild. Herbs were the most utilized plants, accounting for 44% of the species, followed by shrubs (29%). Leaf was the most commonly used plant part accounting for 42.98% of the plants, followed by roots (25.73%). Preference ranking exercise on selected plants used against abdominal pain indicated the highest preference of people for Solanum marginatum. Direct matrix ranking showed Cordia africana as the most preferred multipurpose plant in the community. Preference ranking of selected scarce medicinal plants indicated Myrica salicifolia as the most scarce species, followed by Boscia salicifolia and Acokanthera schimperi. According to priority ranking, drought was identified as the most destructive factor of medicinal plants, followed by overgrazing and firewood collection. Conclusion Medicinal plants are still playing significant role in the management of various human and livestock diseases in the study area with herbs taking the lead in the number of plants used in the preparation of remedies, which may be an indication of their relatively better abundance as compared to other life forms. Recurrent drought was reported to have seriously threatened medicinal plant resources in the District. Awareness is thus needed be raised among local people on sustainable utilization and management of plant resources. Ex situ and in situ conservation measures should be taken to protect the medicinal plants of the District from further destruction and special attention should be given to the medicinal plants that were indicated by preference ranking exercise as the most threatened ones. PMID:24011232

  6. Medicinal plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la, Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanchun; Dao, Zhiling; Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Yitao; Long, Chunlin

    2009-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants used by the local people in Xizang (Tibet) have been investigated since the 1960s. The others out of Xizang, however, have been less understood, although they may be easily and strongly influenced by the various local herbal practices, diverse environments, local religious beliefs and different prevalent types of diseases. In 2006, two ethnobotanical surveys were organized in the county of Shangri-la, Yunnan Province, SW China, to document the traditional medicinal plants used by the Tibetan people. Methods After literature surveying, four local townships were selected to carry out the field investigation. Three local healers were interviewed as key informants. The methods of ethnobotany, anthropology and participatory rural appraisal (PRA) were used in the field surveys. Plant taxonomic approach was adopted for voucher specimen identification. Results Sixty-eight medicinal plant species in 64 genera of 40 families were recorded and collected. Among them, 23 species were found to have medicinal values that have not been recorded in any existing Tibetan literatures before, and 31 species were recorded to have traditional prescriptions. Moreover, the traditional preparations of each species and some folk medicinal knowledge were recorded and analyzed. These traditional prescriptions, preparations, new medicinal plants and folk medicinal knowledge and principles were discovered and summarized by local traditional Tibetan healers through times of treatment practices, and were passed down from generation to generation. Conclusion As a part of the cultural diversity of Tibetan community, these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences may provide data and information basis for the sustainable utilization and development of Tibetan medicine, and may contribute to the local economic development. However, for many reasons, they are disappearing gradually as time goes by. Our study showed that there were abundant traditional Tibetan medicinal prescriptions and using methods. It implies that more Tibetan medicinal plants and traditional knowledge can be discovered. Further research should be done to save the wealth of these traditional medicinal knowledge and experiences before they are dying out. PMID:19416515

  7. Medicinal Plants and Ethnomedicine in Peril: A Case Study from Nepal Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Kunwar, Ripu M.; Lamichhane Pandey, Mina; Mahat Kunwar, Laxmi

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters' and cultivators' abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change. PMID:24734114

  8. Gitksan medicinal plants-cultural choice and efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Leslie Main

    2006-01-01

    Background The use of plants for healing by any cultural group is integrally related to local concepts of the nature of disease, the nature of plants, and the world view of the culture. The physical and chemical properties of the plants themselves also bear on their selection by people for medicines, as does the array of plants available for people to choose from. I examine use of medicinal plants from a "biobehavioral" perspective to illuminate cultural selection of plants used for medicine by the Gitksan of northwestern British Columbia, Canada. Methods Consultant consensus, "intercultural consensus", independent use of the same plants by other cultural groups, and phytochemistry and bioassay results from the literature, were employed in analysis of probable empirical efficacy of plant uses. Results 70% of 37 Gitksan medicinal plants were used similarly by other cultures where direct diffusion is not known to have occurred; eleven plants, including the eight most frequently mentioned medicinal plants, also show active phytochemicals or bioassays indicating probable physiologically based therapeutic effects. Conclusion Analysis of intercultural consensus revealed that the majority of cultures in the British Columbia region within the plant ranges use the same plants, or closely related species, in similar ways. The rigor of this analysis is effected by the lack of consistent data on all taxa of interest for all cultures within the region. PMID:16790066

  9. Botanical identification of medicinal roots collected and traded in Morocco and comparison to the existing literature

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A literature review revealed heavy reliance on a few key publications for identification of medicinal plant species from local or vernacular names and a lack of citation of voucher specimens in many publications. There is a need for more reliable and standardized data on the identity of species used for medicine, especially because local names vary from region to region. This is especially true in the case of medicinal roots, for which identification of species is difficult. This paper contributes to existing data on the species sold as medicinal roots (and other underground plant parts such as bulbs, corms, rhizomes and tubers) in Morocco. Methods Data were collected in collaboration with herbalists in Marrakech and collectors in rural regions near Marrakech where species are collected from the wild. The ethno-medicinal uses of these species were also recorded. Results We identified the vernacular names for 67 medicinal roots (by free listing) used to treat a variety of human diseases. We were able to collect and identify one or more species for 39 of the recorded vernacular names. The ones we were not able to identify were either imported or no longer available in the markets. We collected more than one species for some of the vernacular names for a total of 43 species. We identified six new vernacular names and four species which had not been previously described in the literature. Our botanical identification matched at least one of the names listed in the literature 63% of the time and did not match any species listed in the literature 37% of the time. Of the three most commonly cited pieces of literature we compared to, we found the greatest overlap with the broader, more comprehensive work of Bellakhdar 1997 (as opposed to Benchâabane and Abbad 1997 which worked in a similarly focused geographical area). However there was only 63% agreement between Bellakhdar 1997 and our botanical identifications, and 29% of the time our identification didn’t match even the genus of any of the species listed in any of the 3 most commonly cited pieces of literature. Conclusions More rigorous methodology and reporting are needed for medicinal plant research in Morocco. This will ensure that studies are comparable, help to protect traditional medicine users from negative health effects, and, support efforts to conserve overharvested wild medicinal plants. PMID:23945196

  10. [Analysis of varieties and standards of labiatae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    He, Jun-wei; Cao, Lan; Zhou, Hua-rong; Zhong, Wei-hong; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, an analysis was made on the varieties and standards of labiatae medicinal plants used in Tibetan medicine. The results showed 71 species of labiatae plants in 21 genera (including varieties) recorded in relevant literatures, involving 44 varieties of medicinal materials. Specifically, seven species (9.9%) were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), 19 varieties (43%) were recorded in Chinese medicinal material standards at all levels, and 27 species (38%) were source plants. In Tibetan medicine standards and literatures, there are great differences between Tibetan names and translated Chinese names and among varieties of source plants. Apart from a few of varieties intersected with traditional Chinese medicines had complete standards and regulations in Chinese Pharmacopoeia, most of species only had characters, microscopic, physical and chemical identifications in Standards Issued by Ministry of Health-Tibetan Medicine, Tibetan Medicine Standard and local standards. Therefore, the Tibetan medicinal material variety-source specification and quality standard system shall be promoted on the basis of literatures research, investigations for resources and current applications and modern pharmaceutical studies. PMID:26281573

  11. Use of medicinal plants for diabetes in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Mahabir, D; Gulliford, M C

    1997-03-01

    Use of herbal remedies from medicinal plants (bush medicines) was studied in 622 people with diabetes mellitus attending 17 government health centers on the island of Trinidad, Trinidad and Tobago. Bush medicines were used by 42% of patients surveyed and were used for diabetes by 24%. Bush medicine use was more frequent in Afro-Trinidadians and in those of mixed ethnicity than in Indo-Trinidadians, and was also more prevalent in those with lower educational attainment. Most patients using bush medicines (214/264, or 81%) reported gathering the plants themselves, and 107/264 (41%) took them more frequently than once a week. Patients taking bush medicines mentioned 103 different plants used in remedies. Among the 12 most frequently mentioned, caraili, aloes, olive-bush, and seed-under-leaf were preferentially used for diabetes. Vervine, chandilay, soursop, fever grass, and orange peel were preferentially used for other indications. Patients who reported burning or numbness in the feet or feelings of tiredness, weakness, giddiness, or dizziness used bush medicines for diabetes more frequently than did patients who reported a range of other diabetes-related symptoms. Insulin-treated patients were less frequent users of bush medicines. It is concluded that bush medicines are taken regularly by many patients with diabetes in Trinidad. Plants most frequently used as remedies for diabetes have recognized hypoglycemic activity. Patients' culture, educational background, type of symptoms, and formal medical treatment may also influence the selection and use of bush medicines. PMID:9128111

  12. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Wayu Tuka District, East Welega Zone of Oromia Regional State, West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical study that focused on the traditional medicinal plants used by local communities to treat human and livestock ailments. A cross-sectional study was undertaken from September 2009 to June 2010 in Wayu Tuka District of Oromia Region, Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to document medicinal plants used by local people of the study area and the threats currently affecting medicinal plants. Methods Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi-structured interviews, field observations and group discussion in which 63 (41 men & 22 women) randomly selected informants participated. Of which, 11 (10 male and 1 female) were local healers. Paired comparison method, direct matrix ranking and Informant consensus factors (ICF) were used to analyze the importance of some plant species. Results A total of 126 medicinal plant species, distributed in 108 genera and 56 families, were collected together with their medicinal uses. Of the 126 species of medicinal plants collected from the study area, eighty six (68%) were obtained from the wild whereas thirty three (26%) were from homegardens. The Fabaceae came out as a leading family with 15 medicinal species while the Solanaceae followed with eight species. Seventy eight (62%) of the medicinal plants were reported as being used for treating human ailments, 23 (18.2%) for the treatment of livestock ailments and 25 (20%) for both. The most frequently used plant parts were leaves (43%), followed by roots (18.5%) while crushing, which accounted for (29%) and powdering (28%) were the widely used methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines. Conclusion The number of reported medicinal plants and their uses by the local people of the District indicate the depth of the local indigenous knowledge on medicinal plants and their application. The documented medicinal plants can serve as a basis for future investigation of modern drug. PMID:24295044

  13. Are medicinal plants polluted with phthalates?

    PubMed

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) have been employed in polymer materials as a plasticizer to form them more flexible, adhesive, and soluble. These compounds are mainly used in paints, varnishes, personal cares, cosmetics, paper coatings, and adhesives even in bottled waters, shampoo, body deodorant, hairspray, and gels. Phthalates are able to possess remarkable toxic variations depending on their structures. So far, Di-(2-EthylHexyl) Phthalate DEHP and Di-n- Butyl Phthalate DBP have been found to cause reproductive and developmental toxicities. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) classified DEHP as probable human carcinogen. To the best of our knowledge, phthalates showed diverse toxicity profiles according to their structures in the liver, kidneys, thyroid, and testes, which are involved in general toxicity. Furthermore, they are introduced as hormonally-active agents, because they can interfere with the endocrine system in human. Incidence of developmental abnormalities (like skeletal malformations and cleft palate, and undescended testes, lowering testes weight and anogenital distance) seems increasing via high exposure to phthalate metabolites. Although, increasing the capacity for phthalate free plasticizer productions is the first step to restrict the distribution of these toxic manmade compounds, finding the new ways for phthalate absorption from the soil in agricultural fields may have benefits. Also, evaluation and examination of diverse sources of medicinal and food plants to determine the level of phthalate accumulation in their organs are extremely recommended to avoid creating toxicity particularly in reproductive systems. PMID:23718122

  14. Ethnobotanical investigation of traditional medicinal plants commercialized in the markets of Mashhad, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad Sadegh; Joharchi, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: An ethnobotanical survey on the medicinal plant species marketed in Mashhad city, northeastern Iran, was conducted in order to document traditional medicinal knowledge and application of medicinal plants. Materials and Methods: This study was undertaken between 2011 and 2012. The indigenous knowledge of traditional healers used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. Ethnobotanical data was arranged alphabetically by family name followed by botanical name, vernacular name, part used, folk use, and recipe. Correct identification was made with the help of the various Floras and different herbal literature at the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Herbarium (FUMH). Results: The present investigation reported medicinal information for about 269 species, belonging to 87 vascular plant families and one fungus family. The most important family was Lamiaceae with 26 species, followed by Asteraceae with 23, Fabaceae with 20, and Apiaceae with 19. Herbal medicine uses reported by herbalists was classified into 132 different uses which show significant results to treat a wide spectrum of human ailments. Plants sold at the market were mostly used for digestive system disorders, respiratory problems, urological troubles, nervous system disorders, skin problems, and gynecological ailments. Conclusion: This survey showed that although people in study area have access to modern medical facilities, a lot of them still continue to depend on medicinal plants for the treatment of healthcare problems. The present paper represents significant ethnobotanical information on medical plants which provides baseline data for future pharmacological and phytochemical studies. PMID:25050282

  15. A Systematic Review of Iran's Medicinal Plants With Anticancer Effects.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Samani, Majid; Kooti, Wesam; Aslani, Elahe; Shirzad, Hedayatollah

    2016-04-01

    Increase in cases of various cancers has encouraged the researchers to discover novel, more effective drugs from plant sources. This study is a review of medicinal plants in Iran with already investigated anticancer effects on various cell lines. Thirty-six medicinal plants alongside their products with anticancer effects as well as the most important plant compounds responsible for the plants' anticancer effect were introduced. Phenolic and alkaloid compounds were demonstrated to have anticancer effects on various cancers in most studies. The plants and their active compounds exerted anticancer effects by removing free radicals and antioxidant effects, cell cycle arrest, induction of apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis. The investigated plants in Iran contain the compounds that are able to contribute effectively to fighting cancer cells. Therefore, the extract and active compounds of the medicinal plants introduced in this review article could open a way to conduct clinical trials on cancer and greatly help researchers and pharmacists develop new anticancer drugs. PMID:26297173

  16. Phylogenetic exploration of commonly used medicinal plants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Daru, Barnabas H; Muasya, Abraham Muthama

    2015-03-01

    The rapid growth rate of human population, along with the public health crisis encountered in many regions, particularly in developing world, creates an urgent need for the discovery of alternative drugs. Because medicinal plants are not distributed randomly across lineages, it has been suggested that phylogeny along with traditional knowledge of plant uses can guide the identification of new medicinally useful plants. In this study, we combined different statistical approaches to test for phylogenetic signal in 33 categories of plant uses in South Africa. Depending on the null models considered, we found evidence for signal in up to 45% of plant use categories, indicating the need for multiple tests combination to maximize the chance of discovering new medicinal plants when applying a phylogenetic comparative approach. Furthermore, although there was no signal in the diversity of medicinal uses-that is, total number of medicinal uses recorded for each plant-our results indicate that taxa that are evolutionarily closely related have significantly more uses than those that are evolutionarily isolated. Our study therefore provides additional support to the body of the literature that advocates for the inclusion of phylogeny in bioscreening medicinal flora for the discovery of alternative medicines. PMID:25066923

  17. [Review on application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-Yao; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cheng, Ming

    2013-09-01

    Plant growth retardants are widely used in cultivation of medicinal plant, but there is still lack of scientific guidance. In order to guide the use of plant growth retardants in medicinal plant cultivation efficiently and reasonably, this paper reviewed the mechanism, function characteristic, plant and soil residue of plant growth retardants, such as chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, paclobutrazol, unicnazle and succinic acid, and summarized the application of plant growth retardants in medicinal plants cultivation in recent years, with focus on the effect of growth and yield of the officinal organs and secondary metabolites. PMID:24380290

  18. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health.

    PubMed

    Kberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants' flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  19. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi) serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73%) followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of medicinal species are necessary. PMID:20370901

  20. Update on Medicinal Plants with Potency on Mycobacterium ulcerans

    PubMed Central

    Tsouh Fokou, Patrick Valere; Nyarko, Alexander Kwadwo; Appiah-Opong, Regina; Tchokouaha Yamthe, Lauve Rachel; Ofosuhene, Mark; Boyom, Fabrice Fekam

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans disease has been a serious threat for people living in rural remote areas. Due to poverty or availability of traditional medicine these populations rely on herbal remedies. Currently, data on the anti-Mycobacterium ulcerans activity of plants, so far considered community-based knowledge, have been scientifically confirmed, concomitantly with some medicinal plants used to treat infectious diseases in general. Products derived from plants usually responsible for the biological properties may potentially control Mycobacterium ulcerans disease; numerous studies have aimed to describe the chemical composition of these plant antimicrobials. Thus, the present work provides the first compilation of medicinal plants that demonstrated inhibitory potential on Mycobacterium ulcerans. This work shows that the natural products represent potential alternatives to standard therapies for use as curative medicine for Mycobacterium ulcerans disease. PMID:26779539

  1. Drying of medicinal plants with solar energy utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Wisniewski, G.

    1997-10-01

    In the paper, a potential of solar energy for drying of medicinal plants in Polish conditions is estimated and development of solar drying technologies is presented. The results of economic assessment of flat-plate solar collectors applied for drying of medicinal plants on a farm are promising. In some specific conditions, e.g. drying of wild grown medicinal plants in remote areas, even application of photovoltaic modules for driving of a fan of a solar dryer is a profitable option and enables easy control of the drying air temperature.

  2. Medicinal plants and primary health care: part 2.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    The WHO Programme on Traditional Medicine has joined WHO's global program on drug management and policies because there is a need for recognition that an adequate technological infrastructure must be in place to maximize plants for their medicinal value, especially in the context of primary health care (PHC). PHC places traditional medicine high on its list of priorities and emphasizes the availability and use of appropriate drugs. For example, countries should distribute seeds or plants to be cultivated in home or community gardens and taken as infusions. Scientists have not studied most medicinal plants which can be a rich potential resource for developing countries. Countries should apply known and effective technologies to meet health needs in a culturally acceptable manner and to promote self reliance. They must 1st strengthen data gathering and analysis capabilities needed for economic mapping of medicinal flora, then develop data centers on medicinal plants and plant derived products, such as the WHO Collaborating Center in Chicago. Clinical research should focus on the safety and efficacy of herbal medicines used by traditional health practitioners and on developing antiinfective agents. For example, 2 WHO agencies are collaborating on identifying, preparing, and testing extracts for medicinal plants for antiHIV capabilities. WHO favors developing the knowledge and skills of traditional health practitioners within the framework of PHC. Further, interregional workshops promote selection and use of traditional medicine in national PHC programs. Since there continue to be much public interest in medicinal plants, accurate information must be disseminated to the public and health professionals so they can know both the potential benefits and harmful effects of these remedies. PMID:12284333

  3. Bioinformatics opportunities for identification and study of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vivekanand

    2013-01-01

    Plants have been used as a source of medicine since historic times and several commercially important drugs are of plant-based origin. The traditional approach towards discovery of plant-based drugs often times involves significant amount of time and expenditure. These labor-intensive approaches have struggled to keep pace with the rapid development of high-throughput technologies. In the era of high volume, high-throughput data generation across the biosciences, bioinformatics plays a crucial role. This has generally been the case in the context of drug designing and discovery. However, there has been limited attention to date to the potential application of bioinformatics approaches that can leverage plant-based knowledge. Here, we review bioinformatics studies that have contributed to medicinal plants research. In particular, we highlight areas in medicinal plant research where the application of bioinformatics methodologies may result in quicker and potentially cost-effective leads toward finding plant-based remedies. PMID:22589384

  4. Antibacterial and antifungal activities of some Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Velazquez, C; Garibay-Escobar, A; Garca, Z; Plascencia-Jatomea, M; Cortez-Rocha, M O; Hernandez-Martnez, J; Robles-Zepeda, R E

    2009-12-01

    In Mexico about 4,000 plant species have some medicinal use. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of six Mexican medicinal plants against fungi and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methanolic extracts were prepared from the Mexican medicinal plants Amphypteringium adstrigens, Castella tortuosa, Coutarea latiflora, Ibervillea sonorae, Jatropha cuneata, and Selaginella lepidophylla. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the plants were determined by the broth microdilution method and the radial growth inhibition assay, respectively. All Mexican plants tested showed antimicrobial activity. Among the six plant extracts analyzed, J. cuneata showed the highest growth-inhibitory activity against fungi, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (J. cuneata > A. adstrigens > C. latiflora > C. tortuosa > I. sonorae approximately S. lepidophylla). Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus were the most susceptible bacteria to plant extracts. Complete inhibition of S. flexneri growth was observed with J. cuneata methanolic extract at 90 microg/mL. This plant extract also showed the strongest antifungal activity against Fusarium verticillioides and Aspergillus niger. Our data suggest that the medicinal plants tested have important antimicrobial properties. This is the first report describing the antimicrobial activities of several of the Mexican medicinal plants used in this study. PMID:20041800

  5. The microbiome of medicinal plants: diversity and importance for plant growth, quality and health

    PubMed Central

    Köberl, Martina; Schmidt, Ruth; Ramadan, Elshahat M.; Bauer, Rudolf; Berg, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    Past medicinal plant research primarily focused on bioactive phytochemicals, however, the focus is currently shifting due to the recognition that a significant number of phytotherapeutic compounds are actually produced by associated microbes or through interaction with their host. Medicinal plants provide an enormous bioresource of potential use in modern medicine and agriculture, yet their microbiome is largely unknown. The objective of this review is (i) to introduce novel insights into the plant microbiome with a focus on medicinal plants, (ii) to provide details about plant- and microbe-derived ingredients of medicinal plants, and (iii) to discuss possibilities for plant growth promotion and plant protection for commercial cultivation of medicinal plants. In addition, we also present a case study performed both to analyse the microbiome of three medicinal plants (Matricaria chamomilla L., Calendula officinalis L., and Solanum distichum Schumach. and Thonn.) cultivated on organically managed Egyptian desert farm and to develop biological control strategies. The soil microbiome of the desert ecosystem was comprised of a high abundance of Gram-positive bacteria of prime importance for pathogen suppression under arid soil conditions. For all three plants, we observed a clearly plant-specific selection of the microbes as well as highly specific diazotrophic communities that overall identify plant species as important drivers in structural and functional diversity. Lastly, native Bacillus spec. div. strains were able to promote plant growth and elevate the plants’ flavonoid production. These results underline the numerous links between the plant-associated microbiome and the plant metabolome. PMID:24391634

  6. Traditional Medicines in Africa: An Appraisal of Ten Potent African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Mahomoodally, M. Fawzi

    2013-01-01

    The use of medicinal plants as a fundamental component of the African traditional healthcare system is perhaps the oldest and the most assorted of all therapeutic systems. In many parts of rural Africa, traditional healers prescribing medicinal plants are the most easily accessible and affordable health resource available to the local community and at times the only therapy that subsists. Nonetheless, there is still a paucity of updated comprehensive compilation of promising medicinal plants from the African continent. The major focus of the present review is to provide an updated overview of 10 promising medicinal plants from the African biodiversity which have short- as well as long-term potential to be developed as future phytopharmaceuticals to treat and/or manage panoply of infectious and chronic conditions. In this endeavour, key scientific databases have been probed to investigate trends in the rapidly increasing number of scientific publications on African traditional medicinal plants. Within the framework of enhancing the significance of traditional African medicinal plants, aspects such as traditional use, phytochemical profile, in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and also future challenges pertaining to the use of these plants have been explored. PMID:24367388

  7. Identification, Characterization, and Palynology of High-Valued Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  8. Identification, characterization, and palynology of high-valued medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Fazal, Hina; Ahmad, Nisar; Haider Abbasi, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    High-valued medicinal plants Achillea millefolium, Acorus calamus, Arnebia nobilis, Fumaria indica, Gymnema sylvestre, Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Peganum harmala, Psoralea corylifolia, Rauwolfia serpentina, and Vetiveria zizanioides were identified with the help of taxonomical markers and investigated for characterization and palynological studies. These parameters are used to analyze their quality, safety, and standardization for their safe use. Botanical description and crude drug description is intended for their quality assurance at the time of collection, commerce stages, manufacturing, and production. For this purpose the detailed morphology was studied and compared with the Flora of Pakistan and other available literatures. Here we reported the pollen grain morphology of Origanum vulgare, Paeonia emodi, Psoralea corylifolia, and Rauwolfia serpentina for the first time. Similarly the crude drug study of Gymnema sylvestre (leaf), Origanum vulgare (aerial parts), Paeonia emodi (tubers), and Peganum harmala (seeds) was also carried out for the first time. PMID:23844389

  9. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities. PMID:26093915

  10. ETHNOBOTANY OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS OF SRIKAKULAM DISTRICT, ANDHRA PRADESH

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Prakasa; Sreeramulu, S. Hara

    1985-01-01

    India has a rich heritage of herbal medicine of which the most important system namely Ayurveda needs even today a critical scientific scrutiny both in the correct identity of the proper drug plants and in the standard of the preparation of Ayurveda drugs. Authentic data on the medicinal plants growing in the Srikakulam district of Northern Andhra Pradesh is presented in the paper along with their etnobotainical data and their distribution in the district. PMID:22557487

  11. Ethnobotanical survey in Canhane village, district of Massingir, Mozambique: medicinal plants and traditional knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are used by 80% of people from developing countries to fulfill their primary health needs, occupying a key position on plant research and medicine. Taking into account that, besides their pharmaceutical importance, these plants contribute greatly to ecosystems' stability, a continuous documentation and preservation of traditional knowledge is a priority. The objective of this study was to organize a database of medicinal plants including their applications and associated procedures in Canhane village, district of Massingir, province of Gaza, Mozambique. Methods In order to gather information about indigenous medicinal plants and to maximize the collection of local knowledge, eleven informants were selected taking into account the dimension of the site and the fact that the vegetation presents a great homogeneity. The data were collected through intensive structured and semi-structured interviews performed during field research. Taxonomical identification of plant species was based on field observations and herbarium collections. Results A total of 53 plant species have been reported, which were used to treat 50 different human health problems. More than half of the species were used for stomach and intestine related disturbances (including major diseases such as diarrhea and dysentery). Additionally, four species with therapeutic applications were reported for the first time, whose potential can further be exploited. The great majority of the identified species was also associated with beliefs and myths and/or used as food. In general, the community was conscientious and motivated about conservational issues and has adopted measures for the rational use of medicinal plants. Conclusions The ethnomedicinal use of plant species was documented in the Canhane village. The local community had a rich ethnobotanical knowledge and adopted sound management conservation practices. The data compiled in this study show the social importance of the surveyed plants being a contribution to the documentation of PGR at the national and regional level. PMID:21129187

  12. Use and management of traditional medicinal plants by Maale and Ari ethnic communities in southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Around 80% of the people of Ethiopia are estimated to be relying on medicinal plants for the treatment of different types of human health problems. The purpose of this study was to describe and analyse the use and management of medicinal plants used for the treatment of human health problems by the Maale and Ari communities in southern Ethiopia. Methods Quantitative and qualitative ethnobotanical field inquiries and analytical methods including individual and focus group discussions (18), observations, individual interviews (n?=?74), preference ranking and paired comparison were used. Data were collected in three study sites and from two markets; the latter surveyed every 15days from February 2011 to February 2012. Results A total of 128 medicinal plant species, belonging to 111 genera and 49 families, used as herbal medicine by Maale and Ari communities were documented. Predominantly harvested plant parts were leaves, which are known to have relatively low impact on medicinal plant resources. Species with high familiarity indices included Solanum dasyphyllum, Indigofera spicata, Ruta chalepensis, Plumbago zeylanica and Meyna tetraphylla. Low Jaccards similarity indices (? 0.33) indicated little correspondence in medicinal plant use among sites and between ethnic communities. The dominant ways of medicinal plant knowledge acquisition and transfer is vertical: from parents to children through oral means. Gender and site significantly influenced the number of human medicinal plants known currently in the study sites. Age was only a factor of significance in Maale. Marketing of medicinal plants harvested from wild and semi-wild stands is not common. Expansion of agricultural land and lack of cultivation efforts by local communities are mentioned by locals to affect the availability of medicinal plant resources. Conclusion S. dasyphyllum, I. spicata, P. zeylanica, M. tetraphylla, and Oxalis radicosa need to be considered for phytochemical and pharmacological testing to verify their efficacy and determine their dosages. Land use planning and development initiatives in the area and beyond need to sharply focus on strategies that could alleviate the major threats affecting medicinal plant resources in the landscape and encourage their cultivation to enhance their availability and complement ex-and in-situ conservation. PMID:24898079

  13. Survey on medicinal plants and spices used in Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to identify medicinal plants and spices used for medicine by the community of Beni-Sueif, Upper Egypt. Methods Ethnobotanical data from local people was collected using direct interviews and a semi-structured questionnaire. Results Forty-eight plant species belonging to twenty-seven families and forty-seven genera were encountered during the study. Their botanical and vernacular names, plant parts used and medicinal uses are given. Results of the study were analyzed using two quantitative tools. The factor informant consensus indicated the agreement in the use of plants and the fidelity level indicated the ratio between the number of informants who independently suggested the use of a species for the same major purpose and the total number of informants who mentioned the plant for any use. The results of the factor informant consensus showed that the cardiovascular category has the greatest agreement, followed by the immunological, gastrointestinal and respiratory categories. The most important species according to their fidelity are: Hibiscus sabdariffa L. for the cardiovascular category; Trigonella foenum-graecum L. for the immunological category; Mentha piperita L. for the gastrointestinal category and Pimpinella anisum L. for the respiratory category. Conclusions Medicinal plants are still used for treatment in Beni-Sueif community despite the availability of prescribed medications. Documentation of this ethnomedicinal knowledge is important. Evaluation of pharmacological activity for the promising medicinal plants is suggested. PMID:21707967

  14. Legal issues in plant germplasm collecting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many developments have occurred in the legal environment governing plant germplasm collecting since the first edition of this Manual. These include the adoption of the Global Plan of Action for the Conservation and Sustainable Utilization of Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (the Glob...

  15. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 20102011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41) being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34). In the study area the informants consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53%) were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%). Curcuma longa (84%) and Azadirachta indica (76%) are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the authors note that neither the local inhabitants nor the government is addressing the potential loss of valuable species in this region. PMID:22591592

  16. Antioxidant activity and protecting health effects of common medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    krovnkov, So?a; Miurcov, Ladislava; Mach?, Ludmila

    2012-01-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used in folk medicine as natural healing remedies with therapeutic effects such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, inflammation disorders, or reducing the risk of cancer. In addition, pharmacological industry utilizes medicinal plants due to the presence of active chemical substances as agents for drug synthesis. They are valuable also for food and cosmetic industry as additives, due to their preservative effects because of the presence of antioxidants and antimicrobial constituents. To commonly used medicinal plants with antioxidant activity known worldwide belong plants from several families, especially Lamiaceae (rosemary, sage, oregano, marjoram, basil, thyme, mints, balm), Apiaceae (cumin, fennel, caraway), and Zingiberaceae (turmeric, ginger). The antioxidant properties of medicinal plants depend on the plant, its variety, environmental conditions, climatic and seasonal variations, geographical regions of growth, degree of ripeness, growing practices, and many other factors such as postharvest treatment and processing. In addition, composition and concentration of present antioxidants, such as phenolic compounds, are related to antioxidant effect. For appropriate determination of antioxidant capacity, the extraction technique, its conditions, solvent used, and particular assay methodology are important. PMID:23034115

  17. Antimicrobial properties of roots of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sini, S; Malathy, N S

    2005-10-01

    Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada- kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method. PMID:22557193

  18. A Review of Hepatoprotective Plants Used in Saudi Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Al-Asmari, Abdulrahman K.; Al-Elaiwi, Abdulrahman M.; Athar, Md Tanwir; Tariq, Mohammad; Al Eid, Ahmed; Al-Asmary, Saeed M.

    2014-01-01

    Liver disease is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality across the world. According to WHO estimates, about 500 million people are living with chronic hepatitis infections resulting in the death of over one million people annually. Medicinal plants serve as a vital source of potentially useful new compounds for the development of effective therapy to combat liver problems. Moreover herbal products have the advantage of better affordability and acceptability, better compatibility with the human body, and minimal side effects and is easier to store. In this review attempt has been made to summarize the scientific data published on hepatoprotective plants used in Saudi Arabian traditional medicine. The information includes medicinal uses of the plants, distribution in Saudi Arabia, ethnopharmacological profile, possible mechanism of action, chemical constituents, and toxicity data. Comprehensive scientific studies on safety and efficacy of these plants can revitalise the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:25587347

  19. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids in medicinal plants from North America.

    PubMed

    Roeder, E; Wiedenfeld, H; Edgar, J A

    2015-06-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are mutagenic, carcinogenic, pneumotoxic, teratogenic and fetotoxic. Plants containing PAs commonly poison livestock in many countries, including the USA and Canada. In some regions of the world PA-producing plants sometimes grow in grain crops and items of food made with PA contaminated grain, such as bread baked using contaminated flour, have been, and continue to be, responsible for large incidents of acute, often fatal human poisoning. Herbal medicines and food supplements containing PAs are also recognized as a significant cause of human poisoning and it is desirable that such medications are identified and subjected to strict regulation. In this review we consider the PAs known to be, or likely to be, present in both the traditionally used medicinal plants of North America and also medicinal plants that have been introduced from other countries and are being recommended and used as phytopharmaceuticals in the USA and Canada. PMID:26189295

  20. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Mana Angetu District, southeastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lulekal, Ermias; Kelbessa, Ensermu; Bekele, Tamrat; Yineger, Haile

    2008-01-01

    This study documents indigenous medicinal plant utilization, management and the threats affecting them. The study was carried out in Mana Angetu district between January 2003 and December 2004. Ethnobotanical data were collected using semi structured interviews, field observations, preference and direct matrix ranking with traditional medicine practitioners. The ethnomedicinal use of 230 plant species was documented in the study area. Most of the plants (78.7%) were reportedly used to treat human diseases. The most frequently used plant part were roots (33.9%), followed by leaves (25.6%). Most of the medicinal species (90.4%) were collected from the wild. Direct matrix analysis showed that Olea europaea L. Subsp. cuspidata (Wall. ex G. Don) was the most important species followed by Acacia tortilis (Forssk.) Hayne (120) indicating high utility value of these species for the local community. The principal threatening factors reported were deforestation (90%), agricultural expansion (85%) and fire (53%). Documenting the eroding plants and associated indigenous knowledge can be used as a basis for developing management plans for conservation and sustainable use of medicinal plants in the area. PMID:18442379

  1. Nanorobotics control design: a collective behavior approach for medicine.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Adriano; Freitas, Robert A

    2005-06-01

    The authors present a new approach using genetic algorithms, neural networks, and nanorobotics concepts applied to the problem of control design for nanoassembly automation and its application in medicine. As a practical approach to validate the proposed design, we have elaborated and simulated a virtual environment focused on control automation for nanorobotics teams that exhibit collective behavior. This collective behavior is a suitable way to perform a large range of tasks and positional assembly manipulation in a complex three-dimensional workspace. We emphasize the application of such techniques as a feasible approach for the investigation of nanorobotics system design in nanomedicine. Theoretical and practical analyses of control modeling is one important aspect that will enable rapid development in the emerging field of nanotechnology. PMID:16117021

  2. Nanorobotics control design: a collective behavior approach for medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcanti, A.; Freitas, R. A., Jr.

    2005-06-01

    The authors present a new approach using genetic algorithms, neural networks, and nanorobotics concepts applied to the problem of control design for nanoassembly automation and its application in medicine. As a practical approach to validate the proposed design, we have elaborated and simulated a virtual environment focused on control automation for nanorobotics teams that exhibit collective behavior. This collective behavior is a suitable way to perform a large range of tasks and positional assembly manipulation in a complex three-dimensional workspace. We emphasize the application of such techniques as a feasible approach for the investigation of nanorobotics system design in nanomedicine. Theoretical and practical analyses of control modeling is one important aspect that will enable rapid development in the emerging field of nanotechnology.

  3. A comparison of traditional healers' medicinal plant knowledge in the Bolivian Andes and Amazon.

    PubMed

    Vandebroek, Ina; Van Damme, Patrick; Van Puyvelde, Luc; Arrazola, Susana; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2004-08-01

    Medicinal plant knowledge of two groups of traditional healers was thoroughly studied during a 2-year ethnobotanical survey in the Bolivian Andes (Quechua farmers from Apillapampa) and Amazon rainforest (Yuracar-Trinitario slash-and-burn cultivators from Isiboro-Scure National Park), respectively. Both areas represent ecologically and culturally diverse zones, differing in floristic diversity, physical accessibility to health care and degree of modernization, the latter evidenced by presence or intensity in use of modern services such as electricity, water distribution, and materials for house construction. It is generally believed that indigenous people have an impressive knowledge of useful plant species and that this knowledge reflects the plant wealth of their living environment. However, the present study shows that healers' knowledge of collected medicinal plants (expressed as percentage of plants known by name and use by the majority of healers) is higher in the Andean area characterised by a long history of anthropogenic activity, than in the biodiversity-rich rainforest (protected since 1965). Therefore, medicinal plant knowledge does not seem to depend on the level of plant diversity, degree of modernization or absence of Western health care infrastructure. Indeed, although Andean healers live in a floristically poorer environment, have adopted more modern services and have easier access to primary health care facilities, they are more knowledgeable about medicinal plants than rainforest healers who live isolated in an environment with considerable floristic/ecological variation and lack of Western health care. It is hypothesised that social factors underlying traditional medical practices (background of extensive family in traditional medicine) play an important role in transmission--and hence survival of knowledge on medicinal plants. PMID:15177839

  4. Anti-HIV activity of Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sabde, Sudeep; Bodiwala, Hardik S; Karmase, Aniket; Deshpande, Preeti J; Kaur, Amandeep; Ahmed, Nafees; Chauthe, Siddheshwar K; Brahmbhatt, Keyur G; Phadke, Rasika U; Mitra, Debashis; Bhutani, Kamlesh Kumar; Singh, Inder Pal

    2011-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients face great socio-economic difficulties in obtaining treatment. There is an urgent need for new, safe, and cheap anti-HIV agents. Traditional medicinal plants are a valuable source of novel anti-HIV agents and may offer alternatives to expensive medicines in future. Various medicinal plants or plant-derived natural products have shown strong anti-HIV activity and are under various stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. The present study was directed towards assessment of anti-HIV activity of various extracts prepared from Indian medicinal plants. The plants were chosen on the basis of similarity of chemical constituents with reported anti-HIV compounds or on the basis of their traditional usage as immunomodulators. Different extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction and liquid-liquid partitioning. Ninety-two extracts were prepared from 23 plants. Anti-HIV activity was measured in a human CD4+ T-cell line, CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Nine extracts of 8 different plants significantly reduced viral production in CEM-GFP cells infected with HIV-1NL4.3. Aegle marmelos, Argemone mexicana, Asparagus racemosus, Coleus forskohlii, and Rubia cordifolia demonstrated promising anti-HIV potential and were investigated for their active principles. PMID:21365365

  5. Medicinal plants used for traditional veterinary in the Sierras de Córdoba (Argentina): An ethnobotanical comparison with human medicinal uses

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This is a first description of the main ethnoveterinary features of the peasants in the Sierras de Córdoba. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of medicinal plants and other traditional therapeutic practices for healing domestic animals and cattle. Our particular goals were to: characterize veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge considering age, gender and role of the specialists; interpret the cultural features of the traditional local veterinary medicine and plant uses associated to it; compare the plants used in traditional veterinary medicine, with those used in human medicine in the same region. Methods Fieldwork was carried out as part of an ethnobotanic regional study where 64 informants were interviewed regarding medicinal plants used in veterinary medicine throughout 2001-2010. Based participant observation and open and semi-structured interviews we obtained information on the traditional practices of diagnosis and healing, focusing on the veterinary uses given to plants (part of the plant used, method of preparation and administration). Plants speciemens were collected with the informants and their vernacular and scientific names were registered in a database. Non-parametric statistic was used to evaluate differences in medicinal plant knowledge, use, and valorization by local people. A comparison between traditional veterinary medicine and previous human medicine studies developed in the region was performed by analyzing the percentages of common species and uses, and by considering Sorensen's Similarity Index. Results A total of 127 medicinal uses were registered, corresponding to 70 species of plants belonging to 39 botanic families. Veterinary ethnobotanical knowledge was specialized, restricted, in general, to cattle breeders (mainly men) and to a less degree to healers, and was independent of the age of the interviewees. Native plants were mostly used as skin cicatrizants, disinfectants or for treating digestive disorders. Together with a vast repertoire of plant pharmacopoeia, the therapies also involve religious or ritualistic practices and other popular remedies that evidence the influence of traditional Hispanic-European knowledge. Although the traditional veterinary knowledge seems to be similar or else is inlcuded in the local human ethnomedicine, sharing a common group of plants, it has distinct traits originated by a constant assessment of new applications specifically destined to the treatment of animals. Conclusions Veterinary medicine is a fountain of relevant vernacular knowledge, a permanent source for testing new applications with valuable ethnobotanical interest. Knowledge on medicinal applications of native plants will allow future validations and tests for new homeopathic or phytotherapeutic preparations. PMID:21816043

  6. Medicinal plants in Mexico: healers' consensus and cultural importance.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, M; Ankli, A; Frei, B; Weimann, C; Sticher, O

    1998-12-01

    Medicinal plants are an important element of indigenous medical systems in Mexico. These resources are usually regarded as part of a culture's traditional knowledge. This study examines the use of medicinal plants in four indigenous groups of Mexican Indians, Maya, Nahua, Zapotec and - for comparative purposes - Mixe. With the first three the methodology was similar, making a direct comparison of the results possible. In these studies, the relative importance of a medicinal plant within a culture is documented using a quantitative method. For the analysis the uses were grouped into 9-10 categories of indigenous uses. This report compares these data and uses the concept of informant consensus originally developed by Trotter and Logan for analysis. This indicates how homogenous the ethnobotanical information is. Generally the factor is high for gastrointestinal illnesses and for culture bound syndromes. While the species used by the 3 indigenous groups vary, the data indicate that there exist well-defined criteria specific for each culture which lead to the selection of a plant as a medicine. A large number of species are used for gastrointestinal illnesses by two or more of the indigenous groups. At least in this case, the multiple transfer of species and their uses within Mexico seems to be an important reason for the widespread use of a species. Medicinal plants in other categories (e.g. skin diseases) are usually known only in one culture and seem to be part of its traditional knowledge. PMID:9877354

  7. Medicinal and local food plants in the south of Alava (Basque Country, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Alarcόn, Rocίo; Pardo-de-Santayana, Manuel; Priestley, Caroline; Morales, Ramón; Heinrich, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Ethnobotanical relevance Medicinal and food plants in the Basque Country are an integral part of a fast changing culture. With a distinct tradition and language, this region of Europe provides an important example demonstrating the changing role of local and traditional knowledge in industrial countries. As other Mediterranean regions it preserves a rich heritage of using plants as medicine and food, offering a unique opportunity for studying the medicine food interface in an ethnopharmacological context. Therefore, the key goal of this study has been to contribute to an understanding of local and traditional plant usage, to evaluate their uses as food and medicine as well as to critically assess the role of these plants in the south of the Basque Country contributing to an understanding of how foods and medicines are used. Methods A mixed methods approach, including participant observation; open and semi structured interviews was used. Ethnobotanical field work included 183 people, ages ranged from 24 to 98 years old with a majority being between 70 and 80 years old (mean age 71) from 31 towns of three different regions. The basic interview was a one-to-one meeting, which often included field walking and collection of samples as directed by the informants. 700 voucher specimens (most of them with duplicates) were collected for the data obtained. Using SPSS version 20 the gathered information was processed and the replies of the different informants were subsequently organised in variables like medicine and food plants, part of the plants used, forms of preparations, zones preferred for collecting these plants. The data were analysed based on the frequency of records. This type of approach allows us to understand the way the informant’s categorize the species, and how these categories are distributed along the sample. In order to analyse the data three main categories of use were distinguished: Medicine (M), Food (F) and an intermediate Health-Food (H-F). The three categories were divided in 27 subcategories (common uses). Results and discussion The informants recognise and use a total of 184 species from 49 families. During interviews, 5658 individual use-reports were collected relating to three use-categories – as medicines, food and health-food. The two main groups with almost the same number of species each are health-food (75 species) and (locally gathered) food only (73), with medicinal uses only (36) being the smallest group. This highlights the important overlap between food and medicines. Overall, three core families were identified (based on the number of use reports and in the number of species): Asteraceae (25 species), Lamiaceae and Rosaceae (24 each). The most frequently reported species are Jasonia glutinosa, Chamaemelum nobile, Prunus spinosa and Quercus ilex subsp. ballota. The most important general use-subcategories are as raw vegetables (27.43% of the use-reports and including 81 species), infusions (14.74%/42) and gastrointestinal (12.53%/42). Conceptually foods and medicines are clearly distinguished but the intermediate group of health foods is more ambiguous. Conclusion Food and medicinal uses of plants are culturally closely linked. A wide range of plants are known and many still used. The analysis shows that the Basques use a wide range of species which are typical for Western European cultures. In comparison to other studies in the Mediterranean countries there are many similarities in the uses of different families, species of plants and their use and preparations. Some of these plants are key Mediterranean species, often used for a multitude of uses as food and medicine. PMID:26481607

  8. People, plants and health: a conceptual framework for assessing changes in medicinal plant consumption

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A large number of people in both developing and developed countries rely on medicinal plant products to maintain their health or treat illnesses. Available evidence suggests that medicinal plant consumption will remain stable or increase in the short to medium term. Knowledge on what factors determine medicinal plant consumption is, however, scattered across many disciplines, impeding, for example, systematic consideration of plant-based traditional medicine in national health care systems. The aim of the paper is to develop a conceptual framework for understanding medicinal plant consumption dynamics. Consumption is employed in the economic sense: use of medicinal plants by consumers or in the production of other goods. Methods PubMed and Web of Knowledge (formerly Web of Science) were searched using a set of medicinal plant key terms (folk/peasant/rural/traditional/ethno/indigenous/CAM/herbal/botanical/phytotherapy); each search terms was combined with terms related to medicinal plant consumption dynamics (medicinal plants/health care/preference/trade/treatment seeking behavior/domestication/sustainability/conservation/urban/migration/climate change/policy/production systems). To eliminate studies not directly focused on medicinal plant consumption, searches were limited by a number of terms (chemistry/clinical/in vitro/antibacterial/dose/molecular/trial/efficacy/antimicrobial/alkaloid/bioactive/inhibit/antibody/purification/antioxidant/DNA/rat/aqueous). A total of 1940 references were identified; manual screening for relevance reduced this to 645 relevant documents. As the conceptual framework emerged inductively, additional targeted literature searches were undertaken on specific factors and link, bringing the final number of references to 737. Results The paper first defines the four main groups of medicinal plant users (1. Hunter-gatherers, 2. Farmers and pastoralists, 3. Urban and peri-urban people, 4. Entrepreneurs) and the three main types of benefits (consumer, producer, society-wide) derived from medicinal plants usage. Then a single unified conceptual framework for understanding the factors influencing medicinal plant consumption in the economic sense is proposed; the framework distinguishes four spatial levels of analysis (international, national, local, household) and identifies and describes 15 factors and their relationships. Conclusions The framework provides a basis for increasing our conceptual understanding of medicinal plant consumption dynamics, allows a positioning of existing studies, and can serve to guide future research in the area. This would inform the formation of future health and natural resource management policies. PMID:23148504

  9. Molecular DNA identification of medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Aziz, N A A; Ahmad, M I; Naim, D M

    2015-01-01

    Plants have been used throughout human history for food and medicine. However, many plants are toxic, and cannot easily be morphologically distinguished from non-toxic plants. DNA identification solves this problem and is widely used. Nonetheless, plant DNA barcode identification faces a number of challenges, and many studies have been conducted to find suitable barcodes. The present study was conducted to test the efficiency of commonly used primers, namely ITS2, rpoC1, and trnH-psbA, in order to find the best DNA barcode markers for the identification of medicinal plants in Malaysia. Fresh leaves from 12 medicinal plants that are commonly used by Malay traditional healers were collected from the Tropical Spice Garden, Pulau Pinang, and subjected to polymerase chain reaction amplification using ITS2, rpoC1, and trnH-psbA DNA markers. We found that trnH-psbA is the best DNA marker for the species-level identification of medicinal plants in Malaysia. PMID:26662385

  10. Medicinal plants of the Shinasha, Agew-awi and Amhara peoples in northwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Giday, Mirutse; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Animut, Abebe; Mekonnen, Yalemtsehay

    2007-04-01

    Study was conducted in two sub-districts in northwestern Ethiopia to compile and analyse knowledge on the use of medicinal plants for treatment or prevention of human ailments by three socio-cultural groups, namely the Amharas, Shinashas and Agew-Awis. Data were mainly collected through individual interviews conducted with selected knowledgeable farmers and professional healers of the three socio-cultural groups. A total of 76 medicinal plants belonging to 48 families were documented, of which 50 species were reported by the Amharas, 25 by the Shinashas and 20 by the Agew-Awis. Large proportions of medicinal plants were found to have been used for the treatments of gastro-intestinal complaints (26%), skin diseases (24%) and malaria (22%). Relatively, higher numbers of informants agreed on the use of Croton macrostachyus against malaria (21%), Cynoglossum coeruleum against 'mich', illness mainly characterized by fever, headache and sweating (18%) and Zehneria scabra against malaria (13%). The species Croton Macrostachyus, Calpurnia aurea, Clematis hirsuta and Plumbago zeylanica were found to have the highest diversity of medicinal applications. We recommend that priority for further investigation should be given to medicinal plants with higher informant consensuses, as this could indicate their better efficacy. Measures are needed to conserve plants that are reported as scarce in the study area but still are only harvested from the wild. PMID:17101251

  11. Cameroonian Medicinal Plants: Pharmacology and Derived Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Many developing countries including Cameroon have mortality patterns that reflect high levels of infectious diseases and the risk of death during pregnancy and childbirth, in addition to cancers, cardiovascular diseases and chronic respiratory diseases that account for most deaths in the developed world. Several medicinal plants are used traditionally for their treatment. In this review, plants used in Cameroonian traditional medicine with evidence for the activities of their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A considerable number of plant extracts and isolated compounds possess significant antimicrobial, anti-parasitic including antimalarial, anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes, and antioxidant effects. Most of the biologically active compounds belong to terpenoids, phenolics, and alkaloids. Terpenoids from Cameroonian plants showed best activities as anti-parasitic, but rather poor antimicrobial effects. The best antimicrobial, anti-proliferative, and antioxidant compounds were phenolics. In conclusion, many medicinal plants traditionally used in Cameroon to treat various ailments displayed good activities in vitro. This explains the endeavor of Cameroonian research institutes in drug discovery from indigenous medicinal plants. However, much work is still to be done to standardize methodologies and to study the mechanisms of action of isolated natural products. PMID:21833168

  12. [Utilization of spaceflight technology on medicinal plant study].

    PubMed

    Gao, Wen-yuan; Jia, Wei; Xiao, Pei-gen

    2004-07-01

    Utilization of spaceflight technology will benefit the modernization of Traditional Chinese Medicine study. Many countries, such as USA or Russia, have conducted extensive experimental research with plants in the regenerative life-support system in space stations as well as the research on breeding or chromosomal aberration after spaceflight. The space botany is still in its preliminary stage in our country. Research has mainly been focused on breeding under space-environment. In addition, many experiments have been conducted with the spaceflown plants to investigate the growth, development, biochemical and physiological changes, as well as the inheritance and variation. Little has been done with regard to the facility development to contain the spaceflying seeds and no research has been reported on plant growth in spacecrafts. Medicinal plant study has certain characteristics and advantages in our country where small biological vessels are developed for the spaceflown seeds, which are then distinguished to microgravity group and radiation exposed group with analytical instrument. However, research has been carried out in medicinal plant breeding or inheritance. In future research, more effort should be directed to the study of medicinal plants as an important link of a future biological life support system as well as to the health care of astronauts by. PMID:15503758

  13. Toxicology of some important medicinal plants in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Ndhlala, Ashwell R; Ncube, Bhekumthetho; Okem, Ambrose; Mulaudzi, Rofhiwa B; Van Staden, Johannes

    2013-12-01

    Africa is home to two major floral kingdoms: the Paleotropical kingdom of central Africa and the Capensis kingdom of the Western Cape province of South Africa, the latter of which consists of approximately 10,000 species, representing about 20% of Africa's floral 'gold mine', better known as the Cape herbal medicine. Needless to say, such rich flora comes with numerous plants with a potential to cause poisoning to humans. This review document reports important toxic medicinal plants and their toxic ingredients for plant species resident in the southern African region. These include important medicinal uses and pharmacological properties ranging from antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, anti-inflammatory as well as those that are used as aphrodisiacs and for maternal health care. PMID:24075916

  14. Treatment of Diabetes and/or Hypertension Using Medicinal Plants in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Tsabang, N; Yedjou, CG; Tsambang, LWD; Tchinda, AT; Donfagsiteli, N; Agbor, GA; Tchounwou, PBB; Nkongmeneck, BA

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have served as valuable starting materials for drug development in both developing and developed countries. Today, more than 80% of the people living in Africa were depended on medicinal plants based medicines to satisfy their healthcare needs. The main goal of the present study was to collect and document information on herbal remedies traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertension in Cameroon. To reach this objective, data were collected from 328 patients who have been diagnosed at least once by a physician as diabetics and/or hypertension patients. One hundred and eighty two (182) among them took for a period of 10 days different varieties of medicinal plants which were prepared in form of decoction, maceration and infusion and administered orally twice or three times daily. As result, 70% of patients who used plants were relieved at the end of the treatment. Thirty-three plants have been recorded and documented for the treatment of diabetes and/or hypertension. The results of this study can stimulate a sustainable development by providing the basis for drugs discovery and by documenting biodiversity for long time exploitation. PMID:26550547

  15. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram District of Tamil Nadu, India

    PubMed Central

    Muthu, Chellaiah; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Raja, Nagappan; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2006-01-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers on the use of medicinal plants in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu during October 2003 to April 2004. The indigenous knowledge of local traditional healers and the native plants used for medicinal purposes were collected through questionnaire and personal interviews during field trips. The investigation revealed that, the traditional healers used 85 species of plants distributed in 76 genera belonging to 41 families to treat various diseases. The documented medicinal plants were mostly used to cure skin diseases, poison bites, stomachache and nervous disorders. In this study the most dominant family was Euphorbiaceae and leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. This study showed that many people in the studied parts of Kancheepuram district still continue to depend on medicinal plants at least for the treatment of primary healthcare. The traditional healers are dwindling in number and there is a grave danger of traditional knowledge disappearing soon since the younger generation is not interested to carry on this tradition. PMID:17026769

  16. Determination of aristolochic acids in medicinal plants (Chinese) prepared medicine using capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Ong, E S; Woo, S O

    2001-07-01

    Aristolochic acids (I and II) are commonly found in medicinal plants such as Radix aristolochiae and have been reported to cause acute hepatitis and end-stage renal failure. The aim of this work was to develop a method for the analysis of aristolochic acids in medicinal plant/Chinese prepared medicine (CPM) using (CZE). The buffer used was 30 mM sodium tetraborate at pH 9.5, detection was at 254 nm, applied voltage at 18 kV and the temperature was set at 25 degrees C. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and applied voltage on the separation was investigated. The precision values (relative standard deviation, RSD, %) for the relative migration time and peak area or peak height for aristolochic acids I and II were found to be less than 0.3% and between 2.6 to 4.0%, respectively. The limit of detection for aristolochic acids I and II was found to be 1.2 and 0.9 mg/L, respectively. The proposed method using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with CZE was used to determine the amount of aristolochic acids in medicinal plants or CPM samples with complex matrix and the results were compared with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Method precision (RSD, n = 6) was found to be less than 4% when those from applied to medicinal plants and CPM samples. PMID:11504058

  17. Ethnoveterinary study of medicinal plants in Malakand Valley, District Dir (Lower), Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Malakand valley of District Dir (Lower) is endowed with a diverse plant wealth. Ethnoveterinary knowledge provides the traditional medicines of livestock that are cheaper than standard treatment and are easily accessible. Methods The present study was conducted to document the traditional knowledge of ethnoveterinary practices in Malakand valley, District Dir (Lower). Data was collected from February 2012 to January 2013 by interviewing 120 inhabitants through semi-structured questionnaires. Different questions were asked to collect appropriate data regarding the use of plants for livestock treatment. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) was carried out to find out the use diversity of medicinal plants. Findings A total of 28 plants belonging to 23 families were collected and identified for the treatment of livestock in the study area. Majority of the plants were collected from wild (68%) habitat and very few from cultivated sources. The leaves (28%) were identified as the major plant part for herbal preparations. The most frequent ailments of livestocks in the study area were stomach disorders and Charmaikh (local disease name). Various ingredients were used along with ethnoveterinary medicines i.e. sugar, flour, milk etc. The elder people of the village had a rich knowledge as compared to the young generation. According to DMR output, Monotheca buxifolia ranked first and Dalbergia sisso and Melia azedarach ranked second due to high multipurpose uses among all species and was found most threatened in the study area. Conclusion It has been concluded that the native of the region heavily dependent on medicinal plants for the treatment of variety of livestock ailments. Traditional knowledge always provides a baseline for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation. The documentation of the ethnoveterinary practices in study area was necessary before this precious knowledge is lost forever due to rapid socioeconomic, environmental and technological changes. PMID:24580769

  18. Genomic approaches for interrogating the biochemistry of medicinal plant species

    PubMed Central

    Góngora-Castillo, Elsa; Fedewa, Greg; Yeo, Yunsoo; Chappell, Joe; DellaPenna, Dean; Buell, C. Robin

    2013-01-01

    Development of next-generation sequencing, coupled with the advancement of computational methods, has allowed researchers to access the transcriptomes of recalcitrant genomes such as those of medicinal plant species. Through the sequencing of even a few cDNA libraries, a broad representation of the transcriptome of any medicinal plant species can be obtained, providing a robust resource for gene discovery and downstream biochemical pathway discovery. When coupled to estimation of expression abundances in specific tissues from a developmental series, biotic stress, abiotic stress, or elicitor challenge, informative coexpression and differential expression estimates on a whole transcriptome level can be obtained to identify candidates for function discovery. PMID:23084937

  19. Anti-osteoporotic constituents from Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Manmeet; Rawat, Preeti; Dixit, Preeti; Mishra, Devendra; Gautam, Abnish K; Pandey, Rashmi; Singh, Divya; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya; Maurya, Rakesh

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the in vitro osteogenic activities of selected medicinal plants used traditionally in India. The compounds isolated from three plants viz. Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo were evaluated for their in vitro osteogenic activities. Primary cultures of osteoblasts were used to determine the effects of these components on osteoblast functions. Five of the fourteen compounds isolated led to increase in osteoblast differentiation and mineralization. These findings lend support to the use of Allophylus serratus, Cissus quadrangularis and Vitex negundo in traditional medicine. PMID:20554183

  20. Review on medicinal uses, pharmacological, phytochemistry and immunomodulatory activity of plants.

    PubMed

    Akram, M; Hamid, A; Khalil, A; Ghaffar, A; Tayyaba, N; Saeed, A; Ali, M; Naveed, A

    2014-01-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Researchers have discovered some important compounds from plants. The present work constitutes a review of the medicinal plants whose immunomodulant activity has been proven. We performed PUBMED, EMBASE, Google scholar searches for research papers of medicinal plants having immunomodulant activity. Medicinal plants used by traditional physicians or reported as having immunomodulant activity include Acacia concocinna, Camellia sinensis, Lawsonia inermis Linn, Piper longum Linn, Gelidium amansii, Petroselinum crispum, Plantago major and Allium sativum. Immunomodulant activities of some of these medicinal plants have been investigated. The medicinal plants documented have immunomodulant activity and should be further investigated via clinical trial. PMID:25280022

  1. Identification of four Sedum plant medicines by fourier transform infrared spectra

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ran; Chen, Yujie; Wan, Dingrong; Wang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sedum sarmentosum bunge (SSB)., S. lineare Thunb. (SLT), S. erythrostictum migo. (SEM), and S. aizoon L. (SAL) were four widely used Chinese traditional drugs or ethnic drugs, which were easy to be confused with each other. Objective: This study aimed at developing a rapid and accurate method to identify the four Sedum plant medicines with very similar appearances and close relationships. Materials and Methods: The herbal medicines employed here were SSB, SLT, SEM, and SAL collected in different places and seasons. Through comparing the infrared (IR) spectra of their 70% ethanol extracts, the results showed that the IR spectra of the four plant medicines possessed not only some common characteristics but also certain notable distinctions, such as shapes, numbers, positions, intensity, and ratios of the absorbing peaks. Results: By fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, the four medicines could be effectively differed, their habitats could be judged preliminarily, and the genetic relationships of the original plants of the four medicines could also be estimated to some extent. Conclusion: The application of FT-IR spectroscopy in crude medicine authentication and quality evaluation deserved to be further emphasized. PMID:22701282

  2. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Hypertrophic Scars

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Wang, Su-Juan; Chen, Jian-Yu; Xin, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrophic scar is a complication of wound healing and has a high recurrence rate which can lead to significant abnormity in aesthetics and functions. To date, no ideal treatment method has been established. Meanwhile, the underlying mechanism of hypertrophic scarring has not been clearly defined. Although a large amount of scientific research has been reported on the use of medicinal plants as a natural source of treatment for hypertrophic scarring, it is currently scattered across a wide range of publications. Therefore, a systematic summary and knowledge for future prospects are necessary to facilitate further medicinal plant research for their potential use as antihypertrophic scar agents. A bibliographic investigation was accomplished by focusing on medicinal plants which have been scientifically tested in vitro and/or in vivo and proved as potential agents for the treatment of hypertrophic scars. Although the chemical components and mechanisms of action of medicinal plants with antihypertrophic scarring potential have been investigated, many others remain unknown. More investigations and clinical trials are necessary to make use of these medical plants reasonably and phytotherapy is a promising therapeutic approach against hypertrophic scars. PMID:25861351

  3. Integrating carbon-halogen bond formation into medicinal plant metabolism.

    PubMed

    Runguphan, Weerawat; Qu, Xudong; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2010-11-18

    Halogenation, which was once considered a rare occurrence in nature, has now been observed in many natural product biosynthetic pathways. However, only a small fraction of halogenated compounds have been isolated from terrestrial plants. Given the impact that halogenation can have on the biological activity of natural products, we reasoned that the introduction of halides into medicinal plant metabolism would provide the opportunity to rationally bioengineer a broad variety of novel plant products with altered, and perhaps improved, pharmacological properties. Here we report that chlorination biosynthetic machinery from soil bacteria can be successfully introduced into the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus (Madagascar periwinkle). These prokaryotic halogenases function within the context of the plant cell to generate chlorinated tryptophan, which is then shuttled into monoterpene indole alkaloid metabolism to yield chlorinated alkaloids. A new functional group-a halide-is thereby introduced into the complex metabolism of C. roseus, and is incorporated in a predictable and regioselective manner onto the plant alkaloid products. Medicinal plants, despite their genetic and developmental complexity, therefore seem to be a viable platform for synthetic biology efforts. PMID:21048708

  4. Medicinal plants of India with anti-diabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S; Vats, V

    2002-06-01

    Since ancient times, plants have been an exemplary source of medicine. Ayurveda and other Indian literature mention the use of plants in treatment of various human ailments. India has about 45000 plant species and among them, several thousands have been claimed to possess medicinal properties. Research conducted in last few decades on plants mentioned in ancient literature or used traditionally for diabetes have shown anti-diabetic property. The present paper reviews 45 such plants and their products (active, natural principles and crude extracts) that have been mentioned/used in the Indian traditional system of medicine and have shown experimental or clinical anti-diabetic activity. Indian plants which are most effective and the most commonly studied in relation to diabetes and their complications are: Allium cepa, Allium sativum, Aloe vera, Cajanus cajan, Coccinia indica, Caesalpinia bonducella, Ficus bengalenesis, Gymnema sylvestre, Momordica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Pterocarpus marsupium, Swertia chirayita, Syzigium cumini, Tinospora cordifolia and Trigonella foenum graecum. Among these we have evaluated M. charantia, Eugenia jambolana, Mucuna pruriens, T. cordifolia, T. foenum graecum, O. sanctum, P. marsupium, Murraya koeingii and Brassica juncea. All plants have shown varying degree of hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity. PMID:12020931

  5. The role of medicinal plants in the treatment of diabetes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Kooti, Wesam; Farokhipour, Maryam; Asadzadeh, Zahra; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Asadi-Samani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diabetes is a serious metabolic disorder and plenty of medical plants are used in traditional medicines to treat diabetes. These plants have no side effects and many existing medicines are derived from the plants. The purpose of this systematic review is to study diabetes and to summarize the available treatments for this disease, focusing especially on herbal medicine. Methods Required papers about diabetes and effective plants were searched from the databases, including Science direct, PubMed, Wiley, Scopus, and Springer. Keywords in this study are ”medicinal plants”, “diabetes”, “symptom”, “herbal”, and “treatment”. Out of the 490 collected articles (published in the period between 1995 and 2015), 450 were excluded due to non-relevance or lack of access to the original article. Results Diabetes is mainly due to oxidative stress and an increase in reactive oxygen species that can have major effects. Many plants contain different natural antioxidants, in particular tannins, flavonoids, C and E vitamins that have the ability to maintain β-cells performance and decrease glucose levels in the blood. Conclusion According to published results, it can be said that medical plants are more affordable and have less side effects compared synthetic drugs, and are more effective in treatment of diabetes mellitus. PMID:26955456

  6. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd Allah, E F; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  7. Ethnomedicinal Evaluation of Medicinal Plants Used against Gastrointestinal Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Akash; Mussarat, Sakina; Adnan, Muhammad; Abd_Allah, E. F.; Hashem, Abeer; Alqarawi, Abdulaziz Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to document ethnomedicinal plants used against gastrointestinal complaints in five selected remote regions of Pakistan and to select potential medicinal plants for further in vitro and in vivo investigation. Data on ethnomedicinal plants and ethnographic profile of respondents was documented using semistructured questionnaires. The present study revealed utilization of 52 medicinal plants for the treatment of different gastrointestinal infections in studied regions. Apiaceae was the most dominant family reported to be used for the treatment of these infections (4 plants). Among all the plant parts fruit (24%), whole plants and leaves (23% each) were the most preferred plant parts used by the healers. Dosage of recipe was found to be related with the age of the patient. Highest degree of informant consensus was reported for vomiting, nausea (0.92 each), abdominal pain (0.9), and diarrhea (0.89). Withania coagulans scored highest FL value (86%) followed by Mentha longifolia and Melia azadirachta ranked second with FL value (75% each). Young generation was found to possess little traditional knowledge about utilizing plant recipes against these infections. Plants with high Fic and FL values should be subjected for further phytochemical and pharmacological investigation for scientific validation. PMID:26114117

  8. [Phenylethanoid glycosides distribution in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae].

    PubMed

    Bai, Zhen-Fang; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Liu, Yong

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the role of distribution and phylogeny of phenylethanoid glycoside in medicinal plants of Gesneriaceae, five phenylpropanoid glycosides, acteoside, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were quantitatively determined in 12 species of Gesneriaceae by HPLC. The existence and content of these compounds were analyzed. The results showed that phenylethanoid glycosides were found in the most of those plants, but the kind of phenylethanoid glycosides varied in different species. Acteoside distribute in most of this plant group, paraboside B, isonuomioside A, paraboside II, and paraboside III were rare in those plants. The results of this study support morphological viewpoint that Trib. Trichosporeae is more developmental than Trib. Didymocarpeae. PMID:24791528

  9. Cryopreservation of medicinal plants: role of melatonin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many useful plant species found in Canada are of conservation concern. In vitro storage and cryopreservation techniques guarantees safety of these species and have potential applications which may result in sustainable agriculture. Shoot tips of in vitro-grown plantlets of American elm, St John’s Wo...

  10. Iranian medicinal plants for diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rashidi, Ali Akbar; Mirhashemi, Seyyed Mehdi; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Sarkhail, Parisa

    2013-05-01

    In the Iranian traditional medicine a significant usage of herbs is promoted for their anti-diabetic activity. The aim of this review to assess the efficacy of glucose lowering effects of medicinal plants cultivated in Iran. An electronic literature search of MEDLINE, Science Direct, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library Database, Ebsco and Google Scholar from database inception conducted up to May 2012. A total of 85 studies (18 humans and 67 animals) examining 62 plants were reviewed. The quality of Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) assessed by using the Jadad scale. Among the RCTs studies, the best results in glycemic control was found in Aloe vera, Citrullus colocynthus, Plantago ovata, Silybum marianum, Rheum ribes and Urtica dioica. The majority of plants that have been studied for antidiabetic activity showed promising results. However, efficacy and safety of the most plants used in the treatment of diabetes are not sufficient. PMID:24498803

  11. [Phytochemical and pharmacological advance on Tibetan medicinal plants of Corydalis].

    PubMed

    Shang, Wei-Qing; Chen, Yue-Mei; Gao, Xiao-Li; Pu, Chi; Tu, Peng-Fei; Chai, Xing-Yun

    2014-04-01

    It was estimated that about 428 species of genus Corydalis are distributed all worldwide, with about 298, especially 10 groups and 219 species being uniquely spread in China. The genus Corydalis have been widely employed as folk medicines in China, especially as traditional Tibetan medicines, for treatment of fever, hepatitis, edema, gastritis, cholecystitis, hypertension and other diseases. The phytochemical studies revealed that isoquinoline alkaloids are its major bioactive ingredients. The extensive biological researches suggested its pharmacological activities and clinic applications against cardiovascular diseases and central nervous system, antibacterial activities, analgesic effects, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidation and anti-injury for hepatocyte, and so on. As an effort in promoting the research of pharmacodynamic ingredients, this article presents an overview focusing on the distribution, phytochemical and pharmacological results of Corydalis species that have been applied in traditional Tibetan medicinal, hopefully to provide a reference for the new Tibetan medicine development from Corydalis plant resource. PMID:25011252

  12. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula). General results and new or rarely reported medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Angels; Valls, Joan

    2003-02-01

    An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the massif of Montseny, which is situated in north-east Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), covers 826 km(2) and has a population of 80 000. From 1993 to 2000 we interviewed 180 people and collected ethnobotanical information about 351 medicinal plants, with 4023 use-reports. Through comparison with a large set of studies, we detected 501 unreported or uncommon uses that corresponded to 201 plant species, 57 of which had never or very rarely been cited as medicinal or toxic. General results and key findings on the plant ethnopharmacology (number of medicinal plants, modes of consumption, types of illnesses treated) of this area are presented here, together with information on new or rarely reported medicinal plants. PMID:12631419

  13. Phytochemica: a platform to explore phytochemicals of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Pathania, Shivalika; Ramakrishnan, Sai Mukund; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived molecules (PDMs) are known to be a rich source of diverse scaffolds that could serve as the basis for rational drug design. Structured compilation of phytochemicals from traditional medicinal plants can facilitate prospection for novel PDMs and their analogs as therapeutic agents. Atropa belladonna, Catharanthus roseus, Heliotropium indicum, Picrorhiza kurroa and Podophyllum hexandrum are important Himalayan medicinal plants, reported to have immense therapeutic properties against various diseases. We present Phytochemica, a structured compilation of 963 PDMs from these plants, inclusive of their plant part source, chemical classification, IUPAC names, SMILES notations, physicochemical properties and 3-dimensional structures with associated references. Phytochemica is an exhaustive resource of natural molecules facilitating prospection for therapeutic molecules from medicinally important plants. It also offers refined search option to explore the neighbourhood of chemical space against ZINC database to identify analogs of natural molecules at user-defined cut-off. Availability of phytochemical structured dataset may enable their direct use in in silico drug discovery which will hasten the process of lead identification from natural products under proposed hypothesis, and may overcome urgent need for phytomedicines. Compilation and accessibility of indigenous phytochemicals and their derivatives can be a source of considerable advantage to research institutes as well as industries. Database URL: home.iitj.ac.in/∼bagler/webservers/Phytochemica PMID:26255307

  14. Antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibition activities of Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Makchuchit, Sunita; Itharat, Arunporn; Tewtrakul, Supinya

    2010-12-01

    Nineteen Thai medicinal plants used in Thai traditional medicine preparation to treat colds, asthma and fever were studied for their antioxidant and NO inhibitory activities. Three extracts were obtained from each plant. First extract obtained by macerating the plant part in 95% ethanol (Et) residue was boiled in water, where water extract (EW) was obtained. The third extract (HW) was obtained by boiling each plant in water similar to that of Thai traditional medicine practice. These extracts were tested for their antioxidant activity using DPPH assay, and anti-inflammatory activity by determination of inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cell lines using Griess reagent. Results indicated that Et, EW and HW of Syzygium aromaticum showed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 6.56, 4.73 and 5.30 microg/ml, respectively). Et of Atractylodes lancea exhibited the most potent inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells, with IC50 value of 9.70 microg/ml, followed by Et of Angelica sinensis and Cuminum cyminum (IC50 = 12.52 and 13.56 microg/ml, respectively) but water extract (EW, HW) of all plants were apparently inactive. These results of anti-inflammatory activity of these plants correspond with the traditional use for fever; cold, allergic-related diseases and inflammatory-related diseases. PMID:21294419

  15. PIXE-PIGE analysis of some Indian medicinal plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomita Devi, K.; Nandakumar Sarma, H.

    2010-06-01

    The quantitative estimation of various trace element concentrations in medicinal plants is necessary for determining their effectiveness in treating various diseases and for understanding their pharmacological action. Elemental concentrations of some selected medicinal plants of north east India was measured by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and proton induced ?-ray emission (PIGE) techniques. PIXE measurements were carried out using 2.4 MeV collimated protons from the 3 MV tandetron accelerator of NCCCM, Hyderabad (India) while the PIGE measurements were carried out using 3 MeV protons from the same accelerator in the same laboratory. Accuracy and precision of the techniques were assured by analyzing certified reference materials in the same experimental conditions. Various elements of biological importance in man's metabolism were found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied medicinal plants and no toxic heavy metals were detected. The concentration of the various elements in the medicinal plants and their role in treating various diseases are discussed.

  16. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential.

    PubMed

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Mujeeb, Mohd; Pillai, K K

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  17. Genotoxicity detection of five medicinal plants in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Hong, Chang-Eui; Lyu, Su-Yun

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the safety of Alchornea cordifolia, Cnestis ferruginea, Lonchocarpus sericeus, Trema orientalis, and Senna alata in respect to genotoxicity. These five medicinal plants are widely distributed in Africa. They are used as a traditional medicine in many African counties for the treatment of microbial, inflammatory, and stress-related diseases. To evaluate the bacterial reverse mutation of these five medicinal plants, the in vitro Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium TA98, TA100, TA1535, and TA1537, and Escherichia coli WP2uvrA, with or without the addition of S9 mixture was performed. Concentrations used for this test were 625, 2,500, and 5,000 g per plate. A. cordifolia, C. ferruginea, L. sericeus, and T. orientalis showed negative results in the bacterial reverse mutation test, suggesting that it is potentially safe for these plants to be used in medicinal plants supplements at high doses. However, our experiments suggest that S. alata is a potent mutagen. Therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the carcinogenicity of S. alata in order to adequately assess the risks for human health. PMID:21297345

  18. Evaluation of some Moroccan medicinal plant extracts for larvicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Markouk, M; Bekkouche, K; Larhsini, M; Bousaid, M; Lazrek, H B; Jana, M

    2000-11-01

    The larvicidal properties of 16 extracts of four Moroccan medicinal plants: Calotropis procera (Wild.), Cotula cinerea (L.), Solanum sodomaeum (L.) and Solanum elaeagnifolium (CAV.) were tested against Anopheles labranchiae mosquito larvae. Among the extracts tested, nine exhibited high larvicidal activity with LC(50) (24 h) ranging from 28 to 325 ppm. PMID:11025168

  19. A pharmacological appraisal of medicinal plants with antidiabetic potential

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Vasim; Najmi, Abul Kalam; Akhtar, Mohd.; Aqil, Mohd.; Mujeeb, Mohd.; Pillai, K. K.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a complicated metabolic disorder that has gravely troubled the human health and quality of life. Conventional agents are being used to control diabetes along with lifestyle management. However, they are not entirely effective and no one has ever been reported to have fully recovered from diabetes. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of diabetes mellitus in various traditional systems of medicine worldwide as they are a great source of biological constituents and many of them are known to be effective against diabetes. Medicinal plants with antihyperglycemic activities are being more desired, owing to lesser side-effects and low cost. This review focuses on the various plants that have been reported to be effective in diabetes. A record of various medicinal plants with their established antidiabetic and other health benefits has been reported. These include Allium sativa, Eugenia jambolana, Panax ginseng, Gymnema sylvestre, Momrodica charantia, Ocimum sanctum, Phyllanthus amarus, Pterocarpus marsupium, Trigonella foenum graecum and Tinospora cordifolia. All of them have shown a certain degree of antidiabetic activity by different mechanisms of action. PMID:22368396

  20. African medicinal plants with antidiabetic potentials: a review.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Aminu; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2014-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems in Africa. The conventional oral synthetic antidiabetic drugs available to manage the disease are costly and not readily affordable to the majority of the affected population. Interestingly, the continent is endowed with a tremendous number of medicinal plants that have been explored for their folkloric treatment of diabetes mellitus. Scientific investigations have validated the antidiabetic potentials of a number of these medicinal plants but there is no repository with information on these scientifically investigated plants as a guide for future research. In this review article, all of the in vivo antidiabetic studies conducted between January 2000 and July 2013 on African plants are systematically compiled with a closer look at some relevant plants from the continent's subregions. Plants of the Asteraceae and Lamiaceae families are the most investigated, and West Africa has the highest number of investigated plants. Although promising results were reported in many cases, unfortunately, only a few studies reported the partial characterization of bioactive principles and/or mechanisms of action. It is hoped that government agencies, pharmaceutical industries, and the scientific community will have a look at some of these plants for future research and, if possible, subsequent commercialization. PMID:24535720

  1. Ethnobotanical study of indigenous knowledge on medicinal plant use by traditional healers in Oshikoto region, Namibia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to establish a regional profile of the indigenous knowledge system (IKS) for medicinal plant use and cultural practices associated with the healing process of these plants by traditional healers in the Oshikoto region, Namibia. Methods An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to collect information from traditional healers during September and October 2008. Data was collected through the use of questionnaires and personal interviews during field trips in the ten constituencies of the Oshikoto region. A total of 47 respondents were interviewed with most of them aged 66 and above. Results The traditional healers in Oshikoto region use 61 medicinal plant species that belong to 25 families for the treatment of various diseases and disorders with the highest number of species being used for mental diseases followed by skin infection and external injuries. Trees (28 species) were found to be the most used plants followed by herbs (15 species), shrubs (10 species) and climbers (4 species). The average of the informant consensus factor (FIC) value for all ailment categories was 0.75. High FIC values were obtained for Pergularia daemia, and Tragia okanyua, which were reported to treat weakness and dizziness problems, snake bite, swelling and cardiovascular problems indicating that these species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth examining for bioactive compounds. Conclusions The traditional healers in Oshikoto possess rich ethno-pharmacological knowledge. This study allows for identifying many high value medicinal plant species, indicating high potential for economic development through sustainable collection of these medicinal plants. PMID:21388534

  2. Ayurvedic medicinal plants for Alzheimer's disease: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age-associated, irreversible, progressive neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by severe memory loss, unusual behavior, personality changes, and a decline in cognitive function. No cure for Alzheimer's exists, and the drugs currently available to treat the disease have limited effectiveness. It is believed that therapeutic intervention that could postpone the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease would dramatically reduce the number of cases in the next 50 years. Ayurvedic medicinal plants have been the single most productive source of leads for the development of drugs, and over a hundred new products are already in clinical development. Indeed, several scientific studies have described the use of various Ayurvedic medicinal plants and their constituents for treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact mechanism of their action is still not clear, phytochemical studies of the different parts of the plants have shown the presence of many valuable compounds, such as lignans, flavonoids, tannins, polyphenols, triterpenes, sterols, and alkaloids, that show a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory, anti-amyloidogenic, anti-cholinesterase, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant effects. This review gathers research on various medicinal plants that have shown promise in reversing the Alzheimer's disease pathology. The report summarizes information concerning the phytochemistry, biological, and cellular activities and clinical applications of these various plants in order to provide sufficient baseline information that could be used in drug discovery campaigns and development process, thereby providing new functional leads for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:22747839

  3. Screening of Korean Medicinal Plant Extracts for ?-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sancheti, Shruti; Sancheti, Sandesh; Lee, Seung-Hun; Lee, Jae-Eun; Seo, Sung-Yum

    2011-01-01

    Glycosidases are the enzymes involved in various biochemical processes related to metabolic disorders and diseases. Therefore, much effort has been focused on searching novel pharmacotherapy for the treatment of these ailments from medicinal plants due to higher safety margins. To pursue these efforts, the present study was performed to evaluate the ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities of thirty Korean medicinal plant extracts. Among the plants studied, Euonymus sachalinensis, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Astilbe chinensis and Juglans regia showed the strongest ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 10, 20, 30 and 80 g/mL, respectively. In addition, Meliosma oldhamii and Symplocos chinensis showed moderate ?-glucosidase inhibition with IC50 values of 150 and 220 g/mL, respectively. Therefore, they might prove to be a potential natural source for the treatment of metabolic ailments such as, diabetes, and need further investigations. PMID:24250352

  4. Artemisia herba alba: a popular plant with potential medicinal properties.

    PubMed

    Moufid, Abderrahmane; Eddouks, Mohamed

    2012-12-15

    Artemisia herba alba (Asteraceae), commonly known as desert or white wormwood, is used in folk medicine for treatment of various diseases. Phytochemical studies of this plant revealed the existence of many beneficial compounds such as herbalbin, cis-chryanthenyl acetate, flavonoids (hispidulin and cirsilineol), monoterpenes, sesquiterpene. The aerial parts are characterized by a very low degree of toxicity. This study reviews the main reports of the pharmacological and toxicological properties of Artemisia herba alba in addition to the main constituents. It would appear that this plant exhibits many beneficial properties. Further studies are warranted to more integrate this popular plant in human health care system. PMID:23755405

  5. Medicinal plants used in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Skin is an organ providing contact with the environment and protecting the human body from unfavourable external factors. Skin inflammation, reflected adversely in its functioning and appearance, also unfavourably affects the psyche, the condition of which is important during treatment of chronic skin diseases. The use of plants in treatment of inflammatory skin diseases results from their influence on different stages of inflammation. The paper presents results of the study regarding the anti-inflammatory activity of the plant raw material related to its influence on skin. The mechanism of action, therapeutic indications and side effects of medicinal plants used for treatment of inflammatory diseases of the skin are described. PMID:24278070

  6. Medicinal plants and Alzheimer's disease: from ethnobotany to phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Perry, E K; Pickering, A T; Wang, W W; Houghton, P J; Perry, N S

    1999-05-01

    The use of complementary medicines, such as plant extracts, in dementia therapy varies according to the different cultural traditions. In orthodox Western medicine, contrasting with that in China and the Far East for example, pharmacological properties of traditional cognitive- or memory-enhancing plants have not been widely investigated in the context of current models of Alzheimer's disease. An exception is Gingko biloba in which the gingkolides have antioxidant, neuroprotective and cholinergic activities relevant to Alzheimer's disease mechanisms. The therapeutic efficacy of Ginkgo extracts in Alzheimer's disease in placebo controlled clinical trials is reportedly similar to currently prescribed drugs such as tacrine or donepezil and, importantly, undesirable side effects of Gingko are minimal. Old European reference books, such as those on medicinal herbs, document a variety of other plants such as Salvia officinalis (sage) and Melissa officinalis (balm) with memory-improving properties, and cholinergic activities have recently been identified in extracts of these plants. Precedents for modern discovery of clinically relevant pharmacological activity in plants with long-established medicinal use include, for example, the interaction of alkaloid opioids in Papaver somniferum (opium poppy) with endogenous opiate receptors in the brain. With recent major advances in understanding the neurobiology of Alzheimer's disease, and as yet limited efficacy of so-called rationally designed therapies, it may be timely to re-explore historical archives for new directions in drug development. This article considers not only the value of an integrative traditional and modern scientific approach to developing new treatments for dementia, but also in the understanding of disease mechanisms. Long before the current biologically-based hypothesis of cholinergic derangement in Alzheimer' s disease emerged, plants now known to contain cholinergic antagonists were recorded for their amnesia- and dementia-inducing properties. PMID:10411211

  7. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property

    PubMed Central

    Patel, DK; Prasad, SK; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  8. An overview on antidiabetic medicinal plants having insulin mimetic property.

    PubMed

    Patel, D K; Prasad, S K; Kumar, R; Hemalatha, S

    2012-04-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders acquiring around 2.8% of the world's population and is anticipated to cross 5.4% by the year 2025. Since long back herbal medicines have been the highly esteemed source of medicine therefore, they have become a growing part of modern, high-tech medicine. In view of the above aspects the present review provides profiles of plants (65 species) with hypoglycaemic properties, available through literature source from various database with proper categorization according to the parts used, mode of reduction in blood glucose (insulinomimetic or insulin secretagogues activity) and active phytoconstituents having insulin mimetics activity. From the review it was suggested that, plant showing hypoglycemic potential mainly belongs to the family Leguminoseae, Lamiaceae, Liliaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Moraceae, Rosaceae and Araliaceae. The most active plants are Allium sativum, Gymnema sylvestre, Citrullus colocynthis, Trigonella foenum greacum, Momordica charantia and Ficus bengalensis. The review describes some new bioactive drugs and isolated compounds from plants such as roseoside, epigallocatechin gallate, beta-pyrazol-1-ylalanine, cinchonain Ib, leucocyandin 3-O-beta-d-galactosyl cellobioside, leucopelargonidin-3- O-alpha-L rhamnoside, glycyrrhetinic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, strictinin, isostrictinin, pedunculagin, epicatechin and christinin-A showing significant insulinomimetic and antidiabetic activity with more efficacy than conventional hypoglycaemic agents. Thus, from the review majorly, the antidiabetic activity of medicinal plants is attributed to the presence of polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, coumarins and other constituents which show reduction in blood glucose levels. The review also discusses the management aspect of diabetes mellitus using these plants and their active principles. PMID:23569923

  9. Medicinal Plants: A Public Resource for Metabolomics and Hypothesis Development

    PubMed Central

    Wurtele, Eve Syrkin; Chappell, Joe; Daniel Jones, A.; Celiz, Mary Dawn; Ransom, Nick; Hur, Manhoi; Rizshsky, Ludmila; Crispin, Matthew; Dixon, Philip; Liu, Jia; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Nikolau, Basil J.

    2012-01-01

    Specialized compounds from photosynthetic organisms serve as rich resources for drug development. From aspirin to atropine, plant-derived natural products have had a profound impact on human health. Technological advances provide new opportunities to access these natural products in a metabolic context. Here, we describe a database and platform for storing, visualizing and statistically analyzing metabolomics data from fourteen medicinal plant species. The metabolomes and associated transcriptomes (RNAseq) for each plant species, gathered from up to twenty tissue/organ samples that have experienced varied growth conditions and developmental histories, were analyzed in parallel. Three case studies illustrate different ways that the data can be integrally used to generate testable hypotheses concerning the biochemistry, phylogeny and natural product diversity of medicinal plants. Deep metabolomics analysis of Camptotheca acuminata exemplifies how such data can be used to inform metabolic understanding of natural product chemical diversity and begin to formulate hypotheses about their biogenesis. Metabolomics data from Prunella vulgaris, a species that contains a wide range ofantioxidant, antiviral, tumoricidal and anti-inflammatory constituents, provide a case study of obtaining biosystematic and developmental fingerprint information from metabolite accumulation data in a little studied species. Digitalis purpurea, well known as a source of cardiac glycosides, is used to illustrate how integrating metabolomics and transcriptomics data can lead to identification of candidate genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes in the cardiac glycoside pathway. Medicinal Plant Metabolomics Resource (MPM) [1] provides a framework for generating experimentally testable hypotheses about the metabolic networks that lead to the generation of specialized compounds, identifying genes that control their biosynthesis and establishing a basis for modeling metabolism in less studied species. The database is publicly available and can be used by researchers in medicine and plant biology. PMID:24957774

  10. [Computer evaluation of hidden potential of phytochemicals of medicinal plants of the traditional Indian ayurvedic medicine].

    PubMed

    Lagunin, A A; Druzhilovsky, D S; Rudik, A V; Filimonov, D A; Gawande, D; Suresh, K; Goel, R; Poroikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    Applicability of our computer programs PASS and PharmaExpert to prediction of biological activity spectra of rather complex and structurally diverse phytocomponents of medicinal plants, both separately and in combinations has been evaluated. The web-resource on phytochemicals of 50 medicinal plants used in Ayurveda was created for the study of hidden therapeutic potential of Traditional Indian Medicine (TIM) (http://ayurveda.pharmaexpert.ru). It contains information on 50 medicinal plants, their using in TIM and their pharmacology activities, also as 1906 phytocomponents. PASS training set was updated by addition of information about 946 natural compounds; then the training procedure and validation were performed, to estimate the quality of PASS prediction. It was shown that the difference between the average accuracy of prediction obtained in leave-5%-out cross-validation (94,467%) and in leave-one-out cross-validation (94,605%) is very small. These results showed high predictive ability of the program. Results of biological activity spectra prediction for all phytocomponents included in our database are in good correspondence with the experimental data. Additional kinds of biological activity predicted with high probability provide the information about most promising directions of further studies. The analysis of prediction results of sets of phytocomponents in each of 50 medicinal plants was made by PharmaExpert software. Based on this analysis, we found that the combination of phytocomponents from Passiflora incarnata may exhibit nootropic, anticonvulsant and antidepressant effects. Experiments carried out in mice models confirmed the predicted effects of Passiflora incarnata extracts. PMID:25978395

  11. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F254 plate (20 cm 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 ?l) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  12. Medicinal plants used by women from Agnalazaha littoral forest (Southeastern Madagascar)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The country of Madagascar is renowned for its high level of biodiversity and endemism, as well as the overwhelming pressures and threats placed on the natural resources by a growing population and climate change. Traditional medicine plays an important role in the daily lives of the Malagasy for various reasons including limited access to healthcare, limited markets and traditional values. The objective of this study was to assess the modern utitilization of the Agnalazaha Forest by the local population in Mahabo-Mananivo, Madagascar, for medicinal plants used by women, and to establish a list of medicinal plants used by women sourced from Agnalazaha Forest. Methods Ethnobotanical studies were conducted over a period of five months in 2010 to determine the diversity of medicinal plants used by women in the commune of Mahabo-Mananivo. In all, 498 people were interviewed, both male and female ranging age from 15 to over 60years old. Results 152 medicinal plants used by local people were collected during the ethnobotanical studies. Among the recorded species, eight native species are widely used by women. These species are known for their therapeutic properties in treating placental apposition and complications during childbirth as well as tropical illnesses such as malaria, filariasis, and sexual diseases like gonorrhea and syphilis. Conclusions Littoral forests are rare ecosystems that are highly threatened on the island nation of Madagascar. Our investigation into the use of medicinal plants sourced from and around the Agnalazaha Forest by the women of Mahabo-Mananivo reinforces the need for this natural resource as a first line of health care for rural families. PMID:24188563

  13. Homoisoflavonoids from the medicinal plant Portulaca oleracea.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jian; Sun, Li-Rong; Zhou, Zhong-Yu; Chen, Yu-Chan; Zhang, Wei-Min; Dai, Hao-Fu; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2012-08-01

    Four homoisoflavonoids named portulacanones A-D, identified as 2'-hydroxy- 5,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 2'-hydroxy-5,6,7-trimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, 5,2'-dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxy-3-benzyl-chroman-4-one, and 5,2'-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-3-benzylidene-chroman-4-one, were isolated from aerial parts of the plant Portulaca oleracea along with nine other known metabolites. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses. Portulacanones A-D is the first group of homoisoflavonoids so far reported from the family Portulacaceae. They represent a rare subclass of homoisoflavonoids in nature with a structural feature of a single hydroxyl group substituted at C-2' rather than at C-4' in ring B of the skeleton. Three homoisoflavonoids and the known compound 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone selectively showed in vitro cytotoxic activities towards four human cancer cell lines. Especially 2,2'-dihydroxy-4',6'-dimethoxychalcone showed cytotoxic activity against cell line SGC-7901 with an IC?? value of 1.6 ?g/ml, which was more potent than the reference compound mitomycin C (IC?? 13.0 ?g/ml). PMID:22683318

  14. Cytotoxicity of the rhizome of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shakhawoat; Kader, Golam; Nikkon, Farjana; Yeasmin, Tanzima

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity of the crude ethanol extract of the rhizome of Zingiber zerumbet (Z. zerumbet) (L) Smith. and Curcuma zedoaria (C. zedoaria) Rosc. against Artemia salina Leach. Methods Fresh rhizomes of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. were extracted separately in cold with ethanol (2.5 L) and after concentration a brownish syrupy suspension of ethanol extracts of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. was obtained. The cytotoxic effect of the crude ethanol extracts of both plants was determined by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results Crude ethanol extracts of the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. showed the highest cytotoxicity (LC50 was 1.24 g/mL) against brine shrimp nauplii as compared with C. zedoaria Rosc. (LC50 was 33.593 g/mL) after 24 h of exposure. Conclusions It can be concluded that the rhizome of Z. zerumbet (L) Smith. and C. zedoaria Rosc. can be used as a source of cytotoxic agent. PMID:23569881

  15. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.

    PubMed

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100-800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  16. Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the traditional use of medicinal plants in Northern Peru, with special focus on the Departments of Piura, Lambayeque, La Libertad, Cajamarca, and San Martin. Northern Peru represents the center of the old Central Andean "Health Axis," stretching from Ecuador to Bolivia. The roots of traditional healing practices in this region go at least as far back as the Moche period (AC 100–800). Although about 50% of the plants in use reported in the colonial period have disappeared from the popular pharmacopoeia, the plant knowledge of the population is much more extensive than in other parts of the Andean region. 510 plant species used for medicinal purposes were collected, identified and their vernacular names, traditional uses and applications recorded. The families best represented were Asteraceae with 69 species, Fabaceae (35), Lamiaceae (25), and Solanaceae (21). Euphorbiaceae had twelve species, and Apiaceae and Poaceae 11 species. The highest number of species was used for the treatment of "magical/ritual" ailments (207 species), followed by respiratory disorders (95), problems of the urinary tract (85), infections of female organs (66), liver ailments (61), inflammations (59), stomach problems (51) and rheumatism (45). Most of the plants used (83%) were native to Peru. Fresh plants, often collected wild, were used in two thirds of all cases, and the most common applications included the ingestion of herb decoctions or the application of plant material as poultices. PMID:17090303

  17. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in Plateau State, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of diseases has generated renewed interest in recent times, as herbal preparations are increasingly being used in both human and animal healthcare systems. Diarrhoea is one of the common clinical signs of gastrointestinal disorders caused by both infectious and non-infectious agents and an important livestock debilitating condition. Plateau State is rich in savannah and forest vegetations and home to a vast collection of plants upheld in folklore as having useful medicinal applications. There is however scarcity of documented information on the medicinal plants used in the treatment of animal diarrhoea in the state, thus the need for this survey. Ten (10) out of 17 Local Government Areas (LGAs), spread across the three senatorial zones were selected. Farmers were interviewed using well structured, open-ended questionnaire and guided dialogue techniques between October and December 2010. Medicinal plants reported to be effective in diarrhoea management were collected using the guided field-walk method for identification and authentication. Results A total of 248 questionnaires were completed, out of which 207 respondents (83.47%) acknowledged the use of herbs in diarrhoea management, while 41 (16.53%) do not use herbs or apply other traditional methods in the treatment of diarrhoea in their animals. Medicinal plants cited as beneficial in the treatment of animal diarrhoea numbered 132, from which 57(43.18%) were scientifically identified and classified into 25 plant families with the families Fabaceae (21%) and Combretaceae (14.04%) having the highest occurrence. The plant parts mostly used in antidiarrhoeal herbal preparations are the leaves (43.86%) followed by the stem bark (29.82%). The herbal preparations are usually administered orally. Conclusion Rural communities in Plateau State are a rich source of information on medicinal plants as revealed in this survey. There is need to scientifically ascertain the authenticity of the claimed antidiarrhoeal properties of these plants and perhaps develop more readily available alternatives in the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:21745405

  18. Antimicrobial activity of selected South African medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nearly 3,000 plant species are used as medicines in South Africa, with approximately 350 species forming the most commonly traded and used medicinal plants. In the present study, twelve South African medicinal plants were selected and tested for their antimicrobial activities against eight microbial species belonging to fungi, Mycobacteria, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Methods The radiometric respiratory technique using the BACTEC 460 system was used for susceptibility testing against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and the liquid micro-broth dilution was used for other antimicrobial assays. Results The results of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) determinations indicated that the methanol extracts from Acacia karoo, Erythrophleum lasianthum and Salvia africana were able to prevent the growth of all the tested microorganisms. All other samples showed selective activities. MIC values below 100 μg/ml were recorded with A. karoo, C. dentate, E. lasianthum, P. obligun and S. africana on at least one of the nine tested microorganisms. The best activity (MIC value of 39.06 μg/ml) was noted with S. africana against E. coli, S. aureus and M. audouinii, and Knowltonia vesitoria against M. tuberculosis. Conclusion The overall results of the present work provide baseline information for the possible use of the studied South African plant extracts in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:22704594

  19. Medicinal plants, human health and biodiversity: a broad review.

    PubMed

    Sen, Tuhinadri; Samanta, Samir Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity contributes significantly towards human livelihood and development and thus plays a predominant role in the well being of the global population. According to WHO reports, around 80 % of the global population still relies on botanical drugs; today several medicines owe their origin to medicinal plants. Natural substances have long served as sources of therapeutic drugs, where drugs including digitalis (from foxglove), ergotamine (from contaminated rye), quinine (from cinchona), and salicylates (willow bark) can be cited as some classical examples.Drug discovery from natural sources involve a multifaceted approach combining botanical, phytochemical, biological, and molecular techniques. Accordingly, medicinal-plant-based drug discovery still remains an important area, hitherto unexplored, where a systematic search may definitely provide important leads against various pharmacological targets.Ironically, the potential benefits of plant-based medicines have led to unscientific exploitation of the natural resources, a phenomenon that is being observed globally. This decline in biodiversity is largely the result of the rise in the global population, rapid and sometimes unplanned industrialization, indiscriminate deforestation, overexploitation of natural resources, pollution, and finally global climate change.Therefore, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity be preserved, to provide future structural diversity and lead compounds for the sustainable development of human civilization at large. This becomes even more important for developing nations, where well-planned bioprospecting coupled with nondestructive commercialization could help in the conservation of biodiversity, ultimately benefiting mankind in the long run.Based on these findings, the present review is an attempt to update our knowledge about the diverse therapeutic application of different plant products against various pharmacological targets including cancer, human brain, cardiovascular function, microbial infection, inflammation, pain, and many more. PMID:25001990

  20. Efficacy of some nupe medicinal plants against Salmonella typhi: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Evans, C Egwim; Banso, Aderotimi; Samuel, O Adeyemo

    2002-04-01

    Different medicinal plants: Euphobia hirta (Eh); Citrus aurantifolia (Ca), Cassia occidentalis (Co), and Cassia eucalyptus (Ce), which are claimed by the Nupes of Bida in Niger State of Nigeria to be effective in the treatment of typhoid fever were collected. Ethanolic and water extracts were obtained by standard procedures. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed that alkaloids were absent in all the parts of Eh, Co, and Ca studied, but present in all the parts of Ce studied. Saponins were absent in the leaves and florescence of Eh, Ca fruits, but present in little amounts in Eh and Co roots. Saponins were present in large amounts in all the parts of Ce studied. Tannins were in little amount in all the medicinal plants studied, except in Ca. Glycosides were not present in any of the medicinal plants studied. The in vitro and microbial analysis showed that only Ce showed inhibition to Salmonella typhi growth. Ca plus 'Kanwa' (a locally mined, alkaline salt) showed inhibition only at a high concentration of 'Kanwa'. The MIC and MBC of Ce are 1 and 2 mg/ml, respectively. The paper concludes that, of all the medicinal plants claimed by the Nupes to be effective against S. typhi, only Ce contains the natural compound that can be used in the treatment of typhoid fever. PMID:11891083

  1. 75 FR 24690 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Plant-Incorporated... Budget (OMB). This ICR, entitled: ``Plant-Incorporated Protectants; CBI Substantiation and Adverse... of plant-incorporated protectants (PIPs). The North American Industrial Classification System...

  2. The importance of botellas and other plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    Vandebroek, Ina; Balick, Michael J.; Ososki, Andreana; Kronenberg, Fredi; Yukes, Jolene; Wade, Christine; Jiménez, Francisco; Peguero, Brígido; Castillo, Daisy

    2010-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Plant mixtures are understudied in ethnobotanical research Aim of the study To investigate the importance of plant mixtures (remedies consisting of at least two plants) in Dominican traditional medicine. Materials and Methods A Spanish language questionnaire was administered to 174 Dominicans living in New York City (NYC) and 145 Dominicans living in the Dominican Republic (DR), including lay persons (who self-medicate with plants) and specialists (traditional healers). Plants were identified through specimens purchased in NYC botánica shops and Latino grocery shops, and from voucher collections. Results The percentage of mixtures as compared to single plants in plant use reports varied between 32 to 41%, depending on the geographic location (NYC or DR) and participant status (lay person or specialist). Respiratory conditions, reproductive health and genitourinary conditions were the main categories for which Dominicans use plant mixtures. Lay persons reported significantly more mixtures prepared as teas, mainly used in NYC to treat respiratory conditions. Specialists mentioned significantly more botellas (bottled herbal mixtures), used most frequently in the DR to treat reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Cluster analysis demonstrated that different plant species are used to treat respiratory conditions as compared to reproductive health and genitourinary conditions. Interview participants believed that combining plants in mixtures increases their potency and versatility as medicines. Conclusions The present study demonstrates the importance and complexity of plant mixtures in Dominican traditional medicine and the variation in its practices influenced by migration from the DR to NYC, shedding new light on the foundations of a particular ethnomedical system. PMID:20006697

  3. Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

  4. A simplified but effective method for the quality control of medicinal plants by planar chromatography.

    PubMed

    Eloff, J N; Ntloedibe, D T; van Brummelen, R

    2011-01-01

    Three of the factors limiting the rational use of herbal medicine are uncertainty on effectivity, uncertainty on safety and variation in quality of the product. Because many herbal medicines have been used over centuries by indigenous peoples, the safety and effectivity is frequently not such a big concern. With more people collecting and distributing herbal medicine, the offered product is however, frequently not what the label indicates either through a genuine mistake, but also through fraud especially where expensive herbal medicine is concerned. Some wrong identifications have already led to serious side effects and deaths. Planar chromatography or thin layer chromatography [TLC] is widely used to verify the identity of plant extracts by determining the chemical fingerprint of the extracts. In a leading publication 17 different extractants, 41 solvent systems and 44 spray reagents have been used to verify the identity of important herbal preparations. We investigated whether a simplified system could not be developed to aid small laboratories in identifying different herbal medicines. We compared the efficacy of different extractants, identified and developed three TLC solvent systems that would separate compounds with low, medium and high polarity and then also investigated the use of several spray reagents. With acetone as extractant and benzene:ethanol:ammonia [9:1:0.1], chloroform:ethylacetate:formic acid [5:4:1] and ethylacetate:methanol:water [10:1.35:1] as TLC solvent system and vanillin-sulphuric acid as spray reagent the identity of 81 samples of more than 50 herbal preparations could be verified on the basis of the chromatograms. The same product from different suppliers usually gave similar chromatograms. More importantly in several cases it was clear that products with the same label were so different that a mistake must have occurred in the labelling. This method has found application in the quality control of the most important African medicinal plants in the recently published African Herbal Pharmacopoeia produced by the Association for African Medicinal Plant Standards (AAMPS). PMID:22754053

  5. A Review on Antiulcer Activity of Few Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Vimala, G.; Gricilda Shoba, F.

    2014-01-01

    Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

  6. A review on antiulcer activity of few Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Vimala, G; Gricilda Shoba, F

    2014-01-01

    Ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder which is seen among many people. It is basically an inflamed break in the skin or the mucus membrane lining the alimentary tract. Ulceration occurs when there is a disturbance of the normal equilibrium caused by either enhanced aggression or diminished mucosal resistance. It may be due to the regular usage of drugs, irregular food habits, stress, and so forth. Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. A number of synthetic drugs are available to treat ulcers. But these drugs are expensive and are likely to produce more side effects when compared to herbal medicines. The literature revealed that many medicinal plants and polyherbal formulations are used for the treatment of ulcer by various ayurvedic doctors and traditional medicinal practitioners. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer, and delay ulcer recurrence. In this review attempts have been made to know about some medicinal plants which may be used in ayurvedic as well as modern science for the treatment or prevention of peptic ulcer. PMID:24971094

  7. Developing the medicinal plants sector in northern India: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Kala, Chandra Prakash; Dhyani, Pitamber Prasad; Sajwan, Bikram Singh

    2006-01-01

    The medicinal properties of plant species have made an outstanding contribution in the origin and evolution of many traditional herbal therapies. These traditional knowledge systems have started to disappear with the passage of time due to scarcity of written documents and relatively low income in these traditions. Over the past few years, however, the medicinal plants have regained a wide recognition due to an escalating faith in herbal medicine in view of its lesser side effects compared to allopathic medicine in addition the necessity of meeting the requirements of medicine for an increasing human population. Through the realization of the continuous erosion of traditional knowledge of plants used for medicine in the past and the renewed interest at the present time, a need existed to review this valuable knowledge of medicinal plants with the purpose of developing medicinal plants sectors across the different states in India. Our major objectives therefore were to explore the potential in medicinal plants resources, to understand the challenges and opportunities with the medicinal plants sector, and also to suggest recommendations based upon the present state of knowledge for the establishment and smooth functioning of the medicinal plants sector along with improving the living standards of the underprivileged communities. The review reveals that northern India harbors a rich diversity of valuable medicinal plants, and attempts are being made at different levels for sustainable utilization of this resource in order to develop the medicinal plants sector.

  8. Medicinal plants with potential anti-arthritic activity

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Manjusha; Kumar, Vipin; Malhotra, Hitesh; Singh, Surender

    2015-01-01

    Ethno Pharmacological Relevance: Traditional medicinal plants are practiced worldwide for treatment of arthritis especially in developing countries where resources are meager. This review presents the plants profiles inhabiting throughout the world regarding their traditional usage by various tribes/ethnic groups for treatment of arthritis. Materials and Methods: Bibliographic investigation was carried out by analyzing classical text books and peer reviewed papers, consulting worldwide accepted scientific databases from the last six decades. Plants/their parts/extracts/polyherbal formulations, toxicity studies for arthritis have been included in the review article. The profiles presented also include information about the scientific name, family, dose, methodology along with mechanism of action and toxicity profile. Research status of 20 potential plant species has been discussed. Further, geographical distribution of research, plants distribution according to families has been given in graphical form. Results: 485 plant species belonging to 100 families, traditionally used in arthritis are used. Among 100 plant families, malvaceae constitute 16, leguminasae 7, fabaceae 13, euphorbiaceae 7, compositae 20, araceae 7, solanaceae 12, liliaceae 9, apocynaceae, lauraceae, and rubiaceae 10, and remaining in lesser proportion. It was observed in our study that majority of researches are carried mainly in developing countries like India, China, Korea and Nigeria. Conclusion: This review clearly indicates that list of medicinal plants presented in this review might be useful to researchers as well as practioners. This review can be useful for preliminary screening of potential anti-arthritis plants. Further toxicity profile given in the review can be useful for the researchers for finding the safe dose. PMID:26401403

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanoparticles capped with medicinal plant extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekulapally, Sujith R.

    In this study, synthesis, characterization and biological application of series nanometal (silver, Ag) and nanometal oxide (titania, TiO2) were carried out. These nanomaterials were prepared using wet-chemistry method and then coated using natural plant extract. Three medicinal plants, namely Zingiber officinale (Ginger), Allium sativum (Garlic) and Capsicum annuum (Chili) were chosen as grafting agent to decrease the side-effects and increase the efficiency of NPs towards living organism. Extraction conditions were controlled under 60-100 °C for 8 hrs. Ag and TiO2 NPs were fabricated using colloidal chemistry and variables were controlled at ambient condition. The band gap of TiO2 NPs used as disinfectant was also modified through coating the medicinal plant extracts. The medicinal plant extracts and coated NPs were measured using spectroscopic methods. Ultraviolet-visible spectra indicated the Ag NPs were formed. The peak at 410 nm resulted from the electrons transferred from their ground to the excited state. The broadened full width at half maximum (FWHM) suggested the ultrafine particles were obtained. The lipid soluble compounds, phenols, tri-terpenoids, flavanoids, capsaicinoids, flavonoids, carotenoids, steroids steroidal glycosides, and vitamins were determined from the high performance liquid chromatographical analyses. X-ray powder diffraction indicated that the face-centered cubic Ag (PDF: 00-004-0783, a = 4.0862A, a = 90°) and anatase TiO2 (PDF: 01-08-1285, a = 3.7845, c = 9.5143A, a = 90°) were obtained using colloidal chemistry. Bactericidal activity indicated that these core-shelled TiO 2 were effective (MBC=0.6 ppm, within 30 mins) at inactivating Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is proposed that the medicinal extracts enhanced the potency of NPs against bacteria. From our previous study, the Ag NPs were highly effective at inactivating both bacteria.

  10. [Prevention of soil deterioration during cultivation of medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Guo, Lan-ping; Huang, Lu-qi; Jiang, You-xu; Lv, Dong-mei

    2006-05-01

    This paper summarized the aspects of the soil deterioration due to continuous growth of medicinal plants, such as nutrition insufficient, pH variation, harmful salt accumulating, harmful microbe and allelopathic substance increasing, soil physics and chemistry properties variation. And the ways to prevent and rehabilitate the deteriorated soil was indicated, which included anti-adversity species selecting, scientific management such as whorl cropping, nutrient elements supplement, usage of physical methods, nutrient liquid cultivating and VAM inoculating etc. PMID:17048673

  11. Antimalarial activities of medicinal plants and herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Thiengsusuk, Artitaya; Chaijaroenkul, Wanna; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is one of the world's leading killer infectious diseases with high incidence and morbidity. The problem of multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum has been aggravating particularly in Southeast Asia. Therefore, development of new potential antimalarial drugs is urgently required. The present study aimed to investigate antimalarial activities of a total of 27 medicinal plants and 5 herbal formulations used in Thai traditional medicine against chloroquine-resistant (K1) and chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) P. falciparum clones. Antimalarial activity of the ethanolic extracts of all plants/herbal formulations against K1 and 3D7 P. falciparum clones was assessed using SYBR Green I-based assay. All plants were initially screened at the concentration of 50 μg/ml to select the candidate plants that inhibited malaria growth by ≥50%. Each candidate plant was further assessed for the IC50 value (concentration that inhibits malaria growth by 50%) to select the potential plants. Selectivity index (SI) of each extract was determined from the IC50 ratio obtained from human renal epithelial cell and K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone. The ethanolic extracts from 19 medicinal plants/herbal formulation exhibited promising activity against both K1 and 3D7 clones of P. falciparum with survival of less than 50% at the concentration of 50 μg/ml. Among these, the extracts from the eight medicinal plants (Plumbago indica Linn., Garcinia mangostana Linn., Dracaena loureiri Gagnep., Dioscorea membranacea Pierre., Artemisia annua Linn., Piper chaba Hunt., Myristica fragrans Houtt., Kaempferia galanga Linn.) and two herbal formulations (Benjakul Formulation 1 and Pra-Sa-Prao-Yhai Formulation) showed potent antimalarial activity with median range IC50 values of less than 10 μg/ml against K1 or 3D7 P. falciparum clone or both. All except G. mangostana Linn. and A. annua Linn. showed high selective antimalarial activity against both clones with SI>10. Further studies on antimalarial activities in an animal model including molecular mechanisms of action of the isolated active moieties are required. PMID:23340720

  12. Medicinal plants used by the Tamang community in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We can conserve cultural heritage and gain extensive knowledge of plant species with pharmacological potential to cure simple to life-threatening diseases by studying the use of plants in indigenous communities. Therefore, it is important to conduct ethnobotanical studies in indigenous communities and to validate the reported uses of plants by comparing ethnobotanical studies with phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Materials and methods This study was conducted in a Tamang community dwelling in the Makawanpur district of central Nepal. We used semi-structured and structured questionnaires during interviews to collect information. We compared use reports with available phytochemical and pharmacological studies for validation. Results A total of 161 plant species belonging to 86 families and 144 genera to cure 89 human ailments were documented. Although 68 plant species were cited as medicinal in previous studies, 55 different uses described by the Tamang people were not found in any of the compared studies. Traditional uses for 60 plant species were consistent with pharmacological and phytochemical studies. Conclusions The Tamang people in Makawanpur are rich in ethnopharmacological understanding. The present study highlights important medicinal plant species by validating their traditional uses. Different plant species can improve local economies through proper harvesting, adequate management and development of modern techniques to maximize their use. PMID:24410808

  13. Ethnopharmacological survey of six medicinal plants from Mali, West-Africa

    PubMed Central

    Grnhaug, Tom Erik; Glserud, Silje; Skogsrud, Mona; Ballo, Ngolo; Bah, Sekou; Diallo, Drissa; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2008-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information about the use of six medicinal plants in the regions around Siby and Dioila, Mali. The plants investigated were Biopyhtum petersianum, Cola cordifolia, Combretum molle, Opilia celtidifolia, Parkia biglobosa and Ximenia americana. More than 60 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequently reported ailments were malaria (25.6%), different types of pain (14.0%) and dermatitis (7.4%). The main forms for preparation were decoction (58.1%) and powdered plant material (28.4%). The most frequent used plant parts were leaves (37.7%) and stem bark (18.6%). The healers' consensus for the main indications is fairly high for the four plants B. petersianum, C. cordifolia, C. molle and O. celtidifolia, and this supports the traditional use of these plants. However for P. biglobosa and X. americana the healers' consensus is less consistent and it is more difficult to draw conclusions about the most important traditional use of these two plants. PMID:19111068

  14. Screening of Zulu medicinal plants for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jger, A K; Hutchings, A; van Staden, J

    1996-06-01

    Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 39 plants used in traditional Zulu medicine to treat headache or inflammatory diseases were screened for prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors. Extracts were tested in an in vitro assay for cyclooxygenase inhibitors. In general, ethanolic extracts caused higher inhibition than aqueous extracts. Two-thirds of the plants screened had high inhibitory activity. The highest inhibition was obtained with ethanolic extracts of Bidens pilosa, Eucomis autumnalis, Harpephyllum caffrum, Helichrysum nudifolium, Leonotis intermedia, L. leonorus, Ocotea bullata, Rumex saggitatus, Solanum mauritianum, Synadenium cupulare and Trichilia dregeana. PMID:8735453

  15. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  16. Crop and medicinal plants proteomics in response to salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Keyvan; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2013-01-01

    Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen-related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase, and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase, and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects. PMID:23386857

  17. Widespread mistaken identity in tropical plant collections.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Zo A; Harris, David J; Filer, Denis; Wood, John R I; Scotland, Robert W

    2015-11-16

    Specimens of plants and animals preserved in museums are the primary source of verifiable data on the geographical and temporal distribution of organisms. Museum datasets are increasingly being uploaded to aggregated regional and global databases (e.g. the Global Biodiversity Information Facility; GBIF) for use in a wide range of analyses [1]. Thus, digitisation of natural history collections is providing unprecedented information to facilitate the study of the natural world on a global scale. The digitisation of this information utilises information provided on specimen labels, and assumes they are correctly identified. Here we evaluate the accuracy of names associated with 4,500 specimens of African gingers from 40 herbaria in 21 countries. Our data show that at least 58% of the specimens had the wrong name prior to a recent taxonomic study. A similar pattern of wrongly named specimens is also shown for Dipterocarps and Ipomoea (morning glory). We also examine the number of available plant specimens worldwide. Our data demonstrate that, while the world's collections have more than doubled since 1970, more than 50% of tropical specimens, on average, are likely to be incorrectly named. This finding has serious implications for the uncritical use of specimen data from natural history collections. PMID:26583892

  18. Elemental investigation of Syrian medicinal plants using PIXE analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rihawy, M. S.; Bakraji, E. H.; Aref, S.; Shaban, R.

    2010-09-01

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique has been employed to perform elemental analysis of K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br and Sr for Syrian medicinal plants used traditionally to enhance the body immunity. Plant samples were prepared in a simple dried base. The results were verified by comparing with those obtained from both IAEA-359 and IAEA-V10 reference materials. Relative standard deviations are mostly within 5-10% suggest good precision. A correlation between the elemental content in each medicinal plant with its traditional remedial usage has been proposed. Both K and Ca are found to be the major elements in the samples. Fe, Mn and Zn have been detected in good levels in most of these plants clarifying their possible contribution to keep the body immune system in good condition. The contribution of the elements in these plants to the dietary recommended intakes (DRI) has been evaluated. Advantages and limitations of PIXE analytical technique in this investigation have been reviewed.

  19. [The plant origins of herbal medicines and their quality evaluation].

    PubMed

    Nishibe, Sansei

    2002-06-01

    The caulis (stem and leaf) of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem. (Apocynaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Luoshiteng in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. However, preparations from the caulis of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) or Psychotria serpens L. (Rubiaceae) are distributed on the Chinese market. The fruit of Forsythia suspensa Vahl (Oleaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Forsythia Fruit in the Chinese Pharmacopeia, although the fruits of two Forsythia species, F. suspensa and F. viridissima Lindley, are listed as the plant origins in the Japanese Pharmacopeia, and fruits of three Forsythia species, F. viridissima, F. koreana Nakai, and F. suspensa, are listed in the Korean Pharmacopeia. The whole plant of Plantago asiatica L. (Plantaginaceae) is listed as the plant origin of Plantago Herb in the Japanese Phamacopeia, but the whole plants of two Plantago species, P. asiatica and P. depressa Wild, are listed as the plant origins in the Chinese Pharmacopeia. The leaves of two Plantago species, P. lanceolata L. and P. major L., are distributed as Plantain on the European market. Each of these herbal medicines is reviewed based on the differences in plant origins and their quality evaluation from the viewpoints of the morphological properties, chemical components, and biological activities, respectively. PMID:12087774

  20. Identification of bacterial endophytes associated with traditional medicinal plant Tridax procumbens Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Preveena, Jagadesan; Bhore, Subhash J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In traditional medicine, Tridax procumbens Linn. is used in the treatment of injuries and wounds. The bacterial endophytes (BEs) of medicinal plants could produce medicinally important metabolites found in their hosts; and hence, the involvement of BEs in conferring wound healing properties to T. Procumbens cannot be ruled out. But, we do not know which types of BEs are associated with T. Procumbens. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the fast growing and cultivable BEs associated with T. procumbens. Materials and Methods: Leaves and stems of healthy T. Procumbens plants were collected and cultivable BEs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaf and stem tissue samples using Luria-Bertani (LB) agar (medium) at standard conditions. A polymerase chain reaction was employed to amplify 16S rRNA coding gene fragments from the isolates. Cultivable endophytic bacterial isolates (EBIs) were identified using 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence similarity based method of bacterial identification. Results: Altogether, 50 culturable EBIs were isolated. 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequences analysis using the Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) revealed identities of the EBIs. Analysis reveals that cultivable Bacillus spp., Cronobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter spp., Lysinibacillus sphaericus, Pantoea spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Terribacillus saccharophilus are associated with T. Procumbens. Conclusion: Based on the results, we conclude that 24 different types of culturable BEs are associated with traditionally used medicinal plant, T. Procumbens, and require further study. PMID:24501447

  1. Essential oil composition and nutrient analysis of selected medicinal plants in Sultanate of Oman

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Javid; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Ali, Liaqat; Khan, Abdul Latif; Albroumi, Muhammad Abdullah

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the nutrients and essential oils of five medicinal plants, Juniperus excelsa (J. excelsa), Dodonaea viscosa, Euryops pinifolius, Teucrium polium (T. polium), and Helianthemum lippii that were collected from Jabal Al Akhdar, Oman. Methods Proximate parameters (moisture, dry matter, ash, crude fats, proteins, fibers, nitrogen, carbohydrates, and energy values) and nutrient analysis (K, Na, Ca, Fe, P, Mg etc.) were evaluated in the five medicinal plants using standard techniques. On the basis of these analysis, T. polium and J. excels were selected for essential oil analysis using a rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method and GC-MS. Results The results showed that leaves of J. excelsa had highest proportion of crude fats, fibers and energy value while ash was highest in T. polium. J. excelsa was also rich in essential minerals such as calcium, magnesium, potassium and iron while the trace elements and heavy metals composition was marginal. A rapid solvent-free microwave extraction method to extract oil from medicinal plants species showed that only T. polium and J. excelsa yielded oil. The chemical composition of essential oils showed higher proportion of delta-3-carene, limonene, β-eudesmol, ledeneoxide (II), α-trans-bergamatene, linalyl acetate and germacrene. Conclusions J. excelsa and T. polium are a good source of proximate, minerals and essential oils, which can be considered for healthy life besides their medicinal values.

  2. Length of residence, age and patterns of medicinal plant knowledge and use among women in the urban Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper explores patterns of womens medicinal plant knowledge and use in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, this paper examines the relationship between a womans age and her use and knowledge of medicinal plants. It also examines whether length of residence in three different areas of the Amazon is correlated with a womans use and knowledge of medicinal plants. Two of the areas where respondents may have resided, the jungle/seringal and farms/colonias, are classified as rural. The third area (which all of the respondents resided in) was urban. Methods This paper utilizes survey data collected in Rio Branco, Brazil. Researchers administered the survey to 153 households in the community of Bairro da Luz (a pseudonym). The survey collected data on phytotherapeutic knowledge, general phytotherapeutic practice, recent phytotherapeutic practice and demographic information on age and length of residence in the seringal, on a colonia, and in a city. Bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the inter-relationships among the key variables. Three dependent variables, two measuring general phytotherapeutic practice and one measuring phytotherapeutic knowledge were regressed on the demographic factors. Results The results demonstrate a relationship between a womans age and medicinal plant use, but not between age and plant knowledge. Additionally, length of residence in an urban area and on a colonia/farm are not related to medicinal plant knowledge or use. However, length of residence in the seringal/jungle is positively correlated with both medicinal plant knowledge and use. Conclusions The results reveal a vibrant tradition of medicinal plant use in Bairro da Luz. They also indicate that when it comes to place of residence and phytotherapy the meaningful distinction is not rural versus urban, it is seringal versus other locations. Finally, the results suggest that phytotherapeutic knowledge and use should be measured separately since one may not be an accurate proxy for the other. PMID:24565037

  3. Genomics and Evolution in Traditional Medicinal Plants: Road to a Healthier Life

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants have long been utilized in traditional medicine and ethnomedicine worldwide. This review presents a glimpse of the current status of and future trends in medicinal plant genomics, evolution, and phylogeny. These dynamic fields are at the intersection of phytochemistry and plant biology and are concerned with the evolution mechanisms and systematics of medicinal plant genomes, origin and evolution of the plant genotype and metabolic phenotype, interaction between medicinal plant genomes and their environment, the correlation between genomic diversity and metabolite diversity, and so on. Use of the emerging high-end genomic technologies can be expanded from crop plants to traditional medicinal plants, in order to expedite medicinal plant breeding and transform them into living factories of medicinal compounds. The utility of molecular phylogeny and phylogenomics in predicting chemodiversity and bioprospecting is also highlighted within the context of natural-product-based drug discovery and development. Representative case studies of medicinal plant genome, phylogeny, and evolution are summarized to exemplify the expansion of knowledge pedigree and the paradigm shift to the omics-based approaches, which update our awareness about plant genome evolution and enable the molecular breeding of medicinal plants and the sustainable utilization of plant pharmaceutical resources. PMID:26461812

  4. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Arajo-Jnior, Joo Xavier; de Arajo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flvia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and Unio dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1100??g/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10??g/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1??g/mL after 48?h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100??g/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10??g/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  5. In vitro leishmanicidal activity of some Cameroonian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Donfack J; Cline, Nkenfou; Michel, Noubom; Gogulamudi, V Reddy; Florence, Ngueguim T; Johnson, Boampong N; Bonaventure, Ngadjui T; Singh, Inder P; Sehgal, Rakesh

    2013-07-01

    Eleven plants used in the Cameroonian traditional medicine for the treatment of some parasitic infections were tested for their activity on the promastigote form of Leishmania donovani. After incubation with different plant extracts at doses of 1600, 800, 400 and 200 microgram/mL, the evaluation of the cell viability was done by the trypan blue exclusion technique and by flow cytometry. This study shows that 48 h after incubation of promastigotes with plant extract, Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum significantly inhibited the proliferation of promastigotes in culture with IC50 of 60.785.05 and 96.084.39 using the trypan blue exclusion technique. In addition, IC50 of 43.916.49 and 86.134.30 were obtained using the flow cytometry technique. Furthermore, 24 h after incubation of promastigotes with the Solanocia mannii and Solanum torvum, there was significant disruption of their long spindle shaped bodies. The results of this study support the popular uses of these plants for the treatment of some parasitic infections in Cameroonian folk medicine. PMID:23562881

  6. Do pharmaceuticals displace local knowledge and use of medicinal plants? Estimates from a cross-sectional study in a rural indigenous community, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Giovannini, Peter; Reyes-Garca, Victoria; Waldstein, Anna; Heinrich, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Researchers examining the relationships between traditional medicine and biomedicine have observed two conflicting tendencies. Some suggest that the use of biomedicine and biomedical concepts displaces the use of traditional medicine and medical beliefs. Other scholars have found that traditional medicine and biomedicine can co-exist, complement, and blend with each other. In this paper we use an econometric model and quantitative data to test the association between individual knowledge of pharmaceuticals and individual knowledge of medicinal plants. We use data from a survey among 136 household heads living in a rural indigenous community in Oaxaca, Mexico. Data were collected as a part of long term fieldwork conducted between April 2005 and August 2006 and between December 2006 and April 2007. We found a significant positive association between an individual's knowledge of medicinal plants and the same individual's knowledge of pharmaceuticals, as well as between her use of medicinal plants and her use of pharmaceuticals. We also found a negative association between the use of medicinal plants and schooling. Our results suggest that, in the study site, individual knowledge of medicinal plants and individual knowledge of pharmaceuticals co-exist in a way which might be interpreted as complementary. We conclude that social organization involved in the use of medicines from both traditional medicine and biomedicine is of particular significance, as our findings suggest that the use of pharmaceuticals alone is not associated with a decline in knowledge/use of medicinal plants. PMID:21345562

  7. Rapid Identification and Verification of Indirubin-Containing Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhigang; Tu, Yuan; Xia, Ye; Cheng, Peipei; Sun, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Guo, Licheng; He, Haibo; Xiong, Chao; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Xiuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Indirubin, one of the key components of medicinal plants including Isatis tinctoria, Polygonum tinctorium, and Strobilanthes cusia, possesses great medicinal efficacy in the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). Due to misidentification and similar name, materials containing indirubin and their close relatives frequently fall prey to adulteration. In this study, we selected an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) for distinguishing these indirubin-containing species from five of their usual adulterants, after assessing identification efficiency of matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2 among these species. The results of genetic distances and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree indicated that ITS2 region is a powerful DNA barcode to accurately identify these indirubin-containing species and discriminate them from their adulterants. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to verify indirubin in different organs of the above species. The results showed that indirubin had been detected in the leaves of Is. tinctoria, P. tinctorium, S. cusia, and Indigo Naturalis (made from their mixture), but not in their roots, or in the leaves of their adulterants. Therefore, this study provides a novel and rapid method to identify and verify indirubin-containing medicinal plants for effective natural treatment of CML. PMID:26089942

  8. Rapid Identification and Verification of Indirubin-Containing Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhigang; Tu, Yuan; Xia, Ye; Cheng, Peipei; Sun, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Guo, Licheng; He, Haibo; Xiong, Chao; Chen, Shilin; Zhang, Xiuqiao

    2015-01-01

    Indirubin, one of the key components of medicinal plants including Isatis tinctoria, Polygonum tinctorium, and Strobilanthes cusia, possesses great medicinal efficacy in the treatment of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML). Due to misidentification and similar name, materials containing indirubin and their close relatives frequently fall prey to adulteration. In this study, we selected an internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) for distinguishing these indirubin-containing species from five of their usual adulterants, after assessing identification efficiency of matK, rbcL, psbA-trnH, and ITS2 among these species. The results of genetic distances and neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree indicated that ITS2 region is a powerful DNA barcode to accurately identify these indirubin-containing species and discriminate them from their adulterants. Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to verify indirubin in different organs of the above species. The results showed that indirubin had been detected in the leaves of Is. tinctoria, P. tinctorium, S. cusia, and Indigo Naturalis (made from their mixture), but not in their roots, or in the leaves of their adulterants. Therefore, this study provides a novel and rapid method to identify and verify indirubin-containing medicinal plants for effective natural treatment of CML. PMID:26089942

  9. [Tobacco--once a medicinal plant. Does it contain substances with medicinal properties?].

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, Jaromir

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco and its use was discovered by Christopher Columbus in parallel with the discovery of America. Soon after, tobacco became a known medicinal plant in Europe. Its harmful effects were gradually discovered, especially those of tobacco smoke, and now it is considered a toxic plant. Tobacco leaf has a monograph in German "Hagers Enzyklopdie derArzneistoffe und Drogen", which describes its old, already not valid, medicinal use and clearly shows the toxic effects. Epidemiological studies indicate about 50% lower incidence of Parkinson's disease in smokers than in non-smokers. In turn, studies of the brains of smokers using positron emission tomography showed significantly decreased level of monoamine oxidase B--an enzyme which degrades dopamine--the neurotransmitter which the significant insufficiency of about 80-85%, is responsible for the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. From the tobacco leaves there were isolated MAO-B inhibitors--naphthoquinone--2,3,6-trimethyl-1,4-naphthoquinone and diterpenoid -trans,trans-farnesol, which occur also in tobacco smoke. In the last decade many papers have appeared on the neuroprotective activity of nicotine, the best known component of tobacco. through the effect of this compound on specific nicotinic cholinergic receptors (nAChRs), which interacts with nigrostriatal dopaminergic system as well as the possibility of using nicotine for the treatment of Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. Moreover, tobacco was also found to contain inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Tobacco cannot be considered a medicinal plant, but some compounds occurring in that plant may find therapeutic use. PMID:24501813

  10. Medicinal plants and dementia therapy: herbal hopes for brain aging?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elaine; Howes, Melanie-Jayne R

    2011-12-01

    An escalating "epidemic" of diseases like Alzheimer's has not yet been met by effective symptomatic treatments or preventative strategies. Among a few current prescription drugs are cholinesterase inhibitors including galantamine, originating from the snowdrop. Research into ethnobotanicals for memory or cognition has burgeoned in recent years. Based on a multi-faceted review of medicinal plants or phytochemicals, including traditional uses, relevant bioactivities, psychological and clinical evidence on efficacy and safety, this overview focuses on those for which there is promising clinical trial evidence in people with dementia, together with at least one other of these lines of supporting evidence. With respect to cognitive function, such plants reviewed include sage, Ginkgo biloba, and complex mixtures of other traditional remedies. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) challenge carers and lead to institutionalization. Symptoms can be alleviated by some plant species (e.g., lemon balm and lavender alleviate agitation in people with dementia; St John's wort treats depression in the normal population). The ultimate goal of disease prevention is considered from the perspective of limited epidemiological and clinical trial evidence to date. The potential value of numerous plant extracts or chemicals (e.g., curcumin) with neuroprotective but as yet no clinical data are reviewed. Given intense clinical need and carer concerns, which lead to exploration of such alternatives as herbal medicines, the following research priorities are indicated: investigating botanical agents which enhance cognition in populations with mild memory impairment or at earliest disease stages, and those for BPSD in people with dementia at more advanced stages; establishing an ongoing authoritative database on herbal medicine for dementia; and further epidemiological and follow up studies of promising phytopharmaceuticals or related nutraceuticals for disease prevention. PMID:22070157

  11. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Hezar Mountain Allocated in South East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Peyman; Mohamadi, Neda

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is the result of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology survey on the Hezar Mountain in SE of Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this region. The plants were collected in and around Hezar mountain from 2008-2010. The authors have conducted an interview of total 75 informants; The traditional uses of 92 species belonging to 35 vascular plant families and 78 genera have been recorded. The largest number of medicinal species came from Lamiaceae (15.2%). The most common preparations were decoction and infusion. These species are utilized to treat several ailments which the most common of them are digestive disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, (25.4%), renal and genital disorders (13%), respiratory tract system disorders (11.8%), and heart-blood circulatory system disorders (10.2%) respectively. PMID:24250549

  12. Antiamoebic and phytochemical screening of some Congolese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Ngimbi, N; Cimanga, K; Vlietinck, A J

    1998-05-01

    Results from the in vitro antiamoebic activity of some Congolese plant extracts used as antidiarrhoeic in traditional medicine indicated that of 45 plant extracts tested, 35 (77.78%) exhibited an antiamoebic activity and 10 (22.22%) were inactive. The highest activity (MIC < 100 microg/ml) was obtained with extracts from root bark of Paropsia brazzeana, Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, Alchornea cordifolia, Hensia pulchella, Maprounea africana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana, leaves and stem bark of Psidium guajava, stem bark of Dialum englerianum, Harungana madagascariensis and Mangifera indica, mature seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Morinda morindoides and Tithonia diversifolia. Metronidazole used as reference product showed a more pronounced activity than that of all plant extracts tested. PMID:9687082

  13. Screening of selected Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Vinutha, B; Prashanth, D; Salma, K; Sreeja, S L; Pratiti, D; Padmaja, R; Radhika, S; Amit, A; Venkateshwarlu, K; Deepak, M

    2007-01-19

    Seventy-six plant extracts including methanolic and successive water extracts from 37 Indian medicinal plants were investigated for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity (in vitro). Results indicated that methanolic extracts to be more active than water extracts. The potent AChE inhibiting methanolic plant extracts included Withania somnifera (root), Semecarpus anacardium (stem bark), Embelia ribes (Root), Tinospora cordifolia (stem), Ficus religiosa (stem bark) and Nardostachys jatamansi (rhizome). The IC(50) values obtained for these extracts were 33.38, 16.74, 23.04, 38.36, 73.69 and 47.21mug/ml, respectively. These results partly substantiate the traditional use of these herbs for improvement of cognition. PMID:16950584

  14. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of some Philippine medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Chichioco-Hernandez, Christine; Wudarski, Jakub; Gevaert, Lieven; Verschaeve, Luc

    2011-04-01

    The genotoxicity and toxicity of ethnomedicinal Philippine plants, which include Cassia fistula, Derris elliptica, Ficus elastica, Gliciridia sepium, Michelia alba, Morus alba, Pogostemon cablin and Ricinus communis, were tested using the Vitotox assay. The plants are used traditionally to treat several disorders like diabetes, weakness, menorrhagia, headache, toothache and rheumatism. The dried leaves were homogenized for overnight soaking in methanol at room temperature. The resulting alcoholic extracts were filtered and concentrated in vacuo and tested for their genotoxicity and cytotoxicity using Vitotox. Results showed that the medicinal plants that were tested are not genotoxic nor cytotoxic, except for R. communis and P. cablin, which showed toxicity at high doses (low dilutions) in the absence of S9. PMID:21716927

  16. Molecular Identification of Commercialized Medicinal Plants in Southern Morocco

    PubMed Central

    Krger, sa; Rydberg, Anders; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Bjrk, Lars; Martin, Gary

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant trade is important for local livelihoods. However, many medicinal plants are difficult to identify when they are sold as roots, powders or bark. DNA barcoding involves using a short, agreed-upon region of a genome as a unique identifier for species ideally, as a global standard. Research Question What is the functionality, efficacy and accuracy of the use of barcoding for identifying root material, using medicinal plant roots sold by herbalists in Marrakech, Morocco, as a test dataset. Methodology In total, 111 root samples were sequenced for four proposed barcode regions rpoC1, psbA-trnH, matK and ITS. Sequences were searched against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives using BLAST and Blastclust, and through inference of RAxML phylograms of the aligned market and reference samples. Principal Findings Sequencing success was high for rpoC1, psbA-trnH, and ITS, but low for matK. Searches using rpoC1 alone resulted in a number of ambiguous identifications, indicating insufficient DNA variation for accurate species-level identification. Combining rpoC1, psbA-trnH and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to genus level. For a minority of the market samples, the barcoding identification differed significantly from previous hypotheses based on the vernacular names. Conclusions/Significance Endemic plant species are commercialized in Marrakech. Adulteration is common and this may indicate that the products are becoming locally endangered. Nevertheless the majority of the traded roots belong to species that are common and not known to be endangered. A significant conclusion from our results is that unknown samples are more difficult to identify than earlier suggested, especially if the reference sequences were obtained from different populations. A global barcoding database should therefore contain sequences from different populations of the same species to assure the reference sequences characterize the species throughout its distributional range. PMID:22761800

  17. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O.; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or “memes”), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine. PMID:26483686

  18. From cumulative cultural transmission to evidence-based medicine: evolution of medicinal plant knowledge in Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Leonti, Marco; Staub, Peter O; Cabras, Stefano; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Casu, Laura

    2015-01-01

    In Mediterranean cultures written records of medicinal plant use have a long tradition. This written record contributed to building a consensus about what was perceived to be an efficacious pharmacopeia. Passed down through millennia, these scripts have transmitted knowledge about plant uses, with high fidelity, to scholars and laypersons alike. Herbal medicine's importance and the long-standing written record call for a better understanding of the mechanisms influencing the transmission of contemporary medicinal plant knowledge. Here we contextualize herbal medicine within evolutionary medicine and cultural evolution. Cumulative knowledge transmission is approached by estimating the causal effect of two seminal scripts about materia medica written by Dioscorides and Galen, two classical Greco-Roman physicians, on today's medicinal plant use in the Southern Italian regions of Campania, Sardinia, and Sicily. Plant-use combinations are treated as transmissible cultural traits (or "memes"), which in analogy to the biological evolution of genetic traits, are subjected to mutation and selection. Our results suggest that until today ancient scripts have exerted a strong influence on the use of herbal medicine. We conclude that the repeated empirical testing and scientific study of health care claims is guiding and shaping the selection of efficacious treatments and evidence-based herbal medicine. PMID:26483686

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey of different uses of seven medicinal plants from Mali, (West Africa) in the regions Doila, Kolokani and Siby

    PubMed Central

    Togola, Adiaratou; Diallo, Drissa; Dembl, Seydou; Barsett, Hilde; Paulsen, Berit Smestad

    2005-01-01

    An ethnopharmacological survey was carried out to collect information on the use of seven medicinal plants in rural areas in the nearby regions of Bamako, Mali. The plants were Opilia celtidifolia, Anthocleista djalonensis, Erythrina senegalensis, Heliotropium indicum, Trichilia emetica, Piliostigma thonningii and Cochlospermum tinctorium About 50 medical indications were reported for the use of these plants in traditional medicine. The most frequent ailments reported were malaria, abdominal pain and dermatitis. The highest number of usages was reported for the treatment of malaria (22%). The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. They were mainly taken orally, but some applications were prepared with a mixture of plants or ingredients such as honey, sugar, salt, ginger and pepper. Decoction of the leaves was the main form of preparation (65%) and leaf powder was mostly used for the preparation of infusions (13%). The part of the plants most frequently used was the leaves. There was a high degree of informant consensus for the species and their medicinal indications between the healers interviewed. The results of this study showed that people are still dependent on medicinal plants in these rural areas of Mali. PMID:16270940

  20. Antiparasitic properties of medicinal plants and other naturally occurring products.

    PubMed

    Tagboto, S; Townson, S

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic diseases remain a major public health problem affecting hundreds of millions of people, particularly in tropical developing countries. The limited availability and affordability of pharmaceutical medicines means that the majority of the world's population depends on traditional medical remedies, and it is estimated that some 20,000 species of higher plant are used medicinally throughout the world. Many well-known drugs listed in the modern pharmacopoeia have their origins in nature, including, for example, quinine from the bark of the Cinchona tree for the treatment of malaria, which has been followed by the subsequent development of the synthetic derivatives chloroquine, amodiaquine, primaquine and mefloquine. More recently, the wider recognition of the antimalarial activity of artemisinin from the herb Artemisia annua has led current research to focus on the development of a large number of synthetic and semisynthetic compounds, which are more active than artemisinin. There is an increasing awareness of the potential of natural products, which may lead to the development of much-needed new antiparasitic drugs. In this chapter, we have drawn together a comprehensive list of medicinal plants and other natural products that have been shown to have activity against human and, to a lesser extent, animal parasites. In addition, some of the opportunities and difficulties in working with natural products have been reviewed and discussed, including the problems involved with evaluating complex mixtures of compounds which may occur in extracts, problems associated with differentiating between general cytotoxicity and genuine antiparasitic activity, and the hope that new technologies will rapidly accelerate new drug discovery and development in this field. Nevertheless, the way forward for natural product medicines, including the conservation of recognized natural products and protection of general biodiversity, the discovery and development process, and the promotion and usage of existing remedies, presents some difficult challenges. Following an initiative by the World Health Organization in August 2000, there is now the opportunity to evaluate scientifically many more traditional medicines and other natural products in validated antiparasite and toxicity screens, which will help establish which substances have potential for new pharmaceutical products. The use of 'untested' traditional medicines will no doubt continue, and there is an urgent need to distinguish between the efficacious and safe products and the ineffective and/or unsafe products, particularly since many remedies are being more widely promoted in developing countries. PMID:11757332

  1. Reproduction of the Medicinal Plant Pelargonium sidoides via Somatic Embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Duchow, Stefanie; Blaschek, Wolfgang; Classen, Birgit

    2015-08-01

    The medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides DC. (Geraniaceae) was traditionally used for the treatment of the common cold and cough in South Africa. Today an aequous-ethanolic root extract from this plant is approved for the treatment of acute bronchitis and is globally marketed also as an immunostimulant. The increasing demand of the plant material for the industrial production indicates the need of new effective methods for the propagation of P. sidoides. Here we report somatic embryogenesis and in vitro plantlet regeneration from somatic cells of inflorescence shoots and petioles of P. sidoides. A one-week cultivation of explants in media containing different concentrations of thidiazuron (1, 2.2, 3, and 4 mg/L) followed by a cultivation period without phytohormones resulted in the induction of somatic embryos within 2-4 weeks. After 2-4 months, the embryos generated roots and could be transferred into a greenhouse, where flower formation took place and the development of seeds occurred with high germination rates. The root umckalin concentration, determined by high-performance thin-layer chromatography, was comparable to that of seed-cultivated plants (100 ± 6 vs. 113 ± 10 µg umckalin/g dried roots). For the first time, direct somatic embryogenesis has been established as an appropriate cultivation method for P. sidoides plants used as raw material in the pharmaceutical industry. Moreover, genetically identical plants (chemical races) can be easily generated by this procedure. PMID:26287694

  2. Asháninka medicinal plants: a case study from the native community of Bajo Quimiriki, Junín, Peru

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Asháninka Native Community Bajo Quimiriki, District Pichanaki, Junín, Peru, is located only 4 km from a larger urban area and is dissected by a major road. Therefore the loss of traditional knowledge is a main concern of the local headman and inhabitants. The present study assesses the state of traditional medicinal plant knowledge in the community and compares the local pharmacopoeia with the one from a related ethnic group. Methods Fieldwork was conducted between July and September 2007. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, collection of medicinal plants in the homegardens, forest walks, a walk along the river banks, participant observation, informal conversation, cross check through voucher specimens and a focus group interview with children. Results Four-hundred and two medicinal plants, mainly herbs, were indicated by the informants. The most important families in terms of taxa were Asteraceae, Araceae, Rubiaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Solanaceae and Piperaceae. Eighty-four percent of the medicinal plants were wild and 63% were collected from the forest. Exotics accounted to only 2% of the medicinal plants. Problems related to the dermal system, digestive system, and cultural belief system represented 57% of all the medicinal applications. Some traditional healers received non-indigenous customers, using their knowledge as a source of income. Age and gender were significantly correlated to medicinal plant knowledge. Children knew the medicinal plants almost exclusively by their Spanish names. Sixteen percent of the medicinal plants found in this community were also reported among the Yanesha of the Pasco Region. Conclusions Despite the vicinity to a city, knowledge on medicinal plants and cultural beliefs are still abundant in this Asháninka Native Community and the medicinal plants are still available in the surroundings. Nevertheless, the use of Spanish names for the medicinal plants and the shift of healing practices towards a source of income with mainly non-indigenous customers, are signs of acculturation. Future studies on quantification of the use of medicinal plants, dynamics of transmission of ethno-medicinal knowledge to the young generations and comparison with available pharmacological data on the most promising medicinal plants are suggested. PMID:20707893

  3. Analyzing factors that influence the folk use and phytonomy of 18 medicinal plants in Navarra

    PubMed Central

    Akerreta, Silvia; Cavero, Rita Yolanda; López, Víctor; Calvo, María Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Background This article analyzes whether the distribution or area of use of 18 medicinal plants is influenced by ecological and cultural factors which might account for their traditional use and/or phytonymy in Navarra. This discussion may be helpful for comparative studies, touching as it does on other ethnopharmacological issues: a) which cultural and ecological factors affect the selection of medicinal plants; b) substitutions of medicinal plants in popular medicine; c) the relation between local nomenclature and uses. To analyze these questions, this paper presents an example of a species used for digestive disorders (tea and camomile: Jasonia glutinosa, J. tuberosa, Sideritis hyssopifolia, Bidens aurea, Chamaemelum nobile, Santolina chamaecyparissus...), high blood pressure (Rhamnus alaternus, Olea europaea...) or skin diseases (Hylotelephium maximum, H. telephium, Anagallis arvensis, A. foemina). Methods Fieldwork began on January 2004 and continued until December 2006. During that time we interviewed 505 informants in 218 locations in Navarra. Information was collected using semi-structured ethnobotanical interviews, and we subsequently made maps using Arc-View 8.0 program to determine the area of use of each taxon. Each map was then compared with the bioclimatic and linguistic map of Navarra, using the soil and ethnographic data for the region, and with other ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies carried out in Europe. Results The results clearly show that ecological and cultural factors influence the selection of medicinal plants in this region. Climate and substrate are the most important ecological factors that influence the distribution and abundance of plants, which are the biological factors that affect medicinal plant selection. Conclusion The study of edaphological and climatological factors, on the one hand, and culture, on the other, can help us to understand why a plant is replaced by another one for the same purposes, either in the same or in a different area. In many cases, the cultural factor means that the use of a species is more widespread than its ecological distribution. This may also explain the presence of synonyms and polysemies which are useful for discussing ethnopharmacological data. PMID:17433105

  4. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in Babungo, Northwest Region, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical survey was undertaken to record information on medicinal plants from traditional medical practitioners in Babungo and to identify the medicinal plants used for treating diseases. Methods Traditional Medical Practitioners (TMP's) who were the main informants were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires and open-ended conversations. Field trips were made to the sites where TMP's harvest plants. Results The survey identified and recorded 107 plants species from 54 plant families, 98 genera used for treating diseases in Babungo. The Asteraceae was the most represented plant family while herbs made up 57% of the total medicinal plants used. The leaf was the most commonly used plant part while concoction and decoction were the most common method of traditional drug preparation. Most medicinal plants (72%) are harvested from the wild and 45% of these have other non medicinal uses. Knowledge of the use of plants as medicines remains mostly with the older generation with few youth showing an interest. Conclusions A divers number of plants species are used for treating different diseases in Babungo. In addition to their use as medicines, a large number of plants have other non medicinal uses. The youth should be encouraged to learn the traditional medicinal knowledge to preserve it from being lost with the older generation. PMID:20156356

  5. A New Application for the Optimal Foraging Theory: The Extraction of Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    The Optimal Foraging Theory was used to identify possible patterns in bark extraction and the selective cutting of Anadenanthera colubrina (Angico), a medicinal plant. The hypotheses were built on two approaches: selection of collection place and bark exploitation occurrence in only one of these resource areas. The results suggest that the distance that must be traveled to reach each gathering site determines the extent of the extraction process, showing that people minimize the time and energy spent in A. colubrina collection. The availability of each site appears not to influence the operation. The resource amount was the optimized variable for bark extraction, which was analyzed in only one collection zone. In contrast to the phenomenon of collection place selection, the distance between angico individuals, the management period, and the tannin content did not affect bark extraction. This study also discusses how certain cultural aspects influence the extraction of angico. PMID:21949671

  6. Anti-Candida activity of Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Marta Cristina Teixeira; Figueira, Glyn Mara; Sartoratto, Adilson; Rehder, Vera Lcia Garcia; Delarmelina, Camila

    2005-02-28

    Essential oils and ethanolic extracts from the leaves and/or roots of 35 medicinal plants commonly used in Brazil were screened for anti-Candida albicans activity. The oils were obtained by water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. Essential oils from 13 plants showed anti-Candida activity, including Aloysia triphylla, Anthemis nobilis, Cymbopogon martini, Cymbopogon winterianus, Cyperus articulatus, Cyperus rotundus, Lippia alba, Mentha arvensis, Mikania glomerata, Mentha piperita, Mentha sp., Stachys byzantina, and Solidago chilensis. The ethanol extract was not effective at any of the concentrations tested. Chemical analyses showed the presence of compounds with known antimicrobial activity, including 1,8-cineole, geranial, germacrene-D, limonene, linalool, and menthol. PMID:15707770

  7. Effect of medicinal plants on the crystallization of cholesterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraswathi, N. T.; Gnanam, F. D.

    1997-08-01

    One of the least desirable calcifications in the human body is the mineral deposition in atherosclerosis plaques. These plaques principally consist of lipids such as cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides. Chemical analysis of advanced plaques have shown the presence of considerable amounts of free cholesterol identified as cholesterol monohydrate crystals. Cholesterol has been crystallized in vitro. The extracts of some of the Indian medicinal plants detailed below were used as additives to study their effect on the crystallization behaviour of cholesterol. It has been found that many of the herbs have inhibitory effect on the crystallization such as nucleation, crystal size and habit modification. The inhibitory effect of the plants are graded as Commiphora mughul > Aegle marmeleos > Cynoden dactylon > Musa paradisiaca > Polygala javana > Alphinia officinarum > Solanum trilobatum > Enicostemma lyssopifolium.

  8. Quorum Sensing Inhibitors for Staphylococcus aureus from Italian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Quave, Cassandra L.; Plano, Lisa R.W.; Bennett, Bradley C.

    2010-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality estimates due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections continue to rise. Therapeutic options are limited by antibiotic resistance. Anti-pathogenic compounds, which inhibit quorum sensing (QS) pathways, may be a useful alternative to antibiotics. Staphylococcal QS is encoded by the agr locus and is responsible for the production of δ-hemolysin. Quantification of δ-hemolysin found in culture supernatants permits the analysis of agr activity at the translational, rather than transcriptional, level. We employed RP-HPLC techniques to investigate the anti-QS activity of 168 extracts from 104 Italian plants through quantification of δ-hemolysin. Extracts from three medicinal plants (Ballota nigra, Castanea sativa, and Sambucus ebulus) exhibited a dose-dependent response in the production of δ-hemolysin, indicating strong anti-QS activity in a pathogenic MRSA isolate. PMID:20645243

  9. [Severe poisoning by plants used for traditional medicine in Mayotte].

    PubMed

    Durasnel, P; Vanhuffel, L; Blond, R; Lion, F; Galas, T; Mousset-Hovaere, M; Bala, I; Viscardi, G; Valyi, L

    2014-12-01

    The authors describe three cases of severe accidental poisoning by plants used as part of a traditional treatment in Mayotte. The established, or suspected, toxicity of Thevetia peruviana (Yellow oleander), Cinchona pubescens (Red quinine-tree), Melia azaderach (Persian lilac, also called china berry) and Azadirachta indica (Neem), is discussed. The clinical presentation is cardiac (atrioventricular block) and well known for Thevetia and Cinchona intoxications. Neurological signs and multi-organ failure are found for Azadirachta and Melia. The identification of the plants is never easy, nor is the evidence of their accountability. In the three cases reported, no other cause than the traditional treatment has been found to explain the clinical presentation. The outcome was favorable in all cases. The authors emphasize the difficulties to investigate these accidents, the poor medical knowledge of these practices in tropical areas, and in Mayotte particularly. The need for cooperation with local botanists, familiar with traditional medicine, is also underlined. PMID:25301110

  10. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  11. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-08-14

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group?I?carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-?B and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori eradication and H. pylori induced related gastric disease prevention. PMID:25132753

  12. Medicinal Plant Curation and New Crop Development Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NPGS is a cooperative effort by public (State and Federal) and private organizations to preserve the genetic diversity of plants by long-term storage of germplasm, primarily in the form of seeds. The mission of the NPGS includes: 1.) the conservation of diverse crop germplasm through collect...

  13. Immunological aspects of Chinese medicinal plants as antiageing drugs.

    PubMed

    Xiao, P G; Xing, S T; Wang, L W

    1993-03-01

    The development of a predominantly geriatric community worldwide has become an inevitable fact. Antiageing agents could be, in a certain sense, attentive to the well-being of the aged. There are quite a lot of medicinal plants and prescriptions recorded in Chinese medical literatures aimed at the well-being of the aged as well as the prevention of diseases and prolongation of life-span. By means of modern scientific research, a strategy towards antiageing drugs is presented in this paper. One of the effective routes is to select the candidates based on their ethnopharmacological usages, followed by immunological investigation in connection with other antiageing experimentation. A list of Chinese medicinal plants used as or related to the antiageing agents are presented. Specifically, five Chinese traditional drugs, Herba Epimedii, Fructus Lycii, Radix Polygoni multiflori, Radix Cynanchi auriculati and Ganoderma along with a composite prescription 'American Ginseng Royal Jelly' are selected as representatives. The prospect of research and development of antiageing drugs based on natural origin is also discussed. PMID:8510465

  14. A potential of some medicinal plants as an antiulcer agents

    PubMed Central

    Gadekar, R.; Singour, P. K.; Chaurasiya, P. K.; Pawar, R. S.; Patil, U. K.

    2010-01-01

    Peptic ulcers are a broad term that includes ulcers of digestive tract in the stomach or the duodenum. The formation of peptic ulcers depends on the presence of acid and peptic activity in gastric juice plus a breakdown in mucosal defenses. There are two major factors that can disrupt the mucosal resistance to injury: non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) example, aspirin and Helicobacter pylori infection. Numerous natural products have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of a variety of diseases, including peptic ulcer. There has been considerable pharmacological investigation into the antiulcer activity of some compounds. In this work, we shall review the literature on different medicinal plant and alkaloids with antiulcer activity. This article reviews the antiacid/anti-peptic, gastroprotective and/or antiulcer properties of the most commonly employed herbal medicines and their identified active constituents. The experimental parameters used for antiulcer activity were cold restraint stress-induced ulcer model, Diclofenac-induced ulcer model in rats, (HClethanol)-induced ulcer in mice and water immersion stress-induced ulcer in rats. The ideal aims of treatment of peptic ulcer disease are to relieve pain, heal the ulcer and delay ulcer recurrence. About 70% of patients with peptic ulcer disease are infected by Helicobacter pylori and eradication of this microorganism seems to be curative for this disease. This article reviews drugs derived from medicinal plant more commonly used in the world for peptic ulcer and, if reported, the antiulcer activity. This article will be concerned only with the antiulcer and gastro-protective effects. PMID:22228953

  15. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 3: plants used in traditional medicine in Kikuku village, Muleba District

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practice. Traditional medicines are the mainstay of healthcare in this region and are known to support the management of many illnesses such as malaria, bacterial infections, epilepsy, gynecological problems and others. However, most of the plants being used have either not been documented or evaluated for safety and efficacy or both. This study, the sixth of an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plants that are used at Kikuku village, Muleba District. Methodology A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on the common/local names of the plants, parts of the plants used, diseases treated, methods of preparing the herbal remedies, dosage of the remedies administered, frequency and duration of treatment and toxicity of the medicines. A literature review was carried out for information on the ethnomedical uses of the reported plants. Results A total of 49 plant species belonging to 47 genera and 24 plant families were documented. The family Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae had the highest representation. The plants are used for the treatment of skin conditions (10 plants; 20%), bacterial infections and wounds (14 plants; 28.6%), malaria (14 plants; 28.6%), gastrointestinal disorders (11 plants; 22.4%), gynecological problems including infertility (8 plants; 16.3%), hypertension (5 plants; 10.2%), viral infections (7 plants; 14.3%), chest problems (5 plants; 10.2%), diabetes (3 plants; 6.1%), cancer (2 plants; 4.1%), inflammatory conditions (arthritis, rheumatism), HIV and AIDS, and hernia each treated by 1 plant (3 plants in total; 6.1%). Information obtained from the literature indicate that 25 (51.0%) of the therapeutic claims are supported by laboratory results or have similar claims of ethnomedical use from other countries. Conclusion Herbal remedies comprise an important and effective component of the healthcare system in Kikuku village with plants in the families Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae comprising an important part of plants used in the indigenous healthcare management in the village. Malaria and bacterial infections dominate the list of diseases that are managed using traditional medicines. PMID:22472473

  16. Cytotoxic Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from Hamedan District of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Behzad, Sahar; Pirani, Atefeh; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been investigated for possible anti-cancer effects. The aim of the present study was to examine the cytotoxic activity of several medicinal plants on different tumor cell lines. 11 selected plant species which have been used in folkloric prescriptions were collected from different sites of Hamedan district of Iran. The methanolic extracts of the plants were prepared and their cytotoxic effects on four human cancer cell lines (A549, human lung adenocarcinoma; MCF7, human breast adenocarcinoma; HepG2, hepatocellular carcinoma and HT-29, human colon carcinoma) and one normal cell line (MDBK, bovine kidney) were examined using the MTT assay. Three of these were exhibited antiproliferative activity against one or more of the cell lines. The extract from Primula auriculata demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity with IC50 of 25.79, 35.79 and 43.34 μg.mL−1 against MCF7, HepG2 and HT- 29 cells, respectively. For some of the plants, their traditional use was correlated with the cytotoxic results, whereas for others the results may support the non-cytotoxicity of species used traditionally as natural remedies. The cytotoxic species could be considered as potential of anticancer compounds. PMID:24711847

  17. Screening of some Kenyan medicinal plants for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Wagate, Cyrus G; Mbaria, James M; Gakuya, Daniel W; Nanyingi, Mark O; Kareru, P G; Njuguna, Anne; Gitahi, Nduhiu; Macharia, James K; Njonge, Francis K

    2010-01-01

    Eleven medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Machakos and Kitui District were screened, namely: Ajuga remota Benth, Aloe secundiflora Engl, Amaranthus hybridus L, Cassia didymobotrya Fes, Croton macrostachyus Del, Entada leptostachya Harms, Erythrina abyssinica DC, Harrisonia abyssinica Oliv, Schkuhria pinnata O. Ktze, Terminalia kilimandscharica Engl and Ziziphus abyssinica Hochst for potential antibacterial activity against four medically important bacterial strains, namely: Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Micrococcus lutea ATCC 9341 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. The antibacterial activity of methanol extracts was determined as the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The plant extracts were more active against Gram-positive (G+) than Gram-negative (G-) bacteria. The positive controls were streptomycin and benzylpenicillin for G- and G+ bacteria, respectively, both had a significant MIC at <1 mg/mL. The most susceptible bacteria were B. cereus, followed by M. lutea, while the most resistant bacteria were Ps. aeruginosa, followed by E. coli. The present study supports the use of these plants by the herbalists in the management of bacterial ailments. H. abyssinica and T. kilimandscharica showed the best antibacterial activity; hence these plants can be further subjected to phytochemical and pharmacological evaluation. PMID:19548257

  18. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity

    PubMed Central

    Pratap, Gowd M. J. S; Manoj, Kumar M. G.; Sai, Shankar A. J.; Sujatha, B.; Sreedevi, E.

    2012-01-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  19. Screening of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Shori, Amal Bakr

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally increased plasma glucose levels. Postprandial hyperglycemia plays an essential role in development of type-2 diabetes. Inhibitors of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (such as α-glucosidase and α-amylase) offer an effective strategy to regulate/prevent hyperglycemia by controlling starch breakdown. Natural α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitors, as well as antioxidants from plant-based sources, offer a source of dietary ingredients that affect human physiological function in order to treat diabetes. Several research studies have investigated the effectiveness of plant-based inhibitors of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, as well as their antioxidant activity. The aim of this review is to summarize the antidiabetic and antioxidant properties of several medicinal plants around the world. Half inhibitory concentration (IC50, for enzyme suppression) and half effective concentration (EC50, for antioxidant activity) values of less than 500 μg/mL were defined as the most potent plant-based inhibitors (in vitro) and are expected to provide interesting candidates for herbal treatment of diabetes, as foods, supplements, or refined drugs. PMID:26343100

  20. Antidiabetic medicinal plants as a source of alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Benalla, Wafaa; Bellahcen, Sad; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study is to collate all available data on antidiabetic plants that inhibit alpha glucosidase, reported mainly by Medline (PubMed) these last years. In the present study, interest is focused on experimental researches conducted on hypoglycemic plants particularly those which show alpha glucosidase inhibitor activity alongside bioactive components. This study describes 47 species that belong to 29 families. The plant families, which enclose the species, studied most as inhibitors of alphaglucosidase, are Fabaceae (6 species.), Crassulaceae (3 species), Hippocrateacaea (3 species), Lamiaceae (3 species), and Myrtaceae (3 species), with most studied species being Salacia reticulata (Hippocrateaceae) and Morus alba (Moraceae). The study also covers natural products (active natural components and crude extracts) isolated from the medicinal plants which inhibit alpha glucosidase as reported this last decade. Many kinds of these isolated natural products show strong activity such as, Alkaloids, stilbenoids (polyphenol), triterpene, acids (chlorogenic acid, betulinic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid, bartogenic acid, oleanolic acid, dehydrotrametenolic acid, corosolic acid, ellagic acid, ursolic acid, gallic acid), phytosterol, myoinositol, flavonoids, Flavonolignans, anthraquinones, anthrones, and xanthones, Feruloylglucosides, flavanone glucosides, acetophenone glucosides, glucopyranoside derivatives, genine derivatives, flavonol, anthocyanin and others. PMID:20522017

  1. Evaluation of three medicinal plants for anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Pratap, Gowd M J S; Manoj, Kumar M G; Sai, Shankar A J; Sujatha, B; Sreedevi, E

    2012-07-01

    Herbal remedies have a long history of use for gum and tooth problems such as dental caries. The present microbiological study was carried out to evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of three medicinal plants (Terminalia chebula Retz., Clitoria ternatea Linn., and Wedelia chinensis (Osbeck.) Merr.) on three pathogenic microorganisms in the oral cavity (Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus casei, and Staphylococcus aureus). Aqueous extract concentrations (5%, 10%, 25%, and 50%) were prepared from the fruits of Terminalia chebula, flowers of Clitoria ternatea, and leaves of Wedelia chinensis. The antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extract concentrations of each plant was tested using agar well diffusion method and the size of the inhibition zone was measured in millimeters. The results obtained showed that the diameter of zone of inhibition increased with increase in concentration of extract and the antimicrobial efficacy of the aqueous extracts of the three plants was observed in the increasing order - Wedelia chinensis < Clitoria ternatea < Terminalia chebula. It can be concluded that the tested extracts of all the three plants were effective against dental caries causing bacteria. PMID:23723653

  2. Contemporary art in medicine: the Cleveland Clinic art collection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Fine art is good medicine. It comforts, elevates the spirit, and affirms life and hope. Art in the healthcare setting, combined with outstanding care and service, creates an environment that encourages healing and supports the work of medical professionals. As one of the worlds great medical centers, Cleveland Clinic has always included the arts in its healing environment. The four founders and subsequent leadership encouraged artistic and musical expression by employees. Distinguished artworks have long hung on the walls. In 1983, an Aesthetics Committee was officially formed at Cleveland Clinic to address issues of art and design in Cleveland Clinic facilities. PMID:24282686

  3. Cytotoxic activity screening of Bangladeshi medicinal plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Akter, Raushanara; Uddin, Shaikh J; Grice, I Darren; Tiralongo, Evelin

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 23 crude methanol extracts from 19 Bangladeshi medicinal plants was investigated against healthy mouse fibroblasts (NIH3T3), healthy monkey kidney (VERO) and four human cancer cell lines (gastric, AGS; colon, HT-29; and breast, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) using MTT assay. High cytotoxicity across all cell lines tested was exhibited by Aegiceras corniculatum (fruit) and Hymenodictyon excelsum (bark) extracts (IC50 values ranging from 0.0005 to 0.9980 and 0.08 to 0.44 mg/mL, respectively). Fourteen extracts from 11 plant species, namely Clitoria ternatea (flower and leaf), Dillenia indica (leaf), Diospyros peregrina (leaf), Dipterocarpus turbinatus (bark and leaf), Ecbolium viride (leaf), Glinus oppositifolius (whole plant), Gnaphalium luteoalbum (leaf), Jasminum sambac (leaf), Lannea coromandelica (bark and leaf), Mussaenda glabrata (leaf) and Saraca asoca (leaf), were also significantly cytotoxic (IC50 < 1.0 mg/mL) against at least one of the cancer cell lines tested. More selectively, Avicennia alba (leaf), C. ternatea (flower and leaf), Caesalpinia pulcherrima (leaf), E. viride (leaf) and G. oppositifolius (whole plant) showed cytotoxicity only against both of the breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231). In contrast, C. ternatea (flower and leaf) exhibited high cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-231 (IC50 values of 0.11 and 0.49 mg/mL, respectively), whereas E. viride and G. oppositifolius whole plant extracts exhibited high activity against MCF-7 cells (IC50 values of 0.06 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively). The cytotoxic activity test results for 9 of the plant species correlate with their traditional use as anticancer agents, thus making them interesting sources for further drug development. PMID:23846168

  4. Ethnobotanical notes about some uses of medicinal plants in Alto Tirreno Cosentino area (Calabria, Southern Italy)

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Impieri, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    Background The present paper contributes to enrich the ethnobotanical knowledge of Calabria region (Southern Italy). Research was carried out in Alto Tirreno Cosentino, a small area lying between the Tyrrhenian coast and the Pollino National Park. In the area studied medicinal plants still play a small role among farmers, shepherds and other people who live far from villages and built-up areas. Methods Information was collected by interviewing native people, mainly elderly engaged in farming and stock-raising activities and housewives. The plants collected, indicated by the locals, have been identified according to "Flora d'Italia". The exsiccata vouchers are preserved in the authors' own herbaria. Results 52 medicinal species belonging to 35 families are listed in this article. The family, botanical and vernacular name, part of the plant used and respective manipulation are reported there and, when present, similar or identical uses in different parts of Calabria or other Italian regions are also indicated. Conclusion Labiatae, Rosaceae and Leguminosae are the families most frequently present, whilst Compositae and Brassicaceae are almost absent. The uses of the recorded species relate to minor ailments, mainly those of the skin (15 species), respiratory apparatus diseases (11), toothache, decay etc. (10) and rheumatic pains (8). The easy availability of these remedies provides a quick way of curing various minor complaints such as tooth-ache, belly and rheumatic pain and headaches and can also serve as first aid as cicatrizing, lenitive, haemostatic agents etc. The role in veterinary medicine is, on the contrary, more important: sores, ulcers, tinea, dermatitis, gangrenous wounds of cattle, and even respiratory ailments are usually cured by resort to plants. PMID:17983476

  5. Medicinal plants used by 'Passo da Ilha' rural community in the city of Pato Branco, southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marchese, José A; Ming, Lin C; Franceschi, Lucia de; Camochena, Rubia C; Gomes, Greice D R; Paladini, Marcos V; Capelin, Diogo; Marchese, Cristine F

    2009-12-01

    The scope of this work was to rescue and document the traditional knowledge regarding the medicinal plants used by Passo da Ilha rural community, in Pato Branco, Paraná State, Southern Brazil (26 degrees 11' S, 52 degrees 36' W and 760 m high). Structured interviews were made in field research with 16 informants who had the traditional knowledge about medicinal plants. The research was carried out from October to December 2000. The plants were collected in the field, identified and their vouchers were housed at the Herbarium 'Irina Delanova De Gemtchjnicov' (BOTU) of São Paulo State University, in Botucatu. A total of 47 botanical families and 114 species of medicinal plants were identified. These plants ere suitable for ore than 30 different edicinal uses. The residents are mainly of European descent, which justify the presence of many exotic plants. The knowledge on how to use medicinal plants properly is held mainly by the females, and decreases in the newer generations, denoting 'cultural erosion' in progress. PMID:19893895

  6. Medicinal plants used for dogs in Trinidad and Tobago.

    PubMed

    Lans, C; Harper, T; Georges, K; Bridgewater, E

    2000-06-12

    This paper documents ethnoveterinary medicines used to treat dogs in Trinidad and Tobago. In 1995, a 4-stage process was used to conduct the research and document the ethnoveterinary practices. Twenty-eight ethnoveterinary respondents were identified using the school-essay method, which is a modified rapid rural appraisal (RRA) technique. Semi-structured interviews were held with these respondents as well as with 30 veterinarians, 27 extension officers and 19 animal-health assistants and/or agricultural officers, and the seven key respondents that they identified. The final step involved hosting four participatory workshops with 55 of the respondents interviewed to discuss the ethnoveterinary data generated from the interviews and to determine dosages for some of the plants mentioned. Supplementary interviews were conducted in 1997 and 1998. Seeds of Carica papaya, and leaves of Cassia alata, Azadirachta indica, Gossypium spp., Cajanus cajan and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are used as anthelmintics. The anthelmintics Gossypium spp. and Chenopodium ambrosiodes are the most frequently used species. Crescentia cujete pulp, Musa spp. stem exudate, the inside of the pods of Bixa orellana, leaves of Cordia curassavica and Eclipta alba plant tops are used for skin diseases. Musa spp. stem exudate, seeds of Manilkara zapota, Pouteria sapota and Mammea americana and leaves of Cordia curassavica, Scoparia dulcis and Nicotiana tabacum are used to control ectoparasites. Dogs are groomed with the leaves of Cordia curassavica, Bambusa vulgaris and Scoparia dulcis. Psidium guajava buds and leaves and the bark of Anacardium occidentale are used for diarrhoea. Owners attempt to achieve milk let-down with a decoction of the leaves of Stachytarpheta jamaicensis. The plant uses parallel those practised in human folk medicine in other Caribbean countries and in other tropical countries. PMID:10821961

  7. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Abubakar, Sani; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Usman, Ahmed Rufa’i; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-24

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  8. Investigation of therapeutic potentials of some selected medicinal plants using neutron activation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abubakar, Sani; Usman, Ahmed Rufa'i.; Isa, Nasiru Fage; Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Abubakar, Nuraddeen

    2015-04-01

    Series of attempts were made to investigate concentrations of trace elements and their therapeutic properties in various medicinal plants. In this study, samples of some commonly used plants were collected from Bauchi State, Nigeria. They includes leaves of azadirachta indica (neem), Moringa Oleifera (moringa), jatropha curcas (purgin Nut), guiera senegalensis (custard apple) and anogeissus leiocarpus (African birch). These samples were analyzed for their trace elements contents with both short and long irradiation protocols of Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) at Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. The level of trace elements found varies from one sample to another, with some reported at hundreds of mg/Kg dry weight. The results have been compared with the available literature data. The presence of these trace elements indicates promising potentials of these plants for relief of certain ailments.

  9. OBSERVATIONS ON WILD PLANTS USED IN FOLK MEDICINE IN THE RURAL AREAS OF THE KOLHAPUR DISTRICT

    PubMed Central

    Upadhye, Anuradha; Kumbhojkar, M. S.; Vartak, V. D.

    1986-01-01

    This paper deals with the wild medicinal plants used by rural population of south-western part of Kolhapur district, Maharashtra State. The authors gathered data on 34 species of locally available wild plants used in curing common human ailments. The plants are arranged according to the type of ailment. Vernacular name of each species followed by its botanical name, relevant plant family and known use of the plant in local medicine are given. PMID:22557559

  10. Toxicity studies of medicinal plants used in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Boukandou Mounanga, Marlaine; Mewono, Ludovic; Aboughe Angone, Sophie

    2015-11-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional medicine is widely used in rural and urban areas also. This is essentially due to the prohibitive cost of pharmaceutical-based medicine and the low incomes of a major part of the population. In addition, the efficacies of many of these traditional and plant-based medicines are proven, but the fact remains that certain plants used in traditional medicine have toxic effects. It is in this perspective that we investigated by bibliographic literature on the toxicity of plants used in traditional medicine. It is crucial to gain knowledge on these plant-based medicines prepared and prescribed by practitioners, particularly in terms of toxicity, composition, specific efficacy of disease and to advise practitioners of this alternative medicine on the protection and security of patients. PMID:26087230

  11. Virtualizing the p-ANAPL Library: A Step towards Drug Discovery from African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Fotso, Ghislain W.; Andrae-Marobela, Kerstin; Bezabih, Merhatibeb; Ndom, Jean Claude; Ngadjui, Bonaventure T.; Ogundaini, Abiodun O.; Abegaz, Berhanu M.; Mevaa, Luc Mbaze

    2014-01-01

    Background Natural products play a key role in drug discovery programs, both serving as drugs and as templates for the synthesis of drugs, even though the quantities and availabilities of samples for screening are often limitted. Experimental approach A current collection of physical samples of > 500 compound derived from African medicinal plants aimed at screening for drug discovery has been made by donations from several researchers from across the continent to be directly available for drug discovery programs. A virtual library of 3D structures of compounds has been generated and Lipinskis Rule of Five has been used to evaluate likely oral availability of the samples. Results A majority of the compound samples are made of flavonoids and about two thirds (2/3) are compliant to the Rule of Five. The pharmacological profiles of thirty six (36) selected compounds in the collection have been discussed. Conclusions and implications The p-ANAPL library is the largest physical collection of natural products derived from African medicinal plants directly available for screening purposes. The virtual library is also available and could be employed in virtual screening campaigns. PMID:24599120

  12. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic effects of Mexican medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Jacobo-Salcedo, Maria del Rosario; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Salazar-Olivo, Luis A; Carranza-Alvarez, Candy; Gonzlez-Espndola, Luis Angel; Domnguez, Fabiola; Maciel-Torres, Sandra Patricia; Garca-Lujan, Concepcin; Gonzlez-Martnez, Marisela del Rocio; Gmez-Snchez, Maricela; Estrada-Castilln, Eduardo; Zapata-Bustos, Rocio; Medellin-Miln, Pedro; Garca-Carranc, Alejandro

    2011-12-01

    The antimicrobial effects of the Mexican medicinal plants Guazuma ulmifolia, Justicia spicigera, Opuntia joconostle, O. leucotricha, Parkinsonia aculeata, Phoradendron longifolium, P. serotinum, Psittacanthus calyculatus, Tecoma stans and Teucrium cubense were tested against several human multi-drug resistant pathogens, including three Gram (+) and five Gram (-) bacterial species and three fungal species using the disk-diffusion assay. The cytotoxicity of plant extracts on human cancer cell lines and human normal non-cancerous cells was also evaluated using the MTT assay. Phoradendron longifolium, Teucrium cubense, Opuntia joconostle, Tecoma stans and Guazuma ulmifolia showed potent antimicrobial effects against at least one multidrug-resistant microorganism (inhibition zone > 15 mm). Only Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum extracts exerted active cytotoxic effects on human breast cancer cells (IC50 < or = 30 microg/mL). The results showed that Guazuma ulmifolia produced potent antimicrobial effects against Candida albicans and Acinetobacter lwoffii, whereas Justicia spicigera and Phoradendron serotinum exerted the highest toxic effects on MCF-7 and HeLa, respectively, which are human cancer cell lines. These three plant species may be important sources of antimicrobial and cytotoxic agents. PMID:22312741

  13. Anti-fungal activities of medicinal plants extracts of Ivorian pharmacopoeia

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Kra Adou Koffi; Marcel, Ahon Gnamien; Dj, Djo-Bi; Sitapha, Ouattara; Adama, Coulibaly; Joseph, Djaman Allico

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study was to evaluate in vitro anti-fungal activity of aqueous and hydroethanolic from medicinal plants extracts collected in Cte dIvoire. Materials and Methods: Plants extracts were prepared by homogenization and separately incorporated to Sabouraud agar using the agar slanted double dilution method. Ketoconazole was used as standards for anti-fungal assay. The anti-fungal tests were performed by sowing 1000 cells of Candida albicans on the previously prepared medium culture. Anti-fungal activity was determined by evaluating anti-fungal parameters values (minimal fungicidal concentrations [MFC] and IC50). Results: The results showed that all extracts possessed anti-fungal activities whose levels vary from plant species to another. Eight of them had a satisfactory anti-candidosic activity and extracts from Terminalia species were the most active. Among them the Terminalia superba extracts generated the strongest activities (MFC = 0.0975 mg/mL). Compared with ketoconazole (MFC = 0.390 mg/mL), the T. superba extracts, aqueous (MFC = 0.195 mg/mL) and hydroethanolic (0.0975 mg/mL) were successively twice and four times more active. The worst anti-fungal activity (MFC = 1600 mg/mL) was obtained with the Guarea cedrata aqueous extract. Conclusion: All medicinal plants extracts produced anti-fungal activities, and T. superba was the most active. PMID:26401367

  14. Bioactivity evaluation against Artemia salina Leach of medicinal plants used in Brazilian Northeastern folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Arcanjo, D D R; Albuquerque, A C M; Melo-Neto, B; Santana, L C L R; Medeiros, M G F; Citó, Amgl

    2012-08-01

    The brine shrimp (Artemia salina Leach) lethality bioassay offers an advantage in standardization and quality control of botanical products. This test is well correlated with antitumor activity (cytotoxicity) and can be used to monitor the activity of bioactive natural products. This paper reports the bioactivity of ethanol extracts from seven medicinal plants from the Northeast of Brazil (Acmella uliginosa, Ageratum conyzoides, Eugenia uniflora, Plectranthus neochilus, Moringa oleifera, Justicia pectoralis and Equisetum sp.) against Artemia salina. Biological activity was evaluated for extracts at 1, 10, 100, and 1000 µg/mL in triplicate, and the mean lethal concentration values (LC50) were obtained by probit analysis. The species Acmella uliginosa showed the highest bioactivity, and its flower extract was more active than its leaf extract. PMID:22990821

  15. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species

    PubMed Central

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  16. Bar-HRM for Authentication of Plant-Based Medicines: Evaluation of Three Medicinal Products Derived from Acanthaceae Species.

    PubMed

    Osathanunkul, Maslin; Madesis, Panagiotis; de Boer, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a popular alternative to synthetic drugs, both in developed and developing countries. The economic importance of the herbal and natural supplement industry is increasing every year. As the herbal industry grows, consumer safety is one issue that cannot be overlooked. Herbal products in Thai local markets are commonly sold without packaging or labels. Plant powders are stored in large bags or boxes, and therefore buying local herbal products poses a high risk of acquiring counterfeited, substituted and/or adulterated products. Due to these issues, a reliable method to authenticate products is needed. Here DNA barcoding was used in combination with High Resolution Melting analysis (Bar-HRM) to authenticate three medicinal Acanthaceae species (Acanthus ebracteatus, Andrographis paniculata and Rhinacanthus nasutus) commonly used in Thailand. The rbcL barcode was selected for use in primers design for HRM analysis to produce standard melting profiles of the selected species. Melting data from the HRM assay using the designed rbcL primers showed that the three chosen species could be distinguished from each other. HRM curves of all fifteen test samples indicated that three of tested products did not contain the indicated species. Two closely related species (A. paniculata and R. nasutus), which have a high level of morphological similarity, were interchanged with one another in three tested products. Incorrect information on packaging and labels of the tested herbal products was the cause of the results shown here. Morphological similarity among the species of interest also hindered the collection process. The Bar-HRM method developed here proved useful in aiding in the identification and authentication of herbal species in processed samples. In the future, species authentication through Bar-HRM could be used to promote consumer trust, as well as raising the quality of herbal products. PMID:26011474

  17. Chemical constituents of marine medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Minqing; Dai, Haofu; Li, Xiaoming; Wang, Bingui

    2009-05-01

    Twenty-four compounds including eight steroids ( 1-8), nine triterpenoids ( 9-16, 24), three flavonoids ( 20-22), and four benzenecarboxylic derivatives ( 17-19, 23) were isolated and identified from stems and twigs of medicinal mangrove plant Sonneratia caseolaris. The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of their spectroscopic data. Among these metabolites, compounds 1, 4-20 and 22-24 were isolated and identified for the first time from S. caseolaris. In the in vitro cytotoxic assay against SMMC-7721 human hepatoma cells, compound 21 (3',4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone) exhibited significant activity with IC50 2.8 ?g/mL, while oleanolic acid ( 14), 3,3'-di- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 18), and 3,3',4- O-tri- O-methyl ether ellagic acid ( 19) showed weak activity. None of these compounds displayed significant antibacterial activites.

  18. Mining chemodiversity from biodiversity: pharmacophylogeny of medicinal plants of Ranunculaceae.

    PubMed

    Hao, Da-Cheng; Xiao, Pei-Gen; Ma, Hong-Ying; Peng, Yong; He, Chun-Nian

    2015-07-01

    This paper reports a pharmacophylogenetic study of a medicinal plant family, Ranunculaceae, investigating the correlations between their phylogeny, chemical constituents, and pharmaceutical properties. Phytochemical, ethnopharmacological, and pharmacological data were integrated in the context of the systematics and molecular phylogeny of the Ranunculaceae. The chemical components of this family included several representative metabolic groups: benzylisoquinoline alkaloids, ranunculin, triterpenoid saponin, and diterpene alkaloids, among others. Ranunculin and magnoflorine were found to coexist in some genera. The pharmacophylogenetic analysis, integrated with therapeutic information, agreed with the taxonomy proposed previously, in which the family Ranunculaceae was divided into five sub-families: Ranunculoideae, Thalictroideae, Coptidoideae, Hydrastidoideae, and Glaucidioideae. It was plausible to organize the sub-family Ranunculoideae into ten tribes. The chemical constituents and therapeutic efficacy of each taxonomic group were reviewed, revealing the underlying connections between phylogeny, chemical diversity, and clinical use, which should facilitate the conservation and sustainable utilization of the pharmaceutical resources derived from the Ranunculaceae. PMID:26233841

  19. Antiviral Activity of Some Plants Used in Nepalese Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rajbhandari, M.; Mentel, R.; Jha, P. K.; Chaudhary, R. P.; Bhattarai, S.; Gewali, M. B.; Karmacharya, N.; Hipper, M.

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extracts of 41 plant species belonging to 27 families used in the traditional medicine in Nepal have been investigated for in vitro antiviral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and influenza virus A by dye uptake assay in the systems HSV-1/Vero cells and influenza virus A/MDCK cells. The extracts of Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata, Cassiope fastigiata and Thymus linearis showed potent anti-herpes viral activity. The extracts of Allium oreoprasum, Androsace strigilosa, Asparagus filicinus, Astilbe rivularis, Bergenia ciliata and Verbascum thapsus exhibited strong anti-influenza viral activity. Only the extracts of A. rivularis and B. ciliata demonstrated remarkable activity against both viruses. PMID:18955262

  20. Anti-HIV-1 efficacy of extracts from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Su-A; Hong, Seong-Karp; Suh, Chang-Il; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Jeong-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Park, Seung-Won; Paik, Soon-Young

    2010-04-01

    The anti-HIV-1 activities of butanol, hexane, chloroform and water extracts from four widely used folk medicinal plants (Sophora flavescens, Tulipa edulis, Herba ephedra, and Pachyma hoelen Rumph) were evaluated in this study. The hexane extract of Pachyma hoelen Rumph, PH-4, showed effective inhibition against HIV-1. The 50% effective concentration (EC(50)) of PH-4 was 37.3 microg/ml in the p24 antigen assay and 36.8% in the HIV-1 recombinant RT activity test (at 200 microg/ml). In addition, the PH-4 showed the protective effect on the infected MT-4 cells, with a 58.2% rate of protection. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC(50)) of PH-4 was 100.6 microg/ml. These results suggest that PH-4 from Pachyma hoelen Rumph might be the candidate for the chemotherapy agent against HIV-1 infection with further study. PMID:20437159

  1. Anti-bacterial activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; de Souza Luna, Josiane; dos Santos, Aldenir Feitosa; de Andrade, Maria Cristina Cao; Sant'Ana, Antnio Euzbio Goulart; Genet, Jean-Pierre; Marquez, Batrice; Neuville, Luc; Moreau, Nicole

    2006-04-21

    Extracts from various organs of 25 plants of Brazilian traditional medicine were assayed with respect to their anti-bacterial activities against Escherichia coli, a susceptible strain of Staphylococcus aureus and two resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus harbouring the efflux pumps NorA and MsrA. Amongst the 49 extracts studied, 14 presented anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, including the ethanolic extracts from the rhizome of Jatropha elliptica, from the stem barks of Schinus terebinthifolius and Erythrina mulungu, from the stems and leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis and Serjania lethalis, and from the stem bark and leaves of Lafoensia pacari. The classes of compounds present in the active extracts were determined as a preliminary step towards their bioactivity-guided separation. No extracts were active against Escherichia coli. PMID:16356672

  2. Contact and fumigant toxicity of oriental medicinal plant extracts against Dermanyssus gallinae (Acari: Dermanyssidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Soon-Il; Na, Young-Eun; Yi, Ji-Hwan; Kim, Byung-Seok; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2007-04-30

    The acaricidal activity of methanolic extracts from 40 oriental medicinal plant species and a steam distillate of Cinnamomum camphora towards poultry house-collected adult Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer was examined using direct contact and vapour phase toxicity bioassays. Results were compared with those of 15 acaricides currently used. In filter paper contact toxicity bioassays using adult D. gallinae, C. camphora steam distillate (0.0051 mgcm(-2)) was the most toxic material, followed by extracts from Asarum sieboldii var. seoulens whole plant, Eugenia caryophyllata flower bud and Mentha arvensis var. piperascens whole plant (0.0063-0.0072 mgcm(-2)), based upon 24h LD(50) values. The acaricidal activity of these four plant preparations was almost comparable to that of profenofos (LD(50), 0.003 mgcm(-2)) but less effective than dichlorvos (LD(50), 0.0004 mgcm(-2)). The toxicity of Illicium verum fruit and Lysimachia davurica leaf extracts (0.09 mgcm(-2)) was almost comparable to that of benfuracarb, prothiofos, propoxur and fenthion (0.053-0.070mgcm(-2)). In vapour phase toxicity tests, these plant preparations were more effective in closed containers than in open ones, indicating that the mode of delivery of these plant extracts was largely a result of action in the vapour phase. Plants described herein merit further study as potential D. gallinae control agents. PMID:17289270

  3. Medicinal plants from Peru: a review of plants as potential agents against cancer.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Gustavo F; Valerio, Luis G

    2006-09-01

    Natural products have played a significant role in drug discovery and development especially for agents against cancer and infectious disease. An analysis of new and approved drugs for cancer by the United States Food and Drug Administration over the period of 1981-2002 showed that 62% of these cancer drugs were of natural origin. Natural compounds possess highly diverse and complex molecular structures compared to small molecule synthetic drugs and often provide highly specific biological activities likely derived from the rigidity and high number of chiral centers. Ethnotraditional use of plant-derived natural products has been a major source for discovery of potential medicinal agents. A number of native Andean and Amazonian medicines of plant origin are used as traditional medicine in Peru to treat different diseases. Of particular interest in this mini-review are three plant materials endemic to Peru with the common names of Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa), Maca (Lepidium meyenii), and Dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) each having been scientifically investigated for a wide range of therapeutic uses including as specific anti-cancer agents as originally discovered from the long history of traditional usage and anecdotal information by local population groups in South America. Against this background, we present an evidence-based analysis of the chemistry, biological properties, and anti-tumor activities for these three plant materials. In addition, this review will discuss areas requiring future study and the inherent limitations in their experimental use as anti-cancer agents. PMID:17017852

  4. Evaluation of medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan for antimelanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Arung, Enos Tangke; Kusuma, Irawan Wijaya; Christy, Eva Oktoberiani; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2009-10-01

    In the course of searching for new materials to use as whitening agents, we screened 19 methanol extracts prepared from 14 medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan province, Indonesia. The screening methods used were the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging assay, a tyrosinase inhibition assay, and a melanin formation inhibition assay using B16 melanoma cells. The extracts of Willughbeia coriacea (bark part of aerial root), Phyllanthus urinaria (root), Eleutherine palmifolia (bulb), Eusideroxylon zwageri (seed), Dendrophthoe petandra (aerial root), Passiflora foetida (stem), and Vitex pinnata (root) showed DPPH radical-scavenging activity of more than 70% at 100 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root), P. urinaria (root), and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-tyrosine as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root) and D. petandra (aerial root) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity of more than 40% using L-DOPA as a substrate at 500 microg/ml. The extracts of W. coriacea (bark part of aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Glochidion philippcum (aerial root, 200 and 300 microg/ml), E. palmifolia (bulb, 50 microg/ml), E. zwageri (seed, 100 microg/ml), D. petandra (aerial root, 200 microg/ml), Lansium domesticum (bark, 25 microg/ml), P. foetida (stem, fruit, 300 microg/ml), and Solanum torvum (root, 300 microg/ml) strongly inhibited the melanin production of B16 melanoma cells without significant cytotoxicity. These findings indicate that some medicinal plants from Central Kalimantan are potential ingredients for skin-whitening cosmetics if their safety can be confirmed. PMID:19618251

  5. The cultivation of wild food and medicinal plants for improving community livelihood: The case of the Buhozi site, DR Congo

    PubMed Central

    Karhagomba, Innocent Balagizi; Mirindi T, Adhama; Mushagalusa, Timothée B.; Nabino, Victor B.; Koh, Kwangoh

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of farming technology on introducing medicinal plants (MP) and wild food plants (WFP) into a traditional agricultural system within peri-urban zones. Field investigations and semi-structured focus group interviews conducted in the Buhozi community showed that 27 health and nutrition problems dominated in the community, and could be treated with 86 domestic plant species. The selected domestic MP and WFP species were collected in the broad neighboring areas of the Buhozi site, and introduced to the experimental field of beans and maize crops in Buhozi. Among the 86 plants introduced, 37 species are confirmed as having both medicinal and nutritional properties, 47 species with medicinal, and 2 species with nutritional properties. The field is arranged in a way that living hedges made from Tithonia diversifolia provide bio-fertilizers to the plants growing along the hedges. The harvest of farming crops does not disturb the MP or WFP, and vice-versa. After harvesting the integrated plants, the community could gain about 40 times higher income, than from harvesting farming crops only. This kind of field may be used throughout the year, to provide both natural medicines and foods. It may therefore contribute to increasing small-scale crop producers' livelihood, while promoting biodiversity conservation. This model needs to be deeply documented, for further pharmaceutical and nutritional use. PMID:24353838

  6. Antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants against multiple antibiotic resistant uropathogens: a study from Kolli Hills, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, A S; Raja, S S S; Ponmurugan, K; Kandekar, S C; Natarajaseenivasan, K; Maripandi, A; Mandeel, Q A

    2011-09-01

    The increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance among bacterial pathogens necessitates medicinal plants as an alternate therapy in restricting the resistant infectious organisms. In this primitive study, the antibiotic resistance of organisms isolated from urinary tract infected patients was evaluated using the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) method and Multiple Antibiotic Resistance (MAR) index values, and the MAR values was also calculated for plant extracts. The 10 common medicinal plants collected from Kolli hills, Namakkal, south India were extracted using the chloroform, methanol, acetone, ethanol and saponification procedure. The efficacy of the extracts on the uropathogens was tested by agar disc diffusion method in order to analyse the inhibitory activity of plant extract on the organisms. Azadiracta indica A. Juss., Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) and Euphorbia hirta Linn. exhibited high inhibitory activity against most of the 11 tested organisms followed by Cassia javanica Linn. and Phyllanthus niruri Linn. The maximum zone size of 46.3 mm was exhibited by methanol extract of P. niruri Linn. against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Asparagus racemosus Willd. and Eupatorium triplinerve Vahl had the least activity against resistant pathogens. Saponified lipids of most of the plants exhibited maximum antibacterial activity. Among the tested organisms, P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the most susceptible and Serratia marcescens, Enterobacter cloaceae, Citrobacter koseri, and Citrobacter freundii were the least inhibited by most of the extracts of medicinal plants. It is concluded that revised antibiotic policies and more importantly the development of herbal medicine as an alternative may be incorporated in urological practice. PMID:21986363

  7. The cultivation of wild food and medicinal plants for improving community livelihood: The case of the Buhozi site, DR Congo.

    PubMed

    Karhagomba, Innocent Balagizi; Mirindi T, Adhama; Mushagalusa, Timothe B; Nabino, Victor B; Koh, Kwangoh; Kim, Hee Seon

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to demonstrate the effect of farming technology on introducing medicinal plants (MP) and wild food plants (WFP) into a traditional agricultural system within peri-urban zones. Field investigations and semi-structured focus group interviews conducted in the Buhozi community showed that 27 health and nutrition problems dominated in the community, and could be treated with 86 domestic plant species. The selected domestic MP and WFP species were collected in the broad neighboring areas of the Buhozi site, and introduced to the experimental field of beans and maize crops in Buhozi. Among the 86 plants introduced, 37 species are confirmed as having both medicinal and nutritional properties, 47 species with medicinal, and 2 species with nutritional properties. The field is arranged in a way that living hedges made from Tithonia diversifolia provide bio-fertilizers to the plants growing along the hedges. The harvest of farming crops does not disturb the MP or WFP, and vice-versa. After harvesting the integrated plants, the community could gain about 40 times higher income, than from harvesting farming crops only. This kind of field may be used throughout the year, to provide both natural medicines and foods. It may therefore contribute to increasing small-scale crop producers' livelihood, while promoting biodiversity conservation. This model needs to be deeply documented, for further pharmaceutical and nutritional use. PMID:24353838

  8. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by Kurd tribe in Dehloran and Abdanan Districts, Ilam Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi Pirbalouti, A; Momeni, M; Bahmani, M

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides significant ethnobotanical information on pharmaceutical plant uses, where some degree of acculturation exists, so that there is urgency in recording such data. The aim of this work is to catalogue, document, and make known the uses of plants for folk medicine in Dehloran and Abdanan districts, Ilam Province, Iran. An analysis was made of the species used, parts of the plant employed, preparation methods, administration means, and the ailments treated in relation to pathological groups. A folk botanical survey was carried out from February 2007 to October 2009. The information was collected from 81 persons (60% men and 40% women) in 20 villages. The informants reported data on 122 species, belonging to 49 botanical families, were claimed as medicinal. This work is focused on human medicinal plant uses, which represent 95% of the pharmaceutical uses. The most commonly represented families were Asteraceae (37.5%), Lamiaceae (20.8%), Rosaceae (18.7%), Fabaceae (16.7%) and Apiaceae (14.6%). Some of the uses were found to be new when compared with published literature on ethnomedicine of Iran. The folk knowledge about medicinal plant use is still alive in the studied region, and a number of scarcely reported plant uses has been detected, some of them with promising phytotherapeutical applications. The results of the study reveal that some of species play an important role in primary healthcare system of these tribal communities. PMID:24146463

  9. Is the use-impact on native caatinga species in Brazil reduced by the high species richness of medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira, Rosilane Ferreira

    2007-08-15

    A study of the diversity of uses of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge associated with the caatinga vegetation was undertaken in the semi-arid region of Pernambuco State, NE Brazil. We tested the utilitarian redundancy model (as an analogy to the ecological redundancy hypothesis) in evaluating the implications of the use of medicinal plants by rural communities to examine whether the presence of numerous species with analogous functions (identical therapeutic applications, for example) would reduce the use-impact on native species in the neighboring caatinga vegetation. Various techniques were used to collect information concerning medicinal plants and their applications from 19 residents considered "local specialists". The vegetation was sampled to determine the abundance of woody plants. Approximately 106 plants that fall into 67 local therapeutic categories were identified. Despite the fact that exotic species compose a significant fraction of the local medicinal flora, the native species represented the greatest percentage of local uses and indications. Amburana cearensis, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Anadenanthera colubrina, Sideroxylon obtusifolium, and Ziziphus joazeiro, for example, are highly sought after plants, and represent key species in terms of conservation and sustainable management. Our model of utilitarian redundancy has important consequences for testing ethnobotanical hypotheses, as well as for indicating strategies for biodiversity conservation. PMID:17616289

  10. A phytopharmacological review on an important medicinal plant - Amorphophallus paeoniifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Yadu Nandan; Ota, Sarada; Srikanth, N.; Jamal, Mahvish; Wanjari, Manish

    2012-01-01

    Amorphophallus paeoniifolius is used for long period in various chronic diseases therapeutically. Aim of the current review is to search literature for the pharmacological properties, safety/toxicity studies, pharmacognostic studies and phytochemical investigation of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber. The compiled data may be helpful for the researchers to focus on the priority areas of research yet to be discovered. Complete information about the plant has been collected from various books, journals and Ayurvedic classical texts like Samhitas, Nighantus etc. Journals of the last 20 years were searched. Particulars of pharmacological activities, phytochemical isolation, toxicity studies etc. were extracted from the published reports focussing on the safety profile of the plant. Safety of the whole plant was concluded in the review. PMID:23049180

  11. Use and valuation of native and introduced medicinal plant species in Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, Boyacá, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Medicinal plant species contribute significantly to folk medicine in Colombia. However, few local studies have investigated whether species used are introduced or native and whether there is a difference in importance of native and introduced medicinal plant species. The aim of the present study was to describe the use of medicinal plants within two municipalities, Campo Hermoso and Zetaquira, both in the department of Boyacá, Colombia and to assess the importance of native and introduced plants to healers, amateur healers and local people. As local healers including amateur healers have no history of introduced species our working hypotheses (H1-2) were that H1: native and introduced medicinal plant species are of equal importance and H2: healers and amateur healers do not differentiate in their preferences between native and introduced medicinal plant species. Methods Ten villages were included in the study. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used including questionnaires, semi-structured interviews, in- depth interviews, and open talks. Voucher specimens were collected in home gardens and during field walks. For data analysis, we calculated use value indices and Jaccard index and tested for the above hypothesis using Spearman rank-correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon-Mann–Whitney tests. Results Eighty medicinal plant species were described by locals as the most frequently used. Of these, 78 species were taxonomically identified, distributed within 41 families and 74 genera, which included 35 native species and 43 introduced. The highest valued families were: Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Rutaceae and Verbenaceae. The species ranked highest according to their Use Values, in both municipalities, were Mentha suaveolens Ehrh., Ambrosia cumanensis Kunth, and Verbena littoralis Kunth. Introduced species were more important than native ones in Zetaquira, while there was no difference in importance in Campo Hermoso. While healers relied most on the uses of native species, amateur healers were inclined to rely on introduced species. Medicinal plant administration in both municipalities follow the usual pattern: Leaves are used most commonly prepared by decoction or infusion and administrated orally. Conclusions The high proportion of introduced plant species used in the local traditional medicines is similar to the results of a number of other ethnobotanical studies and emphasise the need for efforts to record and maintain traditional knowledge on native species. PMID:23578098

  12. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gazzaneo, Luiz Rodrigo Saldanha; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2005-01-01

    The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinal plant use. Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. The material collected represent 125 plants, distributed among 61 botanical families, with little participation of native plants. This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat blood-related problems, but cite a much more diverse group of plants to treat problems related to the respiratory and digestive systems - two important categories in studies undertaken in different parts of the world. The local medicinal flora is largely based on plants that are either cultivated or obtained from anthropogenic zones, possibly due to the use and access restrictions of the legally protected neighboring forest. Despite these restrictions, the species with the highest use-value by this community was Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macb., a native plant of the Atlantic Forest. PMID:16270911

  13. Knowledge and use of medicinal plants by local specialists in an region of Atlantic Forest in the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gazzaneo, Luiz Rodrigo Saldanha; de Lucena, Reinaldo Farias Paiva; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2005-01-01

    The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation or recuperation of residual forests. This study therefore sought to: collect information from local populations concerning the use of Atlantic Forest medicinal plants; verify the sources of medicinal plants used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed, and; calculate the informant consensus factor in relation to medicinal plant use. Data was obtained using semi-structured forms to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. The material collected represent 125 plants, distributed among 61 botanical families, with little participation of native plants. This study demonstrated that local people tend to agree with each other in terms of the plants used to treat blood-related problems, but cite a much more diverse group of plants to treat problems related to the respiratory and digestive systems – two important categories in studies undertaken in different parts of the world. The local medicinal flora is largely based on plants that are either cultivated or obtained from anthropogenic zones, possibly due to the use and access restrictions of the legally protected neighboring forest. Despite these restrictions, the species with the highest use-value by this community was Pithecellobium cochliocarpum (Gomez) Macb., a native plant of the Atlantic Forest. PMID:16270911

  14. From Delirium to Coherence: Shamanism and Medicine Plants in Silko's "Ceremony"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weso, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    A nondescript rock shelter in Texas provides the evidence for shamanism in Leslie Marmon Silko's novel, "Ceremony". There, archaeologists found identifiable images of antlered human figures and entheogenic plant substances, which are medicinal plants, associated with shamanistic practices.

  15. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by local people in the lowlands of Konta Special Woreda, southern nations, nationalities and peoples regional state, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekalo, Tesfaye Hailemariam; Woodmatas, Sebsebe Demissew; Woldemariam, Zemede Asfaw

    2009-01-01

    Background Research was carried out in Konta Special Woreda (District); it is a remote area with lack of infrastructure like road to make any research activities in the area. Therefore, this research was conducted to investigate medicinal plants of the Konta people and to document the local knowledge before environmental and cultural changes deplete the resources. Methods The information was collected between October 2006 and February 2007. Interview-based field study constituted the main data collection method in which the gathering, preparation, use, previous and current status and cultivation practices were systematically investigated. The abundance, taxonomic diversity and distribution of medicinal plants were studied using ecological approach. Results A total of 120 species, grouped within 100 genera and 47 families that are used in traditional medical practices were identified and studied. The Fabaceae and Lamiaceae were the most commonly reported medicinal plants with 16 (13.3%) and 14 (12%) species, respectively. 25.4% of the total medicinal plants are collected from homegardens and the rest (74.6%) are collected from wild habitats. Of the total number of medicinal plants, 108 species (90%) were used to treat human ailments, 6 (5%) for livestock diseases and the remaining 6 (5%) were used to treat both human and livestock health problems. The major threats to medicinal plants reported include harvesting medicinal plants for firewood (24.8%) followed by fire (22.3%) and construction (19%). Of the four plant communities identified in the wild, more medicinal plant species (34) were found in community type-4 (Hyparrhenia cymbaria-Erythrina abyssinica community), which accounted for 61.8%. Conclusion Konta Special Woreda is an important area for medicinal plants and associated local knowledge; the natural vegetation being the most important reservoir for the majority of the medicinal plants. Environmental and cultural changes are in the process of threatening the resources and this signals the need for serious efforts to create public awareness so that measures are taken to conserve the medicinal plants in the natural ecosystems and other suitable environments. PMID:19775482

  16. Antityrosinase and antimicrobial activities from Thai medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dej-Adisai, Sukanya; Meechai, Imron; Puripattanavong, Jindaporn; Kummee, Sopa

    2014-04-01

    Various dermatological disorders and microbial skin infection can cause hyperpigmentation. Therefore, screenings for whitening and antimicrobial agents from Thai medicinal plants have been of research interest. Seventy-seven ethanol plant extracts were investigated for antityrosinase activity, eleven samples showed the tyrosinase inhibition more than 50 % were further preliminary screening for antimicrobial activity by agar disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution methods. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr. (Moraceae) root extract, which showed the potential of tyrosinase inhibition with 90.57 ± 2.93 % and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes and Trichophyton mentagophytes with inhibition zone as 9.10 ± 0.00, 10.67 ± 0.09, 15.25 ± 0.05 and 6.60 ± 0.17 mm, respectively was selected for phytochemical investigation. Three pure compounds were isolated as artocarpin, cudraflavone C and artocarpanone. And artocarpanone exhibited anti-tyrosinase effect; artocarpin and cudraflavone C also showed the potential of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, S. epidermidis and P. acnes with MIC at 2, 4 and 2 μg/ml, respectively and MBC at 32 μg/ml for these bacteria. So, these pure compounds are interesting for further study in order to provide possibilities of new whitening and antibacterial development. This will be the first report of phytochemical investigation of A. integer root. PMID:23835832

  17. [Use of medicinal plants against scorpionic and ophidian venoms].

    PubMed

    Memmi, A; Sansa, G; Rjeibi, I; El Ayeb, M; Srairi-Abid, N; Bellasfer, Z; Fekhih, A

    2007-01-01

    The scorpionic and ophidian envenomations are a serious public health problem in Tunisia especially in Southeastern regions. In these regions Artemisia campestris L is a plant well known which has a very important place in traditional medicine for its effectiveness against alleged venom of scorpions and snakes. In this work, we tested for the first time, the anti-venomous activity of Artemisia campestris L against the scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii and the viper Macrovipera lebetina venoms. Assays were conducted by fixing the dose of extract to3 mg/mouse while doses of venom are variable. The leaves of Artemisia campestris L were extracted by various organic solvents (Ether of oil, ethyl acetate, methanol and ethanol) and each extract was tested for its venom neutralizing capacity. For the ethanolic extract, a significant activity with respect to the venoms of scorpion Androctonus australis garzonii (Aag), was detected. Similarly, a significant neutralizing activity against the venom of a viper Macrovipera lebetina (Ml), was obtained with the dichloromethane extract. These results suggest the presence of two different type of chemical components in this plant: those neutralizing the venom of scorpion are soluble in ethanol whereas those neutralizing the venom of viper are soluble in dichloromethane. PMID:19388583

  18. ELECTROCHEMICAL FINGERPRINT STUDIES OF SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS RICH IN FLAVONOIDS.

    PubMed

    Konieczy?ski, Pawe?

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a size-exclusion column (SEC) with electrochemical (voltammetric) detection at a boron-doped diamond electrode (BDDE) was applied for studying the correlations between electroactive Cu and Fe species with phenolic groups of flavonoids. For comparison with electrochemical results, SEC-HPLC-DAD detection was used. The studied plant material comprised of: Betula verrucosa Ehrh., Equisetun arvense L., Polygonum aviculare L., Viola tricolor L., Crataegus oxyacantha L., Sambucus nigra L. and Helichrysum arenarium (L.) Moench. Based upon the results, high negative correlation was found for the chromatographic peak currents at 45 min with the sum of Cu and Fe for the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus and Betula species, and for the peak currents at 65 min of the aqueous extracts of Sambucus, Crataegus, Helichrysum and Betula botanical species. This behavior confirms that it is mainly the flavonoids with easily oxidizable phenolic groups which are strongly influenced by the presence of Cu and Fe. Moreover, the electrochemical profiles obtained thanks to the use of HPLC hyphenated with voltammetric detection can be potentially applied for fingerprint studies of the plant materials used in medicine. PMID:26647621

  19. The molluscicidal activity of plants used in Brazilian folk medicine.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, A F; Sant'Ana, A E

    2000-01-01

    In a continuing search for new compounds for the control of the vectors of schistosomiasis, we have tested the activity of some Brazilian medicinal plants as sources of molluscicidal natural compounds, using two molluscicidal bioassays. Twenty-seven crude extracts, from twenty-six species belonging to nineteen families, were tested. Seven extracts showed significant molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata adults with DL50 values of less than 50 ppm, and five of them were very active in the test using egg masses. The species most active against B. glabrata adults (LD50 value = 3.65 ppm) and their egg masses (LD50 value = 0.13 ppm) was Derris sp. Annona muricata [LD50 value (adult) = 11.86 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 49.62 ppm], Jatropha elliptica (from Gois state) [LD50 value (adult) = 24.80 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 3.03 ppm] and Renealmia exaltata [LD50 value (adult) = 28.03 ppm and LD50 value (egg) = 21.67 ppm], were also considered promising molluscicidal plants. PMID:10715846

  20. Medicinal plants in the southern region of the State of Nuevo León, México

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although the flora of the State of Nuevo León is well known, there are few records of ethnobotancial information. An ethnobotanical study was undertaken in order to know the medicinal plants used by people living at the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas in the southern Nuevo León. Collection of plants specimens and interviews were carried out among the people of the municipalities of Aramberri, Galeana, and Zaragoza. Since former studies in the region are scarce, the aim of this work was to record the medicinal species and their uses in the scrublands and oak-pine forest areas, of southern Nuevo León, Mexico, and also to know if there are differences in the number of species and number of uses knowledge by people. Methods Field work was carried out over a 2 years period; useful plants were collected and a total of 105 people from 46 different villages were interviewed. A database was compiled using data collected by means of semi structured interviews. The data were analyzed by means of non-parametric statistics, using goodness-of-fit test (Chi-squared) (number of species known by people of each municipality, number of uses known by people of each municipality), Chi-squared modified to incorporate the Yates Correction (number of species known by people living at scrublands and oak-pine forest); the Kruskall-Wallis test (number of species known by women and men of the three municipalities), and the Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient (age and number of species known, and age and number of uses). Results A total of 163 medicinal plant species were recorded in the study area, comprising 108 wild and 55 cultivated plants. A total of 117 species were recorded in the oak-pine forest, and 111 in the scrublands area, a total of 68 were recorded in both areas; 68 medicinal species are used in all three municipalities, 40 wild and 28 cultivated. We documented 235 different medicinal uses. The most common plant parts used for medicinal purposes were found to be leaves (123 species), stems (55), fruits (28), roots (17), and bark (14). No differences were noted in the number of medicinal plant species identified among people, but differences were significant in their knowledge with respect to the number of uses among people of the three municipalities studied; people from both, scrublands and oak-pine forest know similar number of species and number of uses. Men and women of the three different municipalities knew statistically the same number of species and number of uses. There was no correlation between resident’s age and number of species known and resident’s age and number of uses either in Galeana or in Aramberri, but, there was high correlation among these variables in Zaragoza. Conclusion In southern Nuevo León people use at least 5% of the total State flora as medicinal plants, and most of these species are included in few plant families. Most of medicinal species are wild and indigenous to the region. The two most important major plant communities, scrublands and oak-pine forest provide almost the same number of medicinal species. A third of the medicinal flora recorded are used in all three municipalities, most of them are wild. Leaves, stems and fruits are the plant parts most commonly used for healing, and boiling is the most common method used for this purpose. Men and women from the three municipalities are familiar with nearly the same number of species; however, their knowledge of the number of uses varies significantly. In Galeana and Aramberri there was no correlation between a person’s age and number of species recognized, however, in Zaragoza, there existed a high correlation between these two factors. PMID:23231862

  1. Evaluation of two methods for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Hua-Bin; Jiang, Yue; Wong, Chi-Chun; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Chen, Feng

    2007-05-01

    The efficiencies of two traditional extraction methods used in Chinese medicine (the decoction method and the maceration method) were evaluated for the extraction of antioxidants from medicinal plants. A group of medicinal plants possessing nutritious and tonic functions were chosen as model plants. A commonly used extraction method was used as a reference method. The antioxidant capacities and total phenolic contents of the extracts were measured by ferric-reducing antioxidant power and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assays as well as the Folin-Ciocalteu method, respectively. The results obtained indicated that the two traditional extraction methods could effectively extract antioxidants from medicinal plants. These extraction methods can be applied to the analysis and purification of antioxidants in plants, respectively. At home, people can use these methods to extract antioxidants from plants for consumption. In the food industry, these methods could be utilized to prepare crude extracts from plants containing antioxidants for use as food additives. PMID:17387460

  2. Ethnoveterinary medicines in four districts of Jimma zone, Ethiopia: cross sectional survey for plant species and mode of use

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional medicines have been used for nearly 90% of livestock populations in Ethiopia where complimentary remedies are required to the modern health care system. All plants with pharmacological activity complimentarily prescribed as best choice against livestock diseases. A community based cross - sectional survey was conducted to investigate ethno-veterinary knowledge and practices of study area by purposive sampling techniques. The data from respondents were collected through face-to face interview using pre-tested semi-structured questionnaires, which was further accompanied by field observations of the medicinal plants. The vast majority of the statistics were analyzed descriptively by SPSS 16 Windows version to extrapolate our findings in ethno-botanical knowledge. Results In the study, a total of 74 species of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant species from 31 families have been identified for treating 22 different livestock ailments. The three families: Asteraceae, Cucurbitaceae and Solanaceae make up larger proportion of reported medicinal plants which accounted for 10.41%, 8.33% and 6.25%, respectively. Of reported medicinal plants, 16.7% informant consensus was recorded for the species Croton macrostachyus Del., 10.7% for Nicotiana tabacum L. and 9.5% for Olea capensis L.Subsp. macrocarpa (C.H. Wright) I.Verd. in treatment of one or more veterinary ailments. The greater varieties of medicinal plant species that accounted for 28.2% were used against management of blackleg which was common livestock diseases in the study area. The findings showed, trees accounted for 43.24%, followed by shrubs (33.78%) and herbs (14.86%). Eighty one percent of medicinal plants reported by respondents were collected from wild habitats, and leaves reported to be used by 68% of the informants for ethnoveterinary medicines preparations. The preparations were applied through different routes of administration; oral administration accounted for (76.2%), followed by application of topical (9.53%) and nasal (5.19%). Conclusions Ethnoveterinary practices significantly suggested to play greater roles in livestock health care as an alternative or integral part of modern veterinary practices. The traditional knowledge in treatment of livestock diseases of the study districts needs further scientific evaluations by phytochemical and antimicrobial experimentation to determine safety, efficacy, mode of delivery, drug development and dosage in pharmacological laboratory. PMID:24679045

  3. Screening Togolese medicinal plants for few pharmacological properties

    PubMed Central

    Karou, Simplice D.; Tchacondo, Tchadjobo; Tchibozo, Micheline Agassounon Djikpo; Anani, Kokou; Ouattara, Lassina; Simpore, Jacques; de Souza, Comlan

    2012-01-01

    Background: Terminalia macroptera Guill. et Perr. (Combretaceae), Sida alba L. (Malvaceae), Prosopis africana Guill et Perr. Taub. (Mimosaceae), Bridelia ferruginea Benth. (Euphorbiaceae), and Vetiveria nigritana Stapf. (Asteraceae) are traditionally used in Togolese folk medicine to treat several diseases including microbial infections. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and hemolytic properties of the crude extracts of the above-mentioned plants. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial and the antioxidant activities were assayed using the NCCLS microdilution method and the DPPH free radical scavenging, respectively. Human A+ red blood cells were used to perform the hemolytic assay. Phenolics were further quantified in the extracts using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Minimal inhibitory concentrations in the range of 230-1800 μg/ml were recorded in the NCCLS broth microdilution for both bacterial and fungal strains with methanol extracts. The DPPH radical scavenging assay yielded interesting antioxidant activities of the extracts of P. africana and T. macroptera (IC50 values of 0.003 ± 0.00 μg/ml and 0.05 ± 0.03 μg/ml, respectively). These activities were positively correlated with the total phenolic contents and negatively correlated with the proanthocyanidin content of the extracts. The hemolytic assay revealed that great hemolysis occurred with the methanol extracts of T. macroptera, S. longepedunculata, and B. ferruginea. Conclusion: These results support in part the use of the selected plants in the treatment of microbial infections. In addition, the plant showed an interesting antioxidant activity that could be useful in the management of oxidative stress. PMID:22518084

  4. Potential Use of Turkish Medicinal Plants in the Treatment of Various Diseases.

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Gulay; Kamiloglu, Senem; Ozdal, Tugba; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are sources of health-promoting substances, including phytochemicals and phytoalexins that comprise polyphenols, flavonoids, carotenoids, vitamins A, C, E and several other constituents. Many studies have indicated that medicinal plants have been used to treat human diseases for thousands of years owing to their antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Medicinal plants reduce the oxidative stress in cells and prevent cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, neurodegenerative and digestive system disorders. These potential beneficial effects have been attributed to the presence of bioactive compounds that show antioxidant properties by acting as free radical scavengers or metal chelators, reducing the reactions that produce reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS). Considering the importance of medicinal plants in terms of their beneficial health effects, some of the medicinally important plants grown in Turkey are covered in this review with respect to their antioxidant potential and phytochemical profile. PMID:26927038

  5. Medicinal and useful plants in the tradition of Rotonda, Pollino National Park, Southern Italy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reports an ethnobotanical survey of the traditional uses of medicinal and useful plants in an area of the Pollino National Park, Basilicata, Southern Italy. The study, conducted between 2009 and 2010, gathered information on the medicinal plants traditionally used in the neighbourhood of town of Rotonda, in the Pollino National Park, that appears have very rich and interesting ethnopharmacological traditions. Methods In all, we interviewed 120 key informants, whose age ranged between 50 and 95 years. Results The research resulted to the identification of 78 medicinal plants belonging to 46 families. Among the species reported, 59 are used in human medicine, 18 for domestic use, 8 in veterinary medicine. Several plants have been reported in previous studies, but with different uses, or never reported. Conclusions Data obtained showed that in the studied area the folk use of plants is alive and still derives from daily practice. PMID:23522331

  6. Medicinal plants popularly used in the Xingó region - a semi-arid location in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Cecília de Fátima C B R; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Maia, Maria Bernadete S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI) of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinal plant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species) were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark. PMID:16556305

  7. Medicinal plants popularly used in the Xingó region – a semi-arid location in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Cecília de Fátima CBR; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; Maia, Maria Bernadete S

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify plant species among the diverse flora of the caatinga ecosystem that are used therapeutically. Research was undertaken in the municipalities of Piranhas and Delmiro Gouveia, in the Xingó region (state of Alagoas, NE Brazil). In order to identify the medicinal plants used in this region, semi-structured questionnaires were applied. The species cited were collected and sent to the Xingó Herbarium for taxonomic analysis. The relative importance (RI) of each species cited was calculated to verify their cultural importance. The therapeutic indications attributed to the species were classified under 16 body systems. A total of 187 medicinal species were cited, from 64 families and 128 genera. The main indications for medicinal plant use were against common colds, bronchitis, cardiovascular problems, kidney problems, inflammations in general, and as tranquilizers. Approximately 16% (30 plant species) were versatile in relation to their use, with an Relative Importance value over 1, having been indicated for up to nine body systems. The body systems that stood out the most were: the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal system, and infectious diseases. Most cited plant parts used for medicinal purposes were flowers, leaves, and inner stem bark. PMID:16556305

  8. A Review of Swertia chirayita (Gentianaceae) as a Traditional Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vijay; Van Staden, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Swertia chirayita (Gentianaceae), a popular medicinal herb indigenous to the temperate Himalayas is used in traditional medicine to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria, and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British, and the American pharmacopeias and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and other conventional medical systems. This ethnomedicinal herb is known mostly for its bitter taste caused by the presence of different bioactive compounds that are directly associated with human health welfare. The increasing high usage of Swertia chirayita, mostly the underground tissues, as well as the illegal overharvesting combined with habitat destruction resulted in a drastic reduction of its populations and has brought this plant to the verge of extinction. The increasing national and international demand for Swertia chirayita has led to unscrupulous collection from the wild and adulteration of supplies. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of the current state of scientific knowledge on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, safety evaluation as well as the potential role of plant biotechnology in the conservation of Swertia chirayita and to highlight its future prospects. Pharmacological data reported in literature suggest that Swertia chirayita shows a beneficial effect in the treatment of several ailments. However, there is lack of adequate information on the safety evaluation of the plant. The pharmacological usefulness of Swertia chirayita requires the need for conservation-friendly approaches in its utilization. Providing high-quality genetically uniform clones for sustainable use and thereby saving the genetic diversity of this species in nature is important. In this regard, plant biotechnological applications such as micropropagation, synthetic seed production, and hairy root technology can play a significant role in a holistic conservation strategy. In addition to micropropagation, storage of these valuable genetic resources is equally important for germplasm preservation. However, more advanced research is warranted to determine the activities of bioactive compounds in vitro and in vivo, establish their underlying mechanisms of action and commence the process of clinical research. PMID:26793105

  9. A Review of Swertia chirayita (Gentianaceae) as a Traditional Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Van Staden, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Swertia chirayita (Gentianaceae), a popular medicinal herb indigenous to the temperate Himalayas is used in traditional medicine to treat numerous ailments such as liver disorders, malaria, and diabetes and are reported to have a wide spectrum of pharmacological properties. Its medicinal usage is well-documented in Indian pharmaceutical codex, the British, and the American pharmacopeias and in different traditional medicine such as the Ayurveda, Unani, Siddha, and other conventional medical systems. This ethnomedicinal herb is known mostly for its bitter taste caused by the presence of different bioactive compounds that are directly associated with human health welfare. The increasing high usage of Swertia chirayita, mostly the underground tissues, as well as the illegal overharvesting combined with habitat destruction resulted in a drastic reduction of its populations and has brought this plant to the verge of extinction. The increasing national and international demand for Swertia chirayita has led to unscrupulous collection from the wild and adulteration of supplies. The aim of this review is to provide a synthesis of the current state of scientific knowledge on the medicinal uses, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, safety evaluation as well as the potential role of plant biotechnology in the conservation of Swertia chirayita and to highlight its future prospects. Pharmacological data reported in literature suggest that Swertia chirayita shows a beneficial effect in the treatment of several ailments. However, there is lack of adequate information on the safety evaluation of the plant. The pharmacological usefulness of Swertia chirayita requires the need for conservation-friendly approaches in its utilization. Providing high-quality genetically uniform clones for sustainable use and thereby saving the genetic diversity of this species in nature is important. In this regard, plant biotechnological applications such as micropropagation, synthetic seed production, and hairy root technology can play a significant role in a holistic conservation strategy. In addition to micropropagation, storage of these valuable genetic resources is equally important for germplasm preservation. However, more advanced research is warranted to determine the activities of bioactive compounds in vitro and in vivo, establish their underlying mechanisms of action and commence the process of clinical research. PMID:26793105

  10. Potential pharmacokinetic interactions between antiretrovirals and medicinal plants used as complementary and African traditional medicines.

    PubMed

    Mller, Adrienne C; Kanfer, Isadore

    2011-11-01

    The use of traditional/complementary/alternate medicines (TCAMs) in HIV/AIDS patients who reside in Southern Africa is quite common. Those who use TCAMs in addition to antiretroviral (ARV) treatment may be at risk of experiencing clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, particularly between the TCAMs and the protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). Mechanisms of PK interactions include alterations to the normal functioning of drug efflux transporters, such as P-gp and/or CYP isoenzymes, such a CYP3A4 that mediate the absorption and elimination of drugs in the small intestine and liver. Specific mechanisms include inhibition and activation of these proteins and induction via the pregnane X receptor (PXR). Several clinical studies and case reports involving ARV-herb PK interactions have been reported. St John's Wort, Garlic and Cat's Claw exhibited potentially significant interactions, each with a PI or NNRTI. The potential for these herbs to induce PK interactions with drugs was first identified in reports of in vitro studies. Other in vitro studies have shown that several African traditional medicinal (ATM) plants and extracts may also demonstrate PK interactions with ARVs, through effects on CYP3A4, P-gp and PXR. The most complex effects were exhibited by Hypoxis hemerocallidea, Sutherlandia frutescens, Cyphostemma hildebrandtii, Acacia nilotica, Agauria salicifolia and Elaeodendron buchananii. Despite a high incidence of HIV/AIDs in the African region, only one clinical study, between efavirenz and Hypoxis hemerocallidea has been conducted. However, several issues/concerns still remain to be addressed and thus more studies on ATMs are warranted in order for more meaningful data to be generated and the true potential for such interactions to be determined. PMID:22024968

  11. Screening of medicinal plants for PPPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma activation and evaluation of their effects on glucose uptake and 3T3-L1 adipogenesis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of ligands for nuclear receptors. The present study was aimed to screen a collection of plant extracts for PPAR-alpha/gamma activating properties and identify the active extract that can stimulate cellular glucose uptake without enhancing the adipogenesis. A report...

  12. Ethnobotanical appraisal and medicinal use of plants in Patriata, New Murree, evidence from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper reflects the empirical findings of an ethnobotanical survey which was undertaken in Patriata (New Murree) of district Rawalpindi in Pakistan. The aims and objectives of the study were to document indigenous knowledge of plants particularly of medicinal, veterinary, fruit, vegetable, fodder, fuel etc. Methods For this purpose, the whole area was surveyed for documenting folk knowledge using a semi-structured questionnaire. A total of 93 plants species belonging to 80 genera and 56 families were found in a variety of uses by the local people for the accomplishment of their basic needs. The study further employs binary logit regression model of medicinal uses of these plants so as to identify the probability of occurrence of medicinal use of woody or non-woody plants keeping other plant characteristics in view. Results Ethnobotanical data shows that most plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes (27.93% each), followed by fuel (16.90%), fruit (6.55%), vegetable (5.52%) and ethno-veterinary (3.79%). There is also an established association of medicinal use of plants to the fruits use. Non-woody plants have high tendency towards medicinal use of the plants as compared to woody plants. Annual plants are less likely to be directly associated with medicinal use of plants in the surveyed vegetation. Underground plant parts are more likely to be used for medicinal purposes as revealed from the Logit expressions. Conclusions The study revealed that most of the plants are used for medicinal and fodder purposes. The results of Logit Model showed that the probabilities of plant species for their medicinal use are associated to the woody or non-woody, aerial or underground, perennial or annual characteristics of plants. One should be careful in completely generalizing the results as the survey findings are sensitive to the plant species and the vegetation under consideration. But it can be specified that there exists either some positive or negative association of medicinal use of plants to the various characteristics of plant species. PMID:23445756

  13. Health for sale: the medicinal plant markets in Trujillo and Chiclayo, Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, Rainer W; Sharon, Douglas; Vandebroek, Ina; Jones, Ana; Revene, Zachary

    2007-01-01

    Traditional methods of healing have been beneficial in many countries with or without access to conventional allopathic medicine. In the United States, these traditional practices are increasingly being sought after for illnesses that cannot be easily treated by allopathic medicine. More and more people are becoming interested in the knowledge maintained by traditional healers and in the diversity of medicinal plants that flourish in areas like Northern Peru. While scientific studies of medicinal plants are underway, concern has arisen over the preservation of both the large diversity of medicinal plants and the traditional knowledge of healing methods that accompanies them. To promote further conservation work, this study attempted to document the sources of the most popular and rarest medicinal plants sold in the markets of Trujillo (Mayorista and Hermelinda) and Chiclayo (Modelo and Moshoqueque), as well as to create an inventory of the plants sold in these markets, which will serve as a basis for comparison with future inventories. Individual markets and market stalls were subjected to cluster analysis based on the diversity of the medicinal plants they carry. The results show that markets were grouped based on the presence of: (1) common exotic medicinal plants; (2) plants used by laypeople for self-medication related to common ailments ("everyday remedies"); (3) specialized medicinal plants used by curanderos or traditional healers; and (4) highly "specialized" plants used for magical purposes. The plant trade in the study areas seems to correspond well with the specific health care demands from clientele in those areas. The specific market patterns of plant diversity observed in the present study represent a foundation for comparative market research in Peru and elsewhere. PMID:18070350

  14. Use of medicinal plants for human health in Udzungwa Mountains Forests: a case study of New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Kitula, Rukia A

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of local people on plant medicine from natural forests has a long tradition in Tanzania and is becoming increasingly popular among rural and urban communities due to among others increase in living costs. The study on utilization of medicinal plants for meeting heath care needs was carried out between March 2001 and March 2002 in New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania. The study aimed at generating necessary data for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project to draft sound Joint Forest Management plans. Specific objectives of the study among others were to assess knowledge associated with utilization of medicinal plants for health care needs as well as factors associated in using plant medicines in the study area. A questionnaire survey, market survey and literature review were used to collect information. Tools used for data analysis were Statistical Packages for Social Science and content analysis. A total of 45 plant species were documented curing about 22 human diseases. Medicinal plants were readily available throughout the year and plentiful in the forest reserve. Roots and leaves were the plant parts harvested for medicinal purposes. Processing of plant medicines involved boiling, pounding, soaking in water and chewing. Distance to health facility, income level of the household and beliefs contributed to the use of plant medicines. The study concluded that medicinal plants play an important role in providing primary health care to the rural communities. It is recommended that in achieving joint forest management (JFM), villagers adjacent to the forest reserve should be sensitised on the importance of JFM through seminars, workshops, drama, school songs or video show. During the development of a joint draft management plan, villagers as an informal institution must define their priority needs of use of parts of the forest in collaboration with the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project. PMID:17257410

  15. Use of medicinal plants for human health in Udzungwa Mountains Forests: a case study of New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kitula, Rukia A

    2007-01-01

    The dependence of local people on plant medicine from natural forests has a long tradition in Tanzania and is becoming increasingly popular among rural and urban communities due to among others increase in living costs. The study on utilization of medicinal plants for meeting heath care needs was carried out between March 2001 and March 2002 in New Dabaga Ulongambi Forest Reserve, Tanzania. The study aimed at generating necessary data for the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project to draft sound Joint Forest Management plans. Specific objectives of the study among others were to assess knowledge associated with utilization of medicinal plants for health care needs as well as factors associated in using plant medicines in the study area. A questionnaire survey, market survey and literature review were used to collect information. Tools used for data analysis were Statistical Packages for Social Science and content analysis. A total of 45 plant species were documented curing about 22 human diseases. Medicinal plants were readily available throughout the year and plentiful in the forest reserve. Roots and leaves were the plant parts harvested for medicinal purposes. Processing of plant medicines involved boiling, pounding, soaking in water and chewing. Distance to health facility, income level of the household and beliefs contributed to the use of plant medicines. The study concluded that medicinal plants play an important role in providing primary health care to the rural communities. It is recommended that in achieving joint forest management (JFM), villagers adjacent to the forest reserve should be sensitised on the importance of JFM through seminars, workshops, drama, school songs or video show. During the development of a joint draft management plan, villagers as an informal institution must define their priority needs of use of parts of the forest in collaboration with the Udzungwa Mountains Forest Management project. PMID:17257410

  16. Survey of Medicinal Plants Used to Treat Malaria by Sidama People of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Asnake, Solomon; Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Hymete, Ariaya; Erko, Berhanu; Giday, Mirutse

    2016-01-01

    In Ethiopia, malaria control has been complicated due to resistance of the parasite to the current drugs. Thus, new drugs are required against drug-resistant Plasmodium strains. Historically, many of the present antimalarial drugs were discovered from plants. This study was, therefore, conducted to document antimalarial plants utilized by Sidama people of Boricha District, Sidama Zone, South Region of Ethiopia. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out from September 2011 to February 2012. Data were collected through semistructured interview and field and market observations. Relative frequency of citation (RFC) was calculated and preference ranking exercises were conducted to estimate the importance of the reported medicinal plants in Boricha District. A total of 42 antimalarial plants belonging to 27 families were recorded in the study area. Leaf was the dominant plant part (59.0%) used in the preparation of remedies and oral (97.4%) was the major route of administration. Ajuga integrifolia scored the highest RFC value (0.80). The results of this study revealed the existence of rich knowledge on the use of medicinal plants in the study area to treat malaria. Thus, an attempt should be made to conserve and evaluate the claimed antimalarial medicinal plants with priority given to those that scored the highest RFC values. PMID:26989429

  17. Uses of medicinal plants by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Gabriele; Godínez, Daimy; Beyra, Angela; Barreto, Adelaida

    2009-01-01

    Background Haitian migrants played an important role shaping Cuban culture and traditional ethnobotanical knowledge. An ethnobotanical investigation was conducted to collect information on medicinal plant use by Haitian immigrants and their descendants in the Province of Camagüey, Cuba. Methods Information was obtained from semi-structured interviews with Haitian immigrants and their descendants, direct observations, and by reviewing reports of traditional Haitian medicine in the literature. Results Informants reported using 123 plant species belonging to 112 genera in 63 families. Haitian immigrants and their descendants mainly decoct or infuse aerial parts and ingest them, but medicinal baths are also relevant. Some 22 herbal mixtures are reported, including formulas for a preparation obtained using the fruit of Crescentia cujete. Cultural aspects related to traditional plant posology are addressed, as well as changes and adaptation of Haitian medicinal knowledge with emigration and integration over time. Conclusion The rapid disappearance of Haitian migrants' traditional culture due to integration and urbanization suggests that unrecorded ethnomedicinal information may be lost forever. Given this, as well as the poor availability of ethnobotanical data relating to traditional Haitian medicine, there is an urgent need to record this knowledge. PMID:19450279

  18. Traditional use of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional medicine has remained as the most affordable and easily accessible source of treatment in the primary healthcare system of resource poor communities in Zimbabwe. The local people have a long history of traditional plant usage for medicinal purposes. Despite the increasing acceptance of traditional medicine in Zimbabwe, this rich indigenous knowledge is not adequately documented. Documentation of plants used as traditional medicines is needed so that the knowledge can be preserved and the utilized plants conserved and used sustainably. The primary objective of this paper is to summarize information on traditional uses of medicinal plants in south-central Zimbabwe, identifying research gaps and suggesting perspectives for future research. Methods This study is based on a review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, reports from national, regional and international organizations, theses, conference papers and other grey materials. Results A total of 93 medicinal plant species representing 41 families and 77 genera are used in south-central Zimbabwe. These plant species are used to treat 18 diseases and disorder categories, with the highest number of species used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by sexually transmitted infections, cold, cough and sore throat and gynaecological problems. Shrubs and trees (38% each) were the primary sources of medicinal plants, followed by herbs (21%) and climbers (3%). The therapeutic claims made on medicinal plants documented in south-central Zimbabwe are well supported by literature, with 82.8% of the plant species having similar applications in other regions of Zimbabwe as well as other parts of the world and 89.2% having documented biological and pharmacological properties. Conclusion This study illustrates the importance of traditional medicines in the treatment and management of human diseases and ailments in south-central Zimbabwe. Traditional medicines still play an important role in meeting basic health care of local communities in Zimbabwe. PMID:23642285

  19. Traditional use of medicinal plants in the boreal forest of Canada: review and perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The boreal forest of Canada is home to several hundred thousands Aboriginal people who have been using medicinal plants in traditional health care systems for thousands of years. This knowledge, transmitted by oral tradition from generation to generation, has been eroding in recent decades due to rapid cultural change. Until now, published reviews about traditional uses of medicinal plants in boreal Canada have focused either on particular Aboriginal groups or on restricted regions. Here, we present a review of traditional uses of medicinal plants by the Aboriginal people of the entire Canadian boreal forest in order to provide comprehensive documentation, identify research gaps, and suggest perspectives for future research. Methods A review of the literature published in scientific journals, books, theses and reports. Results A total of 546 medicinal plant taxa used by the Aboriginal people of the Canadian boreal forest were reported in the reviewed literature. These plants were used to treat 28 disease and disorder categories, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by musculoskeletal disorders. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants, followed by shrubs. The medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the western Canadian boreal forest has been given considerably less attention by researchers. Canada is lacking comprehensive policy on harvesting, conservation and use of medicinal plants. This could be explained by the illusion of an infinite boreal forest, or by the fact that many boreal medicinal plant species are widely distributed. Conclusion To our knowledge, this review is the most comprehensive to date to reveal the rich traditional medicinal knowledge of Aboriginal peoples of the Canadian boreal forest. Future ethnobotanical research endeavours should focus on documenting the knowledge held by Aboriginal groups that have so far received less attention, particularly those of the western boreal forest. In addition, several critical issues need to be addressed regarding the legal, ethical and cultural aspects of the conservation of medicinal plant species and the protection of the associated traditional knowledge. PMID:22289509

  20. Plant extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants strongly inhibit hepatitis C virus infection in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Galani, Borris R. T.; Sahuc, Marie-Emmanuelle; Njayou, Frederic N.; Deloison, Gaspard; Mkounga, Pierre; Feudjou, William F.; Brodin, Priscille; Rouill, Yves; Nkengfack, Augustin E.; Moundipa, Paul Fewou; Sron, Karin

    2015-01-01

    According to some recent studies, Cameroon is one of the sub-Saharan African countries most affected by hepatitis C, with low access to the standard therapy based on the combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. A first ethnobotanical survey, conducted in the Western region of Cameroon, reported the use of several medicinal plants in traditional medicine for the healing of liver-related disorders. Crude organic extracts of five plants surveyed were prepared and their effect against hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection investigated. The HCV JFH1 strain cell culture system HCVcc was used. The antiviral activity was quantified by immunofluorescent labeling of HCV E1 envelope protein at 30 h post-infection in the presence of the plant extracts. Active compounds were then tested in time course infection experiments. Dose-response and cellular toxicity assays were also determined. Three extracts, methanol extracts from roots of Trichilia dregeana, stems of Detarium microcarpum and leaves of Phragmanthera capitata, showed anti-HCV activity, with half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 16.16, 1.42, and 13.17 ?g/mL, respectively. Huh-7 cells were incubated with the extracts for 72 h and it appears that T. dregeana extract is not toxic up to 200 ?g/mL, D. microcarpum up to 100 ?g/mL and P. capitata up to 800 ?g/mL. All the three extracts showed a strong inhibition of HCV entry and no effect on replication or secretion. Taken together, these results showed that extracts from Cameroonian medicinal plants are promising sources of anti-HCV agents. PMID:26029203

  1. Ethnopharmacological Assessment of Medicinal Plants Used against Livestock Infections by the People Living around Indus River

    PubMed Central

    Mussarat, Sakina; Amber, Rahila; Tariq, Akash; Adnan, Muhammad; AbdElsalam, Naser M.; Bibi, Roqaia

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to document detailed ethnopharmacological knowledge of medicinal plants against livestock infections of an unexplored remote region of Pakistan. Semistructured questionnaires were used for data collection. Total 43 plants belonging to 26 families were found to be used in ethnoveterinary practices. Seeds (29%) were found to be the most frequent plant part used followed by leaves (22%). Ethnoveterinary recipes were mostly prepared in the form of decoction and powdering. Informant consensus factor (Fic) results revealed high consensus for gastrointestinal (0.81), mastitis (0.82), and dermatological infections (0.80). Curcuma longa ranked first with highest fidelity level (FL) value (66%) followed by Trachyspermum ammi that ranked second (58%). Preference ranking (PR) results showed that Zingiber officinale, Punica granatum, Triticum aestivum, Gossypium hirsutum, and Withania coagulans were the most preferred species for the treatment of diarrhea. Direct matrix ranking (DMR) results showed that Morus alba, Melia azedarach, Withania coagulans, Cassia fistula, Azadirachta indica, and Tamarix aphylla were the multipurpose species of the region. We invite the attention of pharmacologists and chemists for further exploration of plants having high Fic, FL, and PR values in the present study. Conservation strategies should be adopted for the protection of multipurpose plant species. PMID:25544941

  2. Personal networks: a tool for gaining insight into the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean (Austrian) migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Investigations into knowledge about food and medicinal plants in a certain geographic area or within a specific group are an important element of ethnobotanical research. This knowledge is context specific and dynamic due to changing ecological, social and economic circumstances. Migration processes affect food habits and the knowledge and use of medicinal plants as a result of adaptations that have to be made to new surroundings and changing environments. This study analyses and compares the different dynamics in the transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyrolean migrants in Australia, Brazil and Peru. Methods A social network approach was used to collect data on personal networks of knowledge about food and medicinal plants among Tyroleans who have migrated to Australia, Brazil and Peru and their descendants. A statistical analysis of the personal network maps and a qualitative analysis of the narratives were combined to provide insight into the process of transmitting knowledge about food and medicinal plants. Results 56 personal networks were identified in all (food: 30; medicinal plants: 26) across all the field sites studied here. In both sets of networks, the main source of knowledge is individual people (food: 71%; medicinal plants: 68%). The other sources mentioned are print and audiovisual media, organisations and institutions. Personal networks of food knowledge are larger than personal networks of medicinal plant knowledge in all areas of investigation. Relatives play a major role as transmitters of knowledge in both domains. Conclusions Human sources, especially relatives, play an important role in knowledge transmission in both domains. Reference was made to other sources as well, such as books, television, the internet, schools and restaurants. By taking a personal network approach, this study reveals the mode of transmission of knowledge about food and medicinal plants within a migrational context. PMID:24398225

  3. Characterization of cysteine proteases in Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Bah, Skou; Paulsen, Berit S; Diallo, Drissa; Johansen, Harald T

    2006-09-19

    Extracts form 10 different Malian medicinal plants with a traditional use against schistosomiasis were investigated for their possible content of proteolytic activity. The proteolytic activity was studied by measuring the hydrolysis of two synthetic peptide substrates Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec and Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec. Legumain- and papain-like activities were found in all tested crude extracts except those from Entada africana, with the papain-like activity being the strongest. Cissus quadrangularis, Securidaca longepedunculata and Stylosanthes erecta extracts showed high proteolytic activities towards both substrates. After gel filtration the proteolytic activity towards the substrate Z-Ala-Ala-Asn-NHMec in root extract of Securidaca longepedunculata appeared to have Mr of 30 and 97kDa, while the activity in extracts from Cissus quadrangularis was at 39kDa. Enzymatic activity cleaving the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec showed apparent Mr of 97 and 26kDa in extracts from roots and leaves of Securidaca longepedunculata, while in Cissus quadrangularis extracts the activity eluted at 39 and 20kDa, with the highest activity in the latter. All Z-Phe-Arg-NHMec activities were inhibited by E-64 but unaffected by PMSF. The legumain activity was unaffected by E-64 and PMSF. The SDS-PAGE analysis exhibited five distinct gelatinolytic bands for Cissus quadrangularis extracts (115, 59, 31, 22 and 20kDa), while two bands (59 and 30kDa) were detected in Securidaca longepedunculata extracts. The inhibition profile of the gelatinolytic bands and that of the hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates indicate the cysteine protease class of the proteolytic activities. Several cysteine protease activities with different molecular weights along with a strong variability of these activities between species as well as between plant parts from the same species were observed. PMID:16621376

  4. A preliminary investigation of anticholinesterase activity of some Iranian medicinal plants commonly used in traditional medicine

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some commonly used herbal medicine in Iran to introduce a new source for management of Alzheimers disease. A total of 18 aqueous-methanolic extract (1:1; v/v) from the following plants: Brassica alba, Brassica nigra, Camellia sinensis, Cinchona officinalis, Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus x aurantium, Ferula assafoetida, Humulus lupulus, Juglans regia, Juniperus sabina, Myristica fragrans, Pelargonium graveolens, Pistacia vera, Punica granatum, Rheum officinale, Rosa damascena, Salix alba, and Zizyphus vulgaris were prepared and screened for their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity using in vitro Ellman spectrophotometric method. Results According to the obtained results, the order of inhibitory activity (IC50 values, ?g /ml) of extracts from highest to the lowest was: C. sinensis (5.96), C. aurantifolia (19.57), Z. vulgaris (24.37), B. nigra (84.30) and R. damascena (93.1). Conclusions The results indicated and confirmed the traditional use of these herbs for management of central nervous system disorders. C. sinensis showed the highest activity in inhibition of acetylcholinesterase. However, further investigations on identification of active components in the extracts are needed. PMID:24401532

  5. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C E; Oladeinde, F O; Kinyua, A M; Michelin, R; Makinde, J M; Jaiyesimi, A A; Mbiti, W N; Kamau, G N; Kofi-Tsekpo, W M; Pramanik, S; Williams, A; Kennedy, A; Bronner, Y; Clarke, K; Fofonoff, P; Nemerson, D

    2008-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  6. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT IN SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C.E.; Oladeinde, F. O.; Kinyua, A.M.; Michelin, R.; Makinde, J.M.; Jaiyesimi, A.A.; Mbiti, W.N.; Kamau, G.N.; Kofi-Tsekpo, W.M.; Pramanik, S.; Williams, A.; Kennedy, A.; Bronner, Y.; Clarke, K.; Fofonoff, P.; Nemerson, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study was to compare the total phenolic (TP) content in extracts from eleven plant materials collected at different geographical locations in Kenya, Nigeria, and USA. These plants have been selected because the majority of them are highly pigmented, from yellow to purple, and would therefore have economic value in industries for producing antioxidants and surfactants. Two of them were collected from the industrial and domestic waste outlets. Each analysis was achieved using the Folin-Ciocalteau technique. The order of decreasing phenolic acid content as gallic acid concentration (mg/g dry weight) was Prunus africana (55.14) > Acacia tortilis (42.11) > Khaya grandifoliola (17.54) > Curcuma longa (17.23) > Vernonia amygdalina (14.9)> Russelia equisetiformis (14.03) > Calendula officinalis (7.96) >Phragmites australis (control) (7.09) > Rauwolfia vomitoria (6.69) > Phragmites australis (industrial) (6.21) > Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (5.6). The TP contents of Spartina alterniflora species were below the detection limit. PMID:20119491

  7. Anticancer bioactivity of compounds from medicinal plants used in European medieval traditions.

    PubMed

    Teiten, Marie-Hlne; Gaascht, Franois; Dicato, Mario; Diederich, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Since centuries, natural compounds from plants, animals and microorganisms were used in medicinal traditions to treat various diseases without a solid scientific basis. Recent studies have shown that plants that were used or are still used in the medieval European medicine are able to provide relieve for many diseases including cancer. Here we summarize impact and effect of selected purified active natural compounds from plants used in European medieval medicinal traditions on cancer hallmarks and enabling characteristics identified by Hanahan and Weinberg. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the pharmacological effect of pure compounds originally discovered in plants with therapeutic medieval use. Whereas many reviews deal with Ayurvedic traditions and traditional Chinese medicine, to our knowledge, the molecular basis of European medieval medicinal approaches are much less documented. PMID:23973807

  8. Screening of antimutagenicity via antioxidant activity in Cuban medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A; Visozo, A; Piloto, J; Garca, A; Rodrguez, C A; Rivero, R

    2003-08-01

    The reducing activity on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, z.rad;OH radical scavenging potential, in vitro inhibition of lipid peroxidation and modulation of mutagenicity induced by ter-butyl hydroperoxide (TBH) in Escherichia coli were sequentially screened in 45 species of plants used with medicinal purposes in Cuba, in a search for antioxidant agents which protect DNA against oxidative stress.Five species, e.g. Tamarindus indica L., Lippia alba L., Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr, Rheedia aristata Griseb. and Curcuma longa L. displayed IC(50)<30 micro g/ml in the DPPH radical reduction assay and IC(50)<32 micro g/ml in lipid peroxidation inhibition testing. Pimenta dioica and Curcuma longa L. showed also a 20% inhibition of the in vitro induced z.rad;OH attack to deoxyglucose. Further antimutagenesis assay in Escherichia coli IC 188 evidenced that only Pimenta dioica prevents DNA damage by TBH to the test bacteria. A role of antioxidant enzymes is presumed in this case, as judged by a different response in the isogenic Escherichia coli IC 203 deficient in catalase and alkyl hydroperoxide reductase and the discrete inhibition of oxidative mutagenesis also observed when pre-treatment of the extract was assayed. Eugenol, the main constituent of the essential oil of Pimenta dioica, also inhibited oxidative mutagenesis by TBH in Escherichia coli, at concentrations ranging from 150 to 400 micro g/plate. PMID:12860316

  9. Antitrypanosomal screening and cytotoxic effects of selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Dyary, H O; Arifah, A K; Sharma, R S; Rasedee, A; Mohd-Aspollah, M S; Zakaria, Z A; Zuraini, A; Somchit, M N

    2014-03-01

    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 ?g/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 ?g/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds. PMID:24862048

  10. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants of Laos toward the discovery of bioactive compounds as potential candidates for pharmaceutical development

    PubMed Central

    Soejarto, D.D.; Gyllenhaal, C.; Kadushin, M.R.; Southavong, B.; Sydara, K.; Bouamanivong, S.; Xaiveu, M.; Zhang, H.-J.; Franzblau, S.G.; Tan, Ghee T.; Pezzuto, J.M.; Riley, M.C.; Elkington, B.G.; Waller, D.P.

    2012-01-01

    Context An ethnobotany-based approach in the selection of raw plant materials to study was implemented. Objective To acquire raw plant materials using ethnobotanical field interviews as starting point to discover new bioactive compounds from medicinal plants of the Lao Peoples Democratic Republic. Methods Using semi-structured field interviews with healers in the Lao PDR, plant samples were collected, extracted, and bio-assayed to detect bioactivity against cancer, HIV/AIDS, TB, malaria. Plant species demonstrating activity were recollected and the extracts subjected to a bioassay-guided isolation protocol to isolate and identify the active compounds. Results Field interviews with 118 healers in 15 of 17 provinces of Lao PDR yielded 753 collections (573 species) with 955 plant samples. Of these 955, 50 extracts demonstrated activity in the anticancer, 10 in the anti-HIV, 30 in the anti-TB, and 52 in the antimalarial assay. Recollection of actives followed by bioassay-guided isolation processes yielded a series of new and known in vitro-active anticancer and antimalarial compounds from 5 species. Discussion Laos has a rich biodiversity, harboring an estimated 800011,000 species of plants. In a country highly dependent on traditional medicine for its primary health care, this rich plant diversity serves as a major source of their medication. Conclusions Ethnobotanical survey has demonstrated the richness of plant-based traditional medicine of Lao PDR, taxonomically and therapeutically. Biological assays of extracts of half of the 955 samples followed by in-depth studies of a number of actives have yielded a series of new bioactive compounds against the diseases of cancer and malaria. PMID:22136442

  11. Qualitative Exploration of the Potential Causes of Serious Reduction in Availability of Medicinal Plants in the Qinghai-Tibetan High Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Cuomu, Mingji

    2014-01-01

    In the last ten years, there has been a dramatic reduction in medicinal plants in Tibet. This situation has attracted the attention of many researchers from different professional backgrounds, yet very few documents have been published on the general theoretical context and the actual process of herb collection as it occurs at different levels in clinics in Tibet. This article begins with a systematic review of the general principles of medicinal plant collection methods as set out in the ancient traditional medical system. Because the demand for plants is generated by the need to make Tibetan medicines, it is necessary to consider the original context of Tibetan medicine to understand pharmacological needs and the principles behind collecting medicinal plants to develop a strategy that might guarantee sustainable development of the plant supply. After considering the wider context of this study, the article presents research mainly based on case studies with the intention of understanding different stakeholders’ experiences and social relationships in the contemporary herb collection process in order to discover behavioral patterns within the dynamic social roles involved in this process as these inform policy formation and to seek to promote appropriate methods in the future. PMID:25478035

  12. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33) plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies) while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies). Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species) followed by roots (13 species) while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further enhances the validity of plants used in traditional medicine in this region as resources that can be relied on to provide effective, accessible and affordable basic healthcare to the local communities. The plants documented also have the potential of being used in drug development and on farm domestication initiatives. PMID:20663166

  13. Incidence and Level of Aflatoxins Contamination in Medicinal Plants in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Deuk; Yu, In Sil; Jung, Kweon

    2014-01-01

    During 2011~2013, a total of 729 samples for 19 types of medicinal plant were collected from Seoulyekryungsi in Seoul, Korea, and investigated for the presence of aflatoxins. The samples were analyzed using immunoaffinity column cleanup and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a fluorescence detector after post-column derivatization. Aflatoxins were found in 124 out of the 729 analyzed samples: 65 containing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), 24 with aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), 15 with aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), and 20 samples with aflatoxin G2 (AFG2). The ranges for positive samples were 0.1~404.7 g/kg for AFB1, 0.1~10.0 g/kg for AFB2, 0.1~635.3 g/kg for AFG1, 0.1~182.5 g/kg for AFG2, and 0.1~1,043.9 g/kg for total aflatoxins. Most of the medicinal plant samples (721, 98.9%) were below legal limits, but 8 samples exceeded the legal limits of 10 and 15 g/kg established by the Korean standard for AFB1 and total aflatoxins (the sum of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2), respectively. PMID:25606005

  14. AfroDb: A Select Highly Potent and Diverse Natural Product Library from African Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ntie-Kang, Fidele; Zofou, Denis; Babiaka, Smith B.; Meudom, Rolande; Scharfe, Michael; Lifongo, Lydia L.; Mbah, James A.; Mbaze, Luc Meva’a; Sippl, Wolfgang; Efange, Simon M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Computer-aided drug design (CADD) often involves virtual screening (VS) of large compound datasets and the availability of such is vital for drug discovery protocols. We assess the bioactivity and “drug-likeness” of a relatively small but structurally diverse dataset (containing >1,000 compounds) from African medicinal plants, which have been tested and proven a wide range of biological activities. The geographical regions of collection of the medicinal plants cover the entire continent of Africa, based on data from literature sources and information from traditional healers. For each isolated compound, the three dimensional (3D) structure has been used to calculate physico-chemical properties used in the prediction of oral bioavailability on the basis of Lipinski’s “Rule of Five”. A comparative analysis has been carried out with the “drug-like”, “lead-like”, and “fragment-like” subsets, as well as with the Dictionary of Natural Products. A diversity analysis has been carried out in comparison with the ChemBridge diverse database. Furthermore, descriptors related to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity (ADMET) have been used to predict the pharmacokinetic profile of the compounds within the dataset. Our results prove that drug discovery, beginning with natural products from the African flora, could be highly promising. The 3D structures are available and could be useful for virtual screening and natural product lead generation programs. PMID:24205103

  15. Assessment of antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum and phytochemical screening of some Yemeni medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Alshawsh, Mohammed A; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Shamahy, Hassan A; Alsllami, Salah F; Lindequist, Ulrike

    2009-12-01

    Developing countries, where malaria is one of the most prevalent diseases, still rely on traditional medicine as a source for the treatment of this disease. In the present study, six selected plants (Acalypha fruticosa, Azadirachta indica, Cissus rotundifolia, Echium rauwalfii, Dendrosicyos socotrana and Boswellia elongata) commonly used in Yemen by traditional healers for the treatment of malaria as well as other diseases, were collected from different localities of Yemen, dried and extracted with methanol and water successfully. The antiplasmodial activity of the extracts was evaluated against fresh clinical isolates of Plasmodium falciparum. The selectivity parameters to evaluate the efficacy of these medicinal plants were measured by in vitro micro test (Mark III) according to World Health Organization (WHO) 1996 & WHO 2001 protocols of antimalarial drug tests. Among the investigated 12 extracts, three were found to have significant antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values less than 4 microg/ml, namely the water extracts of A. fruticosa, A. indica and D. socotrana. Six extracts showed moderate activity with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 30 microg/ml and three appeared to be inactive with IC(50) values more than 30 microg/ml. In addition, preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic and aqueous extracts indicated the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, polysaccharides and peptides. PMID:18955251

  16. Ethnomedicinal and phytochemical review of Pakistani medicinal plants used as antibacterial agents against Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants have always been part of human culture and have the potential to cure different diseases caused by microorganisms. In Pakistan, biologists are mainly focusing on plants’ antimicrobial activities against Escherichia coli due to its increasing resistance to antibiotics. In total, extracts from 34 ethnomedicinally valuable Pakistani plants were reported for in-vitro anti-E. coli activities. Mostly methanolic extracts of medicinal plants were used in different studies, which have shown comparatively higher inhibitory activities against E. coli than n-hexane and aqueous extracts. It has been found that increasing concentration (mg/ml) of methanolic extract can significantly increase (p < 0.01) anti-E. coli activities. Not all medicinal plants are extracted in solvents others than above, which should also be tested against E. coli. Moreover, medicinal plant species must be fully explored phytochemically, which may lead to the development of new drugs. PMID:25135359

  17. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the eastern highlands of Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Eastern Highlands area of Papua New Guinea (PNG) has a rich tradition of medicinal plant use. However, rapid modernization is resulting in the loss of independent language traditions and consequently a loss of individuals knowledgeable in medicinal plant use. This report represents a program to document and preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This report documents and compares traditional plant use in the Eastern Highlands districts of Unggai-Bena, Okapa, and Obura-Wonenara, and puts these new records in context of previously documented PNG medicinal plant use. Methods This manuscript is an annotated combination of Traditional Medicines survey reports generated by UPNG trainees using a survey questionnaire titled “Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of PNG”. The Traditional Medicines survey project is supported by WHO, US NIH and PNG governmental health care initiatives and funding. Results Overall, after “poisoning” (synonymous with “magic”) the most commonly recorded ailments addressed by medicinal plant use were pain, gynecological disease, gastrointestinal maladies, anemia or malnutrition and malaria. However, the recorded indications for plant use varied widely amongst the different survey locations. Unlike many areas of PNG, mixing of ingredients was the most common mode of preparation recorded, except for two areas where the consumption of fresh plant material was more common. Throughout the Eastern Highlands oral administration was most common, with topical application second. Overall, leaves were most commonly used in the preparations of the healers interviewed, followed by bark and stems. Several new medicinal uses of plants were also documented. Conclusions Collaboration between the WHO, UPNG and the PNG Department of Health initiated Traditional Medicine survey program in order to preserve traditional knowledge concerning medicinal plant use in PNG. This effort promotes integration of effective and accessible traditional practices with Western protocols. The Traditional Medicine surveys are particularly important because, in the absence of the clinical validation, the documentation of the consistent use of a given plant for specific indication by a large number of herbalists, across a wide range of ethnic traditions, maybe considered as a positive criterion for the promulgation of said use amongst PNG’s recently formed traditional healer associations. PMID:23249544

  18. [Medicinal plants in France, between pharmacy and herb trade: historical and legislative aspects].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, H

    2015-09-01

    Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013. PMID:25818399

  19. Channel Islands National Park vascular plant voucher collections: NPSpecies database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chess, Katherine; McEachern, Kathryn

    2001-01-01

    Collections information for 3898 vascular plant specimens from searches at Santa Barbara Botanic Garden, Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, San Diego Natural History Museum, Los Angeles County Museum of Natural History.

  20. In vitro antibacterial activity of selected medicinal plants from lower Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain; Rahim, Abdur; Ahmad, Khalid; Ullah, Faizan; Ullah, Hamid; Nishan, Umar

    2015-03-01

    The present studies cover antibacterial activity of the crude methanolic extracts of 11 medicinal plants viz. Adhatoda vasica, Bauhenia variegate, Bombax ceiba, Carrisa opaca, Caryopteris grata, Debregeasia salicifolia, Lantana camara, Melia azedarach, Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii and Olea ferruginea collected from lower Himalayas against two Gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus) and two Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aureginosa) bacterial strains. The extracts were applied at four different concentrations (120 mg/mL, 90mg/mL, 60mg/mL and 30mg/mL) in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) by using agar well diffusion method. Antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Micrococcus luteus were observed formethanolic extracts of all the above mentioned plants. Greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa was only exhibited by Phyllanthus emblica, Pinus roxburghii, Debregeasia salicifolia and Lantana camara. Escherichia coli was highly resistant to all the plant extracts at all concentrations. It is inferred that methanolic crude extracts of the above mentioned plantsexhibitantibacterial activities against pathogenic bacteria, which proved the ethnobotanical importance of the selected plants that indigenous people use for cure against various diseases. PMID:25730791

  1. Transcriptomic evaluation of plant growth inhibitory activity of goniothalamin from the Malaysian medicinal plant Goniothalamus andersonii.

    PubMed

    Wasano, Naoya; Takemura, Tomoko; Ismil, Raihan; Bakar, Baki; Fujii, Yoshiharu

    2015-05-01

    Goniothalamin produced by the Malaysian medicinal plant, Goniothalamus andersonii J. Sinclair, strongly inhibits plant growth. However, its mode of action has not been characterized at the gene expression level. We conducted DNA microarray assay to analyze the changes in early gene responses of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. After a 6-h exposure to goniothalamin, we observed an upregulation of genes highly associated with heat response, and 22 heat shock protein (AtHSP) genes were upregulated more than 50 fold. Together with these genes, we observed upregulation of the genes related to oxidative stress and protein folding. Also, the genes related to cell wall modification and cell growth, expansin (AtEXPA) genes, were significantly downregulated. The results suggested that goniothalamin induces oxidative stresses and inhibits the expression of cell wall-associated proteins resulting in growth inhibition of Arabidopsis seedlings. PMID:26058144

  2. Antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of long-term stored medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medicinal plants are possible sources for future novel antioxidant compounds in food and pharmaceutical formulations. Recent attention on medicinal plants emanates from their long historical utilisation in folk medicine as well as their prophylactic properties. However, there is a dearth of scientific data on the efficacy and stability of the bioactive chemical constituents in medicinal plants after prolonged storage. This is a frequent problem in African Traditional Medicine. Methods The phytochemical, antioxidant and acetylcholinesterase-inhibitory properties of 21 medicinal plants were evaluated after long-term storage of 12 or 16 years using standard in vitro methods in comparison to freshly harvested materials. Results The total phenolic content of Artemisia afra, Clausena anisata, Cussonia spicata, Leonotis intermedia and Spirostachys africana were significantly higher in stored compared to fresh materials. The flavonoid content were also significantly higher in stored A. afra, C. anisata, C. spicata, L. intermedia, Olea europea and Tetradenia riparia materials. With the exception of Ekebergia capensis and L. intermedia, there were no significant differences between the antioxidant activities of stored and fresh plant materials as measured in the β-carotene-linoleic acid model system. Similarly, the EC50 values based on the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay were generally lower for stored than fresh material. Percentage inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was generally similar for both stored and fresh plant material. Stored plant material of Tetradenia riparia and Trichilia dregeana exhibited significantly higher AChE inhibition than the fresh material. Conclusions The current study presents evidence that medicinal plants can retain their biological activity after prolonged storage under dark conditions at room temperature. The high antioxidant activities of stable bioactive compounds in these medicinal plants offer interesting prospects for the identification of novel principles for application in food and pharmaceutical formulations. PMID:22769046

  3. Screening the National Plant Germplasm System's Garlic Collection for Viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Western Regional Plant Introduction Station (WRPIS) collects, maintains, and distributes garlic (Allium sativum) accessions as part of the National Plant Germplasm System. In the regeneration process, accessions are grown under field conditions at the WRPIS farm in Pullman, Washington....

  4. Ethnobotany of Montseny biosphere reserve (Catalonia, Iberian Peninsula): plants used in veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Bonet, M Angels; Valls, Joan

    2007-03-01

    The present paper deals with plants used in veterinary medicine in Montseny. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Montseny massif, which is situated in north-east Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), covers 826 km(2) and has a population of 80,000. The information was obtained through 120 ethnobotanical interviews to 180 informants. Out of 584 species reported, 351 are claimed to be used in the health field (human and veterinary medicine), 280 in human and animal food and 236 have another kind of popular use. Medicinal species represent around 16.5% of Montseny's vascular flora. In a previous paper we addressed plant use in human medicine, and the present paper deals with veterinarian uses. As a reflection of the importance of rural life in the region, at least until recent times, a substantial number of medicinal plants (89 species, representing 6% of the flora of the territory and 6.4% of all medicinal use-reports in the region) is used in veterinary medicine. These remedies are mostly for cows, calves, sheep, pigs and horses, and secondarily, to poultry, rabbits and dogs. The main ailments treated are postnatal problems, intestinal troubles, wounds and dermatological problems. In many cases, the use of these remedies in veterinary medicine is fully consistent with their use in human medicine. PMID:17059874

  5. Pharmacokinetic profile of phytoconstituent(s) isolated from medicinal plants-A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Piyush; Shah, Rishi; Lohidasan, Sathiyanarayanan; Mahadik, K R

    2015-10-01

    Herbal medicine, the backbone of traditional medicine, has played an important role in human health and welfare for a long period. Traditional therapeutic approaches of regional significance are found in Africa, South and Central America, China, India, Tibet, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands. The considerable scientific significance and commercial potential of traditional medicines have resulted in increased international attention and global market demands for herbal medicines, especially Chinese herbal medicines. Herbal medicines currently are the primary form of health care for the poor in the developing countries, and also are widely used as a supplement or substitute for conventional drugs in developed countries. These traditional medicines have a pivotal role in the treatment of various ailments and more than 50% of drugs used in Western pharmacopoeia are isolated from herbs or derived from modifications of chemicals found in plants. Herbal medicines usually contain a complex mixture of various bioactive molecules, which make its standardization complicated, and there is little information about all compounds responsible for pharmacological activity. Several research papers have been published that claim pharmacological activity of herbal medicines but few are discussing the role of the exact phytoconstituent. Understanding the pharmacokinetic profile of such phytoconstituents is essential. Although there are research papers that deal with pharmacokinetic properties of phytoconstituents, there are a number of phytoconstituents yet to be explored for their kinetic properties. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic profile of 50 different therapeutically effective traditional medicinal plants from the year 2003 onward. PMID:26587392

  6. Levels of organophosphorus pesticides in medicinal plants commonly consumed in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sarkhail, Parisa; Yunesian, Masud; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Sarkheil, Pantea; Rastkari, Noushin

    2012-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of pesticide residues in herbal materials was indicated by previous studies. In this study, the concentration of some of the organophosphorus pesticides including parathion, malathion, diazinon and pirimiphos methyl in different kinds of medicinal plants were determined. The samples were collected randomly from ten local markets of different areas of Iran. At the detection limit of 0.5?ng?g-1, parathion and pirimiphos methyl were not detected in any of the samples. Some amounts of malathion and diazinon were found in Zataria, Matricaria chamomile, Spearmint and Cumin Seed samples while, the concentrations of target organophosphorus pesticides in Borage samples were below the detection limits of the methods which could be a result of intensive transformation of organophosphorus pesticides by Borage. In addition the organophosphorus pesticides were detected in all of the samples below the maximum residue levels (MRLs) proposed by the international organizations. PMID:23351610

  7. In vitro anti-leukemic and antiviral activities of traditionally used medicinal plants in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Lien-Chai; Cheng, Hua-Yew; Chen, Chi-Chain; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal plants have been historically used as treatment for different kinds of human diseases. In this study, hot water (HW) extract of five Taiwanese traditionally used medicinal plants was evaluated for their in vitro anti-leukemic (including anti-K562, L1210, P3HR1, Raji and U937 leukemia cells) and antiviral (including HSV-1 and HSV-2) activities. Results showed that Blumea lacera exhibited broad anti-leukemic activity at magnitudes ranging from moderate to mild and Ixeris chinensis is effective at inhibiting the proliferation of K562 cells. B. lacera and Tithonia diversifolia suppressed the replication of HSV-1 and HSV-2, and had IC50 values below 100 microg/ml. The medicinal plants showed no cytotoxic effect at concentrations that inhibited HSV infection. It was, therefore, concluded that the HW extract of tested medicinal plants exhibited anti-leukemic and antiviral activities at different magnitudes of potency. PMID:15633805

  8. Antiquity of medicinal plant usage in two Macro-Mayan ethnic groups (Mxico).

    PubMed

    Leonti, Marco; Sticher, Otto; Heinrich, Michael

    2003-10-01

    In the biological sciences the use of medicinal plants in indigenous cultures is commonly seen as being based on a long tradition ('traditional medicine'). However, under normal circumstances, ethnobotanical studies cannot provide evidence on the antiquity of specific uses for medicinal plants since oral traditions have a limited historical depth and archaeological evidence does not provide evidence for the specific medicinal use of a certain plant. Here, we provide evidence for the antiquity of medicinal plant use in the Olmec region in Mexico by comparing the pharmacopoeias of the linguistically related Lowland Mixe and Zoque-Popoluca. These cultures, separated for about 2000 years, have cognates for vernacular medicinal plant names in common. For fifteen species such cognate names were detected. Also, a statistically significant segment of the medicinal flora is used for similar purposes. Overall, 123 species are shared between the two groups and of these 62 have a similar usage. In nine cases they also have a similar name. These findings make a transmission of such knowledge since the time of the Olmecs highly likely. PMID:12963130

  9. Plant Collections Online: Using Digital Herbaria in Biology Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2013-01-01

    Herbaria are collections of preserved plants specimens, some of which date back to the 16th century. They are essential to botanical research, especially in systematics. They can also be important historical documents. The collections of Lewis and Clark, Carolus Linnaeus, and Charles Darwin, to name a few, are primary sources for the study of…

  10. Evaluation of mycotoxins, mycobiota, and toxigenic fungi in selected medicinal plants of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Bashir; Ashiq, Samina; Hussain, Arshad; Bashir, Shumaila; Hussain, Mubbashir

    2014-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used worldwide to treat a variety of ailments. Due to the provenance of medicinal plants, they are subjected to contamination by moulds, which may be responsible for spoilage and production of mycotoxins. The investigation was designed to throw light on mycological and mycotoxicological status of some medicinal plants from Pakistan and the result showed 30 % and 26.7 % samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, respectively. Mould contamination was present in 90 % samples, of which 70 % exceeded the permissible limits. Opium poppy, licorice root, and Indian rennet were most contaminated samples. The predominant moulds found were Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Penicillium spp. and 31 % of the 47 isolates tested were found to be toxigenic. The findings indicate that the contamination in the medicinal plants may contribute to adverse human health problems. This information would prove helpful for regulatory agencies to establish limits for these contaminants in medicinal plants and will explore ways for export of herbal products to countries where more stringent permissible limits of mycotoxins exist. The study is first of its kind in the country reporting natural occurrence of mycotoxins in medicinal plants in Pakistan. PMID:25209636

  11. Effect of some plants' extracts used in Sudanese folkloric medicines on carrageenan-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Mona Salih; Khalid, Hassan Subki; Muddathir, Abd Elkhaliq; El-Tahir, Kamal; Khan, Azmat Ali; Algadir, Haidar Abd; Osman, Wadah Jamal Ahmed; Siddiqui, Nasir Ali

    2015-01-01

    Investigations for anti-inflammatory potential and categorization of Sudanese medicinal plants according to their potency. Anti-inflammatory effect of plants' extracts of 17 genera were studied using the carrageenan induced inflammation in rats' paws. The plant extracts were obtained using methanol and dichloromethane as solvent and administered intra peritoneally at the concentration of 2g/kg body weight. The results obtained in this experiment strongly support and validate the traditional uses of these Sudanese medicinal plants to treat various inflammatory diseases. 63.9% of plants extracts showed marked inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (78.3% out of this percentage represented by methanolic extract), 27.8% showed no activity and 8.3% enhanced the carrageenan induced inflammation. The anti-inflammatory effect of many of these plants has not been reported previously, yet they have been extensively used in Sudanese folkloric medicine. The result of this study justify the traditional medicinal use of the evaluated plants species in treating inflammatory disorders and helped in categorizing the investigated plants into most useful, moderately useful and least useful category for inflammatory diseases. Out of the 17 investigated plant species 05 belongs to most useful and 06 belongs to moderately useful category. However, toxicity studies are required to prove the safety of these plant materials. PMID:25553680

  12. Antibacterial activity of traditional medicinal plants used by Haudenosaunee peoples of New York State

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The evolution and spread of antibiotic resistance, as well as the evolution of new strains of disease causing agents, is of great concern to the global health community. Our ability to effectively treat disease is dependent on the development of new pharmaceuticals, and one potential source of novel drugs is traditional medicine. This study explores the antibacterial properties of plants used in Haudenosaunee traditional medicine. We tested the hypothesis that extracts from Haudenosaunee medicinal plants used to treat symptoms often caused by bacterial infection would show antibacterial properties in laboratory assays, and that these extracts would be more effective against moderately virulent bacteria than less virulent bacteria. Methods After identification and harvesting, a total of 57 different aqueous extractions were made from 15 plant species. Nine plant species were used in Haudenosaunee medicines and six plant species, of which three are native to the region and three are introduced, were not used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial activity against mostly avirulent (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus lactis) and moderately virulent (Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus) microbes was inferred through replicate disc diffusion assays; and observed and statistically predicted MIC values were determined through replicate serial dilution assays. Results Although there was not complete concordance between the traditional use of Haudenosaunee medicinal plants and antibacterial activity, our data support the hypothesis that the selection and use of these plants to treat disease was not random. In particular, four plant species exhibited antimicrobial properties as expected (Achillea millefolium, Ipomoea pandurata, Hieracium pilosella, and Solidago canadensis), with particularly strong effectiveness against S. typhimurium. In addition, extractions from two of the introduced species (Hesperis matronalis and Rosa multiflora) were effective against this pathogen. Conclusions Our data suggest that further screening of plants used in traditional Haudenosaunee medicine is warranted, and we put forward several species for further investigation of activity against S. typhimurium (A. millefolium, H. matronalis, I. pandurata, H. pilosella, R. multiflora, S. canadensis). PMID:21054887

  13. Studies on saponin production in tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and Maesa lanceolata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Ahmad; Geelen, Danny

    2015-09-01

    The continuous need for new compounds with important medicinal activities has lead to the identification and characterization of various plant-derived natural products. As a part of this program, we studied the saponin production from two tropical medicinal plants Maesa argentea and M. lanceolata and evaluated several treatments to enhance their saponin production. In this experiment, we present the analyses of saponin production from greenhouse grown plants by means of TLC and HPLC-MS. We observed that the content of saponin from these plants varied depending on organ and physiological age of the plants. In addition, the impact of elicitors on saponin accumulation on in vitro grown plants was analyzed using TLC. The production of saponin was very stable and not affected by treatment with methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. In conclusion, Maesa saponins are constitutively produced in plants and the level of these compounds in plants is mainly affected by the developmental or physiological stage.

  14. A survey of medicinal plants used by the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe of Moulvibazar district, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of tribes present within Bangladesh has been estimated to approximate one hundred and fifty. Information on traditional medicinal practices, particularly of the smaller tribes and their clans is lacking. It was the objective of the study to document the tribal medicinal practices of the Deb barma clan of the Tripura tribe, which clan can be found residing in Dolusora Tripura Palli of Moulvibazar district of Bangladesh. A further objective was to determine the extent of the community households who still prefer traditional treatment to other forms of treatment, particularly allopathic treatment. Methods Interviews of the tribal healer and the tribal community regarding their ethnomedicinal practices were carried out with the help of a semi-structured questionnaire and the guided field-walk method. All together 67 clan members were interviewed including the Headman, tribal healer, 19 Heads of households and 46 other adult members of the clan. Information on number of members of household, their age, gender, educational status, occupation of working household members and preferred mode of treatment was obtained through the semi-structured questionnaire. In the guided field-walk method, the healer took the interviewers on field-walks through areas from where he collected his medicinal plants, pointed out the plants, and described their uses. Results The clan had a total of 135 people distributed into 20 households and had only one traditional healer. Use of medicinal plants, wearing of amulets, and worship of the evil god ‘Bura debta’ constituted the traditional medicinal practices of the clan for treatment of diseases. The healer used a total of 44 medicinal plants distributed into 34 families for treatment of various ailments like pain, coughs, cold, gastrointestinal disorders, cuts and wounds, diabetes, malaria, heart disorders, and paralysis. Conclusions Available scientific reports validate the use of a number of plants by the traditional healer. A number of the plants used by the clan healer had reported similar uses in Ayurveda, but differ considerably in their therapeutic uses from that reported for other tribes in Bangladesh. The present survey also indicated that in recent years the Deb barma clan members are inclining more towards allopathic medicine. PMID:24502444

  15. Medicinal plants potential and use by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Erer Valley of Babile Wereda, Eastern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ethiopian plants have shown remarkably effective medicinal values for many human and livestock ailments. Some research results are found on medicinal plants of the south, south west, central, north and north western parts of Ethiopia. However, there is lack of data that quantitatively assesses the resource potential and the indigenous knowledge on use and management of medicinal plants in eastern Ethiopia. The main thrust of the present ethnobotanical study centres around the potential and use of traditional medicinal plants by pastoral and agro-pastoral communities in Babile Wereda (district) of eastern Ethiopia. The results can be used for setting up of conservation priorities, preservation of local biocultural knowledge with sustainable use and development of the resource. Materials and methods Fifty systematically selected informants including fifteen traditional herbalists (as key informants) participated in the study. Semi-structured interviews, discussions and guided field walk constituted the main data collection methods. Techniques of preference ranking, factor of informant consensus and Spearman rank correlation test were employed in data analysis. Medicinal plant specimens were collected, identified and kept at the National Herbarium (ETH) of Addis Ababa University and Haramaya University Herbarium. Results Fifty-one traditional medicinal plant species in 39 genera and 28 families were recorded, constituting 37% shrubs, 29% trees, 26% herbs, 6% climbers and 2% root parasites. Leaves contributed to 35.3% of the preparations, roots (18.8%) and lower proportions for other parts. Formulations recorded added to 133 remedies for 54 human ailments, in addition to some used in vector control. The majority of remedies were the juice of single species, mixtures being generally infrequent. Aloe pirottae, Azadirachta indica and Hydnora johannis were the most cited and preferred species. Aloe pirottae, a species endemic to Ethiopia, is valued as a remedy for malaria, tropical ulcer, gastro-intestinal parasites, gallstone, eye diseases and snake bite. The jel extracted from dried and ground plant material, called SIBRI (Oromo language), was acclaimed as a cleaner of the human colon. Concoction made from leaf, seed and flower of Azadirachta indica was given for treatment of malaria, fungal infections and intestinal worms. Root preparations from Hydnora johannis were prescribed as remedy for diarrhoea, haemorrhage, wound and painful body swelling, locally called GOFLA (Oromo language). Conclusions The study documented many well known and effective medicinal species of relevance for human healthcare, including for the treatment of malaria which is rampant in the area as it is in many parts of Ethiopia. This underscores the importance of the traditional medicinal plants for the people living in the area and the potential of the resource for development. Consequently, the study area deserves urgent conservation priority coupled with mechanisms for the protection of the associated indigenous medical lore as well as development and effective use of the medicinal plant resource. PMID:23082858

  16. Medicinal plants used by the Yi ethnic group: a case study in central Yunnan

    PubMed Central

    Long, Chunlin; Li, Sumei; Long, Bo; Shi, Yana; Liu, Benxi

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper is based on ethnomedicinal investigation conducted from 19992002 in Chuxiong, central Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The Yi medicine has made a great contribution to the ethnomedicinal field in China. Neither case studies nor integrated inventories have previously been conducted to investigate the traditional Yi plants. This paper aims to argue the status and features of medicinal plants used in traditional Yi societies through a case study. Methods The approaches of ethnobotany, anthropology, and participatory rural appraisal were used in the field surveys. Twenty-two informants in four counties were interviewed during eight field trips. Medicinal plant specimens were identified according to taxonomic methods. Results One hundred sixteen medicinal plant species were found to be useful by the local people in the treatment of various diseases or disorders, especially those relating to trauma, gastrointestinal disorders and the common cold. Among these 116 species, 25 species (21.55%) were found to have new curative effects and 40 species (34.48%) were recorded for their new preparation methods; 55 different species were used in treating wounds and fractures, and 47 were used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Traditional Yi herbal medicines are characterized by their numerous quantities of herbaceous plants and their common preparation with alcohol. Conclusion Totally 116 species in 58 families of medicinal plants traditionally used by the Yi people were inventoried and documented. The characteristics of medicinal plants were analyzed. Some new findings (such as new curative effects and new preparation methods) were recorded These newly gathered ethnobotanical and medicinal data are precious sources for the future development of new drugs, and for further phytochemical, pharmacological and clinical studies. PMID:19389251

  17. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of medicinal plants from growth of plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Panjehkeh, N; Jahani Hossein-Abadi, Z

    2011-01-01

    Plant cells produce a vast amount of secondary metabolites. Production of some compounds is restricted to a single species. Some compounds are nearly always found only in certain specific plant organs and during a specific developmental period of the plant. Some secondary metabolites of plants serve as defensive compounds against invading microorganisms. Nowadays, it is attempted to substitute the biological and natural agents with chemically synthesized fungicides. In the present research, the antifungal activities of essential oils of seven medicinal plants on mycelial growth of three soilborne plant pathogenic fungi were investigated. The plants consisted of Zataria multiflora, Thymus carmanicus, Mentha pieperata, Satureja hortensis, Lavandual officinolis, Cuminum cyminum and Azadirachta indica. The first five plants are from the family Labiatae. Examined fungi, Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici, Fusarium solani and Rhizoctonia solani are the causal agents of tomato root rot. Essential oils of Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus, M. pieperata, S. hortensis and C. cyminum were extracted by hydro-distillation method. Essential oils of L. officinalis and A. indica were extracted by vapor-distillation method. A completely randomized design with five replicates was used to examine the inhibitory impact of each concentration (300, 600 and 900 ppm) of each essential oil. Poisoned food assay using potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium was employed. Results showed that essential oils of A. indica, Z. multiflora, T. carmanicus and S. hortensis in 900 ppm at 12 days post-inoculation, when the control fungi completely covered the plates, prevented about 90% from mycelial growth of each of the fungi. While, the essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis in the same concentration and time prevented 54.86, 52.77 and 48.84%, respectively, from F. solani growth. These substances did not prevent from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici and R. solani growth. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of essential oils of T. carmanicus, Z. multiflora and A. indica from R. solani and F. solani growth was 900 and 600 ppm, respectively. In addition, the MIC of essential oils of these plants and essential oil of S. hortensis from F. oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici growth was 900 ppm. The MIC of essential oils of M. pieperata, C. cyminum and L. officinalis from F. solani growth was 900 ppm. PMID:22702190

  18. A collection of homework problems about the application of electricity and magnetism to medicine and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Bradley J.; Hobbie, Russell K.

    2014-05-01

    This article contains a collection of homework problems to help students learn how concepts from electricity and magnetism can be applied to topics in medicine and biology. The problems are at a level typical of an undergraduate electricity and magnetism class, covering topics such as nerve electrophysiology, transcranial magnetic stimulation, and magnetic resonance imaging. The goal of these problems is to train biology and medical students to use quantitative methods, and also to introduce physics and engineering students to biological phenomena.

  19. World trade in medicinal plants from Spanish America, 1717-1815.

    PubMed

    Gnger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global 'spread' of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their 'exotic' charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

  20. World Trade in Medicinal Plants from Spanish America, 1717–1815

    PubMed Central

    Gänger, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines the history of the commerce in medicinal plants and plant-based remedies from the Spanish American territories in the eighteenth century. It maps the routes used to transport the plants from Spanish America to Europe and, along the arteries of European commerce, colonialism and proselytism, into societies across the Americas, Asia and Africa. Inquiring into the causes of the global ‘spread’ of American remedies, it argues that medicinal plants like ipecacuanha, guaiacum, sarsaparilla, jalap root and cinchona moved with relative ease into Parisian medicine chests, Moroccan court pharmacies and Manila dispensaries alike, because of their ‘exotic’ charisma, the force of centuries-old medical habits, and the increasingly measurable effectiveness of many of these plants by the late eighteenth century. Ultimately and primarily, however, it was because the disease environments of these widely separated places, their medical systems and materia medica had long become entangled by the eighteenth century. PMID:25498437

  1. Introduction of Medicinal Plants Species with the Most Traditional Usage in Alamut Region

    PubMed Central

    Ahvazi, Maryam; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Charkhchiyan, Mohammad Mahdi; Mojab, Faraz; Mozaffarian, Vali-Allah; Zakeri, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    The ethnobotany of the medicinal plants of Alamut region is important in understanding the cultures and traditions of Alamut people. This study documents 16 medicinal plant species, most commonly used by the indigenous people of Alamut region (Ghazvin Province), northwest, Iran. The botanical name, family name, vernacular name, part used, and the application of the plants have been provided in this paper. Alamut region was divided into different villages with the aid of maps. We recorded traditional knowledge and use of medicinal plants from herbal practitioners and village seniors in Alamut. The plants were gathered from different sites. The fully dried specimens were then mounted on herbarium sheets. We found 16 medicinal plants belonging to 11 families which were traditionally used in Alamut. Finally, we describe traditional usages by the native people in the Alamut region. The obtained results were compared with data on the herbs clinical effects. A set of voucher specimens were deposited to the Institute of Medicinal Plants Herbarium (IMPH). PMID:24250441

  2. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Leporatti, Maria Lucia; Ghedira, Kamel

    2009-01-01

    Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans), facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge. PMID:19857257

  3. Local knowledge in community-based approaches to medicinal plant conservation: lessons from India

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Shailesh; Gardner, James

    2006-01-01

    Background Community-based approaches to conservation of natural resources, in particular medicinal plants, have attracted attention of governments, non governmental organizations and international funding agencies. This paper highlights the community-based approaches used by an Indian NGO, the Rural Communes Medicinal Plant Conservation Centre (RCMPCC). The RCMPCC recognized and legitimized the role of local medicinal knowledge along with other knowledge systems to a wider audience, i.e. higher levels of government. Methods Besides a review of relevant literature, the research used a variety of qualitative techniques, such as semi-structured, in-depth interviews and participant observations in one of the project sites of RCMPCC. Results The review of local medicinal plant knowledge systems reveals that even though medicinal plants and associated knowledge systems (particularly local knowledge) are gaining wider recognition at the global level, the efforts to recognize and promote the un-codified folk systems of medicinal knowledge are still inadequate. In country like India, such neglect is evident through the lack of legal recognition and supporting policies. On the other hand, community-based approaches like local healers' workshops or village biologist programs implemented by RCMPCC are useful in combining both local (folk and codified) and formal systems of medicine. Conclusion Despite the high reliance on the local medicinal knowledge systems for health needs in India, the formal policies and national support structures are inadequate for traditional systems of medicine and almost absent for folk medicine. On the other hand, NGOs like the RCMPCC have demonstrated that community-based and local approaches such as local healer's workshops and village biologist program can synergistically forge linkages between local knowledge with the formal sciences (in this case botany and ecology) and generate positive impacts at various levels. PMID:16603082

  4. Collective intelligence for translational medicine: Crowdsourcing insights and innovation from an interdisciplinary biomedical research community.

    PubMed

    Jane Budge, Eleanor; Maria Tsoti, Sandra; James Howgate, Daniel; Sivakumar, Shivan; Jalali, Morteza

    2015-11-01

    Translational medicine bridges the gap between discoveries in biomedical science and their safe and effective clinical application. Despite the gross opportunity afforded by modern research for unparalleled advances in this field, the process of translation remains protracted. Efforts to expedite science translation have included the facilitation of interdisciplinary collaboration within both academic and clinical environments in order to generate integrated working platforms fuelling the sharing of knowledge, expertise, and tools to align biomedical research with clinical need. However, barriers to scientific translation remain, and further progress is urgently required. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing applications offer the potential for global online networks, allowing connection and collaboration between a wide variety of fields. This would drive the alignment of biomedical science with biotechnology, clinical need, and patient experience, in order to deliver evidence-based innovation which can revolutionize medical care worldwide. Here we discuss the critical steps towards implementing collective intelligence in translational medicine using the experience of those in other fields of science and public health. Key Messages The scientific translation of biomedical research into clinical applications is protracted, despite the mass opportunity afforded by modern science. Barriers to translational medicine exist as a result of the impracticalities of research, organizational hurdles, and lack of an interdisciplinary workforce. Collective intelligence and crowdsourcing offer the potential to expedite the translational process by providing a platform upon which interdisciplinary workforces can communicate and collaborate, aligning biomedical research with clinical need revolutionizing health care worldwide. PMID:26469375

  5. Effects of crude aqueous medicinal plant extracts on growth and invasion of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Van Slambrouck, Severine; Daniels, Amber L; Hooten, Carla J; Brock, Steven L; Jenkins, Aaron R; Ogasawara, Marcia A; Baker, Joann M; Adkins, Glen; Elias, Eerik M; Agustin, Vincent J; Constantine, Sarah R; Pullin, Michael J; Shors, Scott T; Kornienko, Alexander; Steelant, Wim F A

    2007-06-01

    Plants used in folklore medicine continue to be an important source of discovery and development of novel therapeutic agents. In the present study, we determined the effects of crude aqueous extracts of a panel of medicinal plants on the growth and invasion of cancer cells. Our results showed that extracts of L. tridentata (Creosote Bush) and J. communis L. (Juniper Berry) significantly decreased the growth of MCF-7/AZ breast cancer cells. The latter as well as A. californica (Yerba Mansa) inhibited invasion into the collagen type I gel layer. Furthermore, the phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) decreased when the cells were exposed to aqueous extracts of L. tridentata, J. communis L. and A. californica. This study provides original scientific data on the anticancer activity of selected aqueous medicinal plant extracts used in traditional medicine. PMID:17487409

  6. Endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial communities isolated from the medicinal plants Echinacea purpurea and Echinacea angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Chiellini, Carolina; Maida, Isabel; Emiliani, Giovanni; Mengoni, Alessio; Mocali, Stefano; Fabiani, Arturo; Biffi, Sauro; Maggini, Valentina; Gori, Luigi; Vannacci, Alfredo; Gallo, Eugenia; Firenzuoli, Fabio; Fani, Renato

    2014-09-01

    In this work we analyzed the composition and structure of cultivable bacterial communities isolated from the stem/leaf and root compartments of two medicinal plants, Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench and Echinacea angustifolia (DC.) Hell, grown in the same soil, as well as the bacterial community from their rhizospheric soils. Molecular PCR-based techniques were applied to cultivable bacteria isolated from the three compartments of the two plants. The results showed that the two plants and their respective compartments were characterized by different communities, indicating a low degree of strain sharing and a strong selective pressure within plant tissues. Pseudomonas was the most highly represented genus, together with Actinobacteria and Bacillus spp. The presence of distinct bacterial communities in different plant species and among compartments of the same plant species could account for the differences in the medicinal properties of the two plants. [Int Microbiol 2014; 17(3):165-174]. PMID:26419456

  7. Plant regeneration from callus cultures of Vitex trifolia (Lamiales: Lamiaceae): a potential medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Samantaray, Sanghamitra; Bishoyi, Ashok Kumar; Maiti, Satyabrata

    2013-09-01

    Vitex trifolia is a shrub species with popular use as a medicinal plant, for which leaves, roots and flowers have been reported to heal different distresses. The increasing exploitation of these plants has endangered its conservation, and has importantly justified the use of biotechnological tools for their propagation. Our aim was to present an efficient protocol for plant regeneration through organogenesis; and simultaneously, to analyze the genetic homogeneity of the established clonal lines by Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers. Plantlet regeneration was achieved in callus cultures derived from stem, leaf and petiole explants of V. trifolia on a differently supplemented Murashige & Skoog medium, and incubated at 25 +/-2 degrees C under a light intensity of 61 micromol/m2s from cool white fluorescent lamps and a 16 h photoperiod. The rate of shoot bud regeneration was positively correlated with the concentration of hormones in the nutrient media. Shoot buds regenerated more rapidly from stem and petiole explants as compared to leaf explants on medium containing 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microMNAA. Addition of 135.74-271.50 microM adenine sulphate (Ads) and 0.72-1.44 microM gibberellic acid (GA3) to the culture medium increased the growth of shoot buds. The highest rate of shoot bud regeneration responses was obtained in stem explants using 11.10 microM BAP in combination with 0.54 microM NAA, 271.50 microM Ads and 1.44 microM GA3. In vitro rooting of the differentiated shoots was achieved in media containing 1.23 microM indole butyric acid (IBA) with 2% (w/v) sucrose. Regenerated plantlets were successfully established in soil with 86% survival under field condition. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA and Inter Simple Sequence Repeat markers analyses have confirmed the genetic uniformity of the regenerated plantlets derived from the second up to fifth subcultures. This protocol may help in mass propagation and conservation of this important medicinal plant of great therapeutic potential. PMID:24027909

  8. Medicinal plants used by tribal population of Coochbehar district, West Bengal, India-an ethnobotanical survey

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Tanmay; Patra, Amal Kumar; Dastidar, Santanu Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore traditional ethnomedicinal knowledge of different tribes of Coochbehar district of West Bengal, India, and its present status. Methods With the help of standardized questionnaires, traditional healers and resource persons were interviewed on medicinal use of local flora in all the tribal villages of Coochbehar district during July, 2007 to December, 2009 and some of the places were revisited for this purpose again during July to December of 2012. Results A total of 46 plant species belonging to 42 genera and 27 families were reported to be used for treating 33 various physical ailments. In terms of the number of medicinal plant species, Fabaceae (5 species) and Euphorbiaceae (4 species) are dominant families. Among different plant parts used for the preparation of medicine, leaves were most frequently used for the treatment of diseases. Conclusions In all tribal villages we found the use of medicinal plants, particularly to treat common physical problems like smaller injuries, stomachache and abdominal disorder. However, non-availability of such plants in close vicinity is imposing restriction on using medicinal plants. Further research on these species may lead to the discovery of novel bioactive molecules in one hand and also it may open up a new horizon of sustainable development. PMID:25183132

  9. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  10. Bioactivity of indigenous medicinal plants against the cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Hammad, E Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A; Saliba, N; Talhouk, S

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae),Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25373231

  11. Investigation of the effects of selected medicinal plants on experimental thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Olajide, O A

    1999-05-01

    Six medicinal plants indigenous to Africa were evaluated for their activity on experimental thrombosis in mice. Of the plants screened, the extract of Commiphora molmol exhibited the strongest antithrombotic activity, while the extract of Ageratum conyzoides showed no marked activity. This study established the antithrombotic effect of the extracts of Azadiractha indica, Bridelia ferruginea, Commiphora molmol, Garcinia kola and Curcuma longa. PMID:10353165

  12. Medicinal plants of Otwal and Ngai Sub Counties in Oyam District, Northern Uganda

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An ethnobotanical study was carried out in four parishes in the Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties in Oyam district, Northern Uganda, where insurgency has been prevalent for the past 20 years. Documenting medicinal plant species used in treating various health conditions among the local people. Methods Information was obtained from mainly the local population, the traditional healers and other experienced persons through interviews, formal and informal discussions and field excursions. Results Seventy one plant species were reported for use in the treatment of various diseases in the study area. These plant species belongs to 41 families, with Asteraceae being the most represented. Roots were ranked the commonest plant part used. Oral administration was the most frequently used route of administration. A total of 41 different health conditions were reported to be treated by use of medicinal plant species. Thirty nine percent of the recorded plant species were reported for treating stomach related ailments. Conclusion The use of medicinal plants in primary healthcare is still a common practice in Ngai and Otwal Sub Counties. The trust they have is built on the curative outcome properties claimed, poverty and armed conflict that lead to inadequate healthcare facilities. The generation gap caused by the over 20 years of insurgency in the area has brought about knowledge gap on the usage of medicinal plant species between the young and the older generation. PMID:21241484

  13. Bioactivity of Indigenous Medicinal Plants against the Cotton Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Hammad, E. Abou-Fakhr; Zeaiter, A.; Saliba, N.; Talhouk, S.

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one methanol extracts of 28 indigenous medicinal plant species were tested for their insecticidal bioactivity against cotton whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), adults and second nymphal instars under controlled conditions. This study is within a bioprospection context, in the form of utilizing local plant species as an alternative in sustainable agriculture development. Eighteen and nine plant extracts caused a significant decrease in number of live adult and nymphal whiteflies, respectively, compared to the control. This is the first report for the potential effect on survival of insects for 22 out of 28 tested medicinal plant species. Whole plant extracts of Ranunculus myosuroudes Boiss. and Kotschy (Ranunculaceae), Achillea damascena L. (Asteraceae), and Anthemis hebronica Boiss. and Kotschy (Asteraceae) and leaf extracts of Verbascum leptostychum DC. (Scrophulariaceae) and Heliotropium rotundifolium Boiss. (Borangiaceae) caused both repellent and toxic effects against the adult and second nymphal instars, respectively. Extracts of leaves and stems of Anthemis scariosa Boiss. (Asteraceae) and Calendula palestina Pers. (Asteraceae) were found to be more bioactive against the adult and nymphal instars, respectively, than extracts of other plant parts, such as flowers. Thus, the bioactive extracts of these medicinal plants have the potential to lower whitefly populations in a comprehensive pest management program in local communities, pending cultivation of these medicinal plant species. PMID:25204756

  14. Natural plant chemicals: source of industrial and medicinal materials

    SciTech Connect

    Balandrin, M.F.; Klocke, J.A.; Wurtele, E.S.; Bollinger, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Many higher plants produce economically important organic compounds such as oils, resins, tannins, natural rubber, gums, waxes, dyes, flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides. However, most species of higher plants have never been described, much less surveyed for chemical or biologically active constituents, and new sources of commercially valuable materials remain to be discovered. Advances in biotechnology, particularly methods for culturing plants cells and tissues, should provide new means for the commercial processing of even rare plants and the chemicals they produce. These new technologies will extend and enhance the usefulness of plants as renewable resources of valuable chemicals. In the future, biologically active plant-derived chemicals can be expected to play an increasingly significant role in the commercial development of new products for regulating plant growth and for insect and weed control. 65 references.

  15. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants used by Saperas community of Khetawas, Jhajjar District, Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Plants have traditionally been used as a source of medicine in India by indigenous people of different ethnic groups inhabiting various terrains for the control of various ailments afflicting human and their domestic animals. The indigenous community of snake charmers belongs to the 'Nath' community in India have played important role of healers in treating snake bite victims. Snake charmers also sell herbal remedies for common ailments. In the present paper an attempt has been made to document on ethno botanical survey and traditional medicines used by snake charmers of village Khetawas located in district Jhajjar of Haryana, India as the little work has been made in the past to document the knowledge from this community. Methods Ethno botanical data and traditional uses of plants information was obtained by semi structured oral interviews from experienced rural folk, traditional herbal medicine practitioners of the 'Nath' community. A total of 42 selected inhabitants were interviewed, 41 were male and only one woman. The age of the healers was between 25 years and 75 years. The plant specimens were identified according to different references concerning the medicinal plants of Haryana and adjoining areas and further confirmation from Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. Results The present study revealed that the people of the snake charmer community used 57 medicinal plants species that belonged to 51 genera and 35 families for the treatment of various diseases. The study has brought to light that the main diseases treated by this community was snakebite in which 19 different types of medicinal plants belongs to 13 families were used. Significantly higher number of medicinal plants was claimed by men as compared to women. The highest numbers of medicinal plants for traditional uses utilized by this community were belonging to family Fabaceae. Conclusion This community carries a vast knowledge of medicinal plants but as snake charming is banned in India as part of efforts to protect India's steadily depleting wildlife, this knowledge is also rapidly disappearing in this community. Such type of ethno botanical studies will help in systematic documentation of ethno botanical knowledge and availing to the scientific world plant therapies used as antivenin by the Saperas community. PMID:20109179

  16. Potential of medicinal plants as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents in food industry: a hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Ramirez, Luis Alberto; Rodriguez-Garcia, Isela; Leyva, Juan Manuel; Cruz-Valenzuela, Manuel Reynaldo; Silva-Espinoza, Brenda Adriana; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Gustavo A; Siddiqui, Wasim; Ayala-Zavala, Jesus Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Many food preservation strategies can be used for the control of microbial spoilage and oxidation; however, these quality problems are not yet controlled adequately. Although synthetic antimicrobial and antioxidant agents are approved in many countries, the use of natural safe and effective preservatives is a demand of food consumers and producers. This paper proposes medicinal plants, traditionally used to treat health disorders and prevent diseases, as a source of bioactive compounds having food additive properties. Medicinal plants are rich in terpenes and phenolic compounds that present antimicrobial and antioxidant properties; in addition, the literature revealed that these bioactive compounds extracted from other plants have been effective in food systems. In this context, the present hypothesis paper states that bioactive molecules extracted from medicinal plants can be used as antimicrobial and antioxidant additives in the food industry. PMID:24446991

  17. Medicinal Plants: A Potential Source of Compounds for Targeting Cell Division

    PubMed Central

    Zulkipli, Ihsan N; David, Sheba R; Rajabalaya, Rajan; Idris, Adi

    2015-01-01

    Modern medicinal plant drug discovery has provided pharmacologically active compounds targeted against a multitude of conditions and diseases, such as infection, inflammation, and cancer. To date, natural products from medicinal plants remain a solid niche as a source from which cancer therapies can be derived. Among other properties, one favorable characteristic of an anticancer drug is its ability to block the uncontrollable process of cell division, as cancer cells are notorious for their abnormal cell division. There are numerous other documented works on the potential anticancer activity of drugs derived from medicinal plants, and their effects on cell division are an attractive and growing therapeutic target. Despite this, there remains a vast number of unidentified natural products that are potentially promising sources for medical applications. This mini review aims to revise the current knowledge of the effects of natural plant products on cell division. PMID:26106261

  18. Screening for antimicrobial activity of ten medicinal plants used in Colombian folkloric medicine: A possible alternative in the treatment of non-nosocomial infections

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Jhon J; Ochoa, Veronica J; Ocampo, Saul A; Muoz, John F

    2006-01-01

    Background The antimicrobial activity and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of the extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Bixa orellana L., Cecropia peltata L., Cinchona officinalis L., Gliricidia sepium H.B. & K, Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, Justicia secunda Vahl., Piper pulchrum C.DC, P. paniculata L. and Spilanthes americana Hieron were evaluated against five bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus ? hemoltic, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli), and one yeast (Candida albicans). These plants are used in Colombian folk medicine to treat infections of microbial origin. Methods Plants were collected by farmers and traditional healers. The ethanol, hexane and water extracts were obtained by standard methods. The antimicrobial activity was found by using a modified agar well diffusion method. All microorganisms were obtained from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). MIC was determined in the plant extracts that showed some efficacy against the tested microorganisms. Gentamycin sulfate (1.0 ?g/ml), clindamycin (0.3 ?g/ml) and nystatin (1.0 ?g/ml) were used as positive controls. Results The water extracts of Bidens pilosa L., Jacaranda mimosifolia D.Don, and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed a higher activity against Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli than gentamycin sulfate. Similarly, the ethanol extracts of all species were active against Staphylococcus aureus except for Justicia secunda. Furthermore, Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC presented the lowest MICs against Escherichia coli (0.8, 0.6 and 0.6 ?g/ml, respectively) compared to gentamycin sulfate (0.9 8g/ml). Likewise, Justicia secunda and Piper pulchrum C.DC showed an analogous MIC against Candida albicans (0.5 and 0.6 ?g/ml, respectively) compared to nystatin (0.6 ?g/ml). Bixa orellana L, exhibited a better MIC against Bacillus cereus (0.2 ?g/ml) than gentamycin sulfate (0.5 ?g/ml). Conclusion This in vitro study corroborated the antimicrobial activity of the selected plants used in folkloric medicine. All these plants were effective against three or more of the pathogenic microorganisms. However, they were ineffective against Streptococcus ? hemolytic and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Their medicinal use in infections associated with these two species is not recommended. This study also showed that Bixa orellana L, Justicia secunda Vahl. and Piper pulchrum C.DC could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:16483385

  19. Medicinal plants from swidden fallows and sacred forest of the Karen and the Lawa in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many ecosystem services provided by forests are important for the livelihoods of indigenous people. Sacred forests are used for traditional practices by the ethnic minorities in northern Thailand and they protect these forests that are important for their culture and daily life. Swidden fallow fields are a dominant feature of the agricultural farming landscapes in the region. In this study we evaluate and compare the importance of swidden fallow fields and sacred forests as providers of medicinal plants among the Karen and Lawa ethnic minorities in northern Thailand. Methods We made plant inventories in swidden fallow fields of three different ages (1–2, 3–4, 5–6 years old) and in sacred forests around two villages using a replicated stratified design of vegetation plots. Subsequently we interviewed the villagers, using semi-structured questionnaires, to assess the medicinal use of the species encountered in the vegetation survey. Results We registered a total of 365 species in 244 genera and 82 families. Of these 72(19%) species in 60(24%) genera and 32(39%) families had medicinal uses. Although the sacred forest overall housed more species than the swidden fallow fields, about equal numbers of medicinal plants were derived from the forest and the fallows. This in turn means that a higher proportion (48% and 34%) of the species in the relatively species poor fallows were used for medicinal purposes than the proportion of medicinal plants from the sacred forest which accounted for 17–22%. Of the 32 medicinal plant families Euphorbiaceae and Lauraceae had most used species in the Karen and Lawa villages respectively. Conclusion Sacred forest are important for providing medicinal plant species to the Karen and Lawa communities in northern Thailand, but the swidden fallows around the villages are equally important in terms of absolute numbers of medicinal plant species, and more important if counted as proportion of the total number of species in a habitat. This points to the importance of secondary vegetation as provider of medicinal plants around rural villages as seen elsewhere in the tropics. PMID:23800255

  20. Chemo- and bioinformatics resources for in silico drug discovery from medicinal plants beyond their traditional use: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Lagunin, Alexey A; Goel, Rajesh K; Gawande, Dinesh Y; Pahwa, Priynka; Gloriozova, Tatyana A; Dmitriev, Alexander V; Ivanov, Sergey M; Rudik, Anastassia V; Konova, Varvara I; Pogodin, Pavel V; Druzhilovsky, Dmitry S; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2014-11-01

    In silico approaches have been widely recognised to be useful for drug discovery. Here, we consider the significance of available databases of medicinal plants and chemo- and bioinformatics tools for in silico drug discovery beyond the traditional use of folk medicines. This review contains a practical example of the application of combined chemo- and bioinformatics methods to study pleiotropic therapeutic effects (known and novel) of 50 medicinal plants from Traditional Indian Medicine. PMID:25051191

  1. Vibriocidal activity of certain medicinal plants used in Indian folklore medicine by tribals of Mahakoshal region of central India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjana; Patel, Virendra Kumar; Chaturvedi, Animesh Navin

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Screening of the medicinal plants and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Materials and Methods: A simple in vitro screening assay was employed for the standard strain of Vibrio cholerae, 12 isolates of Vibrio cholerae non-O1, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Aqueous and organic solvent extracts of different parts of the plants were investigated by using the disk diffusion method. Extracts from 16 medicinal plants were selected on account of the reported traditional uses for the treatment of cholera and gastrointestinal diseases, and they were assayed for vibriocidal activities. Results: The different extracts differed significantly in their vibriocidal properties with respect to different solvents. The MIC values of the plant extracts against test bacteria were found to be in the range of 2.5-20 mg/ml. Conclusions: The results indicated that Lawsonia inermis, Saraca indica, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia belerica, Allium sativum, and Datura stramonium served as broad-spectrum vibriocidal agents. PMID:20442821

  2. Evaluation of the In Vitro Antiplasmodial, Antileishmanial, and Antitrypanosomal Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Saudi and Yemeni Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Mothana, Ramzi A.; Al-Musayeib, Nawal M.; Al-Ajmi, Mohamed F.; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2014-01-01

    The antiplasmodial, antileishmanial, and antitrypanosomal activity of twenty-five medicinal plants distributed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen was evaluated. The plants were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi, and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined on MRC-5 cells. Criteria for activity were an IC50 < 10??g/mL and high selectivity (SI). Seven plants showed interesting antiprotozoal activity in one or more models. Extracts of Caralluma penicillata and Acalypha ciliata showed fairly good activity against P. falciparum with IC50 of 6.7 and 10.8??g/mL and adequate selectivity (SI > 9.6 and >5.9). Interesting activity against L. infantum was obtained with Verbascum bottae (IC50 of 3.2??g/mL, SI 10.2) and Solanum glabratum (IC50 8.1??g/mL, SI 3.4). The extracts of C. penicillata, Leucas virgata, Loranthus regularis, and V. bottae exhibited moderate activity against T. brucei (IC50 8.5, 8.1, 8.3, and 2.3??g/mL; SI > 7.6, 7.7, 4.3, and >14.1). These results partly support the traditional use of some of the selected medicinal plants and warrant further investigations into the putative active constituents. PMID:24963330

  3. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohiuddin, M.; Arbain, D.; Islam, A. K. M. Shafiqul; Ahmad, M. S.; Ahmad, M. N.

    2016-02-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α- d-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau ( Ehretis laevis), Cemumar ( Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong ( Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

  4. Alpha-Glucosidase Enzyme Biosensor for the Electrochemical Measurement of Antidiabetic Potential of Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Mohiuddin, M; Arbain, D; Islam, A K M Shafiqul; Ahmad, M S; Ahmad, M N

    2016-12-01

    A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 μA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 μA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 μA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C. PMID:26887579

  5. Delivery and collection of radioactive packages to and from UK hospital nuclear medicine departments.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Richard S; Davies, Glyn; Hesslewood, Stuart R; Hinton, Paul J; Maxwell, Alan

    2004-12-01

    Under radiation protection legislation in the UK, employers have a duty to maintain appropriate records to account for radioactive materials in their possession and to ensure security of these materials. This applies to radioactive packages, containing items such as technetium generators, which are regularly delivered to hospital nuclear medicine departments. It also applies to the collection of packages, such as those containing used generators for return to the supplier. This article has been written by the professional bodies representing nuclear medicine in the UK in order to provide guidance to hospitals on appropriate procedures that will comply with the legislation. General principles, which should be met by any acceptable protocol, are stated, and practical guidance on how these may be implemented is given. Some example scenarios are outlined. PMID:15640773

  6. Traditional medicinal plant knowledge and use by local healers in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Yineger, Haile; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw

    2007-01-01

    The knowledge and use of medicinal plant species by traditional healers was investigated in Sekoru District, Jimma Zone, Southwestern Ethiopia from December 2005 to November 2006. Traditional healers of the study area were selected randomly and interviewed with the help of translators to gather information on the knowledge and use of medicinal plants used as a remedy for human ailments in the study area. In the current study, it was reported that 27 plant species belonging to 27 genera and 18 families were commonly used to treat various human ailments. Most of these species (85.71%) were wild and harvested mainly for their leaves (64.52%). The most cited ethnomedicinal plant species was Alysicarpus quartinianus A. Rich., whose roots and leaves were reported by traditional healers to be crushed in fresh and applied as a lotion on the lesions of patients of Abiato (Shererit). No significant correlation was observed between the age of traditional healers and the number of species reported and the indigenous knowledge transfer was found to be similar. More than one medicinal plant species were used more frequently than the use of a single species for remedy preparations. Plant parts used for remedy preparations showed significant difference with medicinal plant species abundance in the study area. PMID:17547765

  7. A study of the medicinal plants used by the Marakwet Community in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The medicinal plants used by herbalists in Kenya have not been well documented, despite their widespread use. The threat of complete disappearance of the knowledge on herbal medicine from factors such as deforestation, lack of proper regulation, overexploitation and sociocultural issues warrants an urgent need to document the information. The purpose of the study was to document information on medicinal plants used by herbalists in Marakwet District towards the utilization of indigenous ethnobotanical knowledge for the advancement of biomedical research and development. Methods Semi- structured oral interviews were conducted with 112 practicing herbalists. The types of plants used were identified and the conditions treated recorded. Results Herbal practice is still common in the district, and 111 plants were identified to have medicinal or related uses. Different herbal preparations including fruits and healing vegetables are employed in the treatment of various medical conditions. Veterinary uses and pesticides were also recorded. Conclusion The study provides comprehensive ethnobotanical information about herbal medicine and healing methods among the Marakwet community. The identification of the active ingredients of the plants used by the herbalists may provide some useful leads for the development of new drugs. PMID:24555424

  8. [Different active ingredients of medicinal plant based on function differentiation of homologous gene].

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Yu, Jun; Huang, Lu-qi; Wang, Xu-min

    2015-03-01

    In the research field of quality control in Chinese medicinal materials, variation in active ingredients of medicinal plant is always the key and hot issues. With the development of high-throughput sequencing technologies and reducing cost, a large numbers of genes from medicinal plant were cloning and provide a solid foundation for further research of gene structure and its biological function, and also provides conditions for explore active ingredient variation and its quality control from the perspective of molecular pharmacognosy. This paper introduces the concept of homologous gene, gene duplication and classification. We prospect the function of duplicated genes in the role of molecular mechanism research about variation in active ingredients, aiming at providing a new way for medicinal materials quality control. PMID:26226738

  9. Medicines

    MedlinePLUS

    ... better. In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration is in charge of assuring the safety ... prescription and over-the-counter medicines. Even safe drugs can cause unwanted side effects or interactions with ...

  10. Anthocyanins: Analysis and Distribution in Selected Medicinal Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are water soluble plant secondary metabolites responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many plant tissues. They have been shown to be strong antioxidants, and may exert a wide range of health benefits through antioxidant or other mechanisms. Anthocyanins occur primarily as gly...

  11. Anthocyanins: analysis and distribution in selected medicinal plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are water soluble plant secondary metabolites responsible for the blue, purple, and red color of many plant tissues. They have been shown to be strong antioxidants, and may exert a wide range of health benefits through antioxidant or other mechanisms. Anthocyanins occur primarily as g...

  12. [Detection of agent "zhuanggenling" and investigation of utilization of plant growth retardants in traditional Chinese medicine cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yu-yao; Guo, Bao-lin; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-02-01

    Plant growth retardant as one of plant growth regulator can inhibit the cell division, elongation and growth rate in shoot apical meristem (SAM), which can be reversed by gibberellin regulate the product of photosynthesis transfer to the root and rhizome part. As commonly used plant growth retardant, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, chlorocholine chloride, mepiquat chloride, choline chloride and daminozide are used to promote the growth of root and rhizome, call as "zhuanggenling", "pengdasu", "pengdaji" etc. Single or recombination of plant growth regulator is registered as pesticide, and called as pesticide "zhuanggenling" in this paper. Growth regulator which registered as a foliar fertilizer or fertilization was called agricultural fertilizer "zhuanggenling" in this paper. The author investigate the usage of "zhuanggenling" in the root and rhizome of medicinal plants cultivation from 2012 to 2014 in Sichuan province, Huangyuan town, Mianyang (Ophiopogonis Radix); Pengzhou Aoping town (Chuanxiong Rhizoma); Pengshan Xiejia town (Alismatis Rhizoma); Jiangyou Taiping town and Zhangming town (Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata); Yunnan Wenshan (Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma); Henan province, Wuzhidafeng Town (Rehmanniae Radix, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Dioscoreae Rhizoma); Gansu Min county (Codonopsis Radix, Angelicae Sinensis Radix); Gansu Li county (Rhei Radix et Rhizoma). The result showed that "zhuanggenling" were applied in the most medicinal plant cultivation except Rhei Radix et Rhizoma. It has been applied widespreadly in Ophiopogonis Radix, Alismatis Rhizoma, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, Codonopsis Radix; Rehmanniae Radix, commonly in Angelicae Sinensis Radix application, and occasionally in Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma and Dioscoreae Rhizoma. In 53 collected sample from plantation areas, fifteen (28%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling", thirty-eight (72%) were pesticide "zhuanggenling". UPLC analysis results showed that 38 farmers fertilizer "zhuanggenling" content of 6 kinds of plant growth retardant. It is regarded that fertilizer "zhuanggenling" was dominant in medicinal plant cultivation, and that the plant growth retardant is added widespreadly in farm fertilizer "zhuanggenling". All evidence proves conclusively that "zhuanggenling" have been used in the proper way, whereas some others have been misused or even abused in the use regarding to type, number, use frequency. The root or rhizoma are increased to 20%-200%. But there is lack of evaluation to appraise the quality of medicinal materials from the aspects of research or industry. "zhuanggenling" has become a important Chemical control material besides fertilizer, insecticidal sterilization of pesticide PMID:26084162

  13. [Tradicional use of medicinal plants with diuretic properties at Quemado de Gines Municipality, Cuba].

    PubMed

    Prez Machn, Maykel; Sueiro, Mario L; de la Cruz, Ania; Boffill, Mara A; Morn, Francisco; Mndez, Orestes R; Crdenas, Jaqueline

    2011-12-01

    Medicinal plants are highly rich in Cuba and an amount of 179 species have been reported to be used by the population for diuretic purposes, nevertheless, no experimental validation has supported this effect. This study presents the relative importance of the medicinal plant species most widely used for diuretic purposes in two communities of Quemado de Guines Municipality, Villa Clara province. The information was obtained through the application of an interview to 85 inhabitants, from which 80 were random surveys to people with a great knowledge of plants, and five to herbalists and doctors practicing natural medicine. The etnopharmacological information was registered (gathered) by means of the "Tradicional of the Medicine of the Island" (TRAMIL) methodology and the interesting species were identified by a botanist and deposited in the Herbarium of the Central University "Marta Abreu" from Villa Clara, registered in the Index Herbarium, published periodically by the International Association for Plant Taxonomy. The data was analyzed by means of the indexes of use values and significant use level after TRAMIL. From the total of 19 botanical families, 26 medicinal species were identified, and 10 plants resulted with higher significant use and higher indexes of use values. From the plants reported as diuretics, 53.8% have not been experimentally validated in Cuba, the rest of the identified species have been validated at a preclinical level in some centers in the country, but its use have not been authorized as phytochemicals by the Cuban Regulatory Agency. The documentation related to the use of medicinal plants in the studied areas reveals that the traditional knowledge continues deeply rooted in the communities, and popular wisdom is kept through the representative images of the herbalist and people with considerable knowledge about this topic. PMID:22208098

  14. Rediscovering Medicinal Plants' Potential with OMICS: Microsatellite Survey in Expressed Sequence Tags of Eleven Traditional Plants with Potent Antidiabetic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Jagajjit; Sen, Priyabrata; Choudhury, Manabendra Dutta; Dehury, Budheswar; Barooah, Madhumita; Modi, Mahendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Herbal medicines and traditionally used medicinal plants present an untapped potential for novel molecular target discovery using systems science and OMICS biotechnology driven strategies. Since up to 40% of the world's poor people have no access to government health services, traditional and folk medicines are often the only therapeutics available to them. In this vein, North East (NE) India is recognized for its rich bioresources. As part of the Indo-Burma hotspot, it is regarded as an epicenter of biodiversity for several plants having myriad traditional uses, including medicinal use. However, the improvement of these valuable bioresources through molecular breeding strategies, for example, using genic microsatellites or Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs) or Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs)-derived SSRs has not been fully utilized in large scale to date. In this study, we identified a total of 47,700 microsatellites from 109,609 ESTs of 11 medicinal plants (pineapple, papaya, noyontara, bitter orange, bermuda brass, ratalu, barbados nut, mango, mulberry, lotus, and guduchi) having proven antidiabetic properties. A total of 58,159 primer pairs were designed for the non-redundant 8060 SSR-positive ESTs and putative functions were assigned to 4483 unique contigs. Among the identified microsatellites, excluding mononucleotide repeats, di-/trinucleotides are predominant, among which repeat motifs of AG/CT and AAG/CTT were most abundant. Similarity search of SSR containing ESTs and antidiabetic gene sequences revealed 11 microsatellites linked to antidiabetic genes in five plants. GO term enrichment analysis revealed a total of 80 enriched GO terms widely distributed in 53 biological processes, 17 molecular functions, and 10 cellular components associated with the 11 markers. The present study therefore provides concrete insights into the frequency and distribution of SSRs in important medicinal resources. The microsatellite markers reported here markedly add to the genetic stock for cross transferability in these plants and the literature on biomarkers and novel drug discovery for common chronic diseases such as diabetes. PMID:24802971

  15. Medicinal Plants for the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris: A Review of Recent Evidences

    PubMed Central

    Nasri, Hamid; Bahmani, Mahmoud; Shahinfard, Najmeh; Moradi Nafchi, Atefeh; Saberianpour, Shirin; Rafieian Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acne vulgaris affects about 85% of teenagers and may continue to adulthood. There are about two million visits to physicians per year for teenagers and the direct cost of acne treatment in the US exceeds $1 billion per year. Evidence Acquisition: A wide variety of treatment regimens exist for acne vulgaris including benzoil peroxide, retinoids, isotretinoids, keratolytic soaps, alpha hydroxy acids, azelaic acid, salicilic acid as well as hormonal, anti-androgen or antiseborrheic treatments. However, none of these methods is free of side effects and their exact role in therapy is not clear. In this paper apart from presenting the possible causes of acne vulgaris and its available drugs, recently published papers about medicinal plants used in the treatment of acne vulgaris were reviewed. Results: Consumption of alternative and complementary medicine, including medicinal plants, is increasing and is common amongst patients affected by acne and infectious skin diseases. Medicinal plants have a long history of use and have been shown to possess low side effects. These plants are a reliable source for preparation of new drugs. Conclusions: Many plants seem to have inhibitory effects on the growth of bacteria, fungi and viruses in vitro. However, there are a few clinical evidences about the effectiveness and safety of these plants in the treatment of acne and other skin infections. PMID:26862380

  16. Local indigenous knowledge about some medicinal plants in and around Kakamega forest in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Otieno, Nickson Erick

    2012-01-01

    Kakamega forest is Kenya’s only rainforest and is distinguishably rich in biodiversity but threatened by agricultural encroachment and other forms of human activity. It is also one of Kenya’s Important Bird Areas and a significant source of natural products to neighboring rural communities, such as medicinal plants, food, wood and other fibers. By using structured questionnaires for direct interviews, local indigenous knowledge was tapped through involvement of a focal group of elderly key informants in three blocks of the forest. Forty key species of medicinal plants used by local people were identified and recorded. Fifty-five percent of these were shrubs, thirty-two percent trees, seven-and-a-half percent lower plants such as herbs or forbs while five percent were climbers. About seventy percent of the medicinal plants occurred inside the forest itself and thirty percent around the edge and the immediate surroundings outside the forest. Thirty-eight (95%) of the plants were indigenous to Kenya and two (5%) exotic. Such extensive indigenous knowledge of the medicinal uses of the plants, including their distribution trends in the forest, may be tapped for decision support in rural health service planning, policy formulation for conserving the forest, tracking and mitigation of climate change impacts. PMID:24701341

  17. NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase 1 inducer activity of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Alsaid, Mansour S; Alyahya, Muhammad A; Higgins, Maureen; Dinkova-Kostova, Albena T

    2013-04-01

    Medicinal plants are a rich source of biologically-active phytochemicals and have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Specific phytochemicals and extracts of their plant sources have the ability to reduce the risk for chronic degenerative diseases by induction of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism, many of which also have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. One such multifunctional cytoprotective enzyme is NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase. In this study, we prepared extracts of 27 Saudi Arabian medicinal plants which belong to 18 different plant families and tested their ability to induce NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase in murine hepatoma cells grown in microtiter plate wells. In addition to the Brassicaceae, a known source of NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity, we found substantial inducer activity in extracts from the Apiaceae, Apocynaceae, and the Asteraceae families. Five out of a total of eight active extracts are from plants which belong to the Asteraceae family. We further show that artemisinin, an agent which is used clinically for the treatment of malaria, contributes but does not fully account for the inducer activity of the extract of Artemisia monosperma. In contrast to artemisinin, deoxyartemisinin is inactive in this assay, demonstrating the critical role of the endoperoxide moiety of artemisinin for inducer activity. Thus, the NAD(P)H : quinone oxidoreductase inducer activity of extracts of some Saudi Arabian medicinal plants indicates the presence of specific phytochemicals which have the potential to protect against chronic degenerative diseases. PMID:23512501

  18. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants used by herbalists in Eastern province, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kareru, P G; Gachanja, A N; Keriko, J M; Kenji, G M

    2007-01-01

    The aqueous extracts from medicinal plants commonly used by herbalists in Mbeere, and Embu districts of Eastern province, Kenya, were tested for their inhibitory activity against three selected strains of bacteria. All the selected plant extracts (infusions: 1.0 g sample in 100 ml water) investigated showed activity against Escherichia coli with inhibition zone diameters ranging from 5.8-18.0 mm. Terminalia brownii gave the largest inhibition zones against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Vernonia lasiopus and Tithonia diversifolia were inactive to S. aureus and Bacillus subtilis, respectively. Eighteen and sixteen plants showed sensitivity of greater than 10 mm against S. aureus and B. subtilis, respectively. All control discs gave zones of inhibition of 12-24 mm, which were larger than those of the extracts. The present study validated the use of the selected medicinal plants by the herbalists in the treatment of bacterial ailments caused by the strains of bacteria investigated. Medicinal plants used for non-bacterial diseases also exhibited sensitivity towards bacterial strains tested. This implied they could be used as multi-purpose medicinal plants. PMID:20162055

  19. InDiaMed: A Comprehensive Database of Indian Medicinal plants for Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tota, Kumudini; Rayabarapu, Nihar; Moosa, Sowmya; Talla, Venu; Bhyravbhatla, Balaji; Rao, Srinivasa

    2013-01-01

    According to International Diabetes Federation (IDF), India has 62.4 million people with diabetes and by 2030 it is predicted that the number will rise to 100 million. Studies claim that there are around 410 experimentally proven Indian medicinal plants which have anti-diabetic activity, of which the mechanism of action of 109 plants has been elucidated or reported. So, the need of the hour is to explore the claims of Indian medicinal flora and open up the facets of many Indian plants which are being examined for their beneficial role in diabetes. So, we created a database (InDiaMed) of Indian medicinal plants that captures their role in anti-diabetic activity. InDiaMed's features include chemical, pharmacological, biochemical and geographical information of the medicinal plant, scientifically relevant information of the plant, and the coherent research done on it in the field of diabetes. The database also includes the list of poly-herbal formulations which are used for treatment of diabetes in India. Availability http://www.indiamed.info PMID:23750084

  20. New insights of medicinal plant therapeutic activity-The miRNA transfer.

    PubMed

    Sala-Cirtog, Maria; Marian, Catalin; Anghel, Andrei

    2015-08-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) has become the spotlight of the biomedical research around the world and is considered to be a major post-transcriptional gene regulator. This small, endogenous RNA (21-25 nucleotides long) plays an important role by targeting specific mRNAs in plants, animals and humans. Herbal medicine has been used for thousands of years, however little is known about its molecular mechanism of action. Since the discovery of plant miRNA in human tissue and sera after ingestion, the connection between the two kingdoms is presented under a new perspective. Forward pharmacology, such as miRNA therapeutics could be the next best step toward identifying novel therapeutic options involving medicinal plants. Besides reporting the latest findings regarding the cross-kingdom transfer of miRNA and its therapeutic application, this review can inform further investigations that could lead to a modern definition of herbal medicine. PMID:26349990

  1. [Conceptualizing mental health into practice: considerations from the Latin American social medicine/collective health perspective].

    PubMed

    Stolkiner, Alicia; Gómez, Sara Ardila

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to discuss about the possibilities of a mental health definition from the perspective of the Latin American social medicine/collective health movement. Some relations between that movement and the mental health are pointed out. A historical analysis of that movement is presented. The conceptualizations of the health-sickness-care process are considered, emphasizing the complexity, rights perspective and the reference to life, in contrast with the objetivation/medicalization trend. Finally, these ideas are linked with the current debates on the Mental Health field. PMID:22880197

  2. The Use of Medicinal Plants by Migrant People: Adaptation, Maintenance, and Replacement

    PubMed Central

    de Medeiros, Patrcia Muniz; Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Alencar, Nlson Leal; Vandebroek, Ina; Pieroni, Andrea; Hanazaki, Natalia; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of studying the knowledge, beliefs, and practices of migrant communities to understand the dynamics of plant resource use, we reviewed the scientific literature concerning the use of medicinal plants by migrant populations engaged in international or long-distance migrations. We considered the importance of two processes: (1) adaptation to the new flora of the host country (i.e., substitution and incorporation of plants in the pharmacopoeia) and (2) continued use and acquisition of the original flora from migrants' home countries (i.e., importation, cultivation, and/or continued use of plants that grow in both host and home environments). We suggest that, depending on the specific context and conditions of migration, different processes that determine the use and/or selection of plants as herbal medicines may become predominant. PMID:22110548

  3. Phytochemical and biological activities of four wild medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Shad, Anwar Ali; Ahmad, Shabir; Ullah, Riaz; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M; Fouad, H; Ur Rehman, Najeeb; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

  4. Phytochemical and Biological Activities of Four Wild Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Shabir; AbdEl-Salam, Naser M.; Fouad, H.; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Hussain, Hidayat; Saeed, Wajid

    2014-01-01

    The fruits of four wild plants, namely, Capparis decidua, Ficus carica, Syzygium cumini, and Ziziphus jujuba, are separately used as traditional dietary and remedial agents in remote areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The results of our study on these four plants revealed that the examined fruits were a valuable source of nutraceuticals and exhibited good level of antimicrobial activity. The fruits of these four investigated plants are promising source of polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, and saponins. These four plants' fruits are good sources of iron, zinc, copper, manganese, selenium, and chromium. It was also observed that these fruits are potential source of antioxidant agent and the possible reason could be that these samples had good amount of phytochemicals. Hence, the proper propagation, conservation, and chemical investigation are recommended so that these fruits should be incorporated for the eradication of food and health related problems. PMID:25374941

  5. The evolution of traditional knowledge: environment shapes medicinal plant use in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Hawkins, Julie A; Greenhill, Simon J; Pendry, Colin A; Watson, Mark F; Tuladhar-Douglas, Will; Baral, Sushim R; Savolainen, Vincent

    2014-04-01

    Traditional knowledge is influenced by ancestry, inter-cultural diffusion and interaction with the natural environment. It is problematic to assess the contributions of these influences independently because closely related ethnic groups may also be geographically close, exposed to similar environments and able to exchange knowledge readily. Medicinal plant use is one of the most important components of traditional knowledge, since plants provide healthcare for up to 80% of the world's population. Here, we assess the significance of ancestry, geographical proximity of cultures and the environment in determining medicinal plant use for 12 ethnic groups in Nepal. Incorporating phylogenetic information to account for plant evolutionary relatedness, we calculate pairwise distances that describe differences in the ethnic groups' medicinal floras and floristic environments. We also determine linguistic relatedness and geographical separation for all pairs of ethnic groups. We show that medicinal uses are most similar when cultures are found in similar floristic environments. The correlation between medicinal flora and floristic environment was positive and strongly significant, in contrast to the effects of shared ancestry and geographical proximity. These findings demonstrate the importance of adaptation to local environments, even at small spatial scale, in shaping traditional knowledge during human cultural evolution. PMID:24523269

  6. Natural radioactivity levels of some medicinal plants commonly used in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Tettey-Larbi, Lordford; Darko, Emmanuel Ofori; Schandorf, Cyril; Appiah, Alfred Ampomah

    2013-12-01

    Natural radioactivity levels in some selected medicinal plants commonly used in Ghana from the Centre for Scientific Research into Plant Medicine were investigated to determine the activity concentration and the annual committed effective dose due to naturally occurring radionuclides of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K. The activity concentration was determined using gamma-ray spectrometry. The results of the analysis indicated an average activity concentration of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the medicinal plants to be 31.8±2.8 Bq kg(-1), 56.2±2.3 Bq kg(-1) and 839.8±11.9 Bq kg(-1) respectively. Khaya ivorensis recorded the highest activity concentration of (238)U and (232)Th while Lippia multiflora recorded the highest activity concentrations of (40)K. The total annual committed effective doses ranged from 0.026±0.001 to 0.042±0.002 mSv a(-1) with an average value of 0.035±0.001 mSv a(-1). The average annual committed effective dose due to ingestion of the natural radionuclides in the medicinal plant samples were far below the world average annual committed effective dose of 0.3 mSv a(-1) for ingestion of natural radionuclides provided in UNSCEAR 2000 report. Therefore, the radiological hazard associated with intake of the natural radionuclides in the medicinal plants is insignificant. The results provide baseline values which may be useful in establishing rules and regulations relating to radiation protection as well as developing standards and guidelines for the use of medicinal or herbal plants to the appropriate authorities. PMID:23641323

  7. Occurrence of taraxerol and taraxasterol in medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Kiran; Zafar, Rasheeduz

    2015-01-01

    Indian soil germinates thousands of medicinal drugs that are cultivated with a purpose to obtain a novel drug. As it is a well-established fact that the structural analogs with greater pharmacological activity and fewer side-effects may be generated by the molecular modification of the functional groups of such lead compounds. This review throws light on two natural triterpenes - Taraxerol and Taraxasterol which have many important pharmacological actions including anti-cancer activity, their chemistry, biosynthesis aspects, and possible use of these compounds as drugs in treatment of cancer. A silent crisis persists in cancer treatment in developing countries, and it is intensifying every year. Although at least 50-60% of cancer victims can benefit from radiotherapy that destroys cancerous tumors, but search for the paramount therapy which will prove to be inexpensive with minimal side effects still persists. Various treatment modalities have been prescribed, along with conventional and non-conventional medicine but due to their adverse effects and dissatisfaction among users, these treatments are not satisfactory enough to give relief to patients. Hence, this review sparks the occurrence of Taraxerol (VI) and Taraxasterol (VII) in nature, so that the natural godowns may be harvested to obtain these potent compounds for novel drug development as well as discusses limitations of these lead compounds progressing clinical trials. PMID:26009688

  8. The effect of ultraviolet radiation on the accumulation of medicinal compounds in plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen Jing; Bjrn, Lars Olof

    2009-06-01

    A review is given of how the production by plants of compounds useful as medicines or raw materials for manufacture of medicines is influenced by ultraviolet radiation, particularly by UV-B radiation (280-315 nm wavelength). The compounds considered in this review are flavonoids and other phenolics, alkaloids (especially indole terpenoid and purine alkaloids), essential oils and other terpenoids, cannabinoids, glucosinolates and isothiocyanates, and compounds having human hormone activity. A short account is also given of ultraviolet signalling in plants. The review concludes with a discussion of the possible evolutionary mechanisms that have led to the evolution of UV-B regulation of secondary metabolite accumulation. PMID:19243700

  9. Contamination of soil, medicinal, and fodder plants with lead and cadmium present in mine-affected areas, Northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Qamar, Zahir; Din, Islamud; Mahmood, Qaisar; Gul, Nayab; Huang, Qing

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in the soil and plants (medicinal and fodder) grown in chromite mining-affected areas, Northern Pakistan. Soil and plant samples were collected and analyzed for Pb and Cd concentrations using atomic absorption spectrometer. Soil pollution load indices (PLIs) were greater than 2 for both Cd and Pb, indicating high level of contamination in the study area. Furthermore, Cd concentrations in the soil surrounding the mining sites exceeded the maximum allowable limit (MAL) (0.6 mg kg(-1)), while the concentrations of Pb were lower than the MAL (350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) for agriculture soil. The concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher (P?medicinal and fodder plant species grown in surrounding areas of mines were higher than their MALs set by World Health Organization/Food Agriculture Organization (WHO/FAO) for herbal (10 and 0.3 mg kg(-1), respectively) and edible (0.3 and 0.2 mg kg(-1), respectively) plants. The high concentrations of Cd and Pb may cause contamination of the food chain and health risk. PMID:26324064

  10. The effect of medicinal plants of Islamabad and Murree region of Pakistan on insulin secretion from INS-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Zakir; Waheed, Abdul; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem; Burdi, Dadu Khan; Verspohl, Eugen J; Khan, Naeema; Hasan, Mashooda

    2004-01-01

    In vitro testing of the extracts of medicinal plants collected from Islamabad and the Murree region on insulin secretagogue activity was carried out. Dried ethanol extracts of all plants (ZH1-ZH19) were dissolved in ethanol and DMSO, and tested at various concentrations (between 1 and 40 microg/mL) for insulin release from INS-1 cells in the presence of 5.5 mM glucose. Glibenclamide was used as a control. Promising insulin secretagogue activity in various plant extracts at 1, 10, 20 and 40 microg/mL was found, while in some cases a decrease in insulin secretion was also observed. Artemisia roxburghiana, Salvia coccinia and Monstera deliciosa showed insulin secretagogue activity at 1 microg/mL (p < 0.05) while Abies pindrow, Centaurea iberica and Euphorbia helioscopia were active at 10 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Extracts of Bauhinia variegata and Bergenia himalacia showed effects at 20 microg/mL (p < 0.05), and Taraxacum officinale and Viburnum foetens at 40 microg/mL (p < 0.05). Insulin secretagogue activity could not be detected in the extracts of Adhatoda vasica, Cassia fistula, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum, Morus alba, Plectranthus rugosus, Peganum harmala and Olea ferruginea. The results suggest that medicinal plants of Islamabad and the Murree region of Pakistan may be potential natural resources for antidiabetic compounds. PMID:14750205

  11. Inorganic profile of some Brazilian medicinal plants obtained from ethanolic extract and ''in natura'' samples

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, M.O.M.; de Sousa, P.T.; Salvador, V.L.R.; Sato, I.M.

    2004-10-03

    The Anadenathera macrocarpa, Schinus molle, Hymenaea courbaril, Cariniana legalis, Solidago microglossa and Stryphnodendron barbatiman, were collected ''in natura'' samples (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) from different commercial suppliers. The pharmaco-active compounds in ethanolic extracts had been made by the Mato Grosso Federal University (UFMT). The energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (ED-XRF) spectrometry was used for the elemental analysis in different parts of the plants and respective ethanolic extracts. The Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Rb, S, Sr and Zn concentrations were determined by the fundamental parameters method. Some specimens showed a similar inorganic profile for ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples and some ones showed a distinct inorganic profile. For example, the Anadenathera macrocarpa showed a similar concentration in Mg, P, Cu, Zn and Rb elements in ''in natura'' and ethanolic extract samples; however very different concentration in Na, S, Cl, K , Ca, Mn, Fe and Sr was observed in distinctive samples. The Solidago microglossa showed the K, Ca, Cl, S, Mg, P and Fe elements as major constituents in both samples, suggesting that the extraction process did not affect in a considerable way the ''in natura'' inorganic composition. The elemental composition of the different parts of the plants (leaves, flowers, barks and seeds) has been also determined. For example, the Schinus molle specimen showed P, K, Cl and Ca elements as major constituents in the seeds, Mg, K and Sr in the barks and Mg, S, Cl and Mn in the leaves, demonstrating a differentiated elementary distribution. These inorganic profiles will contribute to evaluate the quality control of the Brazilian herbaceous trade and also will assist to identify which parts of the medicinal plants has greater therapeutic effect.

  12. New additions to the National Plant Germplasm System's Beta collection: Southern Morocco collection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA Agricultural Research Service’s National Plant Germplasm System’s (NPGS) Beta collection is comprised of 2,541 accessions from 14 species. The largest number of accessions is from Beta vulgaris ssp. vulgaris, (domesticated beet crops – table, leaf (Swiss chard), fodder and, primarily, sugar...

  13. In vitro cytotoxic screening of selected Saudi medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Almehdar, Hussein; Abdallah, Hossam M; Osman, Abdel-Moneim M; Abdel-Sattar, Essam A

    2012-04-01

    Many natural products from plants have been identified to exert anticancer activity. It might be expected to be a challenge to look at the Saudi plants in order to discover new sources for new molecules which may have anticancer activity. The methanolic extracts of forty species of plants traditionally used in Saudi Arabia for the treatment of a variety of diseases were tested in vitro for their potential anticancer activity on different human cancer cell lines. The cytotoxic activity of the methanolic extracts of the tested plants were determined using three human cancer cell lines, namely, breast cancer (MCF7), hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2), and cervix cancer (HELA) cells. In addition, human normal melanocyte (HFB4) was used as normal nonmalignant cells. Sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay was used to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the different extracts. The growth inhibition of 50% (IC(50)) for each extract was calculated from the optical density of treated and untreated cells. Doxorubicin, a broad-spectrum anticancer drug, was used as the positive control. Nine plant extracts were chosen for further fractionation based on their activity and availability. Interesting cytotoxic activity was observed for Hypoestes forskaolii, Withania somnifera, Solanum glabratum, Adenium obesum, Pistacia vera oleoresin, Caralluma quadrangula, Eulophia petersii, Phragmanthera austroarabica, and Asparagus officinalis. Other extracts showed poor activity. PMID:21953271

  14. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. Objectives: This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Results: Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Conclusions: Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases. PMID:25625045

  15. Hairy root induction and plant regeneration of medicinal plant Dracocephalum kotschyi.

    PubMed

    Sharafi, Ali; Sohi, Haleh Hashemi; Azadi, Pejman; Sharafi, Ata Allah

    2014-04-01

    An efficient hairy root induction system for an important endangered medicinal plant, Dracocephalum kotschyi, was developed through Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation by modifying the co-cultivation medium using five bacterial strains, A4, ATCC15834, LBA9402, MSU440, and A13 (MAFF-02-10266). A drastic increase in transformation frequency was observed when a Murashige and Skoog medium lacking NH4NO3 KH2PO4, KNO3 and CaCl2 was used, resulting in hairy root induction frequencies of 52.3%, 69.6%, 48.6%, 89.0%, and 80.0% by A4, A13, LBA9402, MSU440, and ATCC15834 strains, respectively. For shoot induction, hairy roots and unorganized tumors induced by strain ATCC15834 were placed on an MS media supplemented with 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, and 1mg/l BA plus 0.1mg/l NAA. The high frequency of shoot regeneration and number of shoot were obtained in the medium containing 0.25mg/l BA and 0.1mg/l NAA. Root induction occurred from the base of regenerated shoots on the MS medium supplemented with 0.5mg/l IBA after 10 days. PMID:24757330

  16. TRAMIL Ethnopharmacological Survey: Knowledge Distribution of Medicinal Plant Use in the Southeast Region of Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    ALVARADO-GUZMN, JOS A.; GAVILLN-SUREZ, JANNETTE; GERMOSN-ROBINEAU, LIONEL

    2014-01-01

    Background TRAMIL network aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, a biodiversity hotspot due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. Objectives The purpose of this study was to document both the medicinal plants that are frequently used to treat health conditions prevalent in the southeastern region of the archipelago of Puerto Rico and the trends in their use among the study population. Methods An ethnopharmacological survey was conducted in the study region. The results were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Results Overall, 118 medicinal plants were recorded as being used to treat depression, nervousness, chronic sinusitis, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux disease, allergic rhinitis, rhinofaryngitis, asthma, arthritis and migraine. The plant species with significant use were Citrus aurantium L., Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle, Pluchea carolinensis (Jacq.) G. Don in Sweet, and Mentha piperita L. The use of medicinal plants is more frequent among single women with a high educational level, a trend similar to the use of CAM in the US. Conclusion Ethnopharmacological knowledge and the use of medicinal plants is decreasing in the study region due to an increase in the use of conventional medical care and to self-medication with over-the-counter pharmaceutical products. Four botanical species with significant uses that were not previously recorded in the Caribbean Herbal Pharmacopoeia have been identified. This report will be followed by the scientific validation and toxicity studies of these plant species and the TRADIF activities in the study region. PMID:19999241

  17. Antioxidant, Metal Chelating, Anti-glucosidase Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Tropical Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Fai-Chu; Yong, Ann-Li; Ting, Evon Peir-Shan; Khoo, Sim-Chyi; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the antioxidant potentials and anti-glucosidase activities of six tropical medicinal plants. The levels of phenolic constituents in these medicinal plants were also quantified and compared. Antioxidation potentials were determined colorimetrically for scavenging activities against DPPH and NO radicals. Metal chelating assay was based on the measurement of iron-ferrozine absorbance at 562 nm. Anti-diabetic potentials were measured by using α-glucosidase as target enzyme. Medicinal plants' total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents were determined using spectrophotometric methods, by comparison to standard plots prepared using gallic acid, quercetin and caffeic acid standards, respectively. Radical scavenging and metal chelating activities were detected in all medicinal plants, in concentration-dependent manners. Among the six plants tested, C. nutans, C. formosana and H. diffusa were found to possess α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that the total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents ranged from 12.13-21.39 mg GAE per g of dry sample, 1.83-9.86 mg QE per g of dry sample, and 0.91-2.74 mg CAE per g of dry sample, respectively. Our results suggested that C. nutans and C. formosana could potentially be used for the isolation of potent antioxidants and anti-diabetic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first time that C. nutans (Acanthaceae family) was reported in literature with glucosidase inhibition activity. PMID:25587331

  18. Antioxidant, Metal Chelating, Anti-glucosidase Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Selected Tropical Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Fai-Chu; Yong, Ann-Li; Ting, Evon Peir-Shan; Khoo, Sim-Chyi; Ong, Hean-Chooi; Chai, Tsun-Thai

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the antioxidant potentials and anti-glucosidase activities of six tropical medicinal plants. The levels of phenolic constituents in these medicinal plants were also quantified and compared. Antioxidation potentials were determined colorimetrically for scavenging activities against DPPH and NO radicals. Metal chelating assay was based on the measurement of iron-ferrozine absorbance at 562 nm. Anti-diabetic potentials were measured by using ?-glucosidase as target enzyme. Medicinal plants total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents were determined using spectrophotometric methods, by comparison to standard plots prepared using gallic acid, quercetin and caffeic acid standards, respectively. Radical scavenging and metal chelating activities were detected in all medicinal plants, in concentration-dependent manners. Among the six plants tested, C. nutans, C. formosana and H. diffusa were found to possess ?-glucosidase inhibitory activities. Spectrophotometric analysis indicated that the total phenolic, total flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic acid contents ranged from 12.13-21.39 mg GAE per g of dry sample, 1.83-9.86 mg QE per g of dry sample, and 0.91-2.74 mg CAE per g of dry sample, respectively. Our results suggested that C. nutans and C. formosana could potentially be used for the isolation of potent antioxidants and anti-diabetic compounds. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first time that C. nutans (Acanthaceae family) was reported in literature with glucosidase inhibition activity. PMID:25587331

  19. PARTICLE COLLECTION BY A PILOT PLANT VENTURI SCRUBBER DOWNSTREAM FROM A PILOT PLANT ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of pilot plant experiments of particulate collection by a venturi scrubber downstream from an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The data, which cover a range of scrubber operating conditions and ESP efficiencies, show that particle collection by the ventur...

  20. Medicinal Plants Used by Various Tribes of Bangladesh for Treatment of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatullah, Mohammed; Hossan, Shahadat; Khatun, Afsana; Seraj, Syeda; Jahan, Rownak

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that 300500 million malaria infections occur on an annual basis and causes fatality to millions of human beings. Most of the drugs used for treatment of malaria have developed drug-resistant parasites or have serious side effects. Plant kingdom has throughout the centuries proved to be efficient source of efficacious malarial drugs like quinine and artemisinin. Since these drugs have already developed or in the process of developing drug resistance, it is important to continuously search the plant kingdom for more effective antimalarial drugs. In this aspect, the medicinal practices of indigenous communities can play a major role in identification of antimalarial plants. Bangladesh has a number of indigenous communities or tribes, who because of their living within or in close proximity to mosquito-infested forest regions, have high incidences of malaria. Over the centuries, the tribal medicinal practitioners have treated malaria with various plant-based formulations. The objective of the present study was to conduct an ethnomedicinal survey among various tribes of Bangladesh to identify the plants that they use for treatment of the disease. Surveys were conducted among seven tribes, namely, Bawm, Chak, Chakma, Garo, Marma, Murong, and Tripura, who inhabit the southeastern or northcentral forested regions of Bangladesh. Interviews conducted with the various tribal medicinal practitioners indicated that a total of eleven plants distributed into 10 families were used for treatment of malaria and accompanying symptoms like fever, anemia, ache, vomiting, and chills. Leaves constituted 35.7% of total uses followed by roots at 21.4%. Other plant parts used for treatment included barks, seeds, fruits, and flowers. A review of the published scientific literature showed that a number of plants used by the tribal medicinal practitioners have been scientifically validated in their uses. Taken together, the plants merit further scientific research towards possible discovery of novel compounds that can be used to successfully treat malaria with less undesirable sideeffects. PMID:22315700

  1. Changes in the trade in native medicinal plants in Brazilian public markets.

    PubMed

    Brando, Maria das Graas Lins; Cosenza, Gustavo Pereira; Pereira, Flvia Liparini; Vasconcelos, Ariela Silva; Fagg, Christopher William

    2013-08-01

    Plants continue to be an important source of new bioactive substances. Brazil is one of the world's mega-diverse countries, with 20% of the world's flora. However, the accelerated destruction of botanically rich ecosystems has contributed to a gradual loss of native medicinal species. In previous study, we have observed a fast and intensive change in trade of medicinal plants in an area of Amazon, where human occupation took place. In this study, we surveyed 15 public markets in different parts of Brazil in search of samples of 40 plants used in traditional medicine and present in first edition of Brazilian Official Pharmacopoeia (FBRAS), published in 1926. Samples of plants commercialized as the same vernacular name as in Pharmacopoeia were acquired and submitted to analysis for authentication. A total of 252 plant samples were purchased, but the laboratory analyses showed that only one-half of the samples (126, 50.2%) were confirmed as the same plant species so named in FBRAS. The high number of unauthenticated samples demonstrates a loss of knowledge of the original native species. The proximity of the market from areas in which the plant occurs does not guarantee that trade of false samples occurs. The impact of the commerce of the substitute species on their conservation and in public health is worrying. Strategies are necessary to promote the better use and conservation of this rich heritage offered by Brazilian biodiversity. PMID:23322507

  2. Consensus of the 'Malasars' traditional aboriginal knowledge of medicinal plants in the Velliangiri holy hills, India

    PubMed Central

    Ragupathy, Subramanyam; Steven, Newmaster G; Maruthakkutti, Murugesan; Velusamy, Balasubramaniam; Ul-Huda, Muneer M

    2008-01-01

    There are many vanishing cultures that possess a wealth of knowledge on the medicinal utility of plants. The Malasars of Dravidian Tamils are an indigenous society occupying the forests of the Western Ghats, South India. They are known to be exceptional healers and keepers of traditional aboriginal knowledge (TAK) of the flora in the Velliangiri holy hills. In fact, their expertise is well known throughout India as evidenced by the thousands of pilgrims that go to the Velliangiri holy hills for healing every year. Our research is the first detailed study of medicinal plants in India that considers variation in TAK among informants using a quantitative consensus analysis. A total of 95 species belonging to 50 families were identified for medicinal and general health purposes. For each species the botanical name, family, local name, parts used, summary of mode of preparation, administration and curing are provided. The consensus analysis revealed a high level of agreement among the informants usage of a particular plant at a local scale. The average consensus index value of an informant was FIC > 0.71, and over 0.80 for some ailments such as respiratory and jaundice. Some of the more common problems faced by the Malasars were gastrointestinal disorders, respiratory illness, dermatological problems and simple illness such as fever, cough, cold, wounds and bites from poisonous animals. We also discovered several new ethnotaxa that have considerable medicinal utility. This study supports claims that the Malasars possess a rich TAK of medicinal plants and that many aboriginals and mainstream people (pilgrims) utilize medicinal plants of the Velliangiri holy hills. Unfortunately, the younger generation of Malasars are not embracing TAK as they tend to migrate towards lucrative jobs in more developed urban areas. Our research sheds some light on a traditional culture that believes that a healthy lifestyle is founded on a healthy environment and we suggest that TAK such as that of the Malasars may serve toward a global lifestyle of health and environmental sustainability. PMID:18371206

  3. The potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males

    PubMed Central

    Ogbuewu, Ifeanyi Princewill; Unamba-Oparah, Ihemdirim Chukwuma; Odoemenam, Victor Udodirim; Etuk, Idorenyin Friday; Okoli, Ifeanyi Charles

    2011-01-01

    Rising human population throughout the world especially in developing and underdeveloped countries has detrimental effects on life supporting system on earth. Traditionally, plants have been used to treat different kinds of ailments. The growing importance of phytochemicals in males has been reported. Contraceptive ability of plants has been reported in several animal models. The reversibility of the anti-fertility effects of plants and its active compounds are of potential clinical relevance in the development of male contraceptive. This review attempts to discuss the latest reports on the potentiality of medicinal plants as the source of new contraceptive principles in males. PMID:22540095

  4. Antithrombin activity of medicinal plants from central Florida.

    PubMed

    Chistokhodova, Natalya; Nguyen, Chi; Calvino, Tony; Kachirskaia, Ioulia; Cunningham, Glenn; Howard Miles, D

    2002-07-01

    A chromogenic bioassay was utilized to determine the antithrombin activity of methylene chloride and methanol extracts prepared from 30 plants of central Florida. Extracts of Ardisia crenata, Tetrapanax papyriferus, Lagerstroemia indica, Callistemon lanceolatus, Antigonon Leptopus, Magnolia virginiana, and Myrica cerifera demonstrated activity of 80% or higher in this bioassay system. PMID:12065163

  5. DNA barcoding of medicinal plant material for identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Because of the increasing demand for herbal remedies and for authentication of the source material, it is vital to provide a single database containing information about authentic plant materials and their potential adulterants. The database should provide DNA barcodes for data retrieval and similar...

  6. Enhanced particulate collection from Indian coal fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gyllenspetz, J.; Parker, K.; Sanyal, A.; Chandran, R.

    1998-12-31

    The problem of particulate emission control from PC fired Indian power plants is exacerbated by the coal characteristics -- high ash and moisture and low sulphur, sodium and heating value. These lead to high carbon in ash, higher back end temperature and gas flows than those in other parts of the world. In the absence of bag filters in the power industry, the ESP has been the only means of particulate control, in spite of the significantly large specific collection area required for compliance of 150 mg/Nm{sup 3} (50 mg/Nm{sup 3} per World Bank). Although new plants are being designed to this value, the existing plants, even when in satisfactory electro-mechanical condition, face difficulty in meeting compliance. The paper reviews the factors relating to high emissions and presents various scenarios for their reduction by: (a) plant size increase, (b) flyash conditioning, (c) reduction in back end temperature to reduce gas flow and particle resistivity and (d) alternative methods of energization, e.g., pulse charging, intermittent energization and high frequency derived DC. The method of enhancement is site specific and depends on the problem faced by the specific plant. The impact of improved combustion on ESP performance is also reviewed and finally the use of bag filters is considered as a cost effective solution. The improvement methods detailed in the paper should benefit the current nation-wide ESP upgrading projects and IPPs considering new plant.

  7. Endangered Uyghur Medicinal Plant Ferula Identification through the Second Internal Transcribed Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Congzhao; Li, Xiaojin; Zhu, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Ferula has been widely used in Asian medicine, especially in Uyghur medicine in Xinjiang, China. Given that various substitutes and closely related species have similar morphological characteristics, Ferula is difficult to distinguish based on morphology alone, thereby causing confusion and threatening the safe use of Ferula. In this study, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences were analyzed and assessed for the accurate identification of two salable Ferula species (Ferula sinkiangensis and Ferula fukangensis) and eight substitutes or closely related species. Results showed that the sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 451 bp to 45 bp, whereas guanine and cytosine contents (GC) were from 53.6% to 56.2%. A total of 77 variation sites were detected, including 63 base mutations and 14 insertion/deletion mutations. The ITS2 sequence correctly identified 100% of the samples at the species level using the basic local alignment search tool 1 and nearest-distance method. Furthermore, neighbor-joining tree successfully identified the genuine plants F. sinkiangensis and F. fukangensis from their succedaneum and closely related species. These results indicated that ITS2 sequence could be used as a valuable barcode to distinguish Uyghur medicine Ferula from counterfeits and closely related species. This study may broaden DNA barcoding application in the Uyghur medicinal plant field. PMID:26120347

  8. In vivo Studies on Antidiabetic Plants Used in South African Herbal Medicine

    PubMed Central

    J. Afolayan, Anthony; O. Sunmonu, Taofik

    2010-01-01

    Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders worldwide. It is a major health problem with its frequency increasing every day in most countries. The disease is generally believed to be incurable; and the few orthodox drugs available to manage the disease are not readily affordable to the poor. Based on the historical success of natural products as antidiabetic agents and the ever increasing need for new antidiabetics, a number of South African medicinal plants have been evaluated for their antidiabetic properties. In this article, we review the major studies conducted based on ethnobotanical surveys carried out between 2005 and 2008 in South Africa on plants that are traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes. Overall, the results of the studies conducted confirmed the potential of South African medicinal plants in antidiabetic drug discovery and identified a number of promising taxa for further in vivo investigation as plant-based antidiabetic agents. PMID:20838564

  9. Acorus calamus (The Healing Plant): a review on its medicinal potential, micropropagation and conservation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikas; Singh, Isha; Chaudhary, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Acorus calamus L., a tall, perennial, grass-like monocot plant from the Acoraceae family, is a well-known plant in Indian traditional medicines for centuries. It is a highly valued herb as it acts as a rejuvenator for brain and nervous system. It is a main medhya drug, which has the property of improving the memory power and intellect. Rhizomes of the plant are widely used in the treatment of number of ailments such as epilepsy, mental ailments, chronic diarrhoea, dysentery, fever, abdominal tumours, kidney and liver troubles, and rheumatism. A. calamus leaves, rhizomes and its essential oil possess many biological activities such as antispasmodic, carminative and are compiled in a simple approach in this review. This review presents a pragmatic description that deals with chemical constituents, toxicology, ethnobotany and pharmacological properties of A. calamus for easy and better understanding of the outstanding medicinal potential of this very special plant and sirens for its conservation. PMID:24824923

  10. Efficacy of anthelmintic properties of medicinal plant extracts against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Rahuman, A Abdul

    2011-12-01

    The development of anthelmintic resistance has made the search for alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants imperative. Among these alternatives are several medicinal plants traditionally used as anthelmintics. This present work evaluated the efficacy of ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and seed extracts of five medicinal plants were tested in vitro ovicidal and larvicidal activities on Haemonchus contortus. The in vitro assay was based on egg hatch assay (EHA) and larval development assay (LDA), all plant extracts were evaluated at five concentrations 50, 25, 12.5, 6.25 and 3.13 mg/ml. The leaf and seed ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol of Annona squamosa, Eclipta prostrata, Solanum torvum, Terminalia chebula, and Catharanthus roseus extracts were showed complete inhibition (100%) at the maximum concentration tested (50 mg/ml). The overall findings of the present study have shown that our experimental plant extracts contain possible anthelmintic compounds. PMID:20980034

  11. The value of plants used in traditional medicine for drug discovery.

    PubMed Central

    Fabricant, D S; Farnsworth, N R

    2001-01-01

    In this review we describe and discuss several approaches to selecting higher plants as candidates for drug development with the greatest possibility of success. We emphasize the role of information derived from various systems of traditional medicine (ethnomedicine) and its utility for drug discovery purposes. We have identified 122 compounds of defined structure, obtained from only 94 species of plants, that are used globally as drugs and demonstrate that 80% of these have had an ethnomedical use identical or related to the current use of the active elements of the plant. We identify and discuss advantages and disadvantages of using plants as starting points for drug development, specifically those used in traditional medicine. PMID:11250806

  12. Anti-quorum sensing activity of medicinal plants in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Adonizio, Allison L; Downum, Kelsey; Bennett, Bradley C; Mathee, Kalai

    2006-05-24

    Bacterial intercellular communication, or quorum sensing (QS), controls the pathogenesis of many medically important organisms. Anti-QS compounds are known to exist in marine algae and have the ability to attenuate bacterial pathogenicity. We hypothesized that terrestrial plants traditionally used as medicines may also produce anti-QS compounds. To test this hypothesis, 50 medicinal plants from southern Florida were screened for anti-QS activity using two biomonitor strains, Chromobacterium violaceum and Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Of these plants, six showed QS inhibition: Conocarpus erectus L. (Combretaceae), Chamaecyce hypericifolia (L.) Millsp. (Euphorbiaceae), Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G. Don (Myrtaceae), Bucida burceras L. (Combretaceae), Tetrazygia bicolor (Mill.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae), and Quercus virginiana Mill. (Fagaceae). This study introduces not only a new mode of action and possible validation for traditional plant use, but also a potentially new therapeutic direction for the treatment of bacterial infections. PMID:16406418

  13. Pharmacological and Phytochemical Appraisal of Selected Medicinal Plants from Jordan with Claimed Antidiabetic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Afifi, Fatma U.; Kasabri, Violet

    2013-01-01

    Plant species have long been regarded as possessing the principal ingredients used in widely disseminated ethnomedical practices. Different surveys showed that medicinal plant species used by the inhabitants of Jordan for the traditional treatment of diabetes are inadequately screened for their therapeutic/preventive potential and phytochemical findings. In this review, traditional herbal medicine pursued indigenously with its methods of preparation and its active constituents are listed. Studies of random screening for selective antidiabetic bioactivity and plausible mechanisms of action of local species, domesticated greens, or wild plants are briefly discussed. Recommended future directives incurring the design and conduct of comprehensive trials are pointed out to validate the usefulness of these active plants or bioactive secondary metabolites either alone or in combination with existing conventional therapies. PMID:24482764

  14. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by people in Zegie Peninsula, Northwestern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklehaymanot, Tilahun; Giday, Mirutse

    2007-01-01

    An ethnobotanical study was conducted from October 2005 to June 2006 to investigate the uses of medicinal plants by people in Zegie Peninsula, northwestern Ethiopia. Information was gathered from 200 people: 70 female and 130 males, using semistructured questionnaire. Of which, six were male local healers. The informants, except the healers, were selected randomly and no appointment was made prior to the visits. Informant consensus factor (ICF) for category of aliments and the fidelity level (FL) of the medicinal plants were determined. Sixty-seven medicinal plants used as a cure for 52 aliments were documented. They are distributed across 42 families and 64 genera. The most frequently utilized plant part was the underground part (root/rhizome/bulb) (42%). The largest number of remedies was used to treat gastrointestinal disorder and parasites infections (22.8%) followed by external injuries and parasites infections (22.1%). The administration routes are oral (51.4%), external (38.6%), nasal (7.9%), and ear (2.1%). The medicinal plants that were presumed to be effective in treating a certain category of disease, such as 'mich' and febrile diseases (0.80) had higher ICF values. This probably indicates a high incidence of these types of diseases in the region, possibly due to the poor socio-economic and sanitary conditions of this people. The medicinal plants that are widely used by the local people or used as a remedy for a specific aliment have higher FL values (Carissa spinarum, Clausena anisata, Acokanthera schimperi, Calpurnia aurea, Ficus thonningii, and Cyphostemma junceum) than those that are less popular or used to treat more than one type of aliments (Plumbago zeylanicum, Dorstenia barnimiana). PMID:17355645

  15. An Ethnobotanical study of Medicinal Plants in high mountainous region of Chail valley (District Swat- Pakistan)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper represents the first ethnobotanical study in Chail valley of district Swat-Pakistan and provides significant information on medicinal plants use among the tribal people of the area. The aim of this study was to document the medicinal uses of local plants and to develop an ethnobotanical inventory of the species diversity. Methods In present study, semi-structured interviews with 142 inhabitants (age range between 31–75 years) were conducted. Ethnobotanical data was analyzed using relative frequency of citation (RFC) to determine the well-known and most useful species in the area. Results Current research work reports total of 50 plant species belonging to 48 genera of 35 families from Chail valley. Origanum vulgare, Geranium wallichianum and Skimmia laureola have the highest values of relative frequency of citation (RFC) and are widely known by the inhabitants of the valley. The majority of the documented plants were herbs (58%) followed by shrubs (28%), trees (12%) and then climbers (2%). The part of the plant most frequently used was the leaves (33%) followed by roots (17%), fruits (14%), whole plant (12%), rhizomes (9%), stems (6%), barks (5%) and seeds (4%). Decoction was the most common preparation method use in herbal recipes. The most frequently treated diseases in the valley were urinary disorders, skin infections, digestive disorders, asthma, jaundice, angina, chronic dysentery and diarrhea. Conclusion This study contributes an ethnobotanical inventory of medicinal plants with their frequency of citations together with the part used, disease treated and methods of application among the tribal communities of Chail valley. The present survey has documented from this valley considerable indigenous knowledge about the local medicinal plants for treating number of common diseases that is ready to be further investigated for biological, pharmacological and toxicological screening. This study also provides some socio-economic aspects which are associated to the local tribal communities. PMID:24739524

  16. Toxicity of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bussmann, R.W.; Malca, G.; Glenn, A.; Sharon, D.; Nilsen, B.; Parris, B.; Dubose, D; Ruiz, D.; Saleda, J.; Martinez, M.; Carillo, L.; Walker, K.; Kuhlman, A.; Townesmith, A.

    2011-01-01

    Aim The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru for a wide range of illnesses. Most remedies are prepared as ethanol or aqueous extracts and then ingested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential toxicity of these extracts. Materials and methods The toxicity of ethanolic and water extracts of 341 plant species was determined using a Brine-Shrimp assay. Results Overall 24% of the species in water extract and 76% of the species in alcoholic extract showed elevated toxicity levels to brine-shrimp. Although in most cases multiple extracts of the same species showed very similar toxicity values, in some cases the toxicity of different extracts of the same species varied from non-toxic to highly toxic. Conclusions Traditional preparation methods take different toxicity levels in aqueous and ethanol extracts into account when choosing the appropriate solvent for the preparation of a remedy. PMID:21575699

  17. Modulation of diabetes-mellitus-induced male reproductive dysfunctions in experimental animal models with medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Gyan Chand; Jangir, Ram Niwas

    2014-01-01

    Today diabetes mellitus has emerged as a major healthcare problem throughout the world. It has recently broken the age barrier and has been diagnosed in younger people also. Sustained hyperglycemia is associated with many complications including male reproductive dysfunctions and infertility. Numerous medicinal plants have been used for the management of the diabetes mellitus in various traditional system of medicine and in folklore worldwide as they are a rich source of bioactive phytoconstituents, which lower blood glucose level and/or also act as antioxidants resulting in the amelioration of oxidative-stress-induced diabetic complications. The present review describes the ameliorative effects of medicinal plants or their products, especially on male reproductive dysfunctions, in experimental diabetic animal models. PMID:25125884

  18. Potential Medicinal Application and Toxicity Evaluation of Extracts from Bamboo Plants

    PubMed Central

    Panee, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Bamboo plants play a significant role in traditional Asian medicine, especially in China and Japan. Biomedical investigations on the health-benefiting effects as well as toxicity of different parts and species of bamboo have been carried out worldwide since the 1960s, and documented a wide range of protective effects of bamboo-derived products, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, lipotoxicity, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Some of these products may interfere with male and female reproductive function, thyroid hormone metabolism, and hepatic xenobiotransformation enzymes. The diversity of bamboo species, parts of the plants available for medicinal use, and different extraction methods suggest that bamboo has great potential for producing a range of extracts with functional utility in medicine. PMID:26617977

  19. The medicinal properties and phytochemistry of plants of the genus Terminalia (Combretaceae).

    PubMed

    Cock, I E

    2015-10-01

    Plants of the genus Terminalia are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes worldwide. Many species are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities. Wound healing and cardiovascular effects have also been credited to some species. Many Terminalia species have multiple beneficial effects for multiple diseases and ailments. Indeed, the Indian species Terminalia chebula is known as the king of plants in Ayurveda due to its broad range of medicinal uses. However, apart from the reported ethnopharmacological uses of many Terminalia species, surprisingly few studies have rigorously examined this important genus for their medical properties/mechanisms and phytochemistry. This is likely due to the high tannin content common to many Terminalia species and the perception that these tannins may be responsible for much of their beneficial properties. As the complexities of tannins make them poor candidates for drug design, most interest in Terminalia species has been for their pharmacognostic and nutraceutical value and they have often been overlooked as potentials for drug discovery. However, recent reports have identified many other interesting phytochemicals and demonstrated that these may be responsible for several of the reported bioactivities of the Terminalia species used in traditional medicinal systems. The last decade has seen a large increase in the number of studies into the use of Terminalia species as therapeutic agents. Several species used in Ayurvedic medicine (Terminalia arjuna, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia catappa, T. chebula) in particular have received much recent attention. Similarly, recent reports have also highlighted the medicinal potential of species from Africa, Australia and the Americas. The aim of this report is to summarise the recent research into the medicinal properties, phytochemistry and therapeutic mechanisms of Terminalia species and thus to highlight and direct future areas of research into the medicinal activities of this important genus. PMID:26226895

  20. Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

    PubMed

    Ali, N A; Jlich, W D; Kusnick, C; Lindequist, U

    2001-02-01

    Ethanolic extracts of 20 selected plant species used by Yemeni traditional healers to treat infectious diseases were screened for their antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, as well as for cytotoxic activity. Fourteen of the ethanolic extracts showed variable degrees of antibacterial activity. The active ethanolic extracts were partitioned between ethyl acetate and water for a first separation. The ethyl acetate extract of Lawsonia inermis was found to be the most active one against all bacteria in the test system. Other promising results could be obtained from extracts of Aloe perryi, Indigofera oblongifolia, Meriandra benghalensis and Ziziphus spina christi. Additionally, the ethanolic extracts of the 20 plants under investigation were tested for their cytotoxic effects on FL-cells using the neutral red assay. Extracts of Calotropis procera, Chenopodium murale, Pulicaria orientalis, Tribulus terrestris and Withania somniferum displayed a remarkable activity. PMID:11167035

  1. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used by Assamese people for various skin ailments and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Saikia, Abinash Pratim; Ryakala, Venkat Kishore; Sharma, Pragya; Goswami, Pranab; Bora, Utpal

    2006-06-30

    The present paper deals with the medicinal plants used by the people of Assam for curing different skin ailments and for cosmetics. A total of 85 plants belonging to 49 families have been documented for their therapeutic use against skin diseases and as herbal care. The herbal medicines were prepared from various plant parts of single plant, or multiple plants. The majority of the preparation was made using water as the medium. The mode of application was topical, but in many cases it was also administered orally. In several cases the pure herbal preparations was administered along with milk, ghee, honey, coconut oil, curd, etc. Remedies for 18 skin ailments were documented through this study. About 14 plants are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Curcuma longa and Melia azaderach constitute the major plants. The herbal cosmetic products used by the people of Assam ranges from the enhancement of skin colour, hair care, removal of ugly spots, colouring of nails, palms, and teeth. However, many of the plant preparations used for enhancing beauty were also applied for therapeutic use. Herbal remedies were also available for skin burns, prickly heat and pimples. Information on nine plants used for managing dry skin also emerged from this study. PMID:16473486

  2. Mosquito larvicidal potential of four common medicinal plants of India

    PubMed Central

    Rawani, Anjali; Ghosh, Anupam; Chandra, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human health diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Plants may be sources of alternative mosquito control agents. The present study was carried out to assess the role of larvicidal activities of the crude extracts of four plants viz. Alternanthera sessilis L. (Amaranthaceae), Trema orientalis L. (Cannabaceae), Gardenia carinata Smith. (Rubiaceae) and Ruellia tuberosa L. (Acanthaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus Say in laboratory bioassay. Methods: Selective concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%) of crude extract of all four plant leaves were tested against Ist to IVth instar larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Log probit analysis (at 95% confidence level) revealed the LC50 values. Preliminary qualitative phytochemical analyses of crude extracts were also done. The lethal concentrations (%) of crude extracts at 24 h against IIIrd instar larvae were also studied on non-target organisms. Result: In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 1.5 per cent extract. A. sessilis showed the highest mortality (76.7 %) at 1.5 per cent crude extract against IInd instar larvae having LC50 value of 0.35 per cent, followed by R. tuberosa (LC50 =1.84%), G. carinata (LC50 = 2.11) and T. orientalis (LC50 = 2.95%). The regression equation showed a dose-dependent mortality, as the rate of mortality (Y) was positively correlated with the concentration (X). Phytochemical analysis of the crude extract showed the presence of many bioactive phytochemicals such as steroids, alkaloids, terpenes, saponins, etc. No changes in the swimming behaviour and survivality of non-target organism were noticed at the studied concentrations. Interpretation & conclusions: Crude extract of the four selected plants showed larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The extracts at the studied concentrations did not produce any harmful effect on non-target organisms. PMID:25222784

  3. Antimicrobial screening of ethnobotanically important stem bark of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Meenakshi; Khatoon, Sayyada; Singh, Shweta; Kumar, Vivek; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh; Mehrotra, Shanta

    2010-01-01

    Background: The stem barks are the rich sources of tannins and other phenolic compounds. Tannins inhibited the growth of various fungi, yeast, bacteria and virus. Hence, ten stem barks of ethnomedicinally important plants were screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities against human pathogenic strains. Methods: Air-dried and powdered stem bark of each plant was extracted with 50% aqueous ethanol, lyophilized and the dried crude extracts were used for the screening against 11 bacteria and 8 fungi. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were performed according to microdilution methods by NCCLS. Results: The plants Prosopis chilensis, Pithecellobium dulce, Mangifera indica showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against Streptococcus pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia and Candida albicans with MIC of 0.08mg/ml. Pithecellobium dulce bark also showed significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Conclusion: The bark of Pithecellobium dulce has more or less similar activity against the known antibiotic and may be considered as potent antimicrobial agent for various infectious diseases. PMID:21808577

  4. Antitrypanosomal activity of some medicinal plants from Nigerian ethnomedicine.

    PubMed

    Abiodun, Oyindamola O; Gbotosho, Grace O; Ajaiyeoba, Edith O; Brun, Reto; Oduola, Ayoade M

    2012-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with complex clinical presentation, diagnosis, and difficult treatment. The available drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis are old, expensive, and less effective, associated with severe adverse reactions and face the problem of drug resistance. This situation underlines the urgent need for the development of new, effective, cheap, and safe drugs for the treatment of trypanosomiasis. The search for new antitrypanosomal agents in this study is based on ethnomedicine. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of 36 plant extracts from 10 plant species from Nigerian ethnomedicine was evaluated against bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense STIB 900. Cytotoxic activity was determined against mammalian L6 cells. Alamar blue assay was used to measure the endpoint of both antitrypanosomal and toxicity assays. The ethyl acetate extract of leaves of Ocimum gratissimum Linn. (Labiatae) showed the highest antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) of 2.08??0.01 ?g/ml) and a high selective index of 29. Furthermore, the hexane, ethyl acetate, or methanol extracts of Trema orientalis (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Pericopsis laxiflora (Benth. ex Baker) Meeuwen, Jatropha curcas Linn. (Euphorbiaceae), Terminalia catappa Linn. (Combretaceae), and Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae) displayed remarkable antitrypanosomal activity (IC(50) 2.1-17.2 ?g/ml) with high selectivity indices (20-80) for trypanosomes. The antitrypanosomal activity of T. catappa and T. orientalis against T. brucei rhodesiense (STIB 900) is being reported for the first time in Nigerian ethnomedicine, and these plants could be a potential source of antitrypanosomal agents. PMID:21789586

  5. Effects of the Sri Lankan medicinal plant, Salacia reticulata, in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Yuusuke; Mano, Hiroshi; Nakatani, Sachie; Shimizu, Jun; Wada, Masahiro

    2010-03-01

    Salacia reticulata is a native plant of Sri Lanka. In the traditional medicine of Sri Lanka and India, Salacia reticulata bark is considered orally effective in the treatment of rheumatism, gonorrhea, skin disease and diabetes. We have investigated, both in vivo and in vitro, whether the leaf of Salacia reticulata (SRL) can ameliorate collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) in mice as the rheumatoid arthritis (RA) model. The mice were fed a lard containing chow diet (AIN-93G) or the same diet containing 1% (w/w) SRL powder. All mice were bred for 23 days. On day 7 or 14 after LPS injection, mice were killed, and tissue and blood samples were collected. Histological analysis was performed, and serum levels of inflammatory mediators and the mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes and osteoclast-related genes were measured. SRL treatment ameliorated the rapid initial paw swelling, inflammatory cells infiltration, skeletal tissues damage, osteoclast activation and the mRNA levels for osteoclast-related genes compared with the CAIA mice. However, the serum and mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators did not differ between the CAIA mice and the SRL-treated mice. SRL might reduce the inflammatory cells induction and skeletal tissue degradation by CAIA by the regulating osteoclastogenesis. PMID:19727885

  6. Diversity, bioactivities, and metabolic potentials of endophytic actinomycetes isolated from traditional medicinal plants in Sichuan, China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng; Feng, Zhi-Xiang; Tian, Jie-Wei; Lei, Zu-Chao; Wang, Lei; Zeng, Zhi-Gang; Chu, Yi-Wen; Tian, Yong-Qiang

    2015-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine the taxonomic diversity and metabolic activity of the actinomycetes community, including 13 traditional medicinal plants collected in Sichuan province, China, using multiple approaches such as morphological and molecular identification methods, bioactivity assays, and PCR screening for genes involved in antibiotics biosynthesis. 119 endophytic actinomycetes were recovered; 80 representative strains were chosen for 16S rRNA gene partial sequence analyses, with 66 of them being affiliated to genus Streptomyces and the remaining 14 strains being rare actinomycetes. Antimicrobial tests showed that 12 (15%) of the 80 endophytic actinomycetes displayed inhibitory effects against at least one indicator pathogens, which were all assigned to the genus Streptomyces. In addition, 87.5% and 58.8% of the isolates showed anticancer and anti-diabetic activities, respectively. Meanwhile, the anticancer activities of the isolates negatively correlated with their anti-diabetic activities. Based on the results of PCR screening, five genes, PKS-I, PKS-II, NRPS, ANSA, and oxyB, were detected in 55.0%, 58.8%, 90.0%, 18.8% and 8.8% of the 80 actinomycetes, respectively. In conclusion, the PCR screening method employed in the present study was conducive for screening and selection of potential actinomycetes and predicting potential secondary metabolites, which could overcome the limitations of traditional activity screening models. PMID:26721714

  7. [Bioactivity of endophytic actinomycetes from medicinal plants and secondary metabolites from strain D62].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Wen; Huang, Ying; Wang, Hai-Bin

    2007-10-01

    It is believed that genetic recombination of the endophytes with the hosts that occurred in evolutionary time could result in some endophytes producing certain phytochemical originally characteristic of the host. Based on this widely accepted hypothesis, there have been increasing research efforts focused on screening for novel natural products from endophytes. In this study, antimicrobial and antitumor activities of 165 actinomycetes isolated from medicinal plants collected from Xishuangbanna were tested by agar diffusion method and WST-8 assay respectively. The results showed that over 42% of the isolates exhibited antagonism against pathogenic strains, and 54.5% displayed excellent inhibition against mouse melanoma cell line B16 or/and human alveolar epithelial cell line A549. These results are superior to those of soil actinomycetes, indicating tremendous potential of endophytic of actinomycetes for exploration. Six compounds that had both antimicrobial and antitumor activities were separated and purified from isolate Streptomyces sp. D62 by resin adsorption, silica-gel column and sephadex chromatography, etc. On the basis of spectral analyses, they were identified as antimycin A4a (1), antimycin A7a (2), antimycin A2a (3), antimycin A1a (4), 10-hydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (5) and 6-(2-(4-aminophenyl)-2-oxoethyl)-3,5-dimethyl-tetrahydropyran-2-one(6), with the last one defined as a novel compound. Based on all these results, it is convinced that endophytic actinomycetes are a promising resource for bioactive natural product discovery. PMID:18062256

  8. Inhibitory Activity of Avicennia marina, a Medicinal Plant in Persian Folk Medicine, against HIV and HSV

    PubMed Central

    Namazi, Rahele; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Behbahani, Mandana; Rezaei, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Avicennia marina (Avicenniaceae) is a species of mangrove tree used for treatment of small pox lesions in Persian folk medicine. The antiviral activity of methanol, ethanol, water, chloroform and n-hexane extracts was evaluated against HIV-1 and HSV. Methanol extract had the highest antiviral activity and the most polar fraction of this extract (fraction D) inhibited HSV with TI and SI values of 57.1 and 133; however, it showed mild activity against HIV with SI value of 6.25 (fraction 3). The anti-HSV activity of active fraction was confirmed using FLASH-PCR. Phytochemical investigation revealed that fraction D encompasses flavonoids compounds. The time-of-addition study demonstrated that fraction D disturbs viral replication after penetrating to the cell. A. marina was endowed with fragments by which found to be able to inhibit replication of HSV after entry but did not show significant potency against HIV-1. This promotes further investigation in anti-HSV drug discovery. PMID:24250619

  9. Inhibitory Activity of Avicennia marina, a Medicinal Plant in Persian Folk Medicine, against HIV and HSV.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Rahele; Zabihollahi, Rezvan; Behbahani, Mandana; Rezaei, Abbas

    2013-01-01

    Avicennia marina (Avicenniaceae) is a species of mangrove tree used for treatment of small pox lesions in Persian folk medicine. The antiviral activity of methanol, ethanol, water, chloroform and n-hexane extracts was evaluated against HIV-1 and HSV. Methanol extract had the highest antiviral activity and the most polar fraction of this extract (fraction D) inhibited HSV with TI and SI values of 57.1 and 133; however, it showed mild activity against HIV with SI value of 6.25 (fraction 3). The anti-HSV activity of active fraction was confirmed using FLASH-PCR. Phytochemical investigation revealed that fraction D encompasses flavonoids compounds. The time-of-addition study demonstrated that fraction D disturbs viral replication after penetrating to the cell. A. marina was endowed with fragments by which found to be able to inhibit replication of HSV after entry but did not show significant potency against HIV-1. This promotes further investigation in anti-HSV drug discovery. PMID:24250619

  10. Traditional use of medicinal plants among the tribal communities of Chhota Bhangal, Western Himalaya

    PubMed Central

    Uniyal, Sanjay Kr; Singh, KN; Jamwal, Pankaj; Lal, Brij

    2006-01-01

    The importance of medicinal plants in traditional healthcare practices, providing clues to new areas of research and in biodiversity conservation is now well recognized. However, information on the uses for plants for medicine is lacking from many interior areas of Himalaya. Keeping this in view the present study was initiated in a tribal dominated hinterland of western Himalaya. The study aimed to look into the diversity of plant resources that are used by local people for curing various ailments. Questionnaire surveys, participatory observations and field visits were planned to illicit information on the uses of various plants. It was found that 35 plant species are commonly used by local people for curing various diseases. In most of the cases (45%) under ground part of the plant was used. New medicinal uses of Ranunculus hirtellus and Anemone rupicola are reported from this area. Similarly, preparation of "sik" a traditional recipe served as a nutritious diet to pregnant women is also not documented elsewhere. Implication of developmental activities and changing socio-economic conditions on the traditional knowledge are also discussed. PMID:16545146

  11. Antimutagenic Effect of Medicinal Plants Achillea millefolium and Bauhinia forficata In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Igor Vivian; Coelho, Ana Carolina; Balbi, Thiago José; Düsman Tonin, Lilian Tatiani; Vicentini, Veronica Elisa Pimenta

    2013-01-01

    The investigation of traditionally used medicinal plants is valuable both as a source of potential chemotherapeutic drugs and as a measure of safety for the continued use of these medicinal plants. Achillea millefolium L. (AM) is an ancient remedial herb native to Europe that is used to treat wounds, gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary disorders, inflammation, headaches, and pain. Bauhinia forficata Link (BF), an Asiatic plant, is one of the most commonly used plants in folk medicine against diabetes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic and antimutagenic potential of aqueous extracts of AM and BF on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats treated in vivo. These plant extracts possess considerable antioxidant activity due to the presence of flavonoids and phenolic compounds. These compounds were determinants to noncytotoxic and antimutagenic/protective action of these plants, that reduced statistically the percentage of chromosomal alterations induced by the chemotherapeutic agent cyclophosphamide in simultaneous (AM, 68%; BF, 91%), pre- (AM, 68%; BF, 71%), and post-treatment (AM, 67%; BF, 95%). Therefore, the results of this study indicate that extracts of A. millefolium and B. forficata have antimutagenic potential and that their consumption can benefit the health of those using them as an alternative therapy. PMID:24459532

  12. A simple electrochemical method for the rapid estimation of antioxidant potentials of some selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Amidi, Salimeh; Mojab, Faraz; Bayandori Moghaddam, Abdolmajid; Tabib, Kimia; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Clinical and Epidemiological studies have shown that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancers and other related disorders. These beneficial health effects have been attributed in part to the presence of antioxidants in dietary plants. Therefore screening for antioxidant properties of plant extracts has been one of the interests of scientists in this field. Different screening methods have been reported for the evaluation of antioxidant properties of plant extracts in the literature. In the present research a rapid screening method has been introduced based on cyclic voltammetry for antioxidant screening of some selected medicinal plant extracts. CYCLIC VOLTAMMETRY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF SEVEN MEDICINAL PLANTS: Buxus hyrcana, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium, Zataria multiflora, Ginkgo biloba, Lippia citriodora and Heptaptera anisoptera was carried out at different scan rates. Based on the interpretation of voltammograms, Rumex crispus, Achillea millefolium and Ginkgo biloba showed higher antioxidant capability than the others while Lippia citriodora contained the highest amount of antioxidants. Cyclic voltammetry is expected to be a simple method for screening antioxidants and estimating the antioxidant activity of foods and medicinal plants. PMID:25317192

  13. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  14. Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants of the pantanal region (mato grosso, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrcio; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Pocon, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF??=??0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF??=??0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  15. Antimicrobial screening of plants used for traditional medicine in the state of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Wiart, C; Mogana, S; Khalifah, S; Mahan, M; Ismail, S; Buckle, M; Narayana, A K; Sulaiman, M

    2004-01-01

    Seventy-two extracts (methanol) obtained from the leaves, barks, and roots of 50 plant species used in the traditional medicine of Perak, Peninsular Malaysia, have been screened for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Peristrophe tinctoria, Polyalthia lateriflora, Knema malayana, Solanum torvum, Celosia argentea, Eclipta prostrata, Ancistrocladus tectorius, Dillenia suffruticosa, Piper stylosum and Rafflesia hasseltii displayed the broadest spectrum of activity. PMID:14693223

  16. 29-Norcucurbitacin derivatives isolated from the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Dikdik; Akiyama, Kohki; Hayashi, Hideo

    2008-02-01

    The new 29-norcucurbitacin, desacetylfevicordin A (1), together with three known 29-norcucurbitacin derivatives (2-4) were isolated from seeds of the Indonesian medicinal plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and chemical transformation. These compounds exhibited toxicity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina). PMID:18256498

  17. Diversity and biological activities of endophytic fungi associated with micropropagated medicinal plant Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Echinacea is one of the top ten selling medicinal herbs in Europe and United States. Commercially available formulations may contain different plant parts of three species (Echinacea purpurea, E. pallida, and E. angustifolia). Our study evaluates the diversity of microbial community associated with ...

  18. Screening of Indian medicinal plants for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kumar, Venkatesan; Houghton, Peter J

    2007-12-01

    The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has provided the rationale for the current pharmaco-therapy of this disease, in an attempt to reduce the cognitive decline caused by cholinergic deficits. Nevertheless, the search for potent and long-acting acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors that exert minimal side effects in AD patients is still ongoing. AChE inhibitors are currently the only approved therapy for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease; only a limited number of drugs are commercially available. Hydroalcohol extracts of six herbs, Andrographis paniculata, Centella asiatica, Evalvulus alsinoides, Nardostachys jatamansi, Nelumbo nucifera, Myristica fragrans used in Indian systems of medicine, were tested for in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity based on Ellman's method in 96-well microplates using AChE obtained from bovine erythrocytes. The results showed that the hydroalcohol extract from Centella asiatica, Nardostachys jatamansi, Myristica fragrans, Evalvulus alsinoides inhibited 50% of AChE activity at concentrations of 100-150 microg/mL. Andrographis paniculata and Nelumbo nucifera extracts showed a weak inhibition of acetylcholinesterase with IC(50) values of 222.41 +/- 19.87 microg/mL and 185.55 +/- 21.24 microg/mL, respectively. Physostigmine was used as a standard and showed inhibition of acetylcholinesterase with an IC(50) value of 0.076 +/- 0.0042 microg/mL. PMID:17639556

  19. Antimicrobial activity of selected Iranian medicinal plants against a broad spectrum of pathogenic and drug multiresistant micro-organisms.

    PubMed

    Abedini, A; Roumy, V; Mahieux, S; Gohari, A; Farimani, M M; Rivire, C; Samaillie, J; Sahpaz, S; Bailleul, F; Neut, C; Hennebelle, T

    2014-10-01

    The antimicrobial activities of 44 methanolic extracts from different parts of Iranian indigenous plant species used in traditional medicines of Iran were tested against a panel of 35 pathogenic and multiresistant bacteria and 1 yeast. The antimicrobial efficacy was determined using Mller-Hinton agar in Petri dishes seeded by a multiple inoculator and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) method. The 21 most active extracts (MIC < 03 mg ml(-1) for one or several micro-organisms) were submitted to a more refined measurement. The best antibacterial activity was obtained by 10 plants. Microdilution assays allowed to determinate the MIC and MBC of the 21 most active extracts. The lowest achieved MIC value was 78 ?g ml(-1), with 4 extracts. This work confirms the antimicrobial activity of assayed plants and suggests further examination to identify the chemical structure of their antimicrobial compounds. Significance and impact of the study: This study describes the antimicrobial screening of Iranian plant extracts chosen according to traditional practice against 36 microbial strains, from reference culture collections or recent clinical isolates, and enables to select 4 candidates for further chemical characterization and biological assessment: Dorema ammoniacum, Ferula assa-foetida, Ferulago contracta (seeds) and Perovskia abrotanoides (aerial parts). This may be useful in the development of potential antimicrobial agents, from easily harvested and highly sustainable plant parts. Moreover, the weak extent of cross-resistance between plant extracts and antibiotics warrants further research and may promote a strategy based on less potent but time-trained products. PMID:24888993

  20. PIXE analysis of some Nigerian anti-diabetic medicinal plants (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olabanji, S. O.; Adebajo, A. C.; Omobuwajo, O. R.; Ceccato, D.; Buoso, M. C.; Moschini, G.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disease characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) due to defects in insulin secretion, or action, or both, is a debilitating disease leading to other complications and death of many people in the world. Some of the medicinal plants implicated in the herbal recipes for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria have been reported. Additional medicinal plants used for the treatment of diabetes in Nigeria are presented in this work. These medicinal plants are becoming increasingly important and relevant as herbal drugs due to their use as antioxidants, nutraceuticals, food additives and supplements in combating diabetes. Elemental compositions of these anti-diabetic medicinal plants were determined using PIXE technique. The 1.8 MV collimated proton beam from the 2.5 MV AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL) Legnaro (Padova) Italy was employed for the work. The results show the detection of twenty-one elements which include Mg, P, Ca, K, Mn, Cu, Zn, S, Cr, Co, Ni and V that are implicated in the regulation of insulin and the control of the blood-sugar levels in the human body. The entire plant of Boerhavia diffusa, Securidaca longipedunculata stem, leaves of Peperomia pellucida, Macrosphyra longistyla, Olax subscorpioidea, Phyllanthus muerillanus, Jatropha gossypifolia, Cassia occidentalis, Phyllanthus amarus, and leaf and stem of Murraya koenigii, which have high concentrations of these elements could be recommended as vegetables, nutraceuticals, food additives, supplements and drugs in the control and management of diabetes, if toxicity profiles indicate that they are safe. However, significantly high contents of Al and Si in the entire plant of Bryophyllum pinnatum, and As, Cr, and Cu in Ocimum gratissimum leaf suggest that these plants should be avoided by diabetic patients to prevent complications.

  1. Plant Germplasm Centers and Microbial Culture Collections: A User’s Guide to Key Genetic Resources for Plant Pathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This User's Guide to microbial culture collections and collections of germplasm of higher plants contains a variety of instructional material. It specifies to potential users amongst the plant science community, but especially plant pathologists, how to locate collections on line or via corresponde...

  2. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in the Siwai and Buin districts of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville

    PubMed Central

    Waruruai, Julie; Sipana, Beuluah; Koch, Michael; Barrows, Louis R.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Rai, Prem P

    2011-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use in many regions of Papua New Guinea and the Autonomous Region of Bougainville is poorly described and rapidly disappearing. A program initiated by the University of Papua New Guinea to systematically document and preserve traditional knowledge of medicinal plant use was initiated with WHO help in 2001. Aim of the study To document and compare medicinal plant use in the Siwai and Buin Districts of the Island of Bougainville. Siwai and Buin districts represent two adjacent geographic regions of differing language traditions. Materials and methods This report is a combination of two University of Papua New Guinea reports generated using a University of Papua New Guinea and Papua New Guinea Department of Health approved survey questionnaire Information sheet on traditional herbal reparations and medicinal plants of Papua New Guinea. Results Although Siwai and Buin Districts are adjacent in Southern Bougainville, there is considerable variation in the specific plants used medicinally and the specific uses of those plants that are used commonly in the two regions. In addition, many of the plants used in the region are widely distributed species that are used medicinally in other settings. Nevertheless, the high endemicity of plants and the extraordinary cultural diversity in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville has yielded description of the medicinal use of many plants that have not previously been reported in the wider scientific literature. Conclusions Efforts to document and preserve traditional knowledge of plant use in Papua New Guinea have yielded important new records of plants with potential application in the provision of health care for a developing nation with an under developed Western style rural health care system. This report documents substantial commonality in the general modes of medicinal plant preparation and in the health care applications of plant use in the Siwai and Buin traditions, however, there was considerable difference noted in the particular uses of the specific plants used in one or another of the districts. PMID:22004894

  3. Insecticidal and larvicidal activities of medicinal plant extracts against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Mahapatra, Anita; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi

    2010-11-01

    In recent years, use of environment friendly and biodegradable natural insecticides of plant origin have received renewed attention as agents for vector control because they are rich in bioactive chemicals, active against a limited number of species including specific target insects, and biodegradable. The present study was carried out to evaluate the adulticidal, repellent, and larvicidal activity of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of eight plants, viz. Aristolochia indica L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl, Diospyros melanoxylon Roxb., Dolichos biflorus L., Gymnema sylvestre (Retz) Schult, Justicia procumbens L., Mimosa pudica L., and Zingiber zerumbet L., were tested against adult and early fourth instar larvae of Culex gelidus Theobald and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The effective adult mortality was observed in methanol extract of A. indica, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and ethyl acetate and hexane extract of Z. zerumbet against C. gelidus and C. quinquefasciatus (LD(50) =37.75, 78.56, 129.44, 86.13, 80.06, 112.42, 53.83, and 46.61; LD(90) =166.83, 379.14, 521.50, 289.83, 328.18, 455.72, 181.15, and 354.50 ppm, respectively). Complete protections for 150 min were found in hexane and methanol extract of A. indica and Z. zerumbet at 1,000 ppm against mosquito bites. The highest larval mortality was found in the hexane extract of Z. zerumbet, ethyl acetate extract of D. biflorus, and methanol extracts of A. indica against C. gelidus (LC(50) =26.48, 33.02, and 12.47 ppm; LC(90) =127.73, 128.79, and 62.33 ppm) and against C. quinquefasciatus (LC(50) =69.18, 34.76, and 25.60 ppm; LC(90) =324.40, 172.78, and 105.52 ppm), respectively, after 24 h. The plant extracts are potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of the Japanese encephalitis vector, C. gelidus, and lymphatic filariasis vector, C. quinquefasciatus. PMID:20689968

  4. ?odhana: An Ayurvedic process for detoxification and modification of therapeutic activities of poisonous medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Santosh Kumar; Seth, Ankit; Laloo, Damiki; Singh, Narendra Kumar; Gautam, Dev Nath Singh; Singh, Anil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda involves the use of drugs obtained from plants, animals, and mineral origin. All the three sources of drugs can be divided under poisonous and nonpoisonous category. There are various crude drugs, which generally possess unwanted impurities and toxic substances, which can lead to harmful health problems. Many authors have reported that not all medicinal plants are safe to use since they can bear many toxic and harmful phytoconstituents in them. ?odhana (detoxification/purification) is the process, which involves the conversion of any poisonous drug into beneficial, nonpoisonous/nontoxic ones. Vatsan?bha (Aconitum species), Semecarpus anacardium, Strychnos nux-vomica, Acorus calamus, Abrus precatorius etc., are some of the interesting examples of toxic plants, which are still used in the Indian system of medicine. Aconite, bhilawanols, strychnine, ?-asarone, abrin are some of the toxic components present in these plants and are relatively toxic in nature. ?odhana process involves the purification as well as reduction in the levels of toxic principles which sometimes results in an enhanced therapeutic efficacy. The present review is designed to extensively discuss and understand the scientific basis of the alternative use of toxic plants as a medicine after their purification process. PMID:26283803

  5. Determination of elements by atomic absorption spectrometry in medicinal plants employed to alleviate common cold symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kkbay, F Zehra; Kuyumcu, Ebru

    2014-09-01

    Eleven important medicinal plants generally used by the people of Turkey for the treatment of common cold have been studied for their mineral contents. Eleven minor and major elements (essential, non-essential and toxic) were identified in the Asplenium adiantum-nigrum L. , Althaea officinalis L. , Verbascum phlomoides L., Euphorbia chamaesyce L., Zizyphus jujube Miller, Peganum harmala L., Arum dioscoridis Sm., Sambucus nigra L., Piperlongum L., Tussilago farfara L. and Elettaria cardamomum Maton by employing flame atomic absorption and emission spectrometry and electro-thermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Microwave digestion procedure for total concentration was applied under optimized conditions for dissolution of medicinal plants. Plant based biological certified reference materials (CRMs) served as standards for quantification. These elements are found to be present in varying concentrations in the studied plants. The baseline data presented in this work can be used in understanding the role of essential, non-essential and toxic elements in nutritive, preventive and therapeutic properties of medicinal plants. PMID:25532362

  6. Medicinal Plants Used as Antitumor Agents in Brazil: An Ethnobotanical Approach

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Joabe Gomes; Santos, Ariane Gaspar; de Amorim, Elba Lúcia Cavalcanti; do Nascimento, Silene Carneiro; de Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2011-01-01

    We describe the medicinal plants that have been reported to be antitumor agents and that have been used in ethnobotanic research in Brazil to answer the following questions: what is the abundance of plants reported to be antitumor in Brazil? Have the plant species used for tumor treatment in traditional Brazilian medicine been sufficiently examined scientifically? Our analysis included papers published between 1980 and 2008. A total of 84 medicinal plant species were reported to be used for cancer and tumor prevention or treatment; 69.05% of these were cited as being used for the treatment of tumors and cancer in general and 30.95% for specific tumors or cancers. The plants that were cited at a higher frequency were Aloe vera, Euphorbia tirucalli, and Tabebuia impetiginosa. At least, one pharmacological study was found for 35.71% of the species. Majority of the studies selected were conducted in rural communities and urban areas and in areas with traditional healers in Brazil. We found the following molecules to be the most studied in vitro and in vivo: silibinin, β-lapachone, plumbagin and capsaicin. The species addressed here constitute interesting objects for future studies to various professionals in the field of natural products. PMID:21528006

  7. Biological screening of traditional preparations from some medicinal plants used as antidiarrhoeal in Kinshasa, Congo.

    PubMed

    Tona, L; Kambu, K; Mesia, K; Cimanga, K; Apers, S; De Bruyne, T; Pieters, L; Tott, J; Vlietinck, A J

    1999-03-01

    Forty six aqueous extracts from 38 medicinal plant species belonging to different families were selected on the basis of their traditional medicinal use as antidiarrhoeic agents. They were submitted in a broad biological screening including antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activities. The results of the testing have indicated that 37 extracts (80.43%), 33 (71.74%) and 32 (69.54%) exhibited some level of antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic activity respectively. Only 8 plant extracts (17.39%) would act as antidiarrhoeic agents by a triple pronounced antibacterial, antiamoebic and antispasmodic action. They include aqueous extracts from Euphorbia hirta whole plant, leaves of Psidium guajava and Tithonia diversifolia, root bark of Alchornea cordifolia, Heinsia pulchella, Paropsia brazzeana, Rauwolfia obscura and Voacanga africana. PMID:10228613

  8. Antibacterial activity of some medicinal plants against selected human pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Khan, Usman Ali; Rahman, Hazir; Niaz, Zeeshan; Qasim, Muhammad; Khan, Jafar; Tayyaba; Rehman, Bushra

    2013-12-01

    Medicinal plants are traditionally used for the treatment of human infections. The present study was undertaken to investigate Bergenia ciliata, Jasminum officinale, and Santalum album for their potential activity against human bacterial pathogens. B. ciliata, J. officinale, and S. album extracts were prepared in cold and hot water. The activity of plant extracts and selected antibiotics was evaluated against five bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli using agar well diffusion method. Among the three medicinal plants, B. ciliata extracts displayed potential activity against bacterial pathogens. Cold water extract of Bergenia ciliate showed the highest activity against B. subtilis, which is comparable with a zone of inhibition exhibited by ceftriaxone and erythromycin. J. officinale and S. album extracts demonstrated variable antibacterial activity. Further studies are needed to explore the novel antibacterial bioactive molecules. PMID:24294497

  9. A DNA microarray for the authentication of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Carles, Maria; Cheung, Matthew Kin; Moganti, Shanti; Dong, Tina T; Tsim, Karl W; Ip, Nancy Y; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2005-06-01

    A silicon-based DNA microarray was designed and fabricated for the identification of toxic traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Species-specific oligonucleotide probes were derived from the 5S ribosomal RNA gene of Aconitum carmichaeli, A. kusnezoffi, Alocasia macrorrhiza, Croton tiglium, Datura inoxia, D. metel, D. tatula, Dysosma pleiantha, Dy. versipellis, Euphorbia kansui, Hyoscyamus niger, Pinellia cordata, P. pedatisecta, P. ternata, Rhododendron molle, Strychnos nux-vomica, Typhonium divaricatum and T. giganteum and the leucine transfer RNA gene of Aconitum pendulum and Stellera chamaejasme. The probes were immobilized via dithiol linkage on a silicon chip. Genomic target sequences were amplified and fluorescently labeled by asymmetric polymerase chain reaction. Multiple toxic plant species were identified by parallel genotyping. Chip-based authentication of medicinal plants may be useful as inexpensive and rapid tool for quality control and safety monitoring of herbal pharmaceuticals and neutraceuticals. PMID:15971136

  10. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against ticks and fluke.

    PubMed

    Elango, Gandhi; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul

    2011-03-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of leaf hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Aegle marmelos (Linn.) Correa ex Roxb, Andrographis lineata Wallich ex Nees., Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Wallich ex Nees., Cocculus hirsutus (L.) Diels, Eclipta prostrata L., and Tagetes erecta L. against the adult cattle tick Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), the larvae of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae) and sheep fluke Paramphistomum cervi Zeder 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate toxic effect on parasites after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest parasitic activity was found in leaf ethyl acetate extract of A. lineata, methanol extract of A. marmelos, A. paniculata, and C. hirsutus against H. bispinosa (LC(50)?= 395.27, 358.45, 327.21 and 420.50 ppm); ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, C. hirsutus, methanol extracts of A. marmelos, A. lineata, and E. prostrata against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50)?= 207.70, 258.61, 134.09, 206.00, and 274.33 ppm); hexane extract of A. lineata, ethyl acetate extract of A. paniculata, E. prostrata, acetone extracts of T. erecta, methanol extracts of A. marmelos and C. hirsutus against P. cervi (LC(50)?= 254.23, 451.17, 425.73, 253.60, 542.71, and 360.17 ppm), respectively. The present study is the first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20922419

  11. Assessment of Anti-Quorum Sensing Activity for Some Ornamental and Medicinal Plants Native to Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Zaki, Ahmed A.; Shaaban, Mona I.; Hashish, Nadia E.; Amer, Mohamed A.; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

  12. Total phenolic contents and antioxidant capacities of selected chinese medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Song, Feng-Lin; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xiao, Qin; Kuang, Lei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20640157

  13. Assessment of anti-quorum sensing activity for some ornamental and medicinal plants native to egypt.

    PubMed

    Zaki, Ahmed A; Shaaban, Mona I; Hashish, Nadia E; Amer, Mohamed A; Lahloub, Mohamed-Farid

    2013-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of some plant extracts on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing (QS) activity. Quorum sensing has a directly proportional effect on the amount of certain compounds, such as pigments, produced by the bacteria. Alcohol extracts of 23 ornamental and medicinal plants were tested for anti-QS activity by the Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The screening revealed the anti-QS activity of six plants; namely the leaves of Adhatoda vasica Nees, Bauhinia purpurea L., Lantana camara L., Myoporum laetum G. Forst.; the fruits of Piper longum L.; and the aerial parts of Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. PMID:23641343

  14. Cytotoxic activities of selected medicinal plants from Iran and phytochemical evaluation of the most potent extract

    PubMed Central

    Sahranavard, S.; Naghibi, F.; Mosaddegh, M.; Esmaeili, S.; Sarkhail, P.; Taghvaei, M.; Ghafari, S.

    2009-01-01

    Methanolic extract of 15 Iranian medicinal plants were prepared and tested for their cytotoxic activities against three cancer cell lines (MCF7, HepG2, WEHI164) and one normal cell line (MDBK). Some plants showed cytotoxic activities. The extract of Ferula szowitsiana root, which proved to be the most active, was chosen for further phytochemical studies. The major compounds of the most potent acetone extract were isolated. They were identified as chimgin and chimganin, two known monoterpenoids, by spectroscopic means. Their cytotoxic activity was evaluated in three cell lines. The results show that these compounds are responsible, at least in part, for the cytotoxic activity of this plant. PMID:21589808

  15. Total Phenolic Contents and Antioxidant Capacities of Selected Chinese Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feng-Lin; Gan, Ren-You; Zhang, Yuan; Xiao, Qin; Kuang, Lei; Li, Hua-Bin

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant capacities of 56 selected Chinese medicinal plants were evaluated using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, and their total phenolic content was measured by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The strong correlation between TEAC value and FRAP value suggested that the antioxidants in these plants possess free radical scavenging activity and oxidant reducing power, and the high positive correlation between antioxidant capacities and total phenolic content implied that phenolic compounds are a major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these plants. The results showed that Dioscorea bulbifera, Eriobotrya japonica, Tussilago farfara and Ephedra sinica could be potential rich sources of natural antioxidants. PMID:20640157

  16. Computing limits on medicine risks based on collections of individual case reports

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantifying a medicine’s risks for adverse effects is crucial in assessing its value as a therapeutic agent. Rare adverse effects are often not detected until after the medicine is marketed and used in large and heterogeneous patient populations, and risk quantification is even more difficult. While individual case reports of suspected harm from medicines are instrumental in the detection of previously unknown adverse effects, they are currently not used for risk quantification. The aim of this article is to demonstrate how and when limits on medicine risks can be computed from collections of individual case reports. Methods We propose a model where drug exposures in the real world may be followed by adverse episodes, each containing one or several adverse effects. Any adverse episode can be reported at most once, and each report corresponds to a single adverse episode. Based on this model, we derive upper and lower limits for the per-exposure risk of an adverse effect for a given drug. Results An upper limit for the per-exposure risk of the adverse effect Y for a given drug X is provided by the reporting ratio of X together with Y relative to all reports on X, under two assumptions: (i) the average number of adverse episodes following exposure to X is one or less; and (ii) adverse episodes that follow X and contain Y are more frequently reported than adverse episodes in general that follow X. Further, a lower risk limit is provided by dividing the number of reports on X together with Y by the total number of exposures to X, under the assumption that exposures to X that are followed by Y generate on average at most one report on X together with Y. Using real data, limits for the narcolepsy risk following Pandemrix vaccination and the risk of coeliac disease following antihypertensive treatment were computed and found to conform to reference risk values from epidemiological studies. Conclusions Our framework enables quantification of medicine risks in situations where this is otherwise difficult or impossible. It has wide applicability, but should be particularly useful in structured benefit-risk assessments that include rare adverse effects. PMID:24661640

  17. Interactions of Papua New Guinea medicinal plant extracts with antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Erica C.; Hathaway, Laura B.; Lamb, John G.; Pond, Chris D.; Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Barrows, Louis R.; Franklin, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance A substantial proportion of the population in Papua New Guinea (PNG) lives with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Treatment requires lifelong use of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The majority of people in PNG use traditional medicines (TM) derived from plants for all types of health promotions. Consequently, there is a concern that herb-drug interactions may impact the efficacy of ART. Herb-drug, or drug-drug, interactions occur at the level of metabolism through two major mechanisms: enzyme induction or enzyme inhibition. In this study, extracts of commonly-used medicinal plants from PNG were screened for herb-drug interactions related to cytochrome P450s (CYPs). Materials and Methods Sixty nine methanol extracts of TM plants were screened for their ability to induce CYPs by human aryl hydrocarbon receptor- (hAhR-) and human pregnane X receptor- (hPXR-) dependent mechanisms, utilizing a commercially available cell-based luciferase reporter system. Inhibition of three major CYPs, CYP1A2, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Results Almost one third of the TM plant extracts induced the hAhR-dependent expression of CYP1A2, the hPXR-dependent expression of CYP3A4, or both. Almost two thirds inhibited CYP1A2, CYP3A4, or CYP2D6, or combinations thereof. Many plant extracts exhibited both induction and inhibition properties. Conclusions We demonstrated that the potent and selective ability of extracts from PNG medicinal plants to affect drug metabolizing enzymes through induction and/or inhibition is a common phenomenon. Use of traditional medicines concomitantly with ART could dramatically alter the concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in the body; and their efficacy. PNG healthcare providers should counsel HIV patients because of this consequence. PMID:25138353

  18. A simple and effective method for vegetative propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Salacia oblonga Wall.

    PubMed

    Deepak, K G K; Suneetha, G; Surekha, Ch

    2016-01-01

    Salacia oblonga Wall. is an endangered medicinal plant whose conservation is urgently needed, as it is extensively used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. This study shows an easy, effective and simple method of conserving genetic identity and producing elite clones of S. oblonga through vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation was achieved using roots (R), stems with leaves (SL) and stems without leaves (S) with different concentrations (0-500 ppm) of indole butyric acid (IBA). Explants S and SL showed maximum shooting response with 300 ppm IBA and explant R showed maximum response with 200 ppm IBA. PMID:26267809

  19. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase or glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibition; a range of monoaminergic effects; and potential cannabinoid receptor modulation. Future research should focus on conducting human clinical trials on the plants reviewed with promising anxiolytic activity. PMID:23436255

  20. Analysis of antidiarrhoeic effect of plants used in popular medicine.

    PubMed

    Almeida, C E; Karnikowski, M G; Foleto, R; Baldisserotto, B

    1995-12-01

    People customarily use the extracts of plants known to have antidiarrhoeal effects without any scientific base to explain the action of the extract. For this reason, an investigation was undertaken with a view to determining the efficacy of the effects of the brute aqueous extract (BAE) of the leaves of Psidium guajava (guava), Stachytarpheta cayenensis (bastard vervain), Polygonum punctatum (water smartweed), Eugenia uniflora (Brazil or Surinam cherry) and Aster squamatus (z-da-silva) on the intestinal transport of water in rats and on the gastrointestinal propulsion in mice. With the exception of the BAE of S. cayenensis, all other BAE's have increased the absorption of water in one or more intestinal portion in relation to the control group. All tested BAE, except that of P. punctatum, reduced the gastrointestinal propulsion in relation to that of the control group. The results indicate that the BAE of the leaves of P. guajava, S. cayenensis, P. punctatum, E. uniflora and A. squamatus have a potential antidiarrhoeic effect to be confirmed by additional investigations in animals infected with enteropathogenic agents. PMID:8734966

  1. Current knowledge of Aronia melanocarpa as a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova, Stefka V; Belcheva, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa, native to eastern North America, has become popular in Eastern Europe and Russia. Aronia melanocarpa fruits are one of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, mainly anthocyanins--glycosides of cyanidin. Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments accounting for the dark blue and even black color of the fruits. Administered orally they can be absorbed as intact glycosides. Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice and anthocyanins derived from the fruits have been studied intensively for the last 15 years. Most of the effects of Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins are due to their high antioxidative activity. Our investigations have demonstrated a remarkable hepatoprotective, a very good gastroprotective and a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats as well as a bacteriostatic activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and an antiviral activity against type A influenza virus. Research of other authors has demonstrated that Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins can normalize the carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic patients and in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, have an in vitro antimutagenic activity and exhibit a distinct immunomodulatory activity in human lymphocyte cultures and in patients with breast cancer, suppress the growth of human HT-29 colon cancer cells, inhibit the N-nitrosamine formation in rats and decrease the toxicity and cumulation of cadmium in liver and kidneys. Currently, there are no data in literature about any unwanted and toxic effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruits, juice and extracts. PMID:17408071

  2. Current knowledge of Aronia melanocarpa as a medicinal plant.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Valcheva-Kuzmanova SV; Belcheva A

    2006-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa, native to eastern North America, has become popular in Eastern Europe and Russia. Aronia melanocarpa fruits are one of the richest plant sources of phenolic substances, mainly anthocyanins--glycosides of cyanidin. Anthocyanins are water soluble pigments accounting for the dark blue and even black color of the fruits. Administered orally they can be absorbed as intact glycosides. Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice and anthocyanins derived from the fruits have been studied intensively for the last 15 years. Most of the effects of Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins are due to their high antioxidative activity. Our investigations have demonstrated a remarkable hepatoprotective, a very good gastroprotective and a pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice in rats as well as a bacteriostatic activity in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and an antiviral activity against type A influenza virus. Research of other authors has demonstrated that Aronia melanocarpa anthocyanins can normalize the carbohydrate metabolism in diabetic patients and in streptozotocin-diabetic rats, have an in vitro antimutagenic activity and exhibit a distinct immunomodulatory activity in human lymphocyte cultures and in patients with breast cancer, suppress the growth of human HT-29 colon cancer cells, inhibit the N-nitrosamine formation in rats and decrease the toxicity and cumulation of cadmium in liver and kidneys. Currently, there are no data in literature about any unwanted and toxic effects of Aronia melanocarpa fruits, juice and extracts.

  3. Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against blood-sucking parasites.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Bagavan, Asokan; Elango, Gandhi; Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Marimuthu, Sampath; Santhoshkumar, Thirunavukkarasu; Jayaseelan, Chidambaram

    2010-05-01

    The present study was based on assessments of the antiparasitic activities to determine the efficacies of acetone, chloroform, ethyl acetate, hexane, and methanol dried leaf, flower, and seed extracts of Cassia auriculata L., Rhinacanthus nasutus KURZ., Solanum torvum Swartz, Terminalia chebula Retz., and Vitex negundo Linn. were tested against larvae of cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus Canestrini, 1887 (Acari: Ixodidae), adult of Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann, 1897 (Acarina: Ixodidae), hematophagous fly Hippobosca maculata Leach (Diptera: Hippoboscidae), nymph of goat-lice Damalinia caprae Gurlt (Trichodectidae), and adult sheep parasite Paramphistomum cervi Zeder, 1790 (Digenea: Paramphistomatidae). All plant extracts showed moderate parasitic effects after 24 h of exposure at 3,000 ppm; however, the highest parasite mortality was found in leaf ethyl acetate, flower methanol of C. auriculata, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, seed acetone of T. chebula, and leaf hexane extracts of V. negundo against the larvae of R. microplus (LC(50) = 335.48, 309.21, 297.43, 414.99, 167.20, and 611.67 ppm; LC(90) = 1571.58, 1111.82, 950.98, 1243.64, 595.31, and 1875.50 ppm), the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S. torvum, and seed methanol extracts of T. chebula against the nymph of D. caprae (LC(50) = 119.26,143.10,164.93,140.47, and 155.98 ppm; LC(90) = 356.77, 224.08, 546.20, 479.72, and 496.06 ppm), the leaf methanol of R. nasutus, leaf and seed methanol of S.torvum, and seed acetone of T. chebula against the adult of H. bispinosa (LC(50) = 333.15, 328.98, 312.28, and 186.46 ppm; LC(90) = 1056.07, 955.39, 946.63, and 590.76 ppm), the leaf methanol of C. auriculata, the leaf and flower methanol of R. nasutus, the leaf ethyl acetate of S. torvum against the H. maculata (LC(50) = 303.36, 177.21, 204.58, and 211.41 ppm; LC(90) = 939.90, 539.39, 599.43, and 651.90 ppm), and the leaf acetone of C. auriculata, the flower methanol of R. nasutus, the seed methanol of S. torvum, and the seed acetone of T. chebula were tested against the adult of P. cervi (LC(50) = 180.54, 168.59, 200.89, and 87.08 ppm; LC(90) = 597.51, 558.65, 690.37, and 433.85 ppm), respectively. Therefore, this study provides first report on the veterinary parasitic activity of plant extracts from Southern India. PMID:20306205

  4. Acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of some Turkish medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Orhan, I; Sener, B; Choudhary, M I; Khalid, A

    2004-03-01

    The chloroform:medianol (1:1) extracts of a number of the plant species belonging to eight families, namely Corydalis solida (L.) Swartz subsp. solida and Glaucium corniculatum (L.) J. H. Rudolph (Papaveraceae), Rhododendron ponticum L. subsp. ponticum and Rhododendron luteum Sweet. (Ericaceae), Buxus sempervirens L. (Buxaceae), Vicia faba L. (Fabaceae), Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Caeselpiniaceae), Tribulus terrestris L. and Zygophyllum fabago L. (Zygophyllaceae), Lycopodium clavatum L. (Lycopodiaceae), Fumaria vaillantii Lois., Fumaria capreolata L., Fumaria kralikii Jordan, Fumaria asepala Boiss., Fumaria densiflora DC., Fumaria flabellata L., Fumaria petteri Reichb. subsp. thuretii (Boiss.) Pugsley, Fumaria macrocarpa Boiss. ex Hausskn., Fumaria cilicica Hauskkn., Fumaria parviflora Lam. and Fumaria judaica Boiss. (Fumariaceae) were screened for their anticholinesterase activity on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes by in vitro Ellman method at 10 microg/ml and 1 mg/ml concentrations. The extracts did not show any noticeable inhibitory activity against both of the enzymes at 10 microg/ml. The extracts of Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Rhododendron luteum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida, Glaucium corniculatum, and Buxus sempervirens showed remarkable inhibitory activity above 50% inhibition rate on AChE at 1 mg/ml. Among them, Rhododendron ponticum subsp. ponticum, Corydalis solida subsp. solida and Buxus sempervirens were the most active extracts against BChE having 95.46 +/- 1.03%, 93.08 +/- 0.97%, and 93.45 +/- 0.88% inhibition rates, respectively. Among the extracts screened, all of the Fumaria extracts displayed highly potent inhibition against both of the enzymes at 1 mg/ml concentration compared to the standard. PMID:15036468

  5. Screening of immunomodulatory activity of total and protein extracts of some Moroccan medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Daoudi, Abdeljlil; Aarab, Lotfi; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2013-04-01

    Herbal and traditional medicines are being widely used in practice in many countries for their benefits of treating different ailments. A large number of plants in Morocco were used in folk medicine to treat immune-related disorders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immunomodulatory activity of protein extracts (PEs) of 14 Moroccan medicinal plants. This activity was tested on the proliferation of immune cells. The prepared total and PEs of the plant samples were tested using MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay on the splenocytes with or without stimulation by concanavalin-A (Con-A), a mitogenic agent used as positive control. The results of this study indicated different activity spectra. Three groups of activities were observed. The first group represented by Citrullus colocynthis, Urtica dioica, Elettaria cardamomum, Capparis spinosa and Piper cubeba showed a significant immunosuppressive activity. The second group that showed a significant immunostimulatory activity was represented by Aristolochia longa, Datura stramonium, Marrubium vulgare, Sinapis nigra, Delphynium staphysagria, Lepidium sativum, Ammi visnaga and Tetraclinis articulata. The rest of the plant extracts did not alter the proliferation induced by Con-A. This result was more important for the PE than for the total extract. In conclusion, this study revealed an interesting immunomodulating action of certain PEs, which could explain their traditional use. The results of this study may also have implications in therapeutic treatment of infections, such as prophylactic and adjuvant with cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22301818

  6. Evaluation of five medicinal plants used in diarrhoea treatment in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agunu, Abdulkarim; Yusuf, Sadiq; Andrew, Gabriel Onyiloyi; Zezi, Abdulkadir Umar; Abdurahman, Ezzeldin Mukhtar

    2005-10-01

    Five medicinal plants [Acacia nilotica, Acanthospermun hispidum, Gmelina arborea, Parkia biglobosa and Vitex doniana] used in diarrhoeal treatment in Kaduna State, Nigeria, were investigated. This study was carried out on perfused isolated rabbit jejunum and castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice. The aqueous methanol extracts (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 mg/ml) were generally found to cause a dose-dependent response in the isolated rabbit jejunum, though this was not uniform in all the plants. Gmelina arborea and Vitex doniana showed concentration dependent relaxation at low doses (0.5, 1.0 mg/ml), but showed no significant relaxation at higher doses (2.0, 3.0 mg/ml). Other extracts showed biphasic effects. For example, Acacia nilotica at 3.0 mg/ml caused initial relaxation quickly followed by contraction. In the castor oil-induced diarrhoeal, 100% protections were shown by extracts of Acacia nilotica and Parkia biglobosa (100, 200 mg/kg) while Vitex doniana showed a dose-dependent effect. The least protection was shown by Acanthospermun hispidum, at the same dose, when compared with the other four plants. The results obtained revealed that the aqueous methanol extracts of all the five medicinal plants investigated have pharmacological activity against diarrhoea. This may explain their use in traditional medicine for the treatment of diarrhoea. PMID:15908152

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Bangladeshi Medicinal Plant Extracts on Interactions between Transcription Factors and Target DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lampronti, Ilaria; Khan, Mahmud T.H.; Borgatti, Monica; Bianchi, Nicoletta

    2008-01-01

    Several transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in governing the expression of different genes involved in the immune response, embryo or cell lineage development, cell apoptosis, cell cycle progression, oncogenesis, repair and fibrosis processes and inflammation. As far as inflammation, TFs playing pivotal roles are nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB), activator protein (AP-1), signal transducer and activator of transcription (STATs), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and GATA-1 factors. All these TFs regulate the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and are involved in the pathogenesis of a number of human disorders, particularly those with an inflammatory component. Since several medicinal plants can be employed to produce extracts exhibiting biological effects and because alteration of gene transcription represents a very interesting approach to control the expression of selected genes, this study sought to verify the ability of several extracts derived from Bangladeshi medicinal plants in interfering with molecular interactions between different TFs and specific DNA sequences. We first analyzed the antiproliferative activity of 19 medicinal plants on different human cell lines, including erythroleukemia K562, B lymphoid Raji and T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines. Secondly, we employed the electrophoretic mobility shift assay as a suitable technique for a fast screening of plant extracts altering the binding between NF-kB, AP-1, GATA-1, STAT-3, CREB and the relative target DNA elements. PMID:18830455

  8. Antiviral activity of Rwandan medicinal plants against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1).

    PubMed

    Cos, P; Hermans, N; De, Bruyne T; Apers, S; Sindambiwe, J B; Witvrouw, M; De, Clercq E; Vanden, Berghe D; Pieters, L; Vlietinck, A J

    2002-01-01

    Selected plants used in Rwandan traditional medicine for the treatment of infections and/or rheumatoid diseases were investigated for antiviral activity in vitro against human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Of the 38 tested 80% ethanolic extracts, belonging to plants of 21 different families only the extracts from the leaves of Aspilia pluriseta (Asteraceae) and Rumex bequaertii (Polygonaceae) had interesting selectivity indices (SI = ratio of the 50% cytotoxic concentration to the 50% effective antiviral concentration) higher than 1. Further fractionation of the initially antivirally inactive ethanolic extract of Tithonia diversifolia, however, led to an aqueous fraction with a high anti-HIV-1 activity (SI > 461), indicating that the cytotoxicity of some plant components may mask the antiviral properties of the active plant substances in total plant extracts. PMID:11924766

  9. Study of antihyperglycaemic activity of medicinal plant extracts in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Attanayake, Anoja P.; Jayatilaka, Kamani A. P. W.; Pathirana, Chitra; Mudduwa, Lakmini K. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus, for a long time, has been treated with plant derived medicines in Sri Lanka. Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy and dose response of oral antihyperglycaemic activity of eight Sri Lankan medicinal plant extracts, which are used to treat diabetes in traditional medicine in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Medicinal plants selected for the study on the basis of documented effectiveness and wide use among traditional Ayurveda physicians in the Southern region of Sri Lanka for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. The effect of different doses of aqueous stem bark extracts of Spondias pinnata (Anacardiaceae), Kokoona zeylanica (Celastraceae), Syzygium caryophyllatum (Myrtaceae), Gmelina arborea (Verbenaceae), aerial part extracts of Scoparia dulcis (Scrophulariaceae), Sida alnifolia (Malvaceae), leaf extract of Coccinia grandis (Cucurbitaceae) and root extract of Languas galanga (Zingiberaceae) on oral glucose tolerance test was evaluated. A single dose of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 2.00 g/kg of plant extract was administered orally to alloxan induced (150 mg/kg, ip) diabetic Wistar rats (n = 6). Glibenclamide (0.50 mg/kg) was used as the standard drug. The acute effect was evaluated over a 4 h period using area under the oral glucose tolerance curve. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated by analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: The eight plant extracts showed statistically significant dose dependent improvement on glucose tolerance (P < 0.05). The optimum effective dose on glucose tolerance for six extracts was found to be 1.00 g/kg in diabetic rats with the exception of C. grandis: 0.75 g/kg and L. galanga: 1.25 g/kg. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of G. arborea, S. pinnata, K. zeylanica, S. caryophyllatum, S. dulcis, S. alnifolia, L. galanga and C. grandis possess potent acute antihyperglycaemic activity in alloxan induced diabetic rats. PMID:24991066

  10. Comprehensive Evidence-Based Assessment and Prioritization of Potential Antidiabetic Medicinal Plants: A Case Study from Canadian Eastern James Bay Cree Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Haddad, Pierre S.; Musallam, Lina; Martineau, Louis C.; Harris, Cory; Lavoie, Louis; Arnason, John T.; Foster, Brian; Bennett, Steffany; Johns, Timothy; Cuerrier, Alain; Coon Come, Emma; Coon Come, Rene; Diamond, Josephine; Etapp, Louise; Etapp, Charlie; George, Jimmy; Husky Swallow, Charlotte; Husky Swallow, Johnny; Jolly, Mary; Kawapit, Andrew; Mamianskum, Eliza; Petagumskum, John; Petawabano, Smalley; Petawabano, Laurie; Weistche, Alex; Badawi, Alaa

    2012-01-01

    Canadian Aboriginals, like others globally, suffer from disproportionately high rates of diabetes. A comprehensive evidence-based approach was therefore developed to study potential antidiabetic medicinal plants stemming from Canadian Aboriginal Traditional Medicine to provide culturally adapted complementary and alternative treatment options. Key elements of pathophysiology of diabetes and of related contemporary drug therapy are presented to highlight relevant cellular and molecular targets for medicinal plants. Potential antidiabetic plants were identified using a novel ethnobotanical method based on a set of diabetes symptoms. The most promising species were screened for primary (glucose-lowering) and secondary (toxicity, drug interactions, complications) antidiabetic activity by using a comprehensive platform of in vitro cell-based and cell-free bioassays. The most active species were studied further for their mechanism of action and their active principles identified though bioassay-guided fractionation. Biological activity of key species was confirmed in animal models of diabetes. These in vitro and in vivo findings are the basis for evidence-based prioritization of antidiabetic plants. In parallel, plants were also prioritized by Cree Elders and healers according to their Traditional Medicine paradigm. This case study highlights the convergence of modern science and Traditional Medicine while providing a model that can be adapted to other Aboriginal realities worldwide. PMID:22235232

  11. Validation of Two Methods of Data Collection of Self-Reported Medicine Use among the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Julie A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Compared accuracy of medicine use information obtained from older adults through either telephone interviews or mail questionnaires, using in-home medicine check as standard of assessment. Found validity of medicine use information to vary by data source, level of specificity of data, and respondent characteristics. Mail questionnaire was more

  12. Antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities of five Palestinian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Qabaha, Khaled Ibraheem

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from five indigenous Palestinian medicinal plants including Rosmarinus officinalis, Pisidium guajava, Punica granatum peel, grape seeds and Teucrium polium were investigated for antimicrobial and free radical scavenging activities against eight microorganisms, using well diffusion method. The microorganisms included six bacterial isolates (i.e. Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginos, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus subtilis and Micrococcus luteus) and two fungal isolates (i.e. Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). A standard antioxidant assay was performed on the plant extracts to assess their capability in scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Of the five tested plant extract, only Rosmarinus offcinalis extract contained significant antimicrobial activity against all eight microbial isolates including Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Extracts from other four plants exhibited a variable antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Significant antioxidant activity was detected in all plant extracts. However, extracts from Pisidium guajava leaves contained significantly higher antioxidant activity compared to the other extracts tested. The antimicrobial and scavenging activities detected in this in vitro study in extracts from the five Palestinian medicinal plants suggest that further study is needed to identify active compounds to target diseases caused by a wide-spectrum pathogens. PMID:24146509

  13. Extracts of Edible and Medicinal